Article

History of Journalism Education

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

From its beginning, American journalism has been anchored in both the printing trades and the world of intellectuals who recognized the value of newspapers in shaping public opinion. These dual origins influenced the debate over journalism education from the mid-nineteenth century. News professionals and university educators pondered whether journalists needed to be college-educated, whether they needed a liberal arts degree, or whether they needed professional education that combined liberal arts and practical training. These debates were complex and political, representing issues of localism versus nationalism, the role of professional schools within the American university, and the rise of social science. The tension between educating reporters and editors to improve the quality of journalism or contribute to a democracy versus training them to function efficiently in a newspaper office—or any media environment—continues today.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Journalism educators have been arguing about what students should learn for decades. As far back as the mid-19th century, "news professionals and university educators pondered whether journalists needed to be college-educated, whether they needed a liberal arts degree, or whether they needed professional education that combined liberal arts and practical training" (Folkerts, 2014). Folkerts writes that in the 1860s, some of the earlier journalism courses were taught at Cornell University and what is now Washington and Lee University; in 1908, the University of Missouri launched the first journalism degree; and by 1966, hundreds of programs were in operation, half of which had added broadcast specializations. ...
... Since about the mid-1990s, the discussion took on new urgency as it became clear the Internet would transform traditional methods of disseminating information. The so-called "Digital Revolution," coupled with the decline of the newspaper industry, made journalism "a target for both traditional journalists, who saw their world slipping away, and for entrepreneurs who believed they could succeed without formal training in journalism" (Folkerts, 2014). For almost two decades, journalism programs have been undergoing a wide range of curricular revisions to catch up to the technological revolution that has upended the media industry. ...
... In many ways, the educational community has been slow to respond. The ACEJMC accrediting council, for example, did not add digital competencies to its requirements until 2013 (Folkerts, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
About 60% of U.S. journalism schools are preparing students to work across multiple media platforms. In fall 2002, the University of Southern California launched a Convergence Core Curriculum (CCC) in which all journalism students learned print, broadcast, and online journalism concurrently. Both students and instructors reported that the classes slowed the learning process, and that class content was diluted. However, students nevertheless showed marked improvement in key skills. These results and a review of the relevant literature provide insight for educators and practitioners as they assess convergence teaching practices.
... While some universities are redesigning journalism education programmes, many are finding it challenging to transform journalism curricula to address industry needs (Concepción, 2016;Folkerts, 2014). Journalism schools that are lagging behind in the drive towards the digital world need to adapt to the changes if they are to become relevant. ...
... Journalism schools that are lagging behind in the drive towards the digital world need to adapt to the changes if they are to become relevant. As noted by Folkerts (2014), the survival of journalism schools depends on understanding the developments in the industry: ...
... In most developed countries, such transition dates back to the early or mid-twentieth century (Richards & Self, 2016). While journalism education in the USA dates back as far as the early twentieth century, such programmes were not introduced to UK universities until the 1970s and 1980s (Folkerts, 2014;Frost, 2016). Like the USA, journalism education in Australia and China dates back to the early twentieth century with the latter initially using a Western approach but later switching to the 'Soviet model' (Han, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The development of information and communication technology—internet, mobile computing and easier and wider connectivity—is swiftly transforming the news industry. Conventional news production practices have been disrupted and have evolved to meet the needs of a new era of digital and online journalism. In the age of digital and non-linear journalism, the practices of newsgathering, production, distribution and consumption have changed greatly, creating challenges in journalism education. The converged newsrooms of today demand journalism graduates to have digital news production skills that allow them to easily fit into the routines of digital news production practices. By examining the journalism curricula of selected journalism education programmes in the USA, UK and UAE, as well as interviewing journalism educators, students and practitioners, this research investigated whether and how efforts have been made to align journalism curricula to the needs of the industry.
... More than a century ago, institutions of higher education started preparing journalists academically by offering undergraduate and graduate level degree programs, such as at the University Missouri in the United States (Folkerts, 2014). In the South Asian region, India recently celebrated its centennial anniversary of journalism education, the first such program having started in 1920. ...
... These include balancing theoretical and practical content, introducing interdisciplinary components, providing theoretical knowledge with practical approaches, offering a full range of academic degrees to cover beginners to professionals, promoting media literacy to the public, maintaining strong bonds between newsrooms and classrooms, mastering technological tools to produce quality content, and collaborating with global academic institutions for quality education. However, models of journalism education that developed in different times and under different sociopolitical, economic, and technological conditions have taken different trajectories in South Asia, offering different lessons to draw for those who study the histories of journalism around the world (Banda, 2013(Banda, , 2015Deuze, 2006;Folkerts, 2014;Teel, 2007;Ullah, 2014;WJEC, 2007;Zhu & Du, 2018). Societies where journalism education and the profession have evolved more recently offer a different set of issues and perspectives (Folkerts, 2014). ...
... However, models of journalism education that developed in different times and under different sociopolitical, economic, and technological conditions have taken different trajectories in South Asia, offering different lessons to draw for those who study the histories of journalism around the world (Banda, 2013(Banda, , 2015Deuze, 2006;Folkerts, 2014;Teel, 2007;Ullah, 2014;WJEC, 2007;Zhu & Du, 2018). Societies where journalism education and the profession have evolved more recently offer a different set of issues and perspectives (Folkerts, 2014). Because these new developments have taken place in very different landscapes in terms of technologies used, forces of globalization, disciplinary and professional performance of journalists in modern times, and audience participation and interaction in content creation, these cases can be uniquely instructive in discourses about journalism education. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Journalism education around the world follows certain disciplinary principles and professional norms. But university education behind the profession is also shaped by local contexts and conditions, with each unique national/social context offering unique lessons and perspectives. The case of Nepal, where journalism education advanced rapidly in the 20th century, provides opportunities for studying interactions of technological developments and disruptions, (inter) disciplinarily, and sociopolitical transformations. This chapter presents a critical overview of journalism education in Nepal using a review of relevant scholarship alongside thematic analysis of three focus group interviews with 14 journalists and journalism scholars working across Nepal. We organize the chapter by themes emerging from the analysis of our data, discussing how established international norms and values of journalism education have played out in the context of Nepal, what framings the participants used to tell the story of journalism education there in the last two decades, and whether and to what extent educators there ascribed agency to themselves within the narrative and assessment. The chapter concludes with a few broader perspectives that could be drawn from the case of journalism education in Nepal.
... In these preliminary years, three distinct schools of thought from Missouri, Wisconsin, and Columbia emerged, and are still contributing to the journalism curriculum debates of today (Folkerts, 2014). These schools of thought used various approaches to teach journalism. ...
... Certain standards were made for admission into AASDJ. This led to its recognition as an accrediting body (Conn, 1970;Folkerts, 2014). In 1945, American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) and the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE) helped develop another body, the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism (ACEJ), with the specific goal of accreditation of journalism schools in the United States of America (Siebert, 1945). ...
... Subsequently, ICEJ was approved as an official accrediting body by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) and National Council of Accreditations (NCA) (Henderson & Christ, 2014). In 1981, ACEJ changed its name to the Accrediting Council of Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (ACEJMC) (Folkerts, 2014). While the history of accreditation is a significant area worthy of investigation, the focus of this study is to locate the development of the curriculum as standard by ACEJMC. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study is done with the objective to compare the professional values and competencies of journalism education in the USA and Pakistan. Elite interviews and content analysis were done to compare the curriculum standards defined by Accrediting Council on Education of Journalism and Mass Communication (ACEJMC) and the objectives defined in the Higher Education Commission (HEC) curriculum on mass communication. The finding of the elite interviews that were conducted from academicians and professionals from the USA and Pakistan showed that the gap between the professional values and competencies were minimal. Similarly, the findings of content analysis revealed that there are a lot of similarities in the professional values and competencies of journalism in both countries. Moreover, around half of the recommended books in the Pakistani curriculum was written by American authors. In interviews, the head of HEC curriculum committee clearly informed that they were following the American model.
... Discussion of change in journalism education needs to take account of two linked debates. First, how far should programmes concentrate on preparing students for employment and practical skills, rather than a more 'academic' approach strong on theory, critical or otherwise (see, for example, Deuze, 2006;Folkerts, 2014;Harcup, 2011;Hirst, 2010;Zelizer, 2004)? Second, a lack of innovation -a focus of criticism (Folkerts, 2014: 21), attributed partly to journalism education being a 'handmaiden to industry, not its critic or visionary guide' (Dennis, 1983: 3), and thus linked to the first. ...
... If those in 'innovator' mode have responded more quickly, perhaps their relatively low number has had little impact. But it is hard to disagree with Folkerts (2014) that 'journalism education has, to a great degree, ignored the larger contours of the digital age' (p. 63). ...
Article
Journalism education has tended to respond slowly to developments in digital journalism, such as data journalism, despite or because of close links with the industry. This article examines the obstacles to innovation in journalism education with particular reference to data journalism, drawing on the literature, a review of stakeholders and course documents, and the author’s reflections on developing a data journalism module as part of a new MA programme. It highlights the complexities linked to the particular demands of data journalism, and identifies critical issues around student satisfaction; reputation and job/career outcomes; relevance, currency and appeal; programme management; and coherence. Rather than holding it back, more specialized socialization could assist journalism education to innovate effectively, the author suggests.
... A quality source of data is the historical overview of journalism education of a particular nation. The latest show the development of journalism education in the USA (Folkerts, 2014), China (Guo & Chen, 2017), New Zealand (Hannis, 2017), Russia (Vartanova & Lukina, 2017), Brazil (Moriera & Lago, 2017), Croatia (Vukić, 2017), etc. ...
Article
Full-text available
There have been only a few attempts of setting journalism education in the context of sustainability so far, but there is no theoretical proposition of the general paradigm of sustainable journalism education. This paper identifies all emergences of journalism education in the context of development and sustainability through critical analysis of its research and tradition. Based on the evolution of academic proposals to advance journalism education, most current references are aimed at updating journalistic knowledge and acquiring skills connected to the technological revolution leading to substantial media change, journalistic genres convergence, journalism producing trends, different subjects that create journalism and new socially important topics, all followed by upgraded media ethics and laws mirroring the importance of strong links between academy, profession and the public. In the complex global surroundings, however, while the media form realities, impose understandings and meanings, follow us everywhere and fully participate in our lives, education of journalists should be understood much deeper and taken more seriously than ever. Apart from being professionally educated, autonomous and responsible, (self)-conscious humanists are needed to cope and properly respond to such challenges. The sustainable cycle of journalism education could answer those needs by focusing on the academic outcome of a journalist as a whole human being, if the holistic education perspective is applied. Using Journalistic Personality Model, the aim of this theoretical paper is to elaborate the concept of sustainable journalism education and its advantages.
... However, many journalists also come from other disciplines or schools such as law, economy, philosophy, even biology. The main debate in journalism education is whether journalists need to be college (university)-educated, whether they need a liberal arts degree, or whether they need professional education that combines liberal arts and practical training (Folkerts, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to explain the challenges of journalism education in Indonesia on the issue of mainstreaming climate change. As the world’s largest archipelago, Indonesia has to deal with some climate change impacts such as rising sea levels, extreme weather, floods, drought, and forest fires. Climate change is a real serious threat, but public awareness of this issue is low in Indonesia. Mass media have a capacity to mainstream climate change and increase public awareness. The data for this article has been collected through qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles, interviews with communication lecturers and scholars, and document reviews. Some of the important findings are: 1) The climate change issue in the Indonesian mass media is less popular than other issues such as corruption, elections, terrorism and refugees; 2) Journalism education in Indonesia does not contribute enough to mainstreaming climate change on mass media; 3) There are three levels of problem in macro, messo, and micro level of journalism education in Indonesia to mainstreaming climate change issue. At a micro level, the problem is related to the lack of lecturers with competence in climate change. On a messo level, journalism education has failed to connect with the problem of climate change through curricula. At a macro level, the problem is related to the popularity of journalism than other subjects in general socio-political environment. Systemic theory by Niklas Luhmann was used as tool to analyse these problems. From this perspective, Indonesian journalism education as a system faces plenty of challenges to reduce the complexity of problems to optimise its role in mainstreaming climate change.
... They also have followed Western learning models, especially from the United States (Sarkar, et al., 1990;Hwa & Ramanathan, 2000). What makes a difference between the two educational contexts is that at the postgraduate level, journalists are equipped with additional knowledge and skills that are more focused and specific to accommodate challenges in the workplace (Folkerts, 2014;Opiniano, 2017;Schultz, 2002). Thus, educators are expected to be capable of presenting contextual learning material for each level to enable their students to achieve graduate competency targets in line with expectations. ...
Article
Full-text available
In April 2019, Jakarta-based UNESCO with two lecturers from the Department of Communication Science at Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) and one researcher at PR2Media prepared a plan to hold multimedia journalism training workshops at the Department of Social Communication (DSC) of the Universidade Nacional Timor Lorosa’e (UNTL) in Timor-Leste (East Timor). This article describes the current aspirations of the trainees related to their future media and journalism career in East Timor as well as the reflective evaluations of the Indonesian trainers on the training complemented with students’ pre-test and post-test survey on multimedia journalism knowledge and skills. Participants on the multimedia journalism training carried out in July-August 2019 were adept with the required technological skills. Their biggest challenges came from basic language and journalism skills, such writing in good Tetum, Portuguese, Indonesian or English (in East Timor, Tetum and Portuguese are the official languages, while Indonesian and English were designated as ‘working’ languages), covering the stories, and presenting the stories in a journalistic style. Despite these challenges, they were finally able to produce basic multimedia stories with a local perspective on the designated news site.
... For this reason, in many universities' journalism education has been on the fringe of their activities as it lies across professional training and the liberal arts. Folkerts [2] said that "News professionals and university educators pondered whether journalists needed to be college-educated, whether they needed a liberal arts degree, or whether they needed professional education that combined liberal arts and practical training. This debate still rages today around the globe with no international uniform system for journalism education". ...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in technology, audience engagement, the business model and ethical requirements have greatly expanded the skills required to be a professional journalist in the UK. At the same time, the esteem in which the profession is held by the public has diminished. This research used the UK journalism profession as a case study of change in a profession. It asked what were the changes in the profession since 2012. The research method includes an in-depth survey of 885 UK journalists, two previous similar surveys, interviews with stakeholders, national data and documentation. The study finds that UK journalist numbers, their educational attainment and workload has increased significantly in the period. The majority have become multiplatform journalists—working across at least two mediums like print and online. There has been a significant shift of job roles from traditional newsroom to a wide range of other organizations and some 36% of journalists are now self-employed. Diversity continues to be an issue with the profession having a white middle-class bias. The implications of these changes for future professional UK journalism education were then analyzed. They include the need to develop a national continuous professional development framework, better cooperation amongst competing accrediting bodies to enhance the public trust in journalists and greater flexibility on the professional pathways to senior qualifications.
... Twenty-first century journalism programs are attempting to better combine traditional news reporting skills with aptitude for data analysis (Folkerts, 2014), just as news reporting itself has become more quantitative and driven by data in the last decade (Coddington, 2015;Young & Hermida, 2015). Journalism education and scholarship feature an increasing focus on data-big data (see Lewis & Westlund, 2015)-but we may first need to get students to appreciate and understand small data, and that typically begins in introductory statistics courses. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents data from a census of statistics requirements and offerings at all 4-year journalism programs in the United States (N = 369) and proposes a model of a potential course in statistics for journalism majors. The author proposes that three philosophies underlie a statistics course for journalism students. Such a course should (a) represent a statistics course with journalism, not a journalism course seasoned with a few statistics; (b) encourage awareness of error and skepticism of omniscience of official figures; and (c) cultivate statistical enthusiasts, not formulae repositories. Findings report students in just one fifth of U.S. journalism programs are required to take statistics, and none of those programs offer a course within their own academic unit that fulfills a traditional statistics requirement.
... Completing journalism-related internships in college has become even more important for students in the second half of the 20th century as evidenced by employer surveys and task force reports (Folkerts, 2014). While a bachelor's degree is the common minimum qualification in the U.S. for a newspaper reporter job (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2020a), media employers usually seek out applicants for fulltime positions who have prior work/intern experience (Hilt & Lipschultz, 1996). ...
... Son muchos los estudios que han reflexionado sobre la importancia de aprender haciendo periodismo, en tanto que la confrontación del estudiante con situaciones propias de la profesión tiene un profundo impacto en los participantes y en su propia visión sobre el relacionamiento y el rol que deben asumir ante la sociedad (Burns, 2017;Pain et al., 2016). Es tal la relevancia de este ámbito que, incluso, configura un enfoque experiencial que abarca a todos los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, tal y como propuso la Universidad de Missouri, institución que centró su formación profesional en periodismo a partir del desarrollo de las habilidades y la ética de los estudiantes (Folkerts, 2014). Sin embargo, conforme ha ido cambiando el ecosistema mediático a nivel global, este aprendizaje basado en las prácticas también ha tenido que evolucionar (Valencia-Forrester, 2020), incorporando las propuestas que surgen desde el desarrollo tecnológico, la colaboración interpersonal -característica de la construcción de conocimiento en internet-, por citar algunas. ...
Article
Full-text available
La sala de redacción de los medios de comunicación universitarios (MCU) se constituye como uno de los escenarios más importantes para aprender haciendo periodismo; sin embargo, en medio de las transformaciones es necesario reflexionar sobre el futuro de estos espacios. En esta investigación, mediante una encuesta tipo Delphi, se consultó a un grupo de expertos con el objetivo de consensuar sobre la situación actual y prospectiva de los MCU en Ecuador. Los resultados permiten identificar algunos factores que inciden en la configuración de estos escenarios, mientras que su futuro parece estar marcado por el trabajo en redes, la convergencia de medios y una creciente importancia de la virtualización de las salas de redacción. En conclusión, frente a un escenario marcado por la necesidad de cambios y los recursos económicos cada vez más escasos, se recomienda fortalecer el trabajo colaborativo con otros actores.
Article
This study utilizes a national survey of college newspaper advisers to assess the internal workings of the college newspaper and its value as a pedagogical tool. It finds significant differences between the degree of audience and marketing coupling occurring within college and U.S. daily newspapers as well as differences in student autonomy among college newspapers with varying financial foundations. The results call into question the role of the college newspaper within a changing media environment.
Article
Journalism education may be at a tipping point. It is unclear, however, what new form curricula might take. Through an analysis of individual course titles and descriptions that appeared in the 2013-2014 undergraduate catalogs of 68 selected universities, this exploratory study finds that most departments/schools are not offering classes that reflect pedagogical approaches recently promoted in professional literature (e.g., hospital model, entrepreneurship, apprenticeship) nor are they responding to calls for greater integration between the classroom and industry via quasi-professional experiences. Journalism programs are, instead, relying on historically recognized and accepted models—such as practicum and capstone.
Article
Full-text available
This phenomenological study sought to describe the essence of the roles and purposes of graduate journalism education through the eyes of 16 Asian students from three graduate journalism schools in Japan and the Philippines. This article is anchored in the theory of reflective practice. Responses of students produced a Bridge of Traits of Graduate Journalism Education that illustrates these roles and purposes of graduate studies. This Bridge of Traits also entered into the theory-and-practice discussions, not to mention that this bridge represents respondents’ efforts to connect their personal, academic and professional milieus and aspirations as journalists. Making these connections is done within the realm of journalism’s theory-practice continuum, which, as respondents surprisingly articulated, is important, complementary and applicable. Respondents’ views offer hope that university-based journalism programmes can run viable graduate journalism programmes implementing several elements in pedagogy and substance that espouse a spirit of critical reflective practice in journalists. They aspire to new perspectives and approaches in the teaching, study and practice of journalism.
Chapter
University education across disciplines is falling short of the demands of “a dynamic and changing workforce” (A. Herrington & Herrington, 2006, p. 2). This includes journalism education. University journalism courses developed at a time when newspapers dominated the news landscape and, while this has not been the case for more than a decade, journalism education has been slow to react, with many only recently addressing the multimedia nature of twenty-first century journalism (Du & Thornburg, 2011) or including social media in their curricula (Folkerts, 2014). The divergence between journalism education and the perceived requirements of newsrooms has meant criticism of the academy has been a feature of its rela- tionship with industry going back to the 1960s (Dickson & Brandon, 2000; Du & Thornburg, 2011; Franklin & Mensing, 2010). Media professionals have tradition- ally expressed dissatisfaction with the writing and reporting skills of new gradu- ates (Du & Thornburg, 2011), and universities have claimed their role was broader than simply training news reporters (Folkerts, 2014). Now editors want journal- ism educators to add to the foundational writing and reporting skills a knowledge of new technologies as these technologies emerge (Du & Thornburg, 2011). This request for graduates capable of working with new technologies reflects the reality of newsrooms in the twenty-first century. Research over the past five years has shown that mobile technologies relevant to the journalism and news sectors have had a significant impact on the philosophies and therefore the operations of news media organizations worldwide.These organizations are now fragmenting and redefining themselves, while their journalists’ professional roles have migrated from that of being gatekeepers of news to becoming participants, increasingly as co-creators, in a wider news conversation (Singer et al., 2011). However, the technologies themselves are continuing to evolve at a dizzy- ing rate, with new developments occurring constantly. Therefore, our research concluded that it was crucial to enable students to develop expertise in the use of social and mobile tools in an authentic and self-sustaining manner. Hence, we adopted a student-determined learning approach (heutagogy) on student-owned mobile devices to enable learning to move outside the classroom and continue beyond university.
Article
Tomando como referência o processo inacabado e indefinido de consolidação da identidade profissional dos jornalistas, e o complexo enquadramento do sistema de regulação do jornalismo português, este artigo procura propor dois novos conceitos. “Regulação participada” pretende compreender concetualmente todos os espaços normativos que contam com a participação formal de jornalistas. “Regulação em parceria” descreve soluções partilhadas entre o meio profissional e os restantes agentes do sistema mediático.
Article
Journalism education in Sweden emerged in the late 1950s after more than 50 years of discussions. This historical process is analyzed in this article as an interplay of forces, where different interest groups tried to shape how journalists were to be educated once the existing apprenticeship system was replaced by journalism schools. Using the work of sociologists Pierre Bourdieu and Margaret Archer, this study closely follows the struggle inside the journalistic field, and between the journalistic field and the academic field and other interest groups, about how journalists were to be trained and by whom. This study reveals how conflicts over journalism education tended to migrate; from who would run a journalism school in the postwar years to the governmental investigations of the 1960s and the prevailing internal conflict between theory and practice at the two national Journalist Institutes in the 1970s. This article discusses what is commonly understood to be the professionalization of journalism. However, from another perspective, it can also be viewed as a trade losing control over its education.
Article
This paper utilizes the theoretical framework of new institutionalism and a two-year qualitative study of three Indian journalism schools to explore the manner by which influences from the organizational field of American journalism education have spread across borders. The study locates and details a system of supranational institutional carriers and finds evidence of both institutional isomorphism, whereby the Indian schools structurally emulate established American programs, and ceremonial conformity, whereby the Indian schools enact a façade of isomorphism. The findings ultimately suggest a new layer of complexity – the influence of the organizational field – be included within the larger discussion of why journalism education looks the way it does around the world.
Chapter
Full-text available
O objetivo deste capítulo é compreender a evolução do associativismo no campo jornalístico — desde a fundação da Associação dos Jornalistas e Escritores Portugueses, em 1880, ao golpe militar que em 1974 derrubou o regime ditatorial. O exercício permite acompanhar o percurso de entidades com vocações e propósitos diferentes que, sobretudo até à consolidação do Estado Novo, não souberam ultrapassar divergências, em prejuízo dos sócios que representavam e da afirmação dos jornalistas, quer no plano social, quer no plano político. As divisões entre as instituições resultaram predominantemente da configuração do perfil profissional, decisivo para o estabelecimento de critérios de admissão de associados. Porém, outros fatores ajudam a explicar a incapacidade de criarem condições para a convergência, ainda que apenas na ação. A saber: a distância, historicamente enraizada, entre “homens de letras” e profissionais de imprensa e, no interior das redações, entre redatores e repórteres; a oscilação entre as matrizes mutualista e sindicalista; a ausência de bases de entendimento suscetíveis de proporcionarem a aproximação das estruturas regionais de Lisboa e do Porto, que viria a ocorrer em 1934, com a criação do Sindicato Nacional dos Jornalistas, por imposição do Estado.
Article
Full-text available
Günümüzde mobil cihazların kullanım alanları giderek artmakta, özellikle gençler için mobil telefonlar, yaşamlarının ayrılmaz bir parçası haline gelmektedir. İletişim fakültesi öğrencileri içinse mobil teknolojiler sadece özel hayatlarının vazgeçilmez bir unsuru olmakla kalmamakta, gelecekte yürütecekleri meslekleri bakımından da önemli araçlar halini almaktadır. Zira İnternet’in ve yeni iletişim teknolojilerinin hızlı gelişimiyle birlikte mobil cihazlar, kamera, ses kayıt cihazı, kurgu bilgisayarı vb. pek çok özelliği içinde barındıran birer mobil medya aracına dönüşmüş, daha önce yüksek maliyet gerektiren içerik üretimi, günümüzde bir mobil telefon ile yapılabilir hale gelmiştir. Yeni medya ile değişen ve dönüşen haber üretim pratiği, sadece mobil telefonla yürütülen ve mobil habercilik olarak adlandırılan yeni iş modelini de ortaya çıkarmıştır. Bu bağlamda İletişim Fakültelerinde verilen yeni medya ve habercilik eğitiminde mobil telefonların doğru bir biçimde kullanımının öğretilmesinin, geleceğin iletişimcilerinin mobil teknolojiyi meslek hayatlarına etkin şekilde dâhil etme imkânı sağlayabilir. Bu çalışmada Mersin Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi öğrencilerinin Yeni Medya ve Habercilik dersi kapsamında deneyimledikleri mobil habercilik pratikleri incelenmiştir.
Chapter
Full-text available
his chapter is a contribution to the history of journalism education in Portugal. It contemplates the intersection and articulation of different fields — religious, political, social, economic, cultural or technological — in the construction of this path, as well as the evolution of journalism itself and of education policies. It is or-ganized into four stages: a “pre-scientific” stage; one of political or “dictatorial” control (Estado Novo); a third, of consolidation (with the creation of the first higher education degrees) and of European convergence (Bologna Declaration); and a final and open stage, characterized by the digital environment (both in newsrooms and in classrooms) and the emergence of new professional profiles. The relationship between the journalistic class and the academy is identified as an identity mark of this evolution
Article
The earliest recommendation for an American press council appears in A Free and Responsible Press (1947), the report of the Commission on Freedom of the Press. Few people know that Commission chair Robert Maynard Hutchins and two allies between 1959 and 1962 tried to create the press council. They wanted an organization that would evaluate television as well as print, and entertainment as well as news, with Adlai Stevenson as chair, Edward R. Murrow as staff director, Henry R. Luce as a major funder, and an elite university as a base. In substantial part because of resistance from the universities, they failed.
Article
A thematic evaluation of data journalism courses resulted in a typology that parses the field and offers guidance to educators. At the center is pattern detection, preceded by data acquisition and cleaning, and followed by data representation. The typology advances academic understanding by offering a precise conceptualization that distinguishes data journalism from peripheral technologies and identifies coding as a supportive skill. It also enables a fresh definition of data journalism as the primary reliance on numerical evidence as a journalistic tool in detecting patterns, or the visual representation of numerical evidence to enable audiences to discern patterns.
Article
This study examined two sections of “Reporting and Writing I.” One taught writing for text and broadcast concurrently, whereas the other taught these skills sequentially. A student survey found a strong preference for learning subjects sequentially. Outside evaluators assessing final stories rated text projects from students taught sequentially slightly higher than text stories from students taught concurrently, but rated broadcast stories from students taught concurrently slightly higher than broadcast stories from students taught sequentially.
Article
The struggle for equality in journalism education for African Americans raises questions about how the government, news media, and educators worked together to realize the principles of civil rights. Certain milestones over the past 50 years can be charted through the collective scholarship of this journal’s pages. A careful look back reveals how goals of diversity were achieved or frustrated through reports on pedagogy, enrollment, technology, and trends in scholarship. Looking through the prism of Journalism & Mass Communication Educator ( JMCE) offers a telling explanation of how journalism education moved away from segregation, and how the complicated relationship between predominantly White institutions (PWIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) played a role in this journey.
Article
The transformation of both journalism and the European education landscape opened up a debate about the challenges of digitalisation and the aims of adequate journalism education and training programs. The article discusses how education institutions draw on journalism education discourse, how they adapt their programs in order to respond to the practical demands of professional journalism in the digital age, and which skills and knowledge are considered as the core of journalism education. In addition, it contributes to journalism theory with the development of a dispositive of journalism. This theoretical framework is employed to interpret the status quo of curricula and teaching practices in relation to journalism practice. The empirical case study of journalism training and education includes a comprehensive content analysis of sixty-seven programs and 1818 individual courses in Austria, and guided interviews with twenty-nine stakeholders about the status quo and the challenges of an adequate journalism education. Results show that the digitalisation of journalism is fully integrated in the curricula and that educators are aware of trends in both education discourse and journalism. The results also point at gaps regarding innovation and the teaching of certain topics, and show possible reasons why education practice lags behind education discourse.
Article
Full-text available
This ethnographic case study explores how developers, editors, and reporters in two Norwegian newsrooms evaluate automated news and which logics underlie their assessments. Despite automation being described as the most disruptive data-centric practice of journalism, the observations and in-depth interviews show that all three groups define automated texts as journalism. At the same time, they characterize automated news as simplistic, lacking creativity and a critical approach, and argue that today’s machine-written texts are incapable of fulfilling central professional ideals such as critical scrutiny and advocating on behalf of the citizenry. Accepting automated news as journalism while simultaneously stressing its low quality shows a growing gap between what the newsroom groups are willing to accept because of organizational demands and what they ideally want journalism to be. The conflicting assessments may indicate financial motives gaining ground within Nordic media companies.
Article
The professionals behind television cameras are peripheral contributors to journalism who are often overlooked in journalistic research in contrast with co-workers who occupy clearly demarcated journalistic roles. In this article, we use the term camera reporters rather than the more frequently used terms such as cameramen or camera operators as we argue that these professionals are part of the journalistic field and their job titles in themselves question their belonging to this field. The aim of our article is to focus on the role of camera reporters as peripheral actors in the news production process – in this respect we address their journalistic culture, identity, autonomy and practice – and to understand their role not only in the context of boundary work within journalism but perhaps even more importantly in relation to changes brought about by the move of a television studio from the city centre to a residential suburb. The relocation provides a rare opportunity to study camera reporters in their work places and spaces at a time of disruption and adjustment. Our case study is based in a Czech television studio where we have conducted interviews with camera reporters and news reporters. Our findings are in line with other research on peripheral news workers and illustrate complex issues in the professional standing of camera reporters.
Article
Full-text available
The crisis in the journalism profession has led an ever more concentrated corporate voice to assert itself in academia, diverting blame and shaping how future jour nalists are prepared. Historically interdisciplinary, oriented toward the liberal arts yet professional, journalism education faces mounting pressure to abandon its academic ethos to embrace its industry patrons, choosing from a false dichotomy advanced forcefully by a recent journalism foundation-supported research report.To preserve its value, however, journalism must be part of broader academic reforms, modeling an intellectually independent integration of theory and practice, supporting not just a media labor pyramid, but also a press-literate public.
Article
Full-text available
Presents a brief history of public relations education. Proposes a model program for public relations education and discusses where such a model program logically fits in the university structure and where it would be most likely to receive necessary resources. (MS)
Article
This book expands the theoretical foundations of modern public relations, a growing young profession that lacked even a name until the twentieth century. As the discipline seeks guiding theories and paradigms, rhetorics both ancient and modern have proven to be fruitful fields of exploration. Charles Marsh presents Isocratean rhetoric as an instructive antecedent. Isocrates was praised by Cicero and Quintilian as “the master of all rhetoricians,” favored over Plato and Aristotle.
Article
The opening decades of the twentieth century saw various advertisers embark on a concerted effort to create professional instruction at American universities. They had two objectives. They thought that such instruction might help individual firms determine precisely how advertising worked in the marketplace — and thereby create a science of advertising — and they hoped that university education would transform their business into a full-fledged profession. Yet these efforts brought mixed results. As such instruction came into being, advertisers found that they had little influence over the education they had sought to promote, and they found that such training had chosen to follow one of two divergent paths, neither of which the industry thought wholly acceptable. Even more to their dismay, advertisers found that this education did not in fact convert their business into a profession.
Article
Industry researchers call for more sophisticated audience research, methodological tools and message research to meet the challenges of the 1980s. Refreshing options exist for integrating academic and private sector research priorities.
Article
In the near future, the Journal expects to publish most of the major study briefly introduced in the following article. Only a bare start has been made in analyzing the data. Volunteers with suggestions for further analysis are urged to write Dr. Glenn Starlin, c/o the Journal. Mr. Hulbert, who supervised the data processing to date, is Manager of Broadcast Personnel and Economics for the National Association of Broadcasters.
Article
How does the broadcasting industry look to students who have just managed to put a foot inside the door? Some years ago the Journal published a number of reports based on the APBE‐NAB Employment Study that showed that station employees had extremely favorable attitudes toward broadcasting. The following survey shows that recent graduates have somewhat different perceptions. Craig R. Halverson is instructor in the speech department at Stout State University. He received his B.S. from the University of Wisconsin, his M.S. from the University of Wisconsin‐Milwaukee, and is working toward a Ph.D. at Northwestern University. Allen E. Koenig is assistant professor in the Department of Speech and editor of Educational Broadcasting Review at Ohio Stale University. He earned the A.B. from the University of Southern California, the AM. from Stanford University, and the Ph.D. from Northwestern University.
Article
In his presidential address to the 1961 convention of the Association for Education in Journalism, the dean of the University of Oregon School of Journalism advanced seven basic propositions which describe the current state of affairs in journalism education and its relations with the media.
Article
For twelve years, the Gannett Center for Media Studies (subsequently named the Freedom Forum Media Studies Center) operated a unique media "think tank" billed as "the nation's first institute for the advanced study of media and technological change" at Columbia University. It attracted leading professionals and scholars to its fellowship, technology, and media research programs. The result was a distinctive interaction between media industries and the academy that produced many major books, studies, and other intellectual products including a journal that informed the media-society relationship. A joint venture of a university and a media foundation with special links to journalism education and media industries in the United States and internationally, the program decamped from Columbia in 1996 and was phased out two years later.
Article
Last year, with APBE help, Robert Crawford prepared a 64‐page report on “Graduate Programs in Communications Media.” The investigation was concerned with the collection of opinions and reactions as to the effectiveness, need, and quality of graduate programs in communications. The sources for this information were working executives in broadcasting, film, and print organizations, public and private, in New York City and Washington, D.C. In the present article, the author moves from the more or less objective reporting of his research data to a more personal analysis of the implications inherent in the study. Because the original report was distributed to the APBE membership, Dr. Crawford attempts an interpretation of the data as it reflects on graduate programs directed to training in the mass media, rather than merely summarizing the opinions of his respondents.Robert Crawford (Ph.D., University of Utah) has been actively engaged in commercial and educational broadcasting for more than 35 years. He is a former member of the APBE Board of Directors, and presently is professor in the Department of Communication Arts and Sciences of Queens College.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Florida State University, 1988. Includes abstract and vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 191-204). Photocopy.
Makers of the Media Mind: Journalism Educators and Their Ideas
  • William D Sloan
William D. Sloan, Makers of the Media Mind: Journalism Educators and Their Ideas (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1990), 3.
Views and Interviews on Journalism
  • Charles F Wingate
Charles F. Wingate, Views and Interviews on Journalism (New York: F.B. Patterson, 1875), 30.
Views and Interviews
  • Wingate
Wingate, Views and Interviews, 185.
  • Betty H Winfield
Betty H. Winfield, ed., Journalism 1908: Birth of a Profession (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2008), 6.
Newspaperman: A Book about the Business
  • Morton Sontheimer
Morton Sontheimer, Newspaperman: A Book about the Business (New York: Whittlesey House, 1941), 322.
The Culture of Professionalism
  • Bledstein
Bledstein, The Culture of Professionalism, 17, 33-34.
The Culture of Professionalism Since Bledstein's book appeared, a number of other sources have explored concepts of professionalism. See, for Journalism Professionalism as an Organization-Level Concept Jaroslav Pelikan, The Idea of the University: A Reexamination
  • Randall A Bledstein Example
  • Beam
  • Tudor Becker
  • Vlad
Bledstein, The Culture of Professionalism, 101. Since Bledstein's book appeared, a number of other sources have explored concepts of professionalism. See, for example, Randall A. Beam, " Journalism Professionalism as an Organization-Level Concept, " Journalism & Mass Communication Monographs 121 (1990); Jaroslav Pelikan, The Idea of the University: A Reexamination (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992); James Carey, " The Communications Revolution and the Professional Communicator, " in Paul Halmos, ed., The Sociological Review Monograph 13 (1969), 23–28; or Lee B. Becker and Tudor Vlad, " Where Professionalism Begins, " in Changing the News: The Forces Facing Journalism in Uncertain Times, ed. Wilson Lowrey and Peter J. Gade (New York: Routledge, 2011), 249–69.
Address Delivered before the Missouri Press Association at Excelsior Springs Twenty Years of Education for Journalism: A History of the School of Journalism of the University of Missouri
  • Walter Williams
Walter Williams, " Address Delivered before the Missouri Press Association at Excelsior Springs, Mo., " May 29, 1908, as cited by Sara L. Williams, Twenty Years of Education for Journalism: A History of the School of Journalism of the University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri (Columbia, MO: The E.W. Stephens, 1929), 411.
School: Columbia University's School of Journalism Also see, for instance
  • James Boylan
James Boylan, Pulitzer's School: Columbia University's School of Journalism, 1903– 2003 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 3. Also see, for instance, Columbia Journalism School, About the School, " History of the Journalism School, " accessed June 12, 2012, http://www.journalism.columbia.edu/page/5-history-of-the-journalism-school/5.
The College of Journalism
  • Joseph Pulitzer
Joseph Pulitzer, "The College of Journalism" North American Review 178, no. 50 (1904): 647.
Bleyer and the Relevance of Journalism Education
  • Carolyn Bronstein
  • Stephen Vaughn
Carolyn Bronstein and Stephen Vaughn, "Willard G. Bleyer and the Relevance of Journalism Education," Journalism & Mass Communication Monographs 166 (1998): 5.
Notes on Some Forerunners of the Quarterly
"Notes on Some Forerunners of the Quarterly," Supplement, Journalism Quarterly 25, no. 4 (1948): 486.
Is There a Legitimate Place for Journalistic Instruction? No!
  • Robert M Hutchins
Robert M. Hutchins, "Is There a Legitimate Place for Journalistic Instruction? No!," The Quill XXVI, no. 3 (1938): 13, 20.
Principles and Standards of Education for Journalism
American Association of Teachers in Journalism and American Association of Schools and Departments of Journalism, Council on Education, "Principles and Standards of Education for Journalism," Journalism Bulletin 1, no. 4 (1924): 31-32.
Journalism as Applied Social Science
  • Eric Allen
Eric Allen, "Journalism as Applied Social Science," Journalism Bulletin 4, no. 1 (1927): 1-7.
Suggestions for a Graduate Curriculum
  • Ralph D Casey
Ralph D. Casey, "Suggestions for a Graduate Curriculum," Journalism Bulletin 4, no. 4 (1928): 21-26.
Graduate Course at Columbia University
  • Charles Cooper
Charles Cooper, "Graduate Course at Columbia University," Journalism Bulletin 4, no. 2 (1927): 9-13.
Trends in Curricula in
  • N Norval
  • Luxon
Norval N. Luxon, "Trends in Curricula in A.A.S.D.J. Schools," Journalism Quarterly 14 (1937): 357.
What Is the Future of Instruction in Journalism?
  • Edward J Marion
Edward J. Marion, "What Is the Future of Instruction in Journalism?," Journalism Quarterly 7, no. 1 (1930): 31-32.
A Scientific Method for Determining Reader-Interest
  • George Gallup
George Gallup, "A Scientific Method for Determining Reader-Interest," Journalism Quarterly 7, no. 1 (1930): 12-13.
Research in Journalism
  • Eric Allen
Eric Allen, "Research in Journalism," Journalism Quarterly 7, no. 1, (1930): 40, 44.
A Century of Advertising Education
  • Billy I Ross
  • Jef I Richards
Billy I. Ross and Jef I. Richards, A Century of Advertising Education (American Academy of Advertising, 2008), 1-16.
A Plea for Advertising Endowment
  • J H Craig
J. H. Craig, "A Plea for Advertising Endowment," Advertising and Selling 19 (February 1910), 1222, cited in Schultze, "An Honorable Place," 20.
Radio Course Offers On-Job Training
  • U Boston
Boston U. Radio Course Offers On-Job Training," Broadcasting-Telecasting, October 4, 1948, 81.