From its beginning, American journalism has been anchored in both the printing trades and the world of intellectuals who recognized the value of newspapers in shaping public opinion. These dual origins influenced the debate over journalism education from the mid-nineteenth century. News professionals and university educators pondered whether journalists needed to be college-educated, whether they needed a liberal arts degree, or whether they needed professional education that combined liberal arts and practical training. These debates were complex and political, representing issues of localism versus nationalism, the role of professional schools within the American university, and the rise of social science. The tension between educating reporters and editors to improve the quality of journalism or contribute to a democracy versus training them to function efficiently in a newspaper office—or any media environment—continues today.