Article

Audience Response to Brand Journalism: The Effect of Frame, Source, and Involvement

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Abstract

This study examined reactions to brand journalism in light of frame, source, and product involvement. Participants in an experimental study viewed a custom magazine with either a commercial (branded) or editorial (nonbranded) frame and read a story quoting either a peer or a corporate source. Readers rated the nonbranded magazine higher in credibility, but source cues had no direct effects on credibility ratings. Source did matter when combined with consumer product involvement. Highly involved consumers had stronger brand attitudes and purchase intent after reading advice from a peer source; low-involved consumers responded more favorably to a corporate source.

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... In aiming to engage stakeholders, the lines between editorial content, advertising and edited content are blurred (Reijmersdal, Neijens, & Smit, 2005) and online content takes a hybrid form (Balasubramanian, 1994). Examples of such hybrid content include sponsored content (Sonderman & Tran, 2013), native advertising (Interactive Advertising Bureau, 2013), content marketing (Pulizzi, 2012) and brand journalism (Brito, 2013;Cole & Greer, 2013). What they all have in common is their attempt to create value by offering relevant and useful content for stakeholders (Cole & Greer, 2013;Interactive Advertising Bureau, 2013;Pulizzi, 2012) and building credibility through brand and organizational identification. ...
... Examples of such hybrid content include sponsored content (Sonderman & Tran, 2013), native advertising (Interactive Advertising Bureau, 2013), content marketing (Pulizzi, 2012) and brand journalism (Brito, 2013;Cole & Greer, 2013). What they all have in common is their attempt to create value by offering relevant and useful content for stakeholders (Cole & Greer, 2013;Interactive Advertising Bureau, 2013;Pulizzi, 2012) and building credibility through brand and organizational identification. ...
... Authority relates to contextual expertise (Gilpin et al., 2010). Organizations should evaluate the content carefully because the source's expertise influences the perceived credibility of the message (Cole & Greer, 2013), which in turn affects the credibility of an organization's actions (Gilpin et al., 2010). For PR practitioners to legitimize hybrid forms of online content in the media, they must ensure authority on the themes presented in the content. ...
Article
Building on the Global Alliance for Public Relations and Communication Management’s Melbourne Mandate’s understanding of a communicative organization consisting of organizational character, responsibility and listening and engagement, this paper explores these principles in the context of new hybrid forms of online content. This study asks about the role of transparency in the context of commercial hybrid content. Through theoretical consideration as well as interviews of representatives of public relations and marketing communication associations and agencies in Finland, the article presents the practitioners’ perceptions and experiences using the literature on transparency. To better understand the communicative organization of today in the context of hybrid content creation, we propose the concept of the “transparent communicative organization.” We suggest four new propositions for the practice of hybrid forms of engaging publics to support the transparent communicative organization: (1) source identification to enable trust, (2) two-way transparency inviting user feedback, (3) stakeholder-centric arenas to enable engagement, and (4) content on organizational expertise to build long-term engagement. We invite further public relations research to improve and test these preliminary propositions as the use of hybrid content increases.
... Several studies have shown that print advertisements disguised as editorial pieces, generate greater attention, elaboration of the message, memories and perceived relevance among readers (Cameron, 1994;Cole & Greer, 2013;Kim, Pasadeos, & Barban, 2001). One of the explanations for this is that these advertisements activate less 'Persuasion Knowledge'. ...
... If the persuasive intent and commercial source is more obvious, people will easier recognize an ad, understand better its persuasive intent and become more skeptical towards it (Tutaj & van Reijmersdal, 2012). Previous research has shown that this enhanced persuasion knowledge leads to more irritation and less appreciation towards the ad (Cameron, 1994;Cole & Greer, 2013;Friestad & Wright, 1994;Kim et al., 2001;Reijmersdal, Neijens, & Smit, 2005;Tutaj & van Reijmersdal, 2012). Since native advertisements (versus advertorials) are even more indistinguishable in style and content from editorial stories (Carlson, 2014), and use inconsistent and thus not readily recognizable disclosures (IAB, 2013), it is expected that: H1a. ...
... Previous research indicates that the most editorial ad type not only receives the highest appreciation (Cameron, 1994;Cameron & Curtin, 1995;Reijmersdal et al., 2005), but that this appreciation also results in a more positive attitude towards the brand (Boerman, Van Reijmersdal, & Neijens, 2014;Cole & Greer, 2013; Van Reijmersdal, Neijens, & Smit, 2010). More commercial ads elicit more negative affect among readers (such as irritation), which results in less positive attitudes towards the advertiser and vice versa (Boerman et al., 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Native advertising in online news media is on the rise. This experimental study investigates the reactions of readers towards native advertisements, compared to another type of hybrid advertising in online news media: advertorials. Results indicated that readers react most positively towards native advertising; the most editorial advertising technique of the two types. Readers perceived native advertisements as less commercial, which resulted in lower irritation and a more positive attitude towards the advertiser. Although native advertisements were more difficult to recognize than advertorials, readers still perceived them as less misleading and were less intended to avoid them.
... "The rise of adblocking has proved concerning for web publishers, many of whom rely largely or exclusively on display advertising for revenue," unlike most Slow Journalism publishers who tend not to rely largely or exclusively on display advertising for revenue (Hern 2015). The decline of banner and pop-up advertising online has elevated the importance of content (Cole and Greer 2013;Manjoo 2014;Pulizzi 2012). This shift played directly into the hands of Slow Journalism's investment in developing original premium editorial content. ...
... Given the immersive habits of tablet users, time on page, rather than clicks, thus represents "a clear departure from the dominant business model in online journalism, which has been driven by advertising revenue based on page views" (Ray 2013, 439). The new premium on content has now given rise to brand journalism, "custom content," and "custom publishing," marking an industry shift in which "companies hope to build trust using the relative power and credibility of editorial content, often seen as more 'pure' than advertising" (Cole and Greer 2013;673-674). Narratively, for example, has entered into partnerships involving brand sponsorship through native advertising (Rosenberg 2015). ...
Article
This study examines the commercial viability of Slow Journalism in light of its recent efforts to reinvent the business model in the news industry today that relies heavily or exclusively on display advertising for revenue. Some Slow Journalism companies, such as De Correspondent and Delayed Gratification, have defiantly positioned themselves in opposition to advertising’s prominent role in mitigating free online news production and consumption, which they argue is both philosophically and financially anathema to the intimate journalist–reader interface. Still others, such as Narratively, have also eliminated display advertisements, but openly embrace brand sponsorship through events, creative agency, and native advertising. Touting visually pleasing high-end production values for immersive reading environments free of distracting display advertisements, many publishers promote a relation in which supply meets demand without undisclosed, conflicting third-party or corporate interest. This research explores the methods by which several prominent Slow Journalism organizations have mobilized a critique of corporate media to strategically communicate their maverick missions. The case studies examine Delayed Gratification, De Correspondent, Narratively, and The Big Roundtable as expressions of Slow Journalism’s experimental approaches to for-profit enterprise through alternative media business models.
... Previous studies on native advertising have largely focused on analyzing advertising content (e.g., Carlson, 2015;Sweetser et al. 2016;Wojdynski 2016) or comparing it with other types of online advertising (e.g., Gillespie and Joireman 2016;Cole and Greer 2013). To take a closer look at the effects of native advertising, the current research examined two popular types of native advertisements, endemic and linked in-feed advertisements, and their impact on perceived advertising credibility, attitude toward the advertisement, brand interest, and purchase intention. ...
... However, participants reported less favorable attitude toward endemic in-feed advertisements than linked in-feed advertisements. A possible explanation is that audiences expect to read news content rather than commercial content on a news site (Van Reijmersdal et al. 2005;Tutaj and Van Reijmersdal 2012;Cole and Greer 2013), so the particular format of native advertising might be seen as deceiving or misleading, especially the more integrated endemic in-feed advertisements. However, advertising format alone does not tell the whole story. ...
Article
Focusing on two popular types of native advertising, endemic in-feed advertisements and linked in-feed advertisements, the current study examined the effects of advertising format, website reputation, and product involvement on perceived advertising credibility (trustworthiness and expertise), attitude toward the advertisement, brand interest, and purchase intention. In general, endemic in-feed advertisements were rated more favorably on source expertise and brand interest, while linked in-feed advertisements scored higher on attitude toward the advertisement. Three-way interaction effects were found for source trustworthiness, attitude toward the advertisement, brand interest, and purchase intention. Endemic in-feed advertisements showed stronger impact for the high-involvement product on a high-reputable website, while linked in-feed advertisements appeared to work better for the low-involvement product on a low-reputable website.
... As we will argue, native advertising is a new and rapidly changing phenomenon. Because of this, research on its consequences is remarkably insufficientespecially regarding its potential effects on citizens' trust in news (for notable exceptions investigating neighboring aspects, see Austin and Newman, 2015;Cramer, 2015;Cole and Greer, 2013;Rodgers, 2007;Tutaj and van Reijmersdal, 2012;Wojdynski and Evans, 2015). Empirically, this paper seeks to remedy this by investigating the effects of political native advertising on readers' trust in political news. ...
... Despite previous research on similar formats such as advertorials, there is a profound lack of research on the actual effects of native advertising (and similar formats of content marketing) on citizens' trust in political news. Some notable exceptions are Cole and Greer (2013), as they investigated how so-called brand journalism, a type of content marketing that 'allows businesses to target customers with useful, tailored editorial content while promoting their brand, values, and products' (Cole and quality and content-relevance on readers' perception of content quality. ...
Article
Full-text available
Declining revenues from offline and online ads has led publishers to pursue new avenues, such as native advertising: camouflaging ads as news. Critics of native advertising claim that this form of advertising blurs the boundaries between editorial and commercial content, and can reduce the audiences’ trust in editorial content. However, little research has assessed the possible effects of native ads on audiences’ trust in news. With an experimental design embedded in an online survey (N = 733) representative of the Norwegian population, this study explores the consequences of political native advertising for citizens’ trust in political news. This article discusses how political native advertising poses a challenge to the boundary between journalism and advertising as well as the boundary between journalism and powerful elites. Our study examines (1) how prominently native advertisements should be labelled in order for readers to recognize them as advertising content and (2) whether exposure to such ads reduces readers’ trust in political news. Our most important finding shows that when explicitly labelled, native advertising by political parties can reduce people’s trust in political news.
... Brand Journalism: the story told in journalistic standards to intrigue the reader to want to know more (more (Greer, 2013). ...
... Journalists have the skills to keep up with the fast paced life of gathering and writing interesting good content, with an unbiased tone in their work. The definition of brand journalism is the story told in journalistic standards to intrigue the reader to want to know more (Greer, 2013). Brand journalism has more than one name, it is also known as "content publishing" or "custom content." ...
Article
This paper is the about the study of content marketing and the value it brings to companies. There will be discussion on the elements and tactics of content marketing that will help a business become successful. The data, to support this study, will come from working professionals in the marketing and public relations industry, as well as additional research from books and articles. This paper will discuss why written word and infographics are the best and most commonly used tactic, and why content marketing is a great tool for companies to connect and inform their consumers, on a themselves or their products.
... "The rise of adblocking has proved concerning for web publishers, many of whom rely largely or exclusively on display advertising for revenue," unlike most Slow Journalism publishers who tend not to rely largely or exclusively on display advertising for revenue (Hern 2015). The decline of banner and pop-up advertising online has elevated the importance of content (Cole and Greer 2013;Manjoo 2014;Pulizzi 2012). This shift played directly into the hands of Slow Journalism's investment in developing original premium editorial content. ...
... Given the immersive habits of tablet users, time on page, rather than clicks, thus represents "a clear departure from the dominant business model in online journalism, which has been driven by advertising revenue based on page views" (Ray 2013, 439). The new premium on content has now given rise to brand journalism, "custom content," and "custom publishing," marking an industry shift in which "companies hope to build trust using the relative power and credibility of editorial content, often seen as more 'pure' than advertising" (Cole and Greer 2013;673-674). Narratively, for example, has entered into partnerships involving brand sponsorship through native advertising (Rosenberg 2015). ...
... "The rise of adblocking has proved concerning for web publishers, many of whom rely largely or exclusively on display advertising for revenue," unlike most Slow Journalism publishers who tend not to rely largely or exclusively on display advertising for revenue (Hern 2015). The decline of banner and pop-up advertising online has elevated the importance of content (Cole and Greer 2013;Manjoo 2014;Pulizzi 2012). This shift played directly into the hands of Slow Journalism's investment in developing original premium editorial content. ...
... Given the immersive habits of tablet users, time on page, rather than clicks, thus represents "a clear departure from the dominant business model in online journalism, which has been driven by advertising revenue based on page views" (Ray 2013, 439). The new premium on content has now given rise to brand journalism, "custom content," and "custom publishing," marking an industry shift in which "companies hope to build trust using the relative power and credibility of editorial content, often seen as more 'pure' than advertising" (Cole and Greer 2013;673-674). Narratively, for example, has entered into partnerships involving brand sponsorship through native advertising (Rosenberg 2015). ...
... This question is particularly important considering recipients' expectations of these media (Cole and Greer, 2013;Van Reijmersdal et al., 2010). From journalistic publications, the audience expects unbiased, balanced, independent and accurate information (Heider et al., 2005;Heise et al., 2014;Loosen et al., 2020;Riedl and Eberl, 2020;Willnat et al., 2019). ...
... Our findings are particularly important in terms of audience expectations of brand journalism (Cole and Greer, 2013). Although recipients' expectations of journalism have received growing research attention over the last 20 years, hardly anything is known about audience expectations toward brand journalism. ...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of companies and other organizations publish their own news media that resemble journalistic media in terms of content, language and design. The production and distribution of these publications are often referred to as brand journalism. However, although these publications look a lot like journalistic media, they are used as strategic communication tools: They represent and legitimize an organization’s interests and aim to improve brand image, build relations with customers or increase sales. Thus, brand journalism blurs the boundaries between journalism and strategic communication. The present study focuses on brand journalists and analyses their work routines, professional role perceptions and possible role conflicts. To this end, we conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with editors of corporate magazines. The interviewees described quite strong parallels to journalistic work routines and asserted their orientation toward journalistic norms (e.g. autonomy, unbiased reporting); however, these norms were regularly undermined when the topics covered centred on their own or their clients’ organizations. Most interviewees described large parts of their professional identity as journalistic, but were also aware that they were in a hybrid role between journalism and strategic communication. This hybrid role is associated with a range of expectations that can lead to role conflicts.
... Put simply, it is quite plausible that if organizations tell their own positive message about how "good" they are, they might be viewed as less sincere and be perceived as having self-serving motives (Cole & Greer, 2013). In such case, attitudes might actually be harmed (Yoon et al., 2006), or at least be less likely to improve, because audiences perceive them as untrustworthy or hypocritical (Shim & Yang, 2016). ...
... In fact, we rejected all hypotheses that messages published by the company would be less impactful than those published by a respected journalistic outlet. In contradiction to what is known about pure commercial messages (e.g., Cole & Greer, 2013), we conclude that the effect of narrative richness in corporate CSR messages does not depend on whether it appears in journalistic news media or in publications by the company itself. This could be due to the nature of CSR initiatives, which focus on a company's positive contributions to society and thereby might reduce skepticism among a lay audience. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examines the persuasiveness of narrative richness in messages about acts of corporate social responsibility (CSR). Specifically, we apply theory about narrative persuasion to the domain of corporate communication. Focusing on Coca-Cola’s clean water project, a cross-national experiment (n = 659) was conducted in which the narrative richness and the source cue of a CSR message were manipulated, and the effects on (a) message processing (specifically via character identification, transportation, and credibility), (b) attitude towards the company, and subsequent (c) behavioral intention were measured. Considering the global nature of Coca-Cola, the experiment was simultaneously fielded in the United States and the Netherlands to verify the generalizability of our findings. Robust results in both countries suggest that narratively rich CSR messages can indirectly improve the attitude towards the company and thereby encourage behavioral intentions via character identification and transportation, irrespective of the source cue (company vs. news media). Importantly, message credibility was not compromised by the narrative richness, while being the strongest predictor of company attitude.
... 21 Readers notice the difference and rate independent media as more credible. 22 Although writers claim independence, because team websites bear the name and other cues that designate the content as sponsored by a team, news audiences should be more likely to rate stories published by teams as less credible than stories by independent media. ...
Article
Full-text available
Team-and league-operated media play a growing role in the sports media system. Few have looked at how audiences perceive the credibility of in-house content, which regularly mimics traditional sports journalism. An experimental analysis finds that even among fans, independent media content is rated more credible than that produced in-house. Fans view stories accusing their team of wrongdoing as biased even as they find them credible.
... A potentially concomitant concern has been the impact of engaging in native advertising on consumers' perception of the organization's credibility over time. Empirical research to date has shown some validation for this concern; non-branded publication are perceived as more credible than branded ones (Cole & Greer, 2013), and the more " commercial " users perceive a customer publication to be, the less credible they find it to be (van Reijmersdal, Neijens, & Smit, 2011). However, with native ad practices and standards still in great flux, it remains to be seen whether these credibility effects will endure. ...
... Research also indicates that framing consumer products to emphasize environmental sustainability improves trust-related attitudes towards brands (Olsen, Slotegraaf, & Chandukula, 2014). Other research also indicates that content branded as editorial material elicits more credibility than content from a commercial source (Cole & Greer, 2013). ...
... Research also indicates that framing consumer products to emphasize environmental sustainability improves trust-related attitudes towards brands (Olsen, Slotegraaf, & Chandukula, 2014). Other research also indicates that content branded as editorial material elicits more credibility than content from a commercial source (Cole & Greer, 2013). ...
... 1. Message Effects: Media scholars often manipulate elements of a news message (e.g., through word choice or framing) to see the effect of those message factors on credibility perceptions (e.g., Borah, 2013;Cole & Greer, 2013). This scale would allow for a systematic test of that effect without conflating message credibility with medium credibility or source credibility. ...
Article
Despite calls to conceptualize credibility as three separate concepts—source credibility, message credibility, and media credibility—there exists no scale that exclusively measures message credibility. To address this gap, the current study constructs and validates a new scale. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggest that message credibility, specifically in the context of news, can be measured by asking participants to rate how well three adjectives describe content: accurate, authentic, and believable. Validity and reliability tests are reported, and contributions to credibility research are discussed.
... Hoewel uit de manipulatiechecks bleek dat ontvangers wel het verschil zien tussen een boodschap met en zonder merkprominentie, speelde de aan-of afwezigheid van de merknaam en het logo geen rol bij het behalen van de marketing-, pr-en algemene doelstellingen van contentmarketing. Dit is een opvallende bevinding die de resultaten van merkcontent in printmagazines tegenspreekt (Cole & Greer, 2013;Van Reijmersdal et al., 2010). Hoewel uit die studies geconcludeerd kon worden dat merken beter niet prominent in de content naar voren zouden moeten komen, blijkt uit ons experiment dat mensen coulanter tegenover merkprominentie in digitale content staan. ...
... Thus, if a native advertisement is valuable to readers, this may decrease their attitudinal PK (Sweetser et al. 2016;Wei, Fischer, and Main 2008). In addition, several studies also showed, in line with source credibility theory, that it is not ad recognition, but rather the perceived trustworthiness of the content that influences readers' evaluations of advertisements the most (Cole and Greer 2013;Sacco and Zhao 2014). When the advertiser often refers to itself in the content of an advertisement, the manipulative intent of the ad becomes more obvious, which can increase critical processing (Eisend 2006;Kirmani and Campbell 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
While several studies have focused on native advertisements' disclosures, little research has been conducted on native advertisements' content. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of both disclosure recognition and brand presence on readers' persuasion knowledge (PK) and subsequent evaluations. Results of an online study (N = 290) showed that disclosure recognition resulted in higher conceptual PK, yet this had no effect on readers' attitudinal PK and evaluations. Conversely, high brand presence did not increase readers' conceptual PK, but it did increase attitudinal PK, which subsequently decreased evaluations of the ad, brand and news medium. Implications are discussed.
... Ninguna empresa lo incluye en su index y sólo una, BBVA, lo hace en formato stories desde la óptica de sus productos. Hay que considerar que BBVA es la empresa española pionera en el periodismo de marca (Cole;Greer, 2013;Bull, 2013;Barciela, 2013), creando portales informativos que van más allá de una mera sala de prensa virtual y que compiten con los propios medios de comunicación online en cuanto a oferta informativa e incluso audiencias. Por ello debe entenderse como una evolución natural dentro de su estrategia de contenidos como medio para relacionarse con sus públicos, que además genera reputación. ...
Article
Full-text available
Las webs corporativas de las marcas se enfrentan al reto de incorporar una narrativa de storytelling que fomente los vínculos emocionales con sus públicos. Este trabajo establece cuatro categorías de implantación en las empresas del IBEX 35 y pone de manifiesto su demora frente a las empresas que cotizan en el Dow Jones. Los casos de estudio extraídos permiten establecer recomendaciones que mejoren esta situación.
... Some researchers were interested in knowing whether time orientation (Kees, 2010;Tangari, Folse, Burton, & Kees, 2010;Zhao, Villagran, Kreps, & McHorney, 2012), construal level (White, Mac-Donnell, & Dahl, 2011), or emotions (Kim & Cameron, 2011) are effective in shaping audience perception of issues that are represented in the media. Cole and Greer (2013) found that involvement is a very important audience-related variable affecting how respondents react to brand actions. A person's information-processing strategy was also found to mediate the relationship between the media and perceptions in health-related contexts (Fleming, Thorson, & Zhang, 2006). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
... A potentially concomitant concern has been the impact of engaging in native advertising on consumers' perception of the organization's credibility over time. Empirical research to date has shown some validation for this concern; non-branded publication are perceived as more credible than branded ones (Cole & Greer, 2013), and the more "commercial" users perceive a customer publication to be, the less credible they find it to be (van Reijmersdal, Neijens, & Smit, 2011). However, with native ad practices and standards still in great flux, it remains to be seen whether these credibility effects will endure. ...
... However, these practices seem to differ in terms of how transparent -or indeed how opaque -they are when disclosing the origin of content. Even when labeled with the umbrella term sponsored content ( Cole and Greer, 2013 ), this content is aimed to suit the publisher's editorial line while offering content that aims to capture the readers' attention without openly attempting to promote products or services. The signifying factor is not only the appearance but also the intent to create cohesive, attractive content that conveys a message without directly attempting to sell a product; such content informs the reader while also delivering branded content that can be shared and spread to other networks. ...
Chapter
The use of native advertising has sparked a heated debate. While similar formats have a long history within journalism, this new iteration furthers the blurring of boundaries between news and ads by producing ads that look and feel like news, but that are clearly labeled as advertising. This book chapter critically addresses the phenomenon of native advertising from three different angles. First, a historical and conceptual discussion on native advertising brings to the fore earlier models of native advertising that were referred to with different terms, as well the current understanding of what native ads are. Second, the current normative debate about native advertising is teased out to shed light on the rhetorical shift that seems to be permeating the news industry. To publishers this kind of advertising creates important streams of revenue; to advertisers, it appropriates journalistic clout. Finally, the potential challenges and benefits of native ads vis-à-vis digital journalism are presented, aiming to demystify a commercial initiative that could lead to economic viability but also could question journalistic allegiance to the citizen, and threaten the legitimacy and autonomy of contemporary news media.
... Some researchers were interested in knowing whether time orientation (Kees, 2010;Tangari, Folse, Burton, & Kees, 2010;Zhao, Villagran, Kreps, & McHorney, 2012), construal level (White, Mac-Donnell, & Dahl, 2011), or emotions (Kim & Cameron, 2011) are effective in shaping audience perception of issues that are represented in the media. Cole and Greer (2013) found that involvement is a very important audience-related variable affecting how respondents react to brand actions. A person's information-processing strategy was also found to mediate the relationship between the media and perceptions in health-related contexts (Fleming, Thorson, & Zhang, 2006). ...
Book
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This book is the outcome of the UNESCO/Janusz Korczak Chair International Summer School and constitutes an Educational Resource for future UNESCO/Janusz Korczak Chair International Summer Schools. It reflects the social inclusion mission of the Chair and the scientific scholarship within.
... It reflects the successes (or failures) of different groups in influencing the debate on CSR (Brüggemann and Engesser, 2017). On the other hand, corporations' and news media's quoting practices (as reflected in their choice of sources and their attribution of content to these sources) can affect audience's perceptions about the credibility of the sources and their responses to the topic (Cole and Greer, 2013). To investigate the representation and share of voices in CSR news, this study made a comparison of quoting practices in corporate press releases and news coverage on CSR-related news by specifically exploring: what voices were represented, the tones of these voices and how the representation and share of these voices varied by different CSR themes. ...
Article
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The use of sources in news coverage affects news audience’s perceptions of news events. To extend existing research on intermedia agenda-setting and agenda-building effects of CSR-related news, this study was conducted to explore the representation and share of voices in CSR-related news by investigating and comparing the use of sources in press releases and news coverage. This study content-analyzed the 202 CSR-related press releases published by the two electricity providers in Hong Kong and 1045 news articles related to the press releases over a five-year period. A total of 402 quotes from the press releases and 1880 quotes from the news coverage were analyzed, including the types of sources cited, the tone of the sources, and variations in the use of sources across seven different CSR themes. Although company representatives were quoted the most in both the press releases and news coverage, NGOs, government representatives, and industry analysts were the most frequently cited for negative comments in the news coverage. Differences were found between the press releases and news coverage in terms of how frequently different sources were cited, the tone attributed to those sources, and the choice of sources across different CSR themes. The findings reflect that corporations are not necessarily the most influential voice in CSR and that other groups also have their views represented in the news media. The representation of these voices differed by CSR themes. Corporations are advised to explore further what and how different voices are represented in the news coverage in relation to their CSR activities and to consider these voices when making decisions about CSR.
... Despite these roles that marketing communications play, researchers (Demjanovičová 2020; Kusumasondjaja 2018; Bentley-Steyn 2019) have argued that marketing communications' effectiveness has plunged in recent times. Others, such as Cole and Greer (2013), and Keller (2009) also assert that traditional advertising, particularly, is losing popularity with customers. Wilcox et al. (2015) corroborate the above assertions by presenting statistics which reveal that almost 80 per cent of consumers prefer getting to know a company through means other than advertising. ...
Article
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The financial services sector is characterised by a high level of consumer perceived risk and irrational behaviour in decision-making, which is predominantly influenced by the effect of communication and the application of heuristics as a function of communication in consumer decision-making. This situation promotes marketing communication as one of the most essential activities that financial institutions rely on to mitigate the perceived risks and to satisfy consumers’ quest in understanding financial products. Hence the importance of this research is to establish the effects of marketing communication on consumer purchasing behaviour in emerging economies that are experiencing expanded financial markets but limited corresponding research insight. To achieve the aim of this study, the research uses data from 360 customers of selected financial institutions in Ghana. The hypotheses are tested using the structural equations modelling technique. The results of the study reveal marketing communication strategies evaluated have positive and significant impacts on consumer purchase behaviour. However, amongst the marketing communication strategies tested advertising and celebrity endorsement were found to have an insignificant relationship with consumer purchase behaviour. The study offers practical and theoretical insights into understanding the dynamics and nuances of the integrated marketing communication mix and how they influence the purchase behaviours of consumers.
... The main intention of mixing the two seemingly conflicting communicative purposes in a single advertorial text could be the writer's own intention to receive the highest appreciation from the targeted readers (Cameron, 1994;Cameron & Curtin, 1995;Van Reijmersdal et al., 2005). It could also result in generating a more positive attitude towards the company (Boerman, Van Reijmersdal, & Neijens, 2014;Cole & Greer, 2013;Van Reijmersdal, Neijens, & Smit, 2010). Simply to better achieve private intention, the writer appropriates the generic resources of the editorial and advertisement particularly through targeting the market move and the background information move in advertorials. ...
Article
Nowadays, it is very difficult to find pure genres in the real world of discourse. Professional writers often appropriate and exploit generic resources to invade other genres in discourse construction in order to achieve social and private intentions. One of the most dominant genres that have invaded other genres is the promotional genre. However, little research has investigated this genre from an intertextual and interdiscursive perspective. This study critically analyzed 80 advertorials from different magazines by examining the use of in-tertextuality and interdiscursivity references. The results indicate that direct reporting strategies of intertextuality are heavily employed in advertorials. The study also shows that the utilization of intertextual references exhibits some specific interconnection between a particular text and a genre. Meanwhile, through interdiscursive analysis, it demonstrates the ways in which generic resources of one particular genre are skillfully appropriated to create another promotional genre by the specific discourse community. Findings as such have both pedagogical implications and practical insights for ESP practitioners, learners as well as professional writers in various contexts.
... On the other hand, consumers find publications that appear to be commercial to have less credibility than non-commercial publications (Cole & Greer, 2013;van Reijmersdal, Neijens, & Smit, 2010), and many consumers fail to recognize sponsored content as advertising (Moore 2014;Wojdynski & Evans, 2015). ...
... Increasingly, however, eWOM messages, such as online product reviews, are prompted by forms of compensation from marketers (Petrescu et al. 2018), and spending on such content is projected to reach $15 billion in 2022, up from about $8 billion in 2019 (Business Insider 2019). If such sponsorship is not clearly disclosed, consumers may not be aware of the commercial nature of the content and base their attitudes and purchase decisions on information they incorrectly presume unbiased and objective (Amazeen and Wojdynski 2018;Cole and Greer 2013;Hoofnagle and Meleshinsky 2015;Wojdynski and Evans 2019). ...
Article
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Addressing the problem of increasing sponsored eWOM and diverse and confusing disclosure practices, this study examined the effects of different types of sponsorship disclosure messages on (1) consumers’ trust in the sponsored product reviewer and (2) attitudes toward the reviewer and the sponsoring brand. An online experiment revealed several key effects of sponsorship disclosure and disclosure message types. Overall, sponsorship disclosure messages generated lower consumer trust in the reviewer and attitudinal responses. In terms of the effects of different types of disclosed commercial gain, reviews disclosing the receipt of a free product were perceived to be equally acceptable as reviews without sponsorship disclosure. Disclosure revealing that the reviewer received payment or a sales commission led to lower trust in a reviewer, and disclosure of a sales commission generated more negative attitude toward the sponsoring brand. The disclosure message type effects on attitude were mediated by trust.
... Informed readers today discern that under-hand dealings are more prevalent than ever (Jacob, n.d.), which in turn affects their decisions and opinions (Jacob, n.d.). Transparent communication implies revelation of the content provider and the intent behind the content, lest the public be wrongly persuaded (Balasubramanian, 1994;Cole & Greer, 2013;Hallahan, 1999;Jo, 2004;van Reijmersdal et al., 2010). To paraphrase Taiminen et al. (2015), the onus of proper representation rests with the newspaper, especially to clear its name. ...
Conference Paper
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... editorial decision making on editorial platforms; peer posting on social platform; algorithmic optimization on search engine platforms), they feel more negatively toward the message itself, its contents, and those responsible for their seeing it (Wojdynski and Evans 2016). When they do not detect that it's a paid advertisement, there's evidence they largely receive it like organic content (Amazeen and Wojdynski 2018;Cole and Greer 2013;Hoofnagle and Meleshinsky 2015). An unrecognized native ad on a social media platform is simply seen as a social media post; an unrecognized sponsored article is simply seen as a news story or feature. ...
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... Branded publications are perceived as less credible than nonbranded ones. 49 In essence, previous research has suggested that sponsored editorials may be perceived as more credible than traditional advertising when audiences cannot recognize them as advertising; however, the positive effect may reverse and damage the credibility of the sponsor, message, and publications when audiences recognize the persuasive intent of the sponsored content. ...
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Chapter
There are few commercial communication concepts that have had a rise as spectacular and fast as brand journalism. Brands′ journalistic activities were usually considered under the category of content marketing and are also sometimes described using terms such as custom content, content publishing or corporate journalism. Although corporate journalism is an old practice, its development in digital environments has elevated it to a new dimension. Today, as a matter of fact, there are few large corporations or brands that resist the urge to start initiatives in the field: brand journalism seems like a modern marketing imperative.
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Extending research from Wojdynski and Evans, this experimental study replicates the challenges of effectively disclosing native advertising to readers and demonstrates a promising inoculation method that increases likelihood of recognition. Moreover, this quantitative research indicates that both legacy and online news publishers were evaluated less favorably for displaying native advertising. Attitudes toward the publisher and perceptions of its credibility declined for both, although online publishers suffered greater attitudinal damage than did legacy publishers who may benefit from their established reputation.
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Attitude toward the brand (Ab) and purchase intentions (PI) are two pivotal and popular constructs that have been routinely used by advertising scholars and practitioners. Despite their popularity, standard scales, with known psychometric properties, for measuring Ab and PI are not available. Furthermore, these two constructs might not be empirically distinguishable. On the basis of scales reported in prior studies, the authors develop measures of Ab and PI and assess their psychometric validity within a well-established, attitude toward the ad (Aad) theoretical framework. Implications of their findings are discussed.
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Recent advertising research appears to neglect the role of evidence in persuasion. From work on confirmatory bias in the field of behavioral decision theory, this paper argues for an interaction between advertising and evidence on evaluations, and finds experimental support for the interaction. Implications are drawn for advertising testing and for hierarchy models of advertising effects.
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