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Abstract

Relationships between correctional officers and prisoners are crucial to life in prison, and affect prison order and prisoners’ well-being. Research on factors influencing staff–prisoner relationships is scarce and has not included the design of prison buildings. This study examined the association between prison architecture and prisoners’ perceptions of their relationships with officers. Data were used from the Prison Project, a large-scale study in which 1,715 prisoners held in 117 units in 32 Dutch remand centers were surveyed. Multilevel analyses showed that prison layout was related to officer–prisoner relationships: Prisoners in panopticon layouts were less positive than prisoners in other layouts. In addition, prisoners housed in older units and in units with more double cells were less positive about officer–prisoner interactions.

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... The radial design was the prevailing style of prison architecture in Europe in the second half of the 19th century and was ostensibly influenced by Bentham's panopticon (Beijersbergen et al., 2014). The radial prison design 67 served its purpose: 'strict isolation, hard labour and moral introspection as a means of reform and salvation, combined with total ease of supervision and control by a minimum of staff' (Dunbar & Fairweather, 2000, p.30). ...
... If prisoners were not sent to Siberia they were employed in 'work companies' (Kriukelytė, 2012), thus for centuries Russians have exploited prisoner bodies 'as a unique form of human capital' (Turner, 2016, p.75). When the mandatory penal labour was officially introduced in 1886, it was significantly reconceptualised and rebranded as 'rehabilitative', as part of attempts 'to 67 The main features of the radial design include the radial layout of the buildings in a cross or a double cross shape with a central vantage point from which guards could oversee and visually inspect the wings (Beijersbergen et al., 2014). 68 There were some exemplary prisons, for example, the Saint Petersburg prison in the late 19th century 'served as a laboratory of the penological innovation' as it was the first prison in the Imperial Russia, which introduced night-time separation and paid prison labour for common prisoners (Popova, 2016, p.101). ...
... The silent system developed at Auburn (New York) and for this reason the regime is also known as Auburn(Zedner, 1998).61 The separate regime was based on solitary confinement and labour in order to achieve self-reflection, remorse and ultimately the moral elevation of the offender(Beijersbergen et al., 2014). It is also known as the Pennsylvanian system, as it developed in Philadelphia(Zedner, 1998). ...
Thesis
This thesis attempts to capture, at the macro, meso and micro levels, the ideological rupture, which has emerged after the breakdown of the Soviet project in Latvia, and in particular its effect on penality and women’s imprisonment. This rupture has been conceptualized as a ‘clash of the titans’, which is the ongoing struggle between a Soviet legacy that refuses to die and an increasingly dominant neoliberal regime. While the breakdown of Soviet hegemonic power signaled a victory for democracy and market economics, the spread of western liberal democracies has been a challenge for post-Soviet societies. While democratic traditions took centuries to evolve in western societies, the democratisation and establishment of neoliberalism in post-Soviet Latvia has been an abrupt process over a few short years. This forced time frame has brought societal problems, which have yet to be worked through. This thesis will argue that for Latvians the collapse of the Soviet project meant not only transforming the socio-political economy, but has also led to the re-emergence of non-Soviet cultural traditions. The new political narratives tend to embrace a nationalistic and masculinized approach. Some sections of society have become increasingly excluded from influence, for example Russian-speakers. There is also a tendency for women to be excluded from equal influence. These cultural narratives, together with the growth of neoliberalism, has pushed Soviet influence and ideology away from mainstream Latvian society, and out to the most secluded and isolated places. Hence prisons are a last battle-ground for the two ideologically opposed ‘titans’ and a site of resistance to the new dominant culture.
... Prisons are therefore characterized by power misbalance (total power and domination)prisoners are not asked to approve the authority of the staff and force against them. The WWII and the following showed that deprivation of liberty can lead to extreme forms, the endemic risk of excess, the power of torture, etc. even in our nowadays societies and through obvious and less obvious means (Beijersbergen, Dirkzwager, Laan, & Nieuwbeerta, 2016;EuroPris, 2016;Fairweather & McConville, 2000;Hancock & Jewkes, 2011). ...
... The "incurable" ones were committed to indefinite confinement to protect society. The architecture of the prisons in Europe in 19 th and 20 th century followed this belief of solitary confinement (Beijersbergen et al., 2016;Fairweather & McConville, 2000;Hancock & Jewkes, 2011;McShane & Williams, 1996). This made changes in prison regime difficult for the ones who believed in individual moral responsibility. ...
... From the beginning of times, occasional inspectors have been horrified by actual conditions in jails (Godfrey, 2008;Smith, 1962;Spierenburg, 2007). The reason being that using different forms taken is from the subjects of the power not just freedom but also their dignity (Beijersbergen et al., 2016;Fairweather & McConville, 2000). Some crimes have no logical human explanation in the contexts of the observers, the same way remain beyond regularity what is happening in jails. ...
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Remaining extremely high recidivism in Baltic countries shows that the rehabilitation and socialization measures during the incarceration time are not working with all the expected efficiency. Each year, more and more resources are spent per capita on imprisonment and rehabilitation of offenders, but the results are improving slowly despite numerous reforms during the last two decades. A guided and sufficiently supported means for self-sustained legal income has proved to be a strong base for socialization and integration for all minority groups, be it exclusion from the original community or immigration from originally different one. The paper brings outlines of the study that is relaying on the theory of change and is using the bottom up approach in analyzing data from the first research conducted in Estonia where inmates were asked about their development during their captive time and prerequisites, possibilities, and perspectives after release. The paper is following restorative justice guidelines for reconciliation, social renewal and inclusiveness in one of the Eastern European states of transition. The paper brings out several discrepancies about the penal time development and formal requirements on the labor market. In a number of areas, the current strategy of penal-time preparation is not corresponding with the idea of using resources sensibly, protecting society and creating an environment where the pattern of criminal behavior could be changed. The paper comes to conclusion that the current system is still rather creating both intra-communal / intra-state exclusion and falling out from society than giving better legal platform for re-socialization after release.
... Prisons are therefore characterized by power misbalance (total power and domination)prisoners are not asked to approve the authority of the staff and force against them. The WWII and the following showed that deprivation of liberty can lead to extreme forms, the endemic risk of excess, the power of torture, etc. even in our nowadays societies and through obvious and less obvious means (Beijersbergen, Dirkzwager, Laan, & Nieuwbeerta, 2016;EuroPris, 2016;Fairweather & McConville, 2000;Hancock & Jewkes, 2011). ...
... The "incurable" ones were committed to indefinite confinement to protect society. The architecture of the prisons in Europe in 19 th and 20 th century followed this belief of solitary confinement (Beijersbergen et al., 2016;Fairweather & McConville, 2000;Hancock & Jewkes, 2011;McShane & Williams, 1996). This made changes in prison regime difficult for the ones who believed in individual moral responsibility. ...
... From the beginning of times, occasional inspectors have been horrified by actual conditions in jails (Godfrey, 2008;Smith, 1962;Spierenburg, 2007). The reason being that using different forms taken is from the subjects of the power not just freedom but also their dignity (Beijersbergen et al., 2016;Fairweather & McConville, 2000). Some crimes have no logical human explanation in the contexts of the observers, the same way remain beyond regularity what is happening in jails. ...
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The ideas and standpoints, presented in this paper are based on the research conducted in 2013-2015 and naturally, do not exhaust the entire complex of the issues connected or related to the current paper or all possible conclusions drawn from collected data. The paper in hand should be treated as a material for discussion about methodology and methods in the field, which may give a broader understanding about the issues that may seem known but in the rapidly changing world are constantly reshaping. This all asks for new approaches, philosophical bases and change of a mindset of each community involved. Effective governing is not possible without proper preparation of the public at large and respectful dialogue between all sides from subjected parties and institutions in power. Naturally, institutions change or decide nothing. People do. Therefore, the dialogue has to be brought to humane level on both (all) sides for the sake of more secure and sustainably developing community, as local so cross-border. Another aspect of responsibility, connected to institutions is the concern about personnel inconsistency in integrative/ penal systems of the transition phase country – crime is a phenomenon that applies to persons but not to systems or institutions but the harm is done to persons and communities.
... Policymakers, practitioners, and researchers have echoed the necessity for justice institutions to be fair, humane, and responsive to the needs of those they serve (Beijersbergen et al., 2016;Sparks & Bottoms, 1995). Doing so leads to several benefits, not the least of which is enhanced legitimacy, citizens' belief that authorities should be obeyed and respected (Tankebe, 2013). ...
... At the crux of OTI design is the promotion of a social facility within architectural structures (i.e., creating places that allow for greater interaction among people in custody, officers, and visitors). Positive detainee-officer and detainee-visitor interactions have been especially linked to the safety of both parties, with studies demonstrating significantly lower rates of inmate-on-staff violence (Beijersbergen et al., 2016). In a 1996 study, Miles Harer, of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, and Darrel Steffensmeier, of Pennsylvania State University, showed that the odds of violent incidents decreased as prison facilities provided more opportunities to be social (Harer & Steffensmeier, 1996). ...
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Efforts to reduce the correction population have taken many forms across the United States, with the redesign of correctional edifices being met with mixed support from stakeholders. Building from the advances of the new-generation facility design, this piece outlines how the “next” generation of facility design can serve as one of many strategies to reduce the United States’s heavy reliance on the carceral system. Specifically, the redesign of facilities should include considerations of placial justice. That is, how the architectural construction of a correctional facility can promote the experience and perception of just and fair treatment for inmates and staff alike. This article proposes the tenants of an open, transparent, and inclusive (OTI) design to enhance placial justice in correctional buildings and with it increase correctional legitimacy and fortify the rehabilitative function of the institution. Discussions also include how the redesign of correctional facilities fit within the larger discourse on correctional humanism.
... As Hancock and Jewkes (2011) note, the architecture of cellular confinement, common to most western prisons, can have the debilitating effect of de-stabilizing prisoners through physical isolation from others. Beijersbergen et al. (2014) found that prisoner attitudes concerning relationships with staff were worse in panopticon prison designs and best in 'campus'-style prisons that fostered greater interaction. Western penal architecture today predominantly follows a cellular model that originated in the design of monasteries where austerity and lack of privacy necessitated small cells of one or two prisoners. ...
... Hancock and Jewkes argue that better aesthetics and more communality push against the over-arching, indeed emblematic, goals of social control and discipline. If the 'new generation prisons' found in Northern Europe are intended to free up movement between staff and prisoners and be less confrontational in design (Beijersbergen et al., 2014;Hancock and Jewkes, 2011), the question arises as to whether prison design reform towards collectivism, might, therefore, capture a more progressive, less harmful approach to punishment. This is a question for reformers in both the West and the post-Soviet region. ...
... The average duration of confinement in the Netherlands for instance is 3.6 months (109 days) (Linckens & De Looff, 2013), whereas the average duration of prison terms in the US is three years (Pew Center on the States, 2012). Fourth, compared to the US, the Dutch prison population consists of relatively few women (5.4% in the Netherlands versus 9.3% in the US), has an approximately equal number of minors (1.5% in the Netherlands versus 0.3% in the US), and consists of a relatively large percentage of foreigners (23.2% in the Netherlands versus 5.5% in the US; Walmsley, 2013) Fifth, Dutch penitentiary institutions are typically viewed as less punitive, and are subjected to little problems with violence and overcrowding (Beijersbergen, Dirkzwager, van der Laan, & Nieuwbeerta, 2014;Dervan, 2011;Dirkzwager & Kruttschnitt, 2012). Inmates, for instance, do not wear a prison uniform, typically have a cell for themselves, and are allowed to have television in their cells (Subramanian & Shames, 2013;Tonry & Bijleveld, 2007). ...
... Second, it is important to bear in mind that the data for the present study were acquired in the Netherlands. Since the Dutch institutional environment is typically viewed as relatively humane and less oppressive (Beijersbergen et al., 2014;Dervan, 2011;Kruttschnitt & Dirkzwager, 2011), caution is warranted in generalizing these findings to other countries. Third, since inmates still were awaiting trial at the start of the data collection, our findings apply to pre-trail detainees only. ...
Article
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For a prison sentence to exert a specific deterrent effect, the ultimate question is that imprisonment is remembered as aversive once the offender is released, and is contemplating future criminal activities. Drawing on insights from social psychology and cognition, this study assessed (1) how inmates remember the severity of their imprisonment following release, and (2) how the severity as experienced while being incarcerated (e.g., the worst or the last moment), affects its recollected aversiveness among a sample of Dutch inmates who were released for approximately six months (n=696). The findings indicated that the severity as experienced while being incarcerated is strongly related to the severity as recollected following release, net of the duration of confinement. Strikingly, to the extent that the length of imprisonment affected its recollected aversiveness, it did so in the opposite direction than traditional deterrence research presumes. Implications for correctional policy and future research are discussed.
... En contra de esta postura, que se puede definir como retributivista, 2 se encuentra una más moderada y pragmática. Esta posición, consecuencialista, 3 sostiene que con el fin de alcanzar la paz, que interesa y beneficia a toda la sociedad, incluso a las víctimas, estas y el Estado deben estar dispuestos a ceder frente a la aspiración maximalista del modelo de justicia retributiva (castigo en prisión para los violadores de derechos humanos). Esto es, para lograr la reconciliación social se justifica aplicar un paradigma de justicia restaurativa, 4 sin que esto implique impunidad o ausencia de responsabilidad de los perpetradores de crímenes atroces. ...
Article
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This article discusses how the aims and the social functions of prisons are reflected in their architectural designs. These are not simply economic organizations of space that host relevant activities; they also communicate important political, social, and cultural meanings about crime and punishment. The article also analyzes the roles that prison plays and can play in terms of the constructions of meaning and spaces that can promote or obstruct the social reconciliation that should supposedly be part of post-conflict.
... Second, the study measures the effects of imprisonment length in a contemporary international context, focusing on the Netherlands. The penal climate in the Netherlands is considered to be relatively mild with a prison population that decreased unintermittedly after 2005 and sentences that tend to be short (Beijersbergen, Dirkzwager, van der Laan, & Nieuwbeerta, 2016). Although short terms of incarceration are the norm in the United States (in jail terms) and in Western Europe (in prison terms), very little contemporary work examines their consequences. ...
Article
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This article assesses the relationship between imprisonment length and recidivism. The data come from a unique longitudinal and nationwide study of Dutch prisoners, serving an average of 4.1 months of confinement (N = 1,467). A propensity score methodology is used to examine the dose–response relationship for three types of registered recidivism (i.e., reoffending, reconviction, and reincarceration) within a 6-month follow-up period. Findings indicate that length of imprisonment exerts an overall null effect on future rates of recidivism and that this conclusion holds across the various types of recidivism. These findings contribute to continuing scholarly debates over the social and economic costs of imprisonment.
... In the prison context, inmates affected by drug addiction need to comply with detention life, characterized by heavy emotional entailments and by the customs and culture of the correctional facility they must take on. Therefore, in order to adapt to this difficult environment, full of stressors and infightings, they have to develop their own coping strategy, which often results in being dysfunctional because of their addiction [14,15]. In this framework, rehabilitation and specific therapeutic programs are strongly recommended to facilitate the reintegration of inmates into society as law abiding citizens, overcoming the concept of prison term as a punishment and enhancing a health-promoting approach to offenders' management in prison settings [16]. ...
Article
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Drug addiction is a major care and safety challenge in prison context. Nowadays, rehabilitation and specific therapeutic programs are suggested to improve health and well-being of inmates during their detention time and to reduce substance abuse relapse after release from prison. Among these programs, several studies reported the benefits for inmates coming from animal assisted interventions. In this pilot controlled study, we investigated the efficacy of a dog assisted therapy program addressed to 22 drug addicted male inmates housed in an attenuated custody institute in Italy. The study lasted six months, the treated group (12 inmates) was involved once a week for one hour in 20 dog assisted therapy sessions, whereas the control group (10 inmates) followed the standard rehabilitation program. One week before the beginning and one week after the end of the sessions, all inmates involved were submitted to symptom checklist-90-revised and Kennedy axis V. Inmates involved in the dog assisted therapy sessions significantly improved their social skills, reducing craving, anxiety and depression symptoms compared to the control group. Despite the limitation due to the small number of inmates enrolled and to the absence of follow up, we found these results encouraging to the use of dog assisted therapy as co-therapy in drug addicted inmates rehabilitation programs, and we claim the need of more extensive study on this subject.
... In fact, a recent article by van Ginneken (2020) points out that the lack of multi-level analysis of prison culture is one of the current gaps in the literature. Findings from existing studies do, however, provide evidence for the impact of staff attitudes and behaviors on the social climate and other outcomes for people in prison (e.g., Autry & Liebling, 2019;Beijersbergen et al., 2016;Schubert, Mulvey, Loughran, & Losoya, 2012). Studies have examined and compared prisons by cultural markers such as staff interactions, felt safety, and security level (Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003;Chen & Shapiro, 2007;Gaes & Camp, 2009;Long et al., 2011Nagin, Cullen, & Jonson, 2009 suggesting that prison itself is a type of program, and what people living in prison learn and practice cognitively and behaviorally while they are incarcerated depends heavily on the attitudes and behaviors of the staff and leadership, or organizational culture. ...
Article
Ecotherapy and gardening have gained popularity in corrections, with most interventions focusing on prison settings. This paper briefly describes the authors’ experiences developing a gardening program in a community corrections facility for women, describing a pilot research program and preliminary results. Findings indicate that gardening is an effective, low-cost programming option for community residential settings that improve clients’ mental health and nutritional awareness, fosters community partnerships, and promotes camaraderie among clients and staff.
... A small, but growing body of research, however, suggests that one way to gain such deference is by understanding experiences of those incarcerated, with a particular focus on the disciplinary process itself (e.g., Cochran et al., 2014). Some scholars have emphasized the need to improve prison climate and staff-resident relationships, all in efforts to bolster perceptions regarding institutional legitimacy (Beijersbergen et al., 2016;Bottoms, 1999;Wooldredge & Steiner, 2016). This lends support to notions that incarcerated individuals' perceptions of disciplinary processes and its agents (i.e., perceptions of procedural and distributive justice) may influence their subsequent behavior in prison (Tyler, 2010). ...
Article
Recent scholarship suggests disciplinary protocols and incarcerated individuals’ perceptions of procedural justice toward correctional officers may be important in influencing one’s behavior and prison order. This study provides an examination of procedural and distributive justice in prison. We surveyed a stratified random sample of 144 respondents incarcerated in Maine state prisons about their perceptions toward the disciplinary process and corrections officers to assess the relationship between such views and patterns of institutional misconduct. Findings provide partial support for the procedural justice perspective in prison. Normative perceptions (e.g., legitimacy) are positively associated with voluntary deference measures while instrumental perceptions of officer effectiveness in controlling behavior are positively associated with respondent perceived risk. These results supply insight into theory development related to voluntary deference. Similarly, these findings can inform which relationships between officers and respondents may hold the potential to promote rule compliance and prison order.
... First, Table 3 shows that the scales staff-prisoner relationships and procedural justice are both strongly correlated to all the other prison climate scales. This is not surprising, as it is believed that staff-prisoner relationships lie at the heart of prison life (e.g., Beijersbergen et al., 2016;Crewe et al., 2011;Liebling, 2011). Second, also consistent with previous research, autonomy is highly correlated with other prison climate scales, especially with the scales staff-prisoner relationships and procedural justice, but also the scales satisfaction with activities and availability of meaningful activities (Beijersbergen, 2016;Goodstein et al., 1984). ...
Article
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Various survey measures have been developed to assess prison climate. Because these instruments have shortcomings, the Prison Climate Questionnaire (PCQ) was developed to measure prison climate and its related domains across a broad prison population. In this article, the instrument and its psychometric qualities are presented. Results show that the PCQ’s factor structure, reliability, and validity were in all aspects satisfactory. It was concluded that the PCQ is a promising instrument that can be used to measure and monitor individuals’ perceptions on the quality of prison life.
... In 2010, for instance, this group accounted for 47% of the prison population, whereas it only represented about 20% of the prison population in most Western European countries and the United States (Walmsley, 2014b). Second, detention centers in the Netherlands are considered to be less oppressive and to experience little problems with overcrowding and violence (Beijersbergen, Dirkzwager, van der Laan, & Nieuwbeerta, 2014;Dervan, 2011;Kruttschnitt & Dirkzwager, 2011). ...
Article
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A core assumption underlying deterrent sentencing and just deserts theory is that the severity of imprisonment is merely dependent upon its duration. However, empirical research examining how inmates’ subjectively experienced severity of detention (SESD) changes as a function of the length of confinement remains sparse. This study assesses changes in inmates’ SESD over the course of confinement and seeks to explain this process. Multilevel analyses revealed considerable change in the SESD over the course of confinement. Although individual characteristics are related to inmates’ initial SESD, they are not related to their pattern of change in SESD over the course of confinement.
... At the center, there are controls that open and close the access points to each wing. Other layouts include the campus style, which consists of several independent buildings enclosed by a secure perimeter gate or wall, similar to a university campus (Johnston, 2000); the courtyard layout, in which buildings are placed in a square around a central courtyard (Fairweather & McConville, 2000); and the high-rise layout, multilayered facilities constructed upward and resembling skyscrapers (Beijersbergen, Dirkzwager, van der Laan, & Nieuwbeerta, 2016). ...
Article
Facilities are important aspects of rehabilitative treatment. To fully understand the impact of a facility on the effectiveness of treatment, the direct perspectives of service providers are critical. We examine four autoethnographic accounts from correctional service providers to determine the role of the facility in their provision of care and organize these into considerations of three central aspects of correctional architecture—space, layout, and setting (SLS)—which play an important role in the efficacy of rehabilitative services. We conclude by proposing how research may advance in this area, especially through the use of practitioner accounts.
... 37 In more modern times, several researchers have studied how physical structures impact inmate health and wellbeing, examining institutional capacity, 38 location, 39 and facility layout. 40 We posit the exploration of sensory setting as well, through which a person interprets experience through all their senses. Sensory inputs such as the daily sight of defaced cell walls, the smell of uncleaned bathrooms, nightly sounds of despair, or intense heat in summer months can have a psychological effect on inmates. ...
Article
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The successful reentry of a person who has spent time incarcerated is dependent on the environments they are housed in and find themselves when released back into the community. This is particularly crucial for the African American community, which is disproportionately represented in the carceral population and, subsequently, among those formerly incarcerated. Using a placial and spatial justice lens, we review how the physical structure of correctional facilities and the spatial distribution of social service resources within African American communities contribute to mass incarceration, and provide recommendations to reduce the harms associated with incarceration.
... In addition to programming and crowding, other aspects of facilities have also been linked to prison misconduct and violence though less consistently. These variables include the size of the prison population, prison age, and the security status of the facility (Beijersbergen et al. 2014;Gonçalves et al. 2014). We also include these variables, described in detail in the next section, in our prediction model. ...
Article
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A rapidly growing number of algorithms are available to researchers who apply statistical or machine learning methods to answer social science research questions. The unique advantages and limitations of each algorithm are relatively well known, but it is not possible to know in advance which algorithm is best suited for the particular research question and the data set at hand. Typically, researchers end up choosing, in a largely arbitrary fashion, one or a handful of algorithms. In this article, we present the Super Learner—a powerful new approach to statistical learning that leverages a variety of data-adaptive methods, such as random forests and spline regression, and systematically chooses the one, or a weighted combination of many, that produces the best forecasts. We illustrate the use of the Super Learner by predicting violence among inmates from the 2005 Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities. Over the past 40 years, mass incarceration has drastically weakened prisons’ capacities to ensure inmate safety, yet we know little about the characteristics of prisons related to inmate victimization. We discuss the value of the Super Learner in social science research and the implications of our findings for understanding prison violence.
... In terms of the criminal legal system, the lack of transparency and openness of these buildings raises questions about how the hiddenness and invisibility impacts those who work in or are required to visit the offices. Given studies that find the interior design of probation offices (Carr et al., 2015;Harrison, 2015;Phillips, 2014) and the use of this design by staff members to interact with supervisees (Doggett, 2017;Irwin-Rogers, 2017) impacts the relationship between supervisors and supervisees, and other research on the impact of prison/jail architecture on behaviour (Beijersbergen et al., 2016;Morris and Worrall, 2014), it is likely the exterior architecture also has an impact. The division between signage and location of probation offices compared to parole offices suggests a need to understand how administrators view both and the impact of this view on building design and placement. ...
Article
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Public secrets are the information the public chooses to keep from itself. Architecture is required to both house and operate these secrets. Community sanctions are arguably a public secret. This study analyses the most visible aspects of community sanctions, probation and parole offices, to understand whether and how their architectural features help keep the system hidden. By analysing photographs of such offices, I argue that not only do the building features help maintain community corrections as a public secret, but they also keep the systems secret from the public. I also argue that keeping the offices intentionally obscured may also impact how those under supervision are viewed by the general public.
... In other words, focus has shifted away from a concern for social climate, towards the designing-out of risk of physical harm from prisoners' destructive behaviour through environmental modification, and by maximising control on the part of the prison authorities (Tartaro 2003, Krames andFlett 2000). Recent attempts have been made to establish a broad-brush link between different architectural types and elements of prisoner behaviour: for example in the US between prison layouts (as determined by satellite imagery) and 'misconduct' on the part of inmates (Morris and Worrall 2010); and in the Netherlands between prison design and prisoner perceptions of interactions with prison staff (Beijersbergen et al 2014). These are tantalising studies, although their quantitative methodologies preclude further explication of the means by which any such linkages take form. ...
... Furthering the relevance of correctional architecture are research studies that link the architecture of correctional institutions to variations in misconduct (Morris & Worral, 2014); escapes (Scott, Petrossian, & Mellow, 2018); healthy relationships formed between correctional officers and people in custody (Beijersbergen, 2016); and the health of persons in custody (Schaeffer et al., 1998). Unfortunately, while theories, frameworks, and discussions around correctional architecture are present, empirical examinations of the impact or effect that correctional architecture has on mental health services are scant . ...
Article
In the United States, jails have become the largest mental health institutions and have come under public scrutiny regarding the accessibility and quality of the mental health services provided. Research supports that the architectural design of a correctional facility influences the behaviors and well-being of an incarcerated person, including the treatment and services received while incarcerated.This pilot study utilizes the Space, Layout, and Setting (SLS) framework to investigate the impact of New York City’s jail design on an incarcerated person’s access to mental health services. Results approaching statistical significance show that jails concentrated with mental health services are more likely to have mental health appointments completed compared to jails that are not. This holds true when controlling for jail capacity and the number of mental health appointments scheduled. Whilst it is best practice to have mental health services provided outside of the correctional setting, correctional administrators that seek to better serve their mental health population may consider exploring the designs of their facilities to be more treatment oriented.
... Although larger prisons are designed to hold more inmates, cutbacks and limited resources (especially in the Spanish administration since 2009) might produce lower inmate to staff ratios in larger prisons, increasing the number of unsurveilled areas and the reliance on restricted movement, making people in larger prisons less safe. In addition, it is possible that with larger prisons social distance increases among staff and inmates, increasing social depersonalization (e.g., seeing inmates more as a number than as people) or impersonalization (e.g., I don't know you, so I feel less empathy or concern for you; Beijersbergen, Dirkzwager, van der Laan, & Nieuwbeerta, 2016;Johnsen, Granheim, & Helgesen, 2011). ...
Article
The majority of research based on prisons in the United States has found a positive association between prison size and inmate victimization. This study estimates rates and identifies inmate and institutional characteristics associated with victimization in the Spanish prisons, with special attention on the prison size. Data were collected from a sample of male inmates aged 18 years or older (n = 2,484) located in eight prisons in the southeast of Spain. Holding inmate characteristics constant, rates of victimization were significantly and substantively higher in larger prisons. Understanding the prison size–victimization association requires further qualitative investigation to identify whether size creates more spaces for victimization (structural opportunities) and/or lapses in supervision due to depersonalization or impersonalization (social distancing).
... The effects are not just limited to the behavior of inmates but also (just as importantly) the impressions and behavior of staff (Lulham, 2007; Zimbardo, 2007). Evidence is mounting both within correctional facilities (Beijersbergen, Dirkzwager, van der Laan, & Nieuwbeerta, 2014; Grant & Jewkes, 2015; Wener, 2012) and in other institutional settings (Thompson, Robinson, Dietrich, Farris, & Sinclair, 1996a, 1996b Thompson, Robinson, Graff, & Ingenmey, 1990) that physical design that is residential, as opposed to institutional, is associated with more positive (and less anti-social) behavior. ...
Article
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This paper examines the relationship between physical design and risk within modern correctional practice. It seeks to identify the potential risks and paradoxes of the current emphasis on considering correctional design primarily as a means of reducing security risks. We suggest that innovation in correctional design is required that embeds meanings that both support the goals of security risk management, but also the goals of reducing reoffending risk and promoting desistance. Drawing on a case study of the design and evaluation of a correctional education facility, we contend that innovative correctional design more broadly can be a stronger force for managing risk to promote desistance in corrections.
... In other words, focus has shifted away from a concern for social climate, towards the designing-out of risk of physical harm from prisoners' destructive behaviour through environmental modification, and by maximising control on the part of the prison authorities (Tartaro 2003, Krames andFlett 2000). Recent attempts have been made to establish a broad-brush link between different architectural types and elements of prisoner behaviour: for example in the US between prison layouts (as determined by satellite imagery) and 'misconduct' on the part of inmates (Morris and Worrall 2010); and in the Netherlands between prison design and prisoner perceptions of interactions with prison staff (Beijersbergen et al 2014). These are tantalising studies, although their quantitative methodologies preclude further explication of the means by which any such linkages take form. ...
... Notably, most research in justice architecture is concentrated on the design of penal institutions, such as jails, prisons and detention centers. In this vein, researchers have investigated how correctional architecture impacts important outcomes such as inmate-on-inmate violence (Morris and Worrall, 2014) or staff-inmate relationships (Beijersbergen et al., 2016), and have proposed frameworks for designing more humane facilities (Jewkes, 2018;. To date, there are few published studies on the architecture of police buildings and the way these places influence individual perceptions and behaviors. ...
Article
Empirical investigations examining how the architectural design of justice buildings impacts the public is scant and heavily skewed toward the design of penal institutions. Applying theories of hostile and welcoming building design, this study uses a survey experiment to investigate the impact that welcoming and hostile police station designs have on public affect and behaviorally relevant perceptions. Findings reveal main and interactive effects of architectural design on positive affect. Specifically, building design becomes a significant predictor of perceptions depending on an individual's self-identified racial or ethnic group, where Black and Latino respondents report greater positive emotional responses when presented with hostile as compared to welcoming building designs. However, there was no impact of building design on negative affect or behaviorally relevant perceptions to report crime. The results of this study have potential implications for impacting public perceptions about policing and improving service delivery experiences.
... The effects are not just limited to the behavior of inmates but also (just as importantly) the impressions and behavior of staff (Lulham, 2007; Zimbardo, 2007). Evidence is mounting both within correctional facilities (Beijersbergen, Dirkzwager, van der Laan, & Nieuwbeerta, 2014; Grant & Jewkes, 2015; Wener, 2012) and in other institutional settings (Thompson, Robinson, Dietrich, Farris, & Sinclair, 1996a, 1996b Thompson, Robinson, Graff, & Ingenmey, 1990) that physical design that is residential, as opposed to institutional, is associated with more positive (and less anti-social) behavior. ...
Article
This paper examines the relationship between physical design and risk within modern correctional practice. It seeks to identify the potential risks and paradoxes of the current emphasis on considering correctional design primarily as a means of reducing security risks. We suggest that innovation in correctional design is required that embeds meanings that both support the goals of security risk management, but also the goals of reducing reoffending risk and promoting desistance. Drawing on a case study of the design and evaluation of a correctional education facility, we contend that innovative correctional design more broadly can be a stronger force for managing risk to promote desistance in corrections.
... The architectural design of prisons can also potentially influence the thoughts, interactions and behaviour that staff members have towards prisoners. For example, research conducted in the Netherlands observed that prisoners who shared a cell with another prisoner reported to have fewer positive relationships with staff members than offenders who resided in cells on an individual basis during incarceration (Beijersbergen et al., 2016). This would suggest that some prison settings may not be conducive to harnessing therapeutic or empathic interactions between staff and prisoners (Jewkes, 2018). ...
Article
In 2006, the National Health Service commenced with assuming responsibility for the delivery and commissioning of mental healthcare services in prisons within the UK. Previous research has indicated that some prison environments may present challenges to the delivery of mental healthcare for prison populations. The present study aimed to explore the experiences of staff working in NHS offender health teams to identify the sources of adversity that frontline staff may encounter when providing mental healthcare in prison settings. The present study also aimed to identify working conditions that may be conducive in facilitating the delivery of mental healthcare in prison settings. Mental healthcare professionals (n = 10) who worked in NHS offender health teams took part in 1:1 semi-structured interviews that were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The thematic analysis of the dataset indicated three themes that presented sources of adversity for NHS offender health teams in their delivery of mental health care in prisons; which were 1) location of mental healthcare delivery 2) communication links with stakeholders and 3) prison policies, procedures and legislation. The results of this study have illustrated some of the work-related factors that require attention in order to further support frontline staff in their delivery of mental healthcare in prison settings.
... The architectural design of prisons can also potentially influence the thoughts, interactions and behaviour that staff members have towards prisoners. For example, research conducted in the Netherlands observed that prisoners who shared a cell with another prisoner reported to have fewer positive relationships with staff members than offenders who resided in cells on an individual basis during incarceration (Beijersbergen et al., 2016). This would suggest that some prison settings may not be conducive to harnessing therapeutic or empathic interactions between staff and prisoners (Jewkes, 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
In 2006, the National Health Service commenced with assuming responsibility for the delivery and commissioning of mental healthcare services in prisons within the UK. Previous research has indicated that some prison environments may present challenges to the delivery of mental healthcare for prison populations. The present study aimed to explore the experiences of staff working in NHS offender health teams to identify the sources of adversity that frontline staff may encounter when providing mental healthcare in prison settings. The present study also aimed to identify working conditions that may be conducive in facilitating the delivery of mental healthcare in prison settings. Mental healthcare professionals (n = 10) who worked in NHS offender health teams took part in 1:1 semi-structured interviews that were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The thematic analysis of the dataset indicated three themes that presented sources of adversity for NHS offender health teams in their delivery of mental health care in prisons; which were 1) location of mental healthcare delivery 2) communication links with stakeholders and 3) prison policies, procedures and legislation. The results of this study have illustrated some of the work-related factors that require attention in order to further support frontline staff in their delivery of mental healthcare in prison settings.
... Mevcut sosyal hizmet çalışmaları da yukarıda bahsedilen konularla ilgilenmiş, ceza infaz koruma memurları ile çalışma neredeyse hiç yapılmamıştır (Başka alanlarda infaz koruma memurlarıyla yapılan bazı çalışmalar için bkz: (9)(10)(11) ). Uluslararası literatürde genel olarak ceza infaz memurlarının mesleki tükenmişlikleri (12)(13)(14) , mesleki eğitimleri (15), memurlara uygulanan şiddet (16), cezaevi çeteleri (17,18), çalışan-mahkum ilişkileri (19)(20)(21)(22) ve otorite kullanımları (23,24) incelenmiştir. Bu tez sayesinde suçluluk alanının aslında başat aktörlerinden olmalarına rağmen kendileri ile yeteri kadar çalışılmamış ceza infaz koruma memurlarıyla çalışılarak, alana yeni bir bakış açısı sunulması hedeflenmiştir. ...
Thesis
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Türkiye’deki ceza infaz sistemi her zaman kendi gündemini yaratmış ve hem sosyal bilimlerin hem de politikanın ilgi alanında kalmıştır. Sosyal hizmet, bizzat ilgili kurumlarda çalışan meslek elemanlarının da bulunmasına rağmen, suçluluk ile ilgili görece az çalışmaya sahip bir alandır. Bu tez sayesinde, literatürde eksik kaldığını düşündüğümüz, suçluluk alanının aslında başat aktörlerinden olmalarına rağmen kendileri ile yeteri kadar çalışılmamış ceza infaz koruma memurlarıyla çalışılarak, alana yeni bir bakış açısı sunulması hedeflenmiştir. Çalışmada infaz koruma memurlarının görüşleri üzerinden Türkiye’deki ceza infaz sisteminin suça ve suçluya yaklaşımının ufak bir göstergesi ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır. Bahsedilen gösterge, suçluluk alanındaki politikaların yapısal sorunlarını ve ihtiyaçlarını tanımlamada yararlı olacaktır. Tezin amaçlarından birisi de ceza infaz koruma memurlarının suça ve suçluya dair düşüncelerine, sahip oldukları ‘erk’in, kullandıkları ‘otorite’nin ve hiyerarşik sistemde altında bulundukları ‘otorite’ ile olan ilişkilerinin etkisini incelemektir. Araştırma kapsamında Türkiye’nin üç büyük kentinden (Ankara, İstanbul, Bursa) 12 infaz koruma memuru ile derinlemesine görüşmeler gerçekleştirilmiş ve görüşülenlerin meslek algıları, iş yaşamları, mahpuslarla iletişimleri hakkındaki ve mahpus şartları/denetimli serbestlik/mahpusların çalışması gibi infaz sistemiyle ilgili konulardaki düşünceleri alınmıştır. Araştırma sonunda görüşülenlerin çoğunun mesleklerini zorunlu olarak icra ettikleri, aldıkları eğitimleri yetersiz buldukları, mahpuslarla iletişimde otorite dengesi kurmaya çalıştıkları, hapishanelerin ‘ıslah edici’ görevine inanmadıkları, infaz sisteminde yapısal sorunlar gördükleri vb. bulgulara ulaşılmıştır. Hapishaneler gerek çalışanlar gerekse mahpuslar için olumsuz bir ortam oluşturmakta, yapılan reformlar yapısal sorunları giderememektedir. Ceza infaz sistemini değerlendirirken geleneksel kalıplardan çıkılmalı ve alternatifler üzerinde durulmalıdır. The penal system in Turkey has always created it’s own agenda and stayed in concern both social sciences and policy. Although social work has members of profession who work in relevant institutions, it is still a field which has relatively few researches about criminality. With this thesis, giving a new point of view to the field –which we think there is a lack of data in literature- is aimed by working with correction officers who are main characters in the field of criminality but not studied enough. In this study a small sample case of an approach to the crime and the criminal penal system in Turkey by the views of the correction officers, has been studied. Such a sample case will help to identify the structural problems and needs of the policies in criminality field. Another goal of the thesis is to examine the effect of ‘the power’ they have, ‘the authority’ they used and their relations with ‘the authority’ they depend on in the hierarchical system, to their opinions about the crime and the criminal. Depth interviews with 12 correction officers were conducted within the scope of research in three big cities in Turkey (Ankara, İstanbul Bursa). Opinions of the interviewers about perceptions of their profession, their professional lives, their communications with inmates, penal system features such as conditions of inmates/probation/working of inmates have been taken. At the end of the research we have reached this findings: Most of the interviewers have been working in their jobs compulsorily, they find their trainings insufficient, they try to built balance of authority in communication with inmates, they don’t believe in the ‘rehabilitative’ role of the prisons, they attribute some structural problems in penal system. Prisons create a negative setting for both workers and inmates and improved reforms can not be a solution to the structural problems. While considering the penal system traditional ideas should be abandoned and alternatives should be discoursed.
... Access to green space may be limited despite research indicating the physiological advantage of such space (Söderlund and Newman, 2017). Beijersbergen et al. (2016) demonstrate how the architecture of a building directly affects people's behavior and experiences. Due to the openness of prison yards to maintain lines of sight, there is often very little shade to provide prisoners relief from the sun around carceral facilities. ...
Article
Despite overall societal progress in reducing adverse impacts of heat and cold, incarcerated populations remain highly vulnerable to environmental stressors. Incarcerated populations experience a combination of risk factors related to their physical health and well-being that increase their thermal vulnerability: social isolation, disproportionate mental health issues, comorbidities, limited mobility, and a reliance on external factors to provide a safe, healthy environment. In carceral spaces, thermal exposure agitates these already complex situations, shaping a confluence of various economic, political, and ecological intersectionalities. This synthesis contextualizes the ongoing scholarship on climate change, thermal exposure, the built environment, and public policy, to examine thermal inequities experienced by incarcerated populations. In examining this context, we connect our work to carceral geographies, the geographies of violence, racial capitalism, and abolition ecologies. Ultimately, the review highlights how physical geographers may directly converse with critical geographers, promote equity and environmental justice, and work to reduce adverse impacts of extreme temperature events.
... Further, prison design is thought to impact and define the identities and behaviours of its detainees, partly by shaping daily activities and the social interactions that take place inside (Jewkes, 2018;Oostermeijer & Dwyer, 2019). Beijersbergen et al. (2016) investigated the relationship between prison lay-outs and the perceptions of detained adults on their relationships with staff across 32 prisons in the Netherlands. Detainees housed in prisons with lay-outs that were more conducive to social interaction (i.e., campus and high-rise facilities) experienced a more positive relationship with staff. ...
... Lastly, the space of representation is how individuals respond, interact and construct their lived experience within the designated space ( Lefebvre, 1991;Schollar, 2003). Similarly, Beijersbergen, et al., (2014) examine how the influence of the design of the prison affects the social interactions between the prisoners and staff. One of the key findings was that the prison and staff relations 'did not exist in a vacuum' ( Beijersbergen, et al., 2014:25). ...
Thesis
This is an ethnographic study focusing on predominately female relatives who have taken on the ‘caring role’ to support the prisoner and their child/children. Whilst families are often seen as key drivers in resettling offenders, there is still a lack of consideration by policy makers on providing legal support to families. Furthermore, there is little research that examines whether or not there is an interrelationship between families’ experiences in the context of prison spaces and those of public spaces, in particular welfare, social services, and also the home, which tends to be defined as a ‘private space’. The central research question for this PhD study is as follows: in what ways do institutional spaces shape the identities of families of prisoners? My theoretical framework has been influenced by third wave feminism, including authors such as Butler (2002) and Smith (1990). Both of these scholars theorise how class, gender and ‘race’ can intersect to construct identity in the context of the so-called ‘prison space’. Over the last year and half this study has conducted informal narrative interventions and semi-structured interviews in three prisons located in Scotland. My findings illustrate that the inside and outside spaces of prisons are interrelated in shaping the identities of prisoners’ families. Identity is both relational and fluid; it is often changing in accordance with the spaces they are situated within and people encountered. This has been influenced by neo-liberal ideologies on surveillance and security, as well as that of added responsibilities of finance and care, which refers to how neo-liberalism pathologically structures the caring role, particularly for women. Also of interest and concern are emerging themes of ‘immobility and waiting’, whereby the families are physically and emotionally immobilised. Parallel to this, families often experience forms of institutional waiting that ties the inside and outside of the prison spaces. This thesis concludes that in order to understand better the experiences of families of prisoners, it is important not to isolate prison as a fixed/static entity. The prison is interrelated with other institutions on the outside, and thus this has an impact on families’ lives. Furthermore, gender is regarded as central to this study and the best context within which to understand the identities that are shaped inside and outside of the prison.
Article
A limited body of literature has explored popular media portrayals of the prison experience. Much of this literature has focussed on film and television. Scant literature has considered new forms of media such as video games’ portrayals of the prison experience. In the current inquiry we examine the computer simulation game, Prison Architect, with respect to how its interactive experience has the potential simultaneously portray and problematize pains of imprisonment, and how these portrayals and problematizations may prompt a public discourse surrounding prison, particularly from a peacemaking perspective, even if the game itself does not incorporate concepts such as restorative justice. To conduct this analysis, we examine game-developer video blogs that relayed information about the game as it was developed (e.g., game content, rationale for creation, and embedded political, social and philosophical orientations toward prisons, prisoners, and the prison-industrial complex). Ultimately we link pains of imprisonment in Prison Architect to the broader societal discourse surrounding rationales for incarceration (i.e., retribution, incapacitation, and rehabilitation) and consider implications for prison themed games, particularly those such as simulation games that afford players a broad degree of freedom, as vehicles through which to engage the public in discourse about prison that can adopt a more human-centered, peace-oriented approach.
Article
This article looks at the trajectory of prison reform in post-Soviet Georgia and Russia. It attempts to understand recent developments through an analysis of the resilient legacies of the culture of punishment born out of the Soviet period. To do this, the article fleshes out the concept of carceral collectivism, which refers to the practices and beliefs that made up prison life in Soviet and now post-Soviet countries. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 revealed a penal culture in notable need of reform. Less obvious, in retrospect, was how over the course of a century this predominantly ‘collectivist’ culture of punishment was instantiated in routine penal practices that stand in opposition to western penalities. The article shows how the social and physical structuring of collectivism and penal self-governance have remained resilient in the post-Soviet period despite diverging attempts at reform in Russia and Georgia. The article argues that persistent architectural forms and cultural attachment to collectivism constitute this resilience. Finally, the article asks how studies of collectivist punishment in the post-Soviet region might inform emerging debates about the reform and restructuring of individualizing, cell-based prisons in western jurisdictions.
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Research into the spatial dimensions of deprivation of liberty and psychiatric hospitalization has a long and complex tradition. In this context, the increasing numbers of prisoners and patients in forensic hospitals have impressively shown how difficult it is to ensure security, therapy and rehabilitation when space is scarce or not well-suited. In this narrative review, we present the main findings of recent lines of research on spaces in prisons and forensic psychiatric wards, with particular attention to the links between overcrowding in prisons and secure forensic psychiatric hospitals and violence, the foundations of prison and hospital architecture, and on how the design of spaces in prisons and hospitals can influence well-being. We assess and discuss these findings in the context of the current debate on how well-being in secure spaces can support the achievement of rehabilitation goals even in overcrowded institutions.
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Das Klima kann schon im Rahmen eines vorwissenschaftlichen Zugangs als wichtiges Merkmal einer Justizvollzugsanstalt bzw. seiner organisatorischen Einheiten gelten. In diesem Kapitel wird das Konstrukt näher beleuchtet, indem zunächst ein Überblick über Definitions- bzw. Explikationsversuche in der nationalen und internationalen Literatur gegeben wird. Anschließend wird der Frage nachgegangen, wie das Klima in einer Justizvollzugsanstalt gemessen werden kann und welche Herausforderungen dabei auftreten. In den folgenden Abschnitten werden Ergebnisse zum Klima berichtet, wobei zunächst dargestellt wird, welche Auswirkungen unterschiedliche klimatische Zustände haben können und im Anschluss daran berichtet wird, von welchen Bedingungen das Klima abhängt. Abschließend werden die Implikationen für den zukünftigen Umgang mit diesem Thema im deutschen Justizvollzug diskutiert.
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Purpose The Life in Custody (LIC) Study is a nationwide prospective cohort study examining the quality of prison life in the Netherlands. The purpose of this paper is to describe Dutch prisoners’ perceptions of prison climate, as well as differences across regimes. Design/methodology/approach The target population of the study consisted of all male and female adult prisoners in the Netherlands who were incarcerated in various regimes in a total of 28 prisons, between January and April 2017. An intensive and personal recruitment strategy was employed. Participants completed a detailed survey, the prison climate questionnaire (PCQ). Self-reported information on a variety of topics was collected, including perceived prison climate, well-being and self-reported behaviour. Findings In total, 4,938 prisoners participated in the survey, which amounts to a high response rate of 81 per cent. Analyses show that respondents’ characteristics are almost identical to those of non-respondents. Ratings of prison climate vary across domains and regimes, with more positive scores for minimum-security regimes. Practical implications A detailed methodological approach is described that can be adopted to achieve a high response rate with survey research among prisoners. The paper alerts researchers and practitioners to a large ongoing study and first findings on prison climate in the Netherlands. The PCQ can be requested from the authors and used in future research (internationally) to gain information about the perceived quality of prison life. The paper gives insight in how different regimes are associated with differences in perceived prison climate. Collaboration on the research project can be sought with the authors. Originality/value Findings of the LIC study illustrate the value of having data on prison climate. Results of the study will contribute to more knowledge on imprisonment and what can be done to improve the humane treatment of offenders by the criminal justice system. Moreover, knowledge about the methodology of the study may enable future comparative research on prison climate.
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In this chapter we will describe and discuss some practical ways of creating rehabilitative cultures in prisons housing people convicted of sexual offences. Our interest in prison culture began in 2002 when we conducted a study of why some men in prison deny their sexual offending (Mann, Webster, Wakeling, & Keylock, 2013). Before we began that study, we expected to find individual psychological explanations for denial, such as shame, or family factors, such as family support for denial. These explanations certainly existed, but more notably we found that men talked about feeling unsafe, feeling stigmatised, and feeling humiliated by other people in prison and also by staff. The overall finding was that when men convicted of sexual offences felt psychologically and physically unsafe in prison, their personal resources were consumed by finding ways to feel safe, and denial of their offences was one useful way to reduce their anxiety.
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Rastući broj zavisnika od opojnih droga i razorne posledice ovog zdravstvenog, socijalnog i kriminalnog fenomena nameće potrebu za iznalaženjem najefikasnijih načina za njihovo lečenje i socijalnu rein-tegraciju. U slučajevima kada je zavisniku izrečena kazna zatvora i/ili medicinska mera bezbednosti javljaju se dodatni izazovi i problemi. Do-sadašnja praksa terapije uz pomoć životinja (konja i pasa) kao dodatka lečenju bolesti, psihičkih poremećaja i poremećaja ponašanja ukazu-je da taj inovativni metod može biti delotvoran i u procesu lečenja pre-stupnika zavisnih od opojnih droga. Imajući to u vidu, autor analizira postojeće izazove lečenja zavisnika, sa fokusom na one koji spadaju u zatvorsku populaciju, modalitete državne reakcije na ovaj fenomen, kao i mogućnosti i perspektive uključivanja životinja u njihovu terapiju. Po-sebnu pažnju autor posvećuje italijanskom rešenju koje razmatra kao primer dobre prakse uključivanja životinja u tretman prestupnika zavi-snih od opojnih droga i mogući uzor za domaće zakonodavstvo i praksu. Ključne reči: droga, zavisnost, tretman, terapija, zatvor, životinje
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Dieser Forschungsbeitrag aus Italien stellt eine quantitative Untersuchung (mittels standardisierter Fragebögen) der positiven Wirkungen eines standardisierten hundegestützten Interventionsprogramms auf Inhaftierte mit Suchterkrankungen in einer norditalienischen Haftanstalt (Due Palazzi) vor. Die Analyse unterstreicht die Potenziale tiergestützter Therapieprogramme in der Verbesserung sozialer Kompetenzen, der Senkung psychischer Belastungen und damit verknüpft der Verringerung von Angst und Depressionen bei drogenabhängigen erwachsenen Männern.
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People with mental health issues are vastly overrepresented in the Australian prison system. This paper discusses the master planning and design of Ravenhall Correctional Centre in Victoria, Australia to increase outcomes for male prisoners living with physical, mental health disability and other conditions. Major innovations in the design of Ravenhall Correctional Centre have included a forensic mental health unit on site, and the master planning of the prison into separate communities with a variety of housing types to provide prisoners opportunities to experience various levels of self-care and greater autonomy. The prison was designed to increase feelings of wellness, to provide program and training spaces to service various groups, and to allow prisoners to experience greater levels of individual control. The project is discussed through an architectural lens to allow readers to understand the complexities of master planning and designing a major people-oriented, multi-faceted prison with a forensic mental health unit within the perimeter. The paper notes that large scale prisons may be designed in a more therapeutic manner where accommodation, facilities and programs can provide prisoners opportunities to connect with external environments, engage in meaningful activities and retain a level of autonomy and individual control. The integration of the forensic mental health unit means that greater numbers of prisoners are able to access in and outpatient services. The paper concludes that since the prison was commissioned in 2017, the prisoner cohort has changed, resulting in a deviation from the intended purpose of focusing on innovative programs for sentenced prisoners. This may have diminished the capacity for prisoners to effectively engage in the programs for which the prison was designed.
Chapter
This chapter explores the police custody cell from the perspective of policing staff. Legally it is the cornerstone of the criminal investigation process, being the place where arrested persons are taken while charging decisions are made. Police custody is a liminal space, one where detainees are monitored extensively and where detainees are ‘betwixt and between’ their previous existence. It is therefore a complex and multi-faceted environment that has, until recently, been treated in a fairly monolithic way. This chapter draws on 15 hours of observations and 12 interviews with police officers and custody staff. It argues that the police custody cell is a space where the monitoring of risk and emotional turmoil is managed by staff.
Article
This article analyses the penitentiary architecture evolution, based on the notion of punishment deployed in a particular historical period. In this sense, it is described how the alteration on the understanding and on the underlying purpose of the chastisement, affects the designs and facilities of the prisons around the world. This study conducts a review throughout the prison history from antique times to our days through theories of criminal law. In this historical review it will be observed how the imprisonment became the mayor way of punishment as of nineteenth century. Today, the prison still remain in force in the penal system, nevertheless, two different prison models have emerged in the last century: on one side, the re-socialising prisons and, on the other side, the fully vigilant prisons.
Article
Scholars frequently characterize incarceration as a possible turning point in criminal activity. This implies a two‐stage process: 1) change in life‐course mechanisms around confinement and reentry result in 2) subsequent change in criminal activity relative to preconfinement. Following this model, we examine change in criminal activity, criminal identity, and social/structural challenges using data from the Prison Project, a cohort of adult males with short‐term confinement in the Netherlands in 2010–2011. Results of a novel test for within‐individual change in arrests from preconfinement to post‐reentry show that most individuals are stable—yet there is a substantial group who go down meaningfully and a much smaller group who go up. Even though changes in criminal identity from the intervening period do not predict these change groups, increases in social/structural challenges predict those who go up in criminal activity. We build from prior work on desistance and reentry, contrasting our findings and highlighting the unique insight gained from, as well as challenges of, measuring individual change within our two‐stage turning point model. Although life‐course mechanisms often correspond with changes in criminal activity concurrently, identifying individual changes that are predictors of subsequent shifts in criminal offending remains elusive.
Article
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore stakeholder' perspectives of control within general correctional and solitary confinement environments with findings focused on trust, sound, views to nature, routine, and time. Research was conducted at two medium security prisons in a large US state with male inmates. Using a survey methodology, interviews occurred with 10 inmates, 10 correctional officers, two superintendents, one staff psychologist, one nurse, and two correctional design architects. Observations and photography followed while visiting and leaving the prisons. Using grounded theory as a data analysis tool identified the themes of trust, views to nature, sound, time, and routine viewed through the overarching premise of control. Incongruence between rehabilitation and punitive environmental goals were found. Correctional officers who emphasized fear and trust valued visual surveillance despite its ability to lead to austere indoor and outdoor spaces. Inmates craved outdoor views along with personal possessions as these items established a more meaningful passage of time. Sound, as noted by the correctional architects, was not designed as a rehabilitative tool, but instead was used to denote impending attacks. And routine, so valued by inmates, was often taken away as a form of control. Implications suggest that the US prisons observed in this study exemplified control, dominance, and punishment. Future prison design should embrace the rehabilitative and healing strategies used in European models to help lower rates of recidivism which are problematic in the American prison system.
Thesis
In der vorliegenden Dissertation werden Risikofaktoren für Drogenkonsum im Vollzug und Gewalt gegenüber Mitgefangenen untersucht. Die Prädiktoren dieser Regelverstöße wurden aus verschiedenen Theorien und Modellen zur Erklärung des (Fehl-)Verhaltens von Inhaftierten abgeleitet, namentlich der Deprivations- und Importationstheorie, dem Managementmodell, situativen Erklärungsansätzen sowie der Hypothese vom „Kreislauf der Gewalt“. Dabei werden sowohl Merkmale der individuellen Gefangenen als auch der Justizvollzugsanstalten beziehungsweise -abteilungen als Einflussfaktoren der Gewalt und des Substanzkonsums berücksichtigt. Die Daten, auf denen die präsentierten Forschungsergebnisse basieren, wurden im Rahmen einer standardisierten Fragebogenerhebung unter Gefangenen in Justizvollzugs- und Jugendstrafanstalten sowie einer schriftlichen Befragung von Anstaltsleitungen erhoben. Die Ergebnisse der Studien zeigen in der Gesamtschau, dass sowohl Merkmale der individuellen Gefangenen (z.B. gewaltbefürwortende Einstellungen, Anlassdelikt) als auch der Gefangenenpopulation (z.B. Anteil der Inhaftierten mit Migrationshintergrund) und der Anstalt (z.B. Anstaltsgröße) signifikant mit dem Risiko von Substanzkonsum und Gewalt im Vollzug assoziiert sind. Ein Effekt des Alters auf die Begehung von Regelverstößen zeigt sich nur innerhalb der Gruppe der Gefangenen im Erwachsenenvollzug. Der „Kreislauf der Gewalt“ von Viktimisierungserfahrungen in der Kindheit hin zur Gewaltanwendung gegen Mitgefangene scheint für männliche und weibliche Inhaftierte gleichermaßen zu gelten. Ferner deuten die Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass die simultane Berücksichtigung unterschiedlicher theoretischer Perspektiven und der daraus abgeleiteten Variablen den vielversprechendsten Ansatz zum Verständnis von Regelverstößen im Vollzug darstellt.
Technical Report
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De erkende interventies die in Nederlandse gevangenissen worden ingezet bij volwassen gedetineerden zijn gericht op beïnvloeding van gedrag, niet op verbetering van de basisvoorwaarden voor een succesvolle re-integratie. Zo blijkt uit ons onderzoek in opdracht van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC). We benadrukken dat de meeste gedetineerden te kort in detentie zitten om in die periode een interventie helemaal te kunnen doorlopen (de helft van de gedetineerden zit minder dan een maand in detentie). Twee belangrijke aanbevelingen: ervoor zorgen dat de interventies die in de PI zijn gestart doorlopen na vrijlating en werken aan een detentieklimaat waarin gedetineerden gestimuleerd worden met resocialisatie aan de slag te gaan.
Article
Constructive relationships between staff and young people in custody are a vital component of a therapeutic youth justice approach, which extends to the maintenance of a safe and secure environment (i.e., relational security). Despite the growing recognition that the physical environment of a facility impacts the procedures within a youth justice environment, as well as the relationships between staff and young people, there is a dearth of research in this area. We investigated youth custodial staffs' views on, and approaches to, establishing relationships with young people while maintaining safety and security. The current study reports on the impacts and challenges highlighted by staff relating to the design of the facility. We interviewed a total of 26 custodial staff members working at a Youth Justice facility in Melbourne, Australia. The semi‐structured interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. NVivo 12 was used for thematic analysis. Two researchers (SO and PT) coded one transcript independently, iteratively creating a coding template using a thematic analysis approach. Once the final set of broad themes was constructed, the transcripts were re‐examined, and narrower themes were identified. Thematic analysis revealed that a total of 14 staff (53.8%) identified the design of the custodial facility as impacting upon their ability to practice relational security. Identified design aspects included: unit size, quiet and private spaces, communal areas, green and outside spaces, ambience and spatial characteristics, spatial differentiation, facility and unit lay‐out. Youth custodial staff identified design aspects of a youth custodial facility that either promoted or impeded the ability to practice relational security approaches. The current study highlights the importance of carefully considering facility design given its impact upon staff‐young people relationships, procedures and ways of working within these custodial facilities.
Article
One of the most troubling aspects of current trends in American mass incarceration is the extent to which ‘criminality’ is produced within prison walls, primarily in the form of inmate-inmate or inmate-staff assaults. Most methods of prison or jail control have the adverse, and perverse, effect of increasing inmates' levels of fear, terror, and ultimately violence - with stabbings, beatings, and other types of assaults common occurrences. The design of podular ‘direct supervision’ jails and their accompanying philosophies of punishment aspire to change these conditions. Direct supervision features correctional officers inside each housing unit with no physical barriers impeding supervision, and is intended to create a safe, more humane, stress-free environment for both inmates and staff. This study draws on ethnographic evidence of inmate experiences with direct supervision at Douglas County Department of Corrections in Omaha, Nebraska (USA). The respondents generally do feel safe in this jail environment, for a combination of reasons, some of which are related to spatial design. Inmates identified a number of implications - gains and losses - of this more ‘humane’ form of incarceration in terms of power and empowerment. The study also documents the potential for inmate activism on their own behalf through this design.
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Two cases of prison reform in the 1990s had widely divergent results. New Mexico privatized several prisons and these prisons were quickly beset by multiple riots. New York's publicly run Rikers Island prison, by contrast, adopted reforms that ended many years of riots and violence. Prevailing theories of prison riots cannot account for these divergent outcomes. A state-centered theory of social order explains both cases, showing how prison administrators and state and national governments can create the conditions under which social order breaks down or is restored. This analysis has implications for forging social order in other hierarchical institutions, such as schools, that are responsible for the welfare of their dependent clients.
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Although living in prison is difficult for all inmates, anecdotal evidence and a small number of qualitative studies on women's prisons suggest that females have greater social support needs while incarcerated. This claim is important for a more complete understanding of adjustment to prisons. In particular, extra and intrainstitutional social support mechanisms may reduce the inmate-perceived stresses associated with imprisonment and yield fewer official rule infractions. Using a multilevel analysis, the authors explore ties between social support mechanisms and reported rules infractions of a nationally representative sample of male and female state prison inmates. Findings suggest that female inmates experienced more social support than did their male counterparts. Some of the included social support mechanisms seem to affect inmates'adjustment to prison, and the effect of marital status on misconduct varies by gender. The implications of these findings for understanding prison life and for prison administrators are also examined.
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This article considers the contribution that physical environment makes to the pains of imprisonment. Synthesizing concepts and theories from critical organization studies with those that have informed criminological studies of prison design and the lived experience of imprisonment, the article discusses the ways in which the architecture and aesthetics of penal environments might be better understood with reference to the restricted economies of space found in industrial and bureaucratic organizations. It is argued that a grasp of the limits historically placed on the subjective growth of individual workers (workspaces frequently being characterized as ‘iron cages’ or ‘psychic prisons’) can enhance our understanding of the physical and psychological confinement of those in custody. Moreover, critical organization studies can inform emerging debates about what future prisons should look like and alert us to the potential fallacy in assuming that ‘modern’ equates to ‘better’. While clean, humane and safe environments are unquestionably desirable for both prisoners and prison staff, and considerations such as natural daylight, access to outside space and aesthetic stimuli are increasingly being incorporated into penal environments around the world, this article will critically interrogate the value of such initiatives arguing that they may, in fact, represent a new and potentially more insidious form of control that bring their own distinctive ‘pains’.
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Empirical research on the moral quality of life in prison suggests that some prisons are more survivable than others. Prisoners describe stark differences in the moral and emotional climates of prisons serving similar functions. The ‘differences that matter’ concern interpersonal relationships and treatment, and the use of authority, which lead to stark differences in perceived fairness and safety and different outcomes for prisoners, including rates of suicide. These identifiable differences between prisons in one jurisdiction may provide the beginnings of a framework for addressing the broader question of standards being set by the European Court of Human Rights. Concepts like ‘dignity’ and ‘humanity’ are difficult to operationalize and practise. Prisoners are articulate about them, however, and know the difference between ‘feeling humiliated’ and ‘retaining an identity’. The worlds of ‘moral measurement’ and ‘human rights standards’ in penology should be brought closer together in a way that deepens the conversation about prison life and experience.
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Twenty years ago, David Downes in his classic study, Contrasts in Tolerance, interviewed Dutch prisoners held in England and English prisoners held in the Netherlands and concluded that the Dutch provided a more humane penal system. Since that time, there have been significant changes in penal policies in both England and the Netherlands, which call into question both his conclusions and many of the current comparative analyses of penal trends. We examine the conditions of confinement for both Dutch prisoners held in English prisons and English prisoners held in the Netherlands to determine whether and how these carceral environments have changed over time. We draw on recent organizational research on ‘inhabited institutions’ to help advance our understanding of both transformations and continuities in penal trends across different political contexts.
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In light of the dramatic increase over the past decade in the number of women incarcerated in the Netherlands, we examined 251 female inmates’ psychological reactions to imprisonment with a survey that taps importation and deprivation factors and related life experiences. While depressive complaints, irritability and risk of self-harm were all predicted by both sets of factors, the evidence suggests that deprivation factors have a greater impact on these measures of well-being than importation factors. Previous treatment for psychological problems was the most important covariate for psychological complaints and post-traumatic stress. The most important deprivation factors were treatment by staff and other inmates, and environmental stress. Accordingly, we suggest that in order to further our understanding of women prisoners’ adaptations to incarceration greater attention should be directed to women’s conditions of confinement and less to their histories of victimization and drug abuse.
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This paper discusses the quality of prison life and prison size in relation to the notion of ‘Scandinavian exceptionalism’. Using the questionnaires ‘Measuring the Quality of Prison Life’ (MQPL) for prisoners and ‘Staff Measuring the Quality of Prison Life’ (SQL) for staff, data were collected from all 32 closed prisons in Norway. Based on the assumption that prison officers’ working lives, their perspectives and their values influence prisoners’ quality of life, the main focus in the paper is on the officers. Small prisons (fewer than 50 prisoners) obtain more positive results than medium-sized (50–100) and large (more than 100) prisons, on several dimensions measured. The relationship between officers and prisoners seems to be of better quality in small prisons than in medium-sized and large prisons. Officers in small prisons also report more positive relationships with senior management than their colleagues in medium-sized and large prisons. The results are discussed in light of previous studies on officers and prison working life dynamics.
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This article explores one interesting finding emerging from early findings of studies comparing private and public prisons in the UK: the relationship between prisoners and staff. These relationships appear to be better in some private prisons than in the public sector, at least during the early years of privatization. After presenting these findings, the authors provide three possible explanations for the positively evaluated prisoner—staff relationships in many private prisons during these early years: first, an intentional focus on relaxed and less formal regimes; second, the distinct balance of power which is the outcome of more powerless and inexperienced staff working in private prisons; and third, the legacy of a punitive atmosphere which still persists in some public sector prisons. While these findings do not constitute an argument in favour of privatization, they provide an opportunity to be less romantic about public sector values and practices, and more circumspect about the dangers of imprisonment more generally.
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A prison setting was used to examine self-report and biochemical evidence of architecturally mediated crowding stress. Further, the relationship among illness complaints, perceived crowding, and urinary catecholamines was explored. Inmates of a federal corrections institution provided urine samples assayed for epinephrine and norepinephrine, and they supplied self-report data on their perceptions of crowding. Infirmary records were reviewed for each inmate's health history. Inmates resided in one of three housing types that varied in degree to which privacy and crowding were afforded. Housing type with the lowest social density was a private cell, while open dormitories had the highest. An intermediate level of social density was represented by inmates in partitioned dormitories or cubicles. Lower levels of social density were expected to be associated with lower perceived crowding, lower levels of urinary catecholamines, and fewer health complaints. Across all inmates, perceived crowding was positively correlated with levels of urinary catecholamines. Single cell inmates reported less crowding and exhibited lower levels of urinary catecholamines than
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Using structured interview data and official records from an incarcerated sample of adult males housed in a Slovene prison, this study tests hypotheses derived from the process-based model of regulation (Tyler, in M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice, pp. 283–357, 2003). The findings show that inmates who evaluate prison officers’ use of authority as procedurally just are less likely to report engaging in misconduct and are charged with violating fewer institutional rules. The observed association between procedural justice and legitimacy is indistinguishable from zero. Although legitimacy is inversely related to both prisoner misconduct measures, the associations are relatively weak. Overall, these findings partially support Tyler's social–psychological framework, and also provide empirical justification for fair and respectful offender management.
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This paper suggests that although carceral space seems to be sharply demarcated from the outside world, the prison wall is in fact more porous than might be assumed. The paper critiques Goffman’s theory of the ‘total institution’ by deploying a geographical engagement with liminality to theorise prison visiting rooms as spaces in which prisoners come face-to-face with persons and objects which come from and represent their lives on the ‘outside’. Drawing on a specific empirical example from recent research into imprisonment in the contemporary Russian prison system, it uses the example of visiting suites designed for long term ‘residential’ visits to explore the ways in which visiting spaces act as a space of betweenness where a metaphorical threshold-crossing takes place between outside and inside. The paper specifically explores the expression of that betweenness in the materiality of visiting, and in the destabilisation of rules and identities in visiting space. It contests the sense of linear transformation with which liminal spaces have previously been associated, suggesting that rather than spaces of linear transition from one state to another, liminal spaces can constitute a frustratingly repetitive, static or equilibriating form of transformation which is cumulative rather than immediate, and relates this suggestion to the wider study of prison visitation.
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Summarizes the results of a research program on the effects of crowding in prisons and jails. The relationship of crowding to rates of suicides, violent and nonviolent deaths, psychiatric commitments, inmate-on-inmate assaults, disciplinary infractions, and attempted suicides and self-mutilations as evidenced in archival records of 175,000+ inmates from 4 state prison systems were examined. Field research in prisons and jails yielded data on 2,500+ individual inmates, including illness complaints, blood pressure, perceived crowding, and housing evaluations. The impact of space and social density are discussed, focusing on the various housing arrangements available in prisons. Findings show that, in general, crowding in prisons was related to increased pathology. Theoretical considerations of the effects of crowding are discussed in terms of a social interaction demand model that incorporates uncertainty, goal interference, and cognitive load. Implications of the model and outcomes of a crowded situation are addressed. It is concluded that the primary causes of negative effects related to crowding are due to cognitive strain, anxiety or fear, and frustration intrinsic to most social interactions in crowded settings. (56 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Researchers have not yet devoted sufficient attention to the effect of prison architecture on inmate misconduct. Using data from the population of male prisoners in Texas, the authors explored the association between two prison architectural design types (as determined by satellite imagery) and inmate misconduct. The results from multilevel statistical analyses suggest that architectural design is associated with nonviolent misconduct but not violent misconduct. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed.
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Incl. bibl., index.
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Findings from an empirical study into needs and preferences of Aboriginal prisoners in custody - practice of shared accommodation for such prisoners may be inappropriate - adverse implications for institutional culture and behaviour modification practices applied in custodial environments - socio-economic options for custodial accommodation that are significant to prisoner outcomes.
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To summarize briefly, key general points in this presentation include the following: To promote wellness, healthcare facilities should be designed to support patients in coping with stress. As general compass points for designers, scientific research suggests that healthcare environments will support coping with stress and promote wellness if they are designed to foster: 1. Sense of control; 2. Access to social support; 3. Access to positive distractions, and lack of exposure to negative distractions; A growing amount of scientific evidence suggests that nature elements or views can be effective as stress-reducing, positive distractions that promote wellness in healthcare environments. In considering the needs of different types of users of healthcare facilities--patients, visitors, staff--it should be kept in mind that these groups sometimes have conflicting needs or orientations with respect to control, social support, and positive distractions. It is important for designers to recognize such differing orientations as potential sources of conflict and stress in health facilities (Schumaker and Pequegnat, 1989). For instance, a receptionist in a waiting area may understandably wish to control the programs on a television that he or she is continuously exposed to; however, patients in the waiting area may experience some stress if they cannot select the programs or elect to turn off the television. Some staff may prefer bright, arousing art for corridors and patient rooms where they spend much of their time; however, for many patients, such art may increase rather than reduce stress. A difficult but important challenge for designers is to be sensitive to such group differences in orientations, and try to assess the gains or losses for one group vis-a-vis the other in attempting to achieve the goal of psychologically supportive design. Designers should also consider programs or strategies that combine or mesh different stress-reducing components. For example, it seems possible that a program enabling patients to select at least some of their wall art or pictures would foster both control and access to positive distraction. As another example, the theory outlined in this paper suggests that an "artist-in-residence" program, wherein an artist with a caring, supportive disposition would work with patients, might foster social support in addition to control and access to positive distraction. Running through this presentation is the conviction that scientific research can be useful in informing the intuition, sensitivity, and creativity of designers, and thereby can help to create psychologically supportive healthcare environments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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In this article, we describe the translation and validation of the Dutch Big Five Inventory (BFI; John & Srivastava, 1999), a short instrument designed to measure the Big Five factors of personality. We obtained evidence of the instrument's good psychometric properties in terms of factorial equivalence to the English original and other BFI translations and the relative independence and internal consistency of the five scales. The findings suggest that the instrument can be used in diverse age groups without substantial changes in factor structure. The Dutch BFI scales showed similar demographic correlates as the English original, with higher Agreeableness and Conscientiousness and lower Neuroticism values in older participants, higher Neuroticism values in women, and higher Openness and Conscientiousness values in better educated participants. Use of the Dutch BFI will allow researchers to integrate their findings with the extant Big Five research literature. The brevity of the instrument will be appealing to researchers who are concerned about taxing the time and motivation of their participants.
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Preface Morals reformed—health preserved—industry invigorated—instruction diffused—public burthens lightened—Economy seated, as it were, upon a rock—the gordian knot of the Poor-Laws not cut, but untied—all by a simple idea in Architecture! ——Thus much I ventured to say on laying down the pen—and thus much I should...
Article
The incidence of acts of interpersonal violence in prisons is influenced by the characteristics of inmates but also by aspects of the prison environment and by the continual dynamic interaction between prisoners, prison staff, and the physical and social context within which they are placed. Enhanced physical restrictions can often reduce levels of violence due to restrictions on opportunity but may also sometimes lead to a loss of legitimacy that can escalate violence. Previously understudied aspects of prison social life include routines and staff-prisoner relationships, both of which are central to the maintenance of everyday social order. Prisoner-staff assaults are particularly associated with the potential "friction points" of the prison regime and the prison day, but some officers seem more skilled at handling these friction points in ways that avoid violence. The study of prisoner-prisoner violence presents a paradox, with a frequently described pervasiveness of the rule of force within inmate soc...
Article
This paper attempts to theorize some aspects of problems of order in prisons in the light of recent contributions in the theory of legitimacy by Beetham (1991) and Tyler (1990). Previous work in the sociology of imprisonment has generally raised the problem of legitimation only implicitly, and often merely to deny its possibility. Drawing on fieldwork in two English maximum security prisons, we argue that while prisons present chronic problems of legitimacy, it may nevertheless be possible to specify circumstances under which prisoners are more or less likely to confer or withhold degrees of recognition of legitimate authority of prison staff and regimes. Such conditions include not only the regularity and efficiency of service delivery, but also perceived distributive and procedural fairness of treatment, as well as human qualities in the nature of routines. We deploy these considerations in analysing aspects of current British penal politics.
Article
Postwar developments in Dutch penal policy encompass one period of sustained reduction in the scale of imprisonment (1947-74), producing the most humane penal system in Europe, followed by a second (1975 to date) in which that trend reversed, producing an imprisonment rate that exceeds the European average, with adverse consequences for the character of prison regimes. The causes of the initial period are not self-evident, taking place while crime was rising, and based on a philosophy of minimizing the resort to custody. Key elements of that approach continued from 1975 to the mid-1980s, during a period of sharply rising crime rates. The period of sustained recarceration after 1985, and its prolongation, into the 1990s and beyond, entailed a sweeping reconfiguration of penal policy. Managerial, instrumental, and incapacitative measures took precedence over previous goals of resocialization and restorative justice.
Article
The dismal life in prison (1775-1825) death, discipline and depravity in crowded prison factories (1821-1850) socialization by social isolation - experiments with penitentiaries in England and the US barbarian scaffold versus civilized solitude - from external to internal constraint.
Article
This article presents a typology of prison officer approaches to caring for prisoners, based on qualitative fieldwork in one men’s and one women’s prison. Five distinct approaches were identified: true carer, limited carer, old school, conflicted and ‘damaged’. Officers with each caring style shared a particular view of prisoners as a group, and varied in their adherence to traditional prison officer cultural norms. Length of experience and gender were related to caring approach, as were work environment and experience of trauma. I argue that all prison officers contended with care in their work, and I consider the personal and institutional factors that shaped the quality of care for prisoners.
Article
The paper reports on a study that looks at the impact of a corrections environment upon prisoners through a process of monitoring inmate attendance at sick call clinic. Contrasting cell block designs and characteristics are compared on the basis of significant differential demands for health care services emanating from specific areas. Known psychological and physiological responses to situations perceived to be threatening provide the theory that health behavior may be used as one indirect measure of environmentally induced stress. Findings suggest there are architectural design features of the prison environment that provide basis of perceived threats to inmate safety and survival. Loss of privacy on several dimensions appears to be a critical environmental characteristic.
Article
Using Power, Champion, and Aris's Significant Others Scale, the present study examined the function and structure of social support in a group of incarcerated young offenders. Support across nine key relationships from both outside and inside the prison were examined. The study aimed to examine social support as a key variable in coping with incarceration. Furthermore, the study examined the role that social support plays in the experience of self-reported psychological distress (anxiety, depression, and hopelessness) while incarcerated The importance of prison relationships-with a close friend and members of prison staff in the experience of psychological distress-was highlighted, where distressed inmates were more likely to report discrepancies in the actual/ideal levels of both emotional and practical support. Regression analyses highlighted the importance of relationships with the staff as predictors of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness.
Article
The results of evaluations of two specially designed federal detention centers are presented. While the designs of the two institutions had different strengths and weaknesses, inmate responses to the environments were similar in several critical areas. Both facilities appeared to provide atmospheres perceived as less stressful, less threatening, and more comfortable than most jails. There was little evidence of violent or destructive behavior. Both facilities had problems related to space restriction and boredom. Important design issues included the ability of planners to accurately predict eventual use of space, and the design of spaces which allow user control of environmental conditions.
Article
This study examined the effect of remunerative and coercive controls on inmate assault, net of traditional controls. The sample included 4,168 male inmates nested within 185 state correctional facilities. The results suggest a complex relationship between remunerative controls and inmate assault. Remunerative controls were not significant predictors of inmate-on-inmate assault; however, prisoners involved in work programs were significantly less likely to assault staff, net of control variables. A significant relationship was not found between coercive control and inmate assault.
Article
This article describes an effort to develop and test a standardized, generic set of evaluation instruments for assessing behavioral effects of the design of correctional institutions. The goal was to provide a system for rapid, efficient, and comprehensive environmental evaluation. The system was to produce information useful to individual institutions any yield pooled data from many institutions concerning environmental influences on behavior. Instruments were developed to obtain attitudinal and environmental perception data, to perform behavioral observations, to record information about the physical setting, to assess organization type and style, and obtain archival data. Portions of the data from two case studies in which these instruments were pilot tested are presented in this article.
Article
Contrary to a widespread belief about the undesirability of relatively large prisons, a review of the criminological literature yields no empirical evidence that prison size influences behavior inside or after leaving prison. The English prison statistics show that prison offenses, and more specifically assaults, are less likely in larger prisons. However, it was impossible in these analyses to control for the kinds of inmates in each prison. In a more controlled analysis of correctional effectiveness (defined as the difference between predicted and actual reconviction rates), there was a strong tendency for the more overcrowded prisons to be less effective. Size was only weakly related to effectiveness, and this association was reduced further after controlling for overcrowding. It was concluded that an important priority for governmental agencies should be to reduce overcrowding in prisons.
Article
Suicide is a legal and social problem that plagues the criminal justice system. Jails were constructed for the single purpose of detaining persons for short periods of time as they awaited their trials. Now jails must be built and staffed to provide for the health, safety and welfare of pretrial detainment and sentenced misdemeanants
Architecturale behoeften van gevangenisbewoners en gebruikers
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Beyens, K., Gilbert, E., & Devresse, M. (2012). Architecturale behoeften van gevangenisbewoners en gebruikers [Architectural needs of prison residents and users].
In de geborgenheid van de gevangenis. De betekening van de nieuwe Nederlandse gevangenisbouw [The meaning of new Dutch prison construction] . Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Dubbeld, L. (2001). In de geborgenheid van de gevangenis. De betekening van de nieuwe Nederlandse gevangenisbouw [The meaning of new Dutch prison construction]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.
Prison architecture: An international survey of representative closed institution and analysis of current trends in prison design
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Fairweather, L. (1975). The evolution of the prison. In United Nations Social Defence Research Institute (Ed.), Prison architecture: An international survey of representative closed institution and analysis of current trends in prison design (pp. 13-40). London, England: Architectural Press.
Psychological effects of the prison environment
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Fairweather, L. (2000). Psychological effects of the prison environment. In L. Fairweather & S. McConville (Eds.), Prison architecture: Policy, design and experience (pp. 31-48). Oxford, UK: Architectural Press.
Meerpersoonscelgebruik [The use of double bunking
  • Inspectie Voor De Sanctietoepassing
Inspectie voor de Sanctietoepassing. (2011). Meerpersoonscelgebruik [The use of double bunking]. Den Haag, The Netherlands: Inspectie voor de Sanctietoepassing.
The evolution of prison architecture
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Jewkes, Y., & Johnston, H. (2007). The evolution of prison architecture. In Y. Jewkes (Ed.), Handbook on prisons (pp. 174-196). Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing.
Forms of constraint: A history of prison architecture
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Johnston, N. (2000). Forms of constraint: A history of prison architecture. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Prisons and their moral performance: A study of values, quality and prison life
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Liebling, A. (2004). Prisons and their moral performance: A study of values, quality and prison life. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Revisiting prison suicide: The role of fairness and distress
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Liebling, A., Durie, L., Stiles, A., & Tait, S. (2005). Revisiting prison suicide: The role of fairness and distress. In A. Liebling & S. Maruna (Eds.), The effects of imprisonment (pp. 209-231). Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing.
Gevangeniswezen in getal 2007-2011 [Numbers of the Dutch correctional system
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Linckens, P., & De Looff, J. (2012). Gevangeniswezen in getal 2007-2011 [Numbers of the Dutch correctional system 2007-2011]. Den Haag, The Netherlands: Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen.