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Media Literacy, News Literacy, or News Appreciation? A Case Study of the News Literacy Program at Stony Brook University

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Abstract

This case study provides practical and theoretical insights into the Stony Brook news literacy program, which is one of the most ambitious and well-funded curricular experiments in modern journalism education and media literacy. Analysis of document, interview, and observation data indicates that news literacy educators sought to teach students how to access, evaluate, analyze, and appreciate journalism. Students responded favorably to the approach that was designed for all undergraduates, instead of just journalism majors. Implications and future directions include looking at the preferred readings of news texts found in the Stony Brook curriculum in the same way one would contextualize lessons in college-level music appreciation courses.

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... Recognizing the importance of NL, schools and universities have implemented formal news literacy education programs and initiatives in the past decade so as to engender a more news literate generation (Luhtala and Whiting, 2018;Fleming, 2014). But many adults today may not have such exposure and so overall NL within the population may vary widely. ...
... How this NLB is related to NL has received very little attention, yet willingness to verify news suspected to be misleading represents an important normative outcome derived from critical and mindful news engagement. Understanding the relevance and need for verification of news content and applying it to news encounters are central to university news literacy curricula (Fleming, 2014) and it is considered a "normative ideal" for general news audiences because collective efforts to verify news can reduce the threat of fake news (Edgerly et al., 2020). News verification however is not one single NLB, but it represents a broad range of authentication behaviors. ...
... Only 15% of respondents answered over half of the NL questions correctly, which is along the lines of previous data from other advanced societies (Fletcher, 2018). Thus, in addition to formal news literacy education in schools and universities (Fleming, 2014;Luhtala and Whiting, 2018), greater efforts and initiatives are required to raise NL among the general population to engender more NLBs (Lee, 2018). In this regard there have been some efforts in Hong Kong in the form of public service announcements encouraging citizens to "check the facts to keep fake news in check." ...
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The global problem of online disinformation has led scholars, educators, and other stakeholders in societies to emphasize the utility of news literacy to engender more critical news audiences. Using a survey among a representative online sample of citizens in Hong Kong (N = 1485), this study examined how dispositional news literacy was related to individuals' ability to discern real and fake COVID related news on social media and their news authentication behaviors. Results showed that higher news literacy was related to greater ability to discern the veracity of real and fake news headlines; greater likelihood of certain internal acts of authentication when exposed to fake news (e.g., assessing content characteristics of the message); and greater likelihood to search online to verify fake news. The findings demonstrated the normative benefits of high dispositional news literacy among the general populace that can attenuate the effects of online disinformation.
... The foundational assumptions guiding the instruction of news literacy at Stony Brook include an emphasis on the importance of freedom of the press and of expression, and a celebration of an investigative, fact-based, watchdog press in democracy (Fleming, 2014). Even so, scholars and educators from unlikely countries have expressed interest in teaching news literacy inside their classrooms-countries without democratic or freedom of expression traditions such as Russia, China, Bhutan, and Vietnam. ...
... The most prominent news literacy curriculum to date is the one developed in the School of Journalism at Stony Brook University. Taken as a whole, the Stony Brook instructional model is designed to teach students how to identify, evaluate, and analyze news sources as well as appreciate high-quality, investigative journalism (Fleming, 2014). The marker of high quality news in American contexts is often the work of socalled "watchdog" journalists-journalists who, as sociologist Michael Schudson (2008) puts it, "get in the face of power-and are enabled to do so because both their doggedness and their irreverence is protected by law, by a conducive political culture, and by a historical record of having served self-government well when they hunt down elusive or hidden facts" (p. ...
... In brief, Stony Brook instructors are trying through news literacy education to honor and advance a philosophy of the press deeply rooted in the American democratic tradition. The premise of news literacy rests on the assumption that the key to civic culture in the digital age is not a more virtuous press, but rather a more virtuous audience that appreciates watchdog journalism and demands reliable information from news sources (Fleming, 2014). According to Stony Brook news literacy logic, the chief pedagogical pathways to determine the quality of news sources are lessons and activities that focus on differentiating news from other types of information, deconstructing news stories, and analyzing the sources quoted in news stories. ...
Chapter
This study examines how college educators in Hong Kong, Vietnam, and Malaysia adopted and adapted lessons gleaned from a news literacy curriculum developed by journalism instructors at Stony Brook University in New York. In doing so, the chapter situates the emerging field of news literacy within parameters of its parent field, media literacy, and current trends in digitization, globalization, and information freedom. Details on how educators in Asia made a pedagogy designed for American citizens relevant to their students and how they negotiated country-specific social, cultural, and political contexts are included. Future directions in research include more in-depth and comparative understandings of the processes at work in localizing media literacy frameworks as well as an exploration of what media literacy educators in the United States and other democracies can learn from their counterparts in countries where accessing, creating, and disseminating information could be considered subversive activities.
... • By examining the concept of AMPS-based contextual cues: We demonstrate that exposing the tension between an account's suggested purpose and recent activity is useful for users to judge the authenticity of that account. Such a judgment can be useful to assess the quality of information shared by online actors in the context of their online associations [31,52] and/or any other contentious behaviors. For example, inferring health-related information shared by a journalist as credible and meant to inform vs inferring radical content circulated by a partisan account as questionable and meant to misguide. ...
... By considering such created content together with the accounts whom they retweeted and URLs which they shared, users were able to assess online associations of that account and realize what kind of community that account is situated in and/or the kind of content it might amplify. Users could then employ these judgments to evaluate the information shared by the actors in the context of their information neighborhood [31,52]. For example, P2 discredited information from an account since they suspected the account "to have some propaganda" based on the activity-related cues and whom they have actively retweeted in the recent past. ...
Conference Paper
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Well-intentioned users sometimes enable the spread of misinformation due to limited context about where the information originated and/or why it is spreading. Building upon recommendations based on prior research about tackling misinformation, we explore the potential to support media literacy through platform design. We develop and design an intervention consisting of a tweet trajectory-to illustrate how information reached a user-and contextual cues-to make credibility judgments about accounts that amplify, manufacture, produce or situate in the vicinity of problematic content (AMPS). Using a research through design approach, we demonstrate how the proposed intervention can help discern credible actors, challenge blind faith amongst online friends, evaluate the cost of associating with online actors, and expose hidden agendas. Such facilitation of credibility assessment can encourage more responsible sharing of content. Through our findings, we argue for using trajectory-based designs to support informed information sharing, advocate for feature updates that nudge users with reflective cues, and promote platform-driven media literacy.
... For example, Malik et al. (2013) define news literacy, in part, as being able to find, identify, recognize and analyze news. News literacy curricula often focus on teaching and fostering knowledge and skills related to identifying, evaluating, analyzing, engaging with and sometimes appreciating news (Fleming, 2014). Several large-scale news literacy initiatives place a significant emphasis on analyzing content. ...
... For example, according to their website, the Center for News Literacy (2016) at Stony Brook University, aims to teach 'critical thinking skills in order to judge the reliability and credibility of information', with a focus on 'analyzing news as well as new forms of information that are often mistaken for journalism'. It includes lessons on distinguishing between news and opinion and between assertion and verification, and assessing the quality of evidence presented in media content (Fleming, 2014). Checkology, the News Literacy Project's virtual classroom used by tens of thousands of teachers, focuses on helping teachers 'equip their students with tools to evaluate and interpret information and to determine what they can trust, share and act on' (News Literacy Project, n.d.). ...
Article
Interest in news literacy inside and outside the academy has grown alongside related concerns about the quality of news and information available. Attempts to fully define, explicate and operationalize news literacy, however, are scattered. Drawing on literature across journalism and mass communication, we propose a definition of news literacy that combines knowledge of news production, distribution and consumption with skills that help audiences assert control over their relationship with news. We propose that knowledge and skills should be conceptualized across five domains: context, creation, content, circulation and consumption. This explication offers a clear, concise and cohesive path for research about news literacy, especially empirical testing to evaluate news literacy and its effectiveness in contributing to relevant behaviours. This framework also offers a consistent, yet flexible, approach to measuring news literacy across diverse contexts.
... The most common malicious activity is spamming, wherein an automated user (bot user) disseminates content or malware/viruses to users of the social networks [4]. These bots can be used for several proposes, including: (1) advertising; (2) promoting politically oriented views and opinions; (3) promoting financial trends; (4) generating product reviews; (5) spreading malware, spam, and harmful links; (6) influencing search engine results such that particular links are shown first; (7) generating news feeds; and (8) creating an underground marketplace for purchasing social media followers [1]. ...
... Fleming [8] conducted a case study at the Journalism School at Stony Brook University to implement a new form to present media literacy in the course to help students to assess the news quality. Through interview analysis, the news literacy form teaches students how to access, evaluate, analyze and appreciate journalism. ...
Conference Paper
As the Online Social Networks (OSNs) presence continues to grow as a form of mass communication, tensions regarding their usage and perception by different social groups are reaching a turning point. The number of messages that are exchanged between users in these environments are vast and brought a trust problem, where it is difficult to know if the information is from a real person and if what was said is true. Automated users (bots) are part of this issue, as they may be used to spread false and/or harmful messages through an OSN while pretending to be a person. New attempts to automatically identify bots are in constant development, but so are the mechanisms to elude detection. We believe that teaching the user to identify a bot message is an important step in maintaining the credibility of content on social media. In this study, we developed an analysis tool, based on media literacy considerations, that helps the ordinary user to recognize a bot message using only textual features. Instead of simply classifying a user as a bot or human, this tool presents an interpretable reasoning path that helps to educate the user into recognizing suspicious activity. Experimental evaluation is conducted to test the tool’s primary effectiveness (classification) and results are presented. The secondary effectiveness (interpretability) is discussed in qualitative terms.
... The Stony Brook Center for News Media literacy is among the most influential programs espousing this approach (What Is News Literacy?, 2016). Notable and well-studied, the Stony Brook University model for news media literacy is "one of the most ambitious and well-funded curricular experiments in modern journalism education and media literacy" (Fleming, 2014). The Stony Brook model has its origins in an undergraduate course, and has since been offered at a number of other post-secondary institutions, as an open-access MOOC course, and as K-12 programming (Center for News Literacy, n.d.; Fleming, 2015;Kajimoto et al., n.d.). ...
... News media literacy training seeks to improve the practice of news consumption, including objectives to "identify, evaluate, analyze and appreciate journalism in the digital age" (Fleming, 2014). Such news media literacy training has been shown to be positively associated with higher news media literacy scores (Maksl et al., 2017). ...
... An increasing amount of scholarly attention is being paid to news media literacy, where an emerging body of work suggests that individuals with higher levels of literacy are better positioned to navigate the endless flow of media messages and to become more engaged, empowered and critical news consumers (Ashley, Maksl, and Craft 2013;Fleming 2014Fleming , 2015Maksl, Ashley, and Craft 2015;Mihailidis 2014;Vraga, Tully, Kotcher, Smithson, and Broeckelman-Post 2015). Interest has ballooned in the growing field of news literacy, particularly as funders such as the Knight and McCormick foundations have begun to support such programs. ...
... A range of scholars has begun to write about news media literacy as they attempt to establish common definitions and assessment techniques (Ashley et al. 2013;Fleming 2014;Hobbs 2010aHobbs , 2010bMihailidis 2014;. A small number of studies have sought to examine the effects of educational interventions related to news media and have found mixed results. ...
... Three core themes emerged from the data regarding new literacy; access to the news items, evaluate and analyze them, and appreciation of some specific types of news items. Five W's and one H is the basic rule of making a news item, however, context of the story is also important that cannot be left aside by the reporter (Fleming, 2013). All such points will make students good media literate and they will develop their abilities of engaging themselves with media content. ...
... All such points will make students good media literate and they will develop their abilities of engaging themselves with media content. They will have awareness about current events and media operating principles (Fleming, 2013). ...
... News Media Literacy (NML) takes the broad goals of Media Literacythe ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and create media (Aufderheide & Firestone, 1993;NAMLE, 2007) and applies them to news content specifically with a focus on the contexts of news production. With a focus on adolescents and young adults, news literacy scholars and practitioners argue for the importance of critical thinking skills linked to habits of news consumption in order to generate informed citizenship (Fleming, 2013;Mihailidis, 2014;Poindexter, 2012). According to Malik, Cortesi, and Gasser (2013), NML involved 'an understanding of the role news plays in society, motivation to seek out news, the ability to find/identify/recognize news, the ability to critically evaluate news, and the ability to create news' (pp. ...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was twofold: The first was to determine the validity and reliability of a news media literacy questionnaire that was developed to identify college students’ literacy levels related to media and news about violence against women. The existing literature about media literacy shows that there is a lack of evaluation instrument of this kind. The study aimed to determine whether or not Turkish students could critically analyze the news reports, in particular, news about violence towards women, given on different news channels. A questionnaire that consisted of 16 questions divided among three categories (awareness, analysis, and judgment) was developed based on a comprehensive review of related studies in the literature. Data were collected from 172 Turkish college students enrolled in the department of English Language Teaching at a major government university in Turkey. The results showed the instrument to be reliable and valid. The second aim of the study was to validate the questionnaire with 81 laymen of different age groups and with different educational levels and income. The results of the validation study were given as a preliminary presentation of the perceptions of the respondents.
... Bununla birlikte, her ne kadar sahte haberler olgusunun farkında olsalar da öğrencilerin sahte haberleri ayırt edebilme konusunda kendilerine güvenmedikleri ortaya çıkmıştır(Head, Wihbey, Metaxas, MacMillan ve Cohen, 2018).Bu sonuçlar, öğrencilerin haber okuryazarlığı eğitimine olan ihtiyaçlarını gözler önüne sermektedir. Uygulanan haber okuryazarlığı eğitim programlarının değerlendirilmesine yönelik yapılan çalışmalardan elde edilen sonuçlarda, öğrencilerin derslerde güncel örnekler kullanılmasından ve gerçek hayat hikâyelerine dayanan örneklerden hoşnut kaldıkları, böyle bir durumda eğitimden sağladıkları verimliliğin arttığı görülmüştür(Fleming, 2014). Öte yandan, haber okuryazarlığı eğitiminin kısa vadede yararlı olduğu ve öğrencilerin bilgi ve becerilerinde bir değişim meydana gelmesine olumlu katkı sağladığı görülse de bu yararlılığın uzun vadede farklılık gösterebildiği gözlenmiştir(Maksl, Craft, Ashley ve Miller, 2017;Weber, 2012). ...
Thesis
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Teknolojik imkânlar sayesinde, sıradan insanlar bile içerik üreticisi haline gelmiş, böylece dolaşımda olan bilgi miktarı hızla artmıştır. Son derece kolay bir şekilde ulaşılan bilginin hızlı yayılımı, sahte haberlerin de hızla çoğalmasına elverişli bir zemin hazırlamıştır. Bu durumun, çoğu zaman bireyden topluma kadar yayılan bir etki alanı vardır. Sahte haberlerle mücadele etmek ve bu duruma ilişkin olarak bilgi kullanıcılarına farkındalık kazandırmak üzere son dönemlerde üzerinde durulan önemli kavramlardan biri haber okuryazarlığıdır. Bu okuryazarlık türü, bilgi kullanıcılarına haberlerin doğruluğunu ve güvenilirliğini değerlendirebilmeleri için eleştirel düşünme becerileri kazandırmayı hedefler. Bu çalışma kapsamında da var olan haber okuryazarlığı programlarına ve ilgili literatüre dayalı olarak Türkçe bir haber okuryazarlığı eğitim programı geliştirilmesi ve bunun bilgi kullanıcıları üzerindeki etkilerinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yedi farklı modül şeklinde geliştirilen içerik, yarı deneysel tasarım modeli çerçevesinde Hacettepe Üniversitesi Bilgi ve Belge Yönetimi Bölümü birinci sınıf öğrencilerine iki farklı yılda uygulanmıştır. Eğitimin değerlendirilebilmesi için, eğitim öncesi ve sonrasında katılımcılar, birer ön ve son test ile sınanmıştır. Ardından, testlerin sonuçları değerlendirilerek eğitimin eksik kalan, geliştirilmesine ihtiyaç duyulan noktalarının neler olduğu belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlar, her iki yılda da öğrencilerin eğitimden en çok yararlandıkları modülün, “Haber Doğrulama I-II” başlıklı Modül 4-5 olduğunu göstermiştir. Ayrıca, ikinci yılda verilen eğitime katılan öğrencilerin “Haber Okuryazarlığı Nedir?” başlıklı Modül 1’den de yararlandıkları anlaşılmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra, eğitim içeriğinin bazı yönleriyle öğrencilere yeterince ulaşamadığı da görülmüştür. Uygulanan ön ve son test sonuçlarına göre, ilk yıl eğitim alan grupta bulunan öğrencilerin, “haber doğrulama açısından önem taşıyan bilgi kaynaklarını ayırt edebilme”, “iddia ve doğrulama, kanıt ile çıkarım arasındaki farkı ayırt edebilme”; ikinci yıl eğitim alan gruptakilerin ise “kitle iletişim araçlarının ifade özgürlüğünün gerçekleşmesindeki rolünü değerlendirebilme” konularına yönelik öğrenme çıktıları ile ilgili daha fazla hata yaptıkları belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, “‘misinformation’ ve dezenformasyonu ayırt edebilme” konusunun ise her iki yılda da öğrenciler için yeterince yararlı olamadığı anlaşılmıştır. Yapılan değerlendirmeler sonucu, eğitimin geliştirilmesinde farklı disiplinlerin bir arada çalışmasının uygun olacağı ve eğitimin daha verimli hale getirilebilmesi için bilgi kullanıcılarının değişen ihtiyaçları ile değişen bilgi ortamlarına uygun olarak şekillendirilebilmesi gerektiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
... Some issues are amplified, others diminished or omitted, and everything now plays out somehow through social media, which raises critical concerns about how people/citizens learn about media, information and literacy. The field of critical media literacy is, therefore, a necessary dimension to the equation of fake news (Fleming 2014;Kleemans and Eggink 2016). ...
Article
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Social media platforms have gained prominence worldwide over the past decade. Texts, images, recordings/podcasts, videos and innovations of all sorts have been created, and can be shared and disseminated, including fake news in all of its dimensions. By playing supposedly a neutral political role, social media platforms are accessible to users, generally without discrimination, in addition to being a lure and target for certain/targeted constituencies. Political parties and politicians have proved that they can shape, influence and win elections through social media and strategies such as 'Twiplomacy'. Social media has the potential to be a democratizing force, yet corporate, neoliberal and hegemonic forces have a tethered grip that can control large swaths of what is happening. This article presents a case study of Spain in relation to fake news, disinformation and misinformation concerning immigration, underscoring that fake news in Spain, like elsewhere, has a long-standing foundation. We explore citizen engagement in the era of social media, referencing as well fake news in Europe and the USA, and make connections with the potential for media literacy as a means to more effectively navigate the murky waters of vast, interwoven online/offline, formal/informal, mainstream/alternative experiences, identities and realities. Lastly, we discuss the implications and consequences for media literacy and democracy, which, we believe, needs to be a central feature of the debate.
... They build on Potter's (2004) cognitive model of media literacy to argue that news consumers need to understand basic journalistic processes because "[i]n terms of news media literacy specifically, knowledge about content, industries, and effects includes such information as the values that underlie news and how it is constructed" (Maksl et al. 2015, p. 31). Furthermore, Fleming (2014) highlighted the importance of teaching students to not only analyze but also appreciate journalism, and Mihailidis (2009) warns that solely focusing on critical thinking and analysis of news without educating students on how news is made can actually increase negative feelings about the news media. ...
Article
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Given rising levels of hostility and distrust toward the press, this project explores how journalists negotiate, adapt, and work to transform this social climate to both get what they need for their stories and (ideally) improve relations with community members. Interviews with 38 journalists who frequently encounter anti-media rhetoric from sources revealed strategies for mitigating distrust and hostility. Although some strategies were counterproductive, others were transformative, as journalists turned conversations with community members into teaching moments. By doing this, journalists can educate the public about the purpose of the press and journalists’ routines, thereby spreading news literacy knowledge with sources and members of their community.
... The varying approaches to defining news literacy may be generally categorized as fundamentally protectionist, or empowering (Mihailidis, 2012;RobbGrieco & Hobbs, 2013). The protectionist paradigm presupposes a more "correct" way to consume news and aims to cultivate appreciation of it (Fleming, 2014). It encourages news consumers to think like journalists, and to employ the traditional tools and techniques of the journalism trade (e.g. ...
Article
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The nascent field of news literacy is often described as a subset of media literacy. A review of international scholarship with regard to news literacy conceptualizations confirms that there are diverse and competing notions of its definition and purpose: while the civic component of news literacy clearly distinguishes it from media literacy and other new literacies, there is a noticeable divide between journalism-driven and media literacy-derived approaches. Qualitative data analysis was used to identify patterns in a subset of approximately 120 examples of current English-language international scholarship. By proposing three preliminary taxonomic classifications of news literacy – protectionist versus empowerment; skills versus knowledge; and levels of abstraction – this conceptual paper provides orientation in the field.
... Studenti z americké univerzity Stony Brooks, kteří navštěvovali celosemestrální mediálněvzdělávací kurz, dosahovali vyšší mediální gramotnosti než studenti, kteří se na kurz nezapsali (Fleming, 2014). Lze předpokládat, že absolvování vzdělávání v oblasti médií a mediální výchovy posílí znalosti a dovednosti učitelů a bude prediktorem vyšší mediální gramotnosti Zda respondenti získali nějaké vzdělání v této oblasti, ověřuji otázkou: Absolvoval/a jste nějaký kurz nebo školení týkající se médií nebo mediální výchovy? ...
Thesis
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Cílem diplomové práce je změřit úroveň mediální gramotnosti středoškolských učitelů a zjistit, zda rozdíly v míře mediální gramotnosti respondentů souvisejí s různými sociodemografickými charakteristikami či jejich pedagogickou praxí. Teoretická část se věnuje klíčovým konceptům mediální gramotnosti, významu mediální gramotnosti pro učitele a aktuálnímu stavu výuky mediální výchovy na středních školách. Empirická část představuje nově vytvořený výzkumný nástroj, kterým je nestandardizovaný test, na jehož základě byl respondentům vypočítán skór mediální gramotnosti. Hlavním závěrem práce je, že byly prokázány souvislosti mezi mírou mediální gramotnosti respondentů a jejich věkem, pedagogickou praxí a důvěrou alternativním médiím.
... This is because the algorithm that determines what appears on the feed prioritizes existing relationships and previous user behaviors (DeVito 2016). (Fleming 2014). Of course, a typical social media user will not learn these in a systematic way like in formal media or news literacy programs. ...
Article
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The proliferation of misinformation in social media has raised concerns on the veracity of news that citizens consume. Recent scholarship has therefore emphasized the importance of news literacy as higher levels imply greater competence in navigating the streams of information in the social media space. Drawing from subsamples of respondents who use social media for news in seven democracies (UK, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Ireland, Norway, and the US, N = 6774), this comparative analysis examines the dynamics of social media news platform use that influence news literacy. After controlling for demographics, news interest and news use frequency, analyses show that social media news engagement and connections to news organizations and journalists exhibited both positive direct and indirect relationships with news literacy. Multi-platform use of social media for news was also related to engagement, but in five countries the relationship with news literacy was negative.
... A proliferação das fake news e campanhas de desinformação tem incitado o surgimento de novos termos -news literacy; news appreciation; news media literacies (FLEMING, 2014) -e novas abordagens teórico-metodológicas sobre letramento midiático para investigar como as pessoas lidam com as notícias oriundas das diversas mídias (MURROCK et al., 2018;SANGALANG et al., 2019;WALTER e MURPHY, 2018). ...
Article
Estudos recentes (MURROCK et al, 2018; SANGALANG et al, 2019) demonstram que há primazia de afeto na interação com conteúdos de desinformação e discursos de ódio na mídia. Apesar disso, as pesquisas sobre letramento midiático privilegiam fatores conscientes, ignorando fatores materiais e afetivos. Este texto tem o objetivo de discutir como corpo, tecnologia e afetos atuam na interação com as mídias. Para isso está organizado em duas partes. A primeira problematiza abordagens sobre letramentos e mídias. A segunda traz pesquisas sobre mente corporificada e teoria do afeto para embasar como corpos, tecnologias e afetos participam da mediação distribuída (GRUSIN, 2010), intensificando a proliferação de discursos de medo, ódio e intolerância e de campanhas de desinformação.
... Although news articles have long been present in L1 and L2 classes, educators and scholars are still discussing the applications and the forms of analysis of news literacy (Ashley et al., 2017;Fleming, 2013), but one thing is for sure: the importance of equipping students "to access, evaluate, analyze and create news media products" (Maksl et al., 2015, p.31). Critical media literacy, and specifically news literacy, can help not only students, but society in general when it comes to analyzing the information they consume, identifying the quality of its sources and questioning its veracity. ...
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ABSTRACT: In a globalized and digital world, critical media literacy is imperative when selecting the content we consume amid countless offers.Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze how 3rd year high school students from an English as a Second Language class in Brazil check the veracity of information regarding COVID-19 available in a video and the resources they used when writing a journalistic article in pairs demystifying fake news.To this end, firstly students analyzed news about COVID-19 from international websites, secondly, they discussed aspects of a video that circulated widely in WhatsApp groups, and, finally, they produced journalistic articles demystifying fake news about COVID-19. The findings suggest a great capacity of students to justify their perceptions about what is fact and what is fake once they were provoked to do so, showing a high level of critical media literacy and news literacy. Keywords: critical media literacy; fake news; ESL; journalistic article.
... Utilizing qualitative methods, Fleming focuses primarily on how the Stony Brook concep tualization of news literacy intersects, contradicts, and complements established media literacy and journalism education teaching paradigms. Fleming (2014) reports that Stony Brook instructors focus on teaching students about journalistic decision making, values, and verification methods. She also identifies ideological blind spots in the curriculum, be cause instructors fail to question structural and institutional factors that influence news. ...
Chapter
News literacy is an emerging field within the disciplines of media literacy, journalism education, information technology, and other related areas, although there is no unified definition or consensus among researchers as to what exactly the news literacy curriculum should entail. Its core mission is broadly recognized as “citizen empowerment” in that the critical-thinking skills necessary to the evaluation of news reports and the ability to identify fact-based, quality information encourage active participation and engagement among well-informed citizens. One dominant instructional paradigm, which some researchers refer to as the “journalism school approach,” emerged in the mid-2000s and distinguished “news literacy” from its longer-recognized counterpart, media literacy. Lessons in news literacy classrooms focus exclusively on the deconstruction of news content. While news literacy often shares many of its analytical goals and theoretical frameworks with media literacy education, it also contains specialized pedagogical methods specific to the process of news production, which are not applicable to other types of media content. Despite some heated discussions among scholars, particularly in the United States, with different standpoints on whether this pedagogy is more or less effective than the approaches taken by media literacy educators, the difference between the two and other related fields, such as digital literacy and web literacy, is often ambiguous because in practice, neither discipline is particularly standardized and each instructor’s understanding of the field, as well as their academic training, has a significant impact on students’ learning experiences. Globally, the debate over the—often subtle—nuances that differentiate these various approaches have even less significance, as educators around the world translate and adapt news literacy concepts to fit the unique circumstances and environments found in their own country’s news media, political, and technological environments. Perhaps the most pressing issue in the current state of news literacy is a lack of a cohesive body of peer-reviewed research, or in particular, a research design that appropriately measures the efficacy of educational models. News literacy studies grounded in social science methods are limited. Scholarship on critical news instruction and skill development, which has been traditionally conducted under the umbrella of media literacy, is mostly Page 1 of 21 PRINTED FROM the OXFORD RESEARCH ENCYCLOPEDIA, COMMUNICATION (oxfordre.com/communication). (c) Oxford University Press USA, 2019. All Rights Reserved. Personal use only; commercial use is strictly prohibited (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Subscriber: University of Hong Kong; date: 26 June 2019 News Literacy comprised of descriptive accounts of educational interventions or self-reported surveys on media attitudes, content consumption behaviors, or analytical skills. In the United States, a body of quantitative work based on an assessment instrument called a “news media literacy scale” has influenced how researchers can contextualize and measure news literacy, and some qualitative analyses shed light on specific pedagogical models. Interest in educational intervention and related research has increased rather dramatically since 2016 as global concerns over “post-truth” media consumption and the “fake news” phenomena have become part of academic discourse in different disciplines. Collaborative works among scholars and practitioners in the areas that could potentially inform the design of effective news literacy curriculum development, such as cognitive science, social psychology, and social media data analysis, have started to emerge as well.
... A similar approach has already proved practically effective not only in our experiment. For example, positive experience in implementing media literacy for students, including those in the school of journalism, was demonstrated by The State University of New York at Stony Brook (Fleming, 2014). Besides implementing formal media literacy courses into the educational process, the university has also established the Centre for News Literacy that holds workshops, conferences, summer schools for lecturers. ...
Article
The paper presents the experience of the media education project for journalism students at Sumy State University. The workshops dealt with different media categories (media agencies, media technologies, media languages, media audience, media representations) and necessary components of communicative competence (technical information competence, information competence, social information competence, technical media competence, media competence, social media competence). During October 2017 - January 2018, five workshops and seminars were held. For each activity, input and output survey was conducted to assess the extent to which the level of knowledge and skills of the participants on a particular topic increased, as well as how the participants evaluated the project. On average, 32 people took part in each workshop, 78% of them filled in the questionnaires (in total 140 input and 112 output questionnaires were analysed). The results showed that despite the high level of initial knowledge of the participants, the training course contributed to their understanding of certain media categories and other specific issues. The participants also pointed out the importance and relevance of the information for their professional activity. The survey of 29 regular project participants and 27 professional journalists working in the mass media of Sumy Region was conducted to assess the project effectiveness. The participants highly assessed their knowledge of media literacy. The students’ results were similar to those of professionals’ (in the assessment of knowledge acquired, understanding the notion of media literacy, determining the main tasks of media education and the most effective ways of acquiring media competences). However, the students evaluated their analytical skills lower and rarely applied them. Further workshops will be aimed at dealing with this issue. The analysis of survey results proves the efficiency of the combination of formal and non-formal teaching methods for journalism students. It is important both for the training participants and the universities as they have become more competitive and able to face the challenges of academic education nowadays. The experience described can be implemented by other academic institutions to improve the quality of journalism education in Ukraine.
... The interviews were recorded, and ranged in length from one to two hours. The recordings were transcribed, and the transcriptions were analyzed using grounded theory to find recurring themes and patterns (Fleming 2014;Nelson and Lewis 2015). All but one subject agreed to allow me to me to use their name and title. ...
Chapter
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... This political context instigated interest in whether children are equipped to assess the credibility of news sources they encounter online (see Bonnet & Rosenbaum, 2020;Notley & Dezuanni, 2019;Ricoy et al., 2019). Technological developments have shaped the changing nature of critical literacies for the twenty-first century (Durham & Kellner, 2012;Fleming, 2014;Kellner & Share, 2005;Snyder, 2005) and there are now questions surrounding the purchase of critical literacy as a tool against the ideologies of the present (Bonnet & Rosenbaum, 2020;Janks et al., 2013;Kellner & Share, 2005). Robin ...
Article
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This article identifies and explores a conceptual paradox between recent educational policy in England and a social-democratic understanding of critical literacy. Recent political events including Brexit, the 2020 U.S. Presidential Election, and the Coronavirus pandemic have reiterated the importance of a pedagogic model that equips students to critique information circulated on online platforms in a contemporary climate marked by 'fake news', 'post-truth', and 'misinformation'. After setting out critical literacy's genealogy as a democratic educational model associated with social justice, we situate these theoretical approaches within the context of secondary education in England. In doing so, we identify a disjuncture between twenty-first-century educational policy and the ideas of democratic citizenship underpinning critical literacy. The article then draws on teacher agency research to consider the practical barriers to implementing a critical literacy pedagogy capable of navigating the present political landscape as one which is increasingly experienced through online platforms. Addressing gaps within literacy education and digital media research, the overall argument is that educational policy in England since 2010 has served the priorities of a highly centralised and unequal neoliberal state system. In this context, enacting the sort of democratic, social justice-orientated critical literacy demanded by the complex challenges of communication in the twenty first century is likely to prove daunting.
... Yet these are the sources that are at the top of the news hierarchy being recommended by many news literacy programs around the US and world. This is in part because, in addition to being able to judge the accuracy and expertise in news sources, one of the keys to news literacy programs, such as the popular News Literacy Project (2020), is a focus on news appreciation (Fleming, 2014). ...
... Our study showed the expansion of our method to digital literacy education, which refers to helping news consumers correctly interpret news through critical thinking and have good "information hygiene" [20]. According to the News Literacy Project, it is recommended to encourage people to take one step back before making their decisions based on the information they see online 5 . ...
Article
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Because of the increasingly negative impacts of the echo chamber effect, such as the dissemination of fake news and political polarization occurring in social networking services (SNSs), considerable efforts are being made to mitigate this effect. Prior HCI studies have presented the development of user interfaces to display information that reflects various standpoints, with the aim of nudging people to consume information in a more objective fashion. However, these efforts still lack the ability to highlight the characteristics, generation processes, and negative effects of echo chambers, so they may not be effective in helping people become sufficiently aware of the echo chamber effect and those who are already in an echo chamber. In this paper, we present ChamberBreaker (CB), which has been designed to help increase a player's awareness of and preemptively respond to an echo chamber effect based on psychological concepts: inoculation, heuristics for judging, and gamification. Through a user study with 882 participants (control group: 446, experimental group: 436), we demonstrated the feasibility of our game-based methodology to support the awareness of the echo chamber effect and the importance of maintaining diverse perspectives when consuming information. Our findings highlight the externalization of psychological standpoints in mitigating an echo chamber effect and suggest design implications for system development---the consideration of demographics, playing time, and the connection to fake news recognition---for digital literacy education. You can play CB at http://tiny.cc/chamberbreaker (The game only works with Chrome.)
... Founded in 2008 by former Los Angeles Times reporter Alan C. Miller, the News Literacy Project (NLP) targets middle-and high-school students with various approaches, including modules, digital platforms, and personal interactions with journalists. The key tenets of these journalist-inspired news literacy programs include an unshakeable belief in the importance of an independent press in democracies and an emphasis on the veracity of information (Fleming, 2014(Fleming, , 2015Loth, 2012). A case study of the Stony Brook curriculum further confirms the instructional emphasis on teaching students how to think and analyze information like seasoned reporters. ...
... News literacy, then, is a subset of media literacy skills and competencies necessary for consuming news (Ashley, 2019;Mihailidis, 2012;Vraga et al., 2020b). This includes thinking critically about news credibility and reliability across media (Fleming, 2014), making sense of the messages in news reports (Farmer, 2019), and understanding news' broader social impacts on society (Moeller, 2012). The goals of news literacy include identifying news, understanding news and its societal role, thinking critically while consuming news, building motivation to follow news, and being empowered with news and information (Malik et al., 2013;Moeller, 2012). ...
Article
The covid -19 pandemic disrupted political, economic, and social life in the United States beginning in March 2020, disproportionately affecting historically underrepresented groups. Media assumed unique roles during the pandemic, serving simultaneously as the gateway to work, education, social life, news, and public health information. Yet the covid -19 pandemic has been so challenged by misinformation that the World Health Organization declared it an infodemic. Because misinformation can prolong pandemics and increase deaths, news and media literacy can benefit society at large, especially vulnerable populations. The purpose of this descriptive study is to capture how undergraduates used media, how they obtained their news, and how they engaged news literacy skills during the covid -19 pandemic. A survey of over 900 undergraduate students showed that over two-thirds of respondents increased media use. Over half of respondents reported entertainment as their top reason for media use during the pandemic and reported news as their last reason. Respondents reporting previous exposure to news literacy education were significantly more likely to use most of the measured news literacy strategies. The findings of this study can support developing pandemic-responsive news and media literacy education which will be useful during future pandemics.
... We developed a 4-item task to assess four sub-skills of critical thinking in news as suggested by researchers (Ashley et al., 2013;Fleming, 2014;Maksl et al., 2015;Mihailidis, 2014): (1) Understanding News Content and Purpose; (2) Distinguishing Facts from Claims; (3) Identifying Stands; and (4) Evaluating Evidence. To assess these skills, participants were told to read carefully and analyze an actual news report of Hong Kong Government's policy consultation on minor living organ donation (i.e. ...
Article
Critical thinking in the post-truth era demands that news users develop and maintain a skeptical way of knowing, and cultivate the ability to discern evidence-based and unbiased information to make sound judgments. While adolescents are becoming the most dedicated social media news consumers, the literature is yet to catch up with empirical research on whether adolescents are able to apply critical thinking to make sense of real-life news. We investigated the relationships between social media news consumption, news media literacy, and critical thinking of 1505 adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age. Multivariate analyses suggested an internal news seeking motivation, a cautious perception towards social media personalized news algorithms, and a reported habit of news-source tracking each independently predicted skills in thinking critically about a real-life news report. Hierarchical regression analysis further indicated the unique and combined variances of news consumption and news media literacy in predicting critical thinking in news. Insights for preparing our youth to become news-literate critical thinkers are discussed.
... A growing growth in the written media, whether paper or electronic newspapers, and the widening of the media, including satellite channels, radio stations, newspapers, magazines, electronic forums, the Internet, cinema and theater, posters and advertising Thus, the value of media literacy activities for the protection and securing of students from media messages, which are mostly uncontrolled and not influenced by social norms or value, but by material profit or ideological guidance, so that messages pass and achieve goals The media literacy develops students' ability to access, analyze, evaluate, build and practice media strategies that will prevent students from reading the correct media. Here, scholars and researchers stress the importance of critical thinking skills associated with media consumption habits and train students to build content and messages Media education generates informed and informed citizenship and the formation of an independent personality, and enable the practice of the dimensions of modern learning (Fleming 2014(Fleming , 2015Mihailidis 2014;Toepfl, 2014) This is in line with Vraga (Tully, Akin & Rojas, 2012), which shows that the training of students on media literacy creates an informed personality and is confident of their ability to influence matters and make responsible decisions about their civic and social participation in society. With Ashley, Poepsel & Willis (2010), learning with media participation has critical thinking skills for the media and has a flexible personality and positive thinking in its school or community environment. ...
Article
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Children and youth are living today in a multi-device, multi-platform, multi-channel world, and school children are more affected by different means of media. The current study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the media literacy activities in developing the learning dimensions of the third-grade students in the light of the vision of Egypt 2030? After the application of the study tools on an experimental sample of (40) children in the third-grade primary, the results showed that the use of the activities of the school media literacy to the dimensions of learning in the light of Egypt's vision led to the improvement of the following learning skills "procedural skills and professional skills, Skills of coexistence and cooperation with others. In addition of improving the following sub-skills (Introduce new and unique ideas-problems solving Respect for opinion and other opinion-Define clear goals-Respect diversity-Self-expression-Verbal communication-Negotiation and good inquiry-Distinguish between similarities and differences).
... In contrast, other critics have gone so far as to suggest that media literacy education might, in fact, have backfired in part by giving us false confidence in our abilities to discern fact from fiction (boyd, 2017). Despite the limitations of media literacy education (boyd, 2018), research has shown that media literacy curricula and efforts targeted to audiences outside of classroom settings have been effective at improving media literacy skills and knowledge, contributing to more thoughtful news consumption (Fleming, 2014;Klurfeld & Schneider, 2014;. ...
Article
As concerns grow about the spread of misinformation through social media, scholars have called for improving the public’s media literacy as a potential solution. This study examines the effectiveness of deploying news literacy (NL) messages on social media by testing whether NL tweets are able to affect perceptions of information credibility and NL beliefs. Using two experiments, this study tests NL tweets designed to (1) mitigate the impact of exposure to misinformation about two health issues (genetically modified foods and the flu vaccine); and (2) boost people’s perceptions of their own media literacy and media literacy’s value to society broadly. Findings suggest that NL messages are able to alter misinformation perceptions and NL beliefs, but not with a single message, suggesting the need to develop tailored and targeted NL campaigns that feature multiple messages and calls to action.
... Media sources, according to the author, are extremely important since they supply students with a variety of information regarding linguistic discourses, syntactic structures, pronunciation, and grammatical forms. Similarly, media literacy is skills that are necessary in the digital era, especially for supporting students' opinions from the information that they got from news and media (Fleming, 2014). Next, the study by Kung (2016), it was discovered that improving media literacy helps students enhance their speaking abilities. ...
Article
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Speaking is a significant and fundamental skill that may help students enhance their ability to communicate with their classmates verbally. Henceforth, instructors or teachers need to incorporate some educating media which can develop the students’ English speaking competence. Therefore, this study aims to discover the viability of news and media literacy for speaking practice at an advanced education level. The researchers used experimental research and took two groups as the sample of this study. There were experimental groups in class 4b and a control group in 4a class that comprised 35 students for each class. Moreover, the speaking test, mainly pre-test and post-test in both experimental class and control class, was also used as gathering information of the research. This research found that the difference between pre-test and post-test average speaking practice results was -24.540 to -17,689, with a 95 percent confidence range of -24.540 to -17,689 for this finding. Finally, this study discovered an average difference in students' speaking practice between the pre-test and post-test. Therefore, enhancing students use of news and media literacy is necessary for speaking practice and teachers need to encourage students’ use of technology to find out online sources as media literacy in learning the second language. They have various kinds of information from media sources and improve the advanced vocabulary that they used while practising speaking with their classmates. To summarize, integrating news and media literacy has a substantial impact on enhancing students' speaking skills among four-semester students of English Language Education in Pekanbaru.
... It is associated with individuals' understanding of how the media industry works and the effects these messages might have on them (Ashley et al., 2010;Christ & Potter, 1998). Scholars have suggested that news media literacy mainly pertains to a news consumer's skills in navigating sophisticated information such as identifying information sources, evaluating evidence, and identifying credibility of information (Fleming, 2014). Beyond individuals' education and basic skillsets, another key assumption of news media literacy is individuals' understanding of the media industries and media effects (Christ & Potter, 1998). ...
... Even though news literacy (and more specifically news literacy education) is gaining scholarly attention, a clear definition is lacking (Ashley, 2019;Tully et al., 2019). Maksl et al. (2015: 29) argue that 'news media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism.' News literacy generally builds on a normative idea that journalism serves to create informed citizens providing them with relevant information on society (Ashley, 2019;Fleming, 2014). As such, news literacy focuses on the possibilities and challenges that arise when journalism, citizenship and technology come together (Mihailidis, 2012). ...
Thesis
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The initiating point of this dissertation is the omnipresence of news characterising the current complex news media landscape. Digitalisation has influenced not only journalism as a profession, its production process, distribution strategies and content, but has inevitably also changed how audiences consume, or use, news. This is the focus of the current dissertation: understanding how audiences consume news when news is everywhere. To do so, we take a radical audience-centred approach, where audiences themselves shape our understanding of, and approaches to, news use. As such, the main research question of this thesis was: How can we study news audiences in the omnipresent news landscape from a radical audience-centred approach? Chapter 1 sets the tone of this dissertation by positioning the research within the broader field of journalism studies. It introduces the starting point of the dissertation: the omnipresence of news, and presents the central aim of the dissertation and its research question. In addition, the industrial, societal, and scholarly relevance of this context is addressed. Next, the chapter provides an overview of the research approach and the primary concepts of the thesis: critical realism, the audience, and news (use). Finally, an outline of the structure of the dissertation will be presented. Chapter 2 gives a conceptual overview of this dissertation and introduces an analytical model for studying news use in an omnipresent news environment. We propose studying news use by distinguishing between three types of news use: focused news use, which is intentional and engaged with the content; routine news use, which relies on news repertoires; and incidental news use, which audiences do not initiate. Chapter 3 outlines the methodological approach to news audience research, where we advocate a mixed-methods approach based on research philosophy and an intention for methodological advancement. Our main argument for doing so is complementarity, and the enhancement of the results because each method provides unique insights. Also, it introduces a new type of mixed-methods design we developed during the course of this dissertation, the ‘rich single-source mixed-methods’ design, where detailed quantitative data from identified people are combined with qualitative insights of the same people. Next, the chapter provides an overview of the mixed-methods research designs of the empirical studies in the following chapter and how they fit into the analytical model. Chapter 4 collects five empirical studies. These studies are not presented in chronological order but rather grouped by type of news use, as described in Chapter 2. One study investigates news engagement during focused news use. Two studies focus on news repertoires in order to understand routine news use, and two studies investigate how news audiences assess incidental news in an omnipresent news environment. Chapter 5 summarises the main findings of the thesis and outlines the methodological, conceptual and practical contributions of the research. The theoretical contributions lies in refinement of the situational circumstances of news use, and how these shape how audience consume and make sense of news. Based on our work, this news use situation is defined by both the intention of news use (i.e. the internal situation), and the physical context in which the news use occurs (i.e. the external situation). The conceptual contributions lie primarily in adding nuance to existing concepts. First, we proposed to make a distinction based on news use type in order to study news use in the omnipresent news environment. As scholars are paying more attention to the audience, there is a need to systematise news audience research. By making a distinction and focussing on three dimensions, we avoid making conclusions on news use based on levels that may be somewhat related but in fact analytically quite distinct. Second, this dissertation helped to understand incidental news use better. While the concept is gaining scholarly intention due to the algorithmic culture, little was known about what incidental news exactly refers to, especially to audiences. Our study revealed that audiences conceptualise incidental news use as a wider pallet of practices than accounted for by scholars. In our view, the main contribution of this dissertation lies in its methodological contributions. As argued, all news use is situational, and as a consequence, grasping the situation in which news use occurs is crucial in understanding news use. Our work provides three ways to grasp the news use contest. First, the analytical model from Chapter 2 offers researchers a way to distinguish between the different ways audiences meet with news as it allows for researchers to adopt a more systematically approach to news audience inquiry. By making a distinction, we avoid making conclusions on news use based on levels that may be somewhat related but in fact analytically quite. Second, we provide an operationalisation for grasping various news use contexts, which is divided into three strongly coinciding levels: time, location and social context. Third, our work contributes to the field by offering a way to approach audiences in different ways in one design by employing mixed-methods research. Our main argument for combining quantitative and qualitative research methods into one design is complementarity and the enhancement of the results. Based on these two studies, we also developed a new type of mixed-methods audience research: rich single-source mixed-methods, which combine rich, quantitative measurements of identified people’s news use behaviour from digital traces, with the qualitative articulations of the same people. To summarise, this dissertation contributed to the field of by taking radical audience-centred approach. Researchers (and news producers) often oversimplify, and even underestimate audiences, by classifying them in groups, often based on sociodemographic characteristics. We argued that all news use is situational and, as a consequence, grasping the situation in which news use occurs is crucial in understanding news use. As the same people engage with news in different ways, scholars should not only acknowledge these types exist but also understand the fluidity of the audiences towards them. Each type of news use may lead to other types of news use, both in the short and long term. As such, even though distinguishing between different news uses, they are all closely entangled, as they evolve into one another. Our analytical model provides one step towards building a more comprehensive theory of news audiences in the omnipresent news landscape.
Book
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В сборнике материалов международной научной конференции «Современное состояние медиаобразования в России в контексте мировых тенденций» (к 65-летию почетного президента ассоциации кинообразования и медиапедагогики России, профессора А.В. Федорова)» представлены исследования по проблематике историкотеоретических, методических и практических аспектов медиаобразования и медиакультуры. Авторами очерчен широкий круг проблем отечественной и зарубежной медиапедагогики и медиакритики, обозначен круг наиболее актуальных и перспективных направлений современного медиаобразования. Кроме исследований известных исследователей, в сборник вошли материалы студентов, магистрантов и молодых ученых. Материалы издания предназначены исследователям, преподавателям высшей школы, работникам образования и культуры, студентам и магистрантам, а также широкому кругу читателей, которые интересуются проблемами образования, культуры, медиапедагогики, медиакритики.
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W artykule naświetlono zagadnienia diagnozy (assessment) i pomiaru (measurment) kompetencji medialnych. Głównym celem przeprowadzonych badań było uchwycenie poziomu wiedzy młodzieży na temat mediów. Próbowano określić wpływ wydarzenia edukacyjnego, jakim jest Olimpiada Wiedzy o Mediach, na poziom kompetencji medialnych. Zidentyfikowano również główne obszary realnych potrzeb edukacyjnych w tym zakresie. Metody badań: w tym celu dokonano walidacji miar kompetencji medialnych Setha Ashleya i współpracowników (2013) oraz Melissy Tully i Emily Vragi (2015) na gruncie polskim. Zweryfikowano także dodatkowe wskaźniki związane z postawami wobec wiedzy medialnej i wybranych zagadnień medialnych; w tym celu przeprowadzono dwa badania ankietowe – na próbie lubelskich uczestników Olimpiady Wiedzy o Mediach oraz wśród pozostałych uczniów klas III wybranych lubelskich szkół ponadpodstawowych. Na przykładzie obu grup (132 respondentów) wykazano, że kompetencje medialne są wielowymiarową konstrukcją, a niektóre wskaźniki korelują z wiedzą i postawami wobec mediów. Wyniki testu wiedzy wskazały, że faktyczna wiedza młodzieży dotycząca oddziaływania mediów jest niższa niż jej samoocena w tym zakresie. Natomiast postawy wobec edukacji medialnej okazały się ambiwalentne. Ani uczestnictwo w Olimpiadzie Wiedzy o Mediach, ani subiektywna ocena własnych kompetencji nie miały wpływu na różnice w zakresie wiedzy o mediach i w postawach wobec edukacji medialnej. Wyniki wskazały natomiast na znaczącą rolę edukacji pozaformalnej, zarówno rozmów o mediach w domu rodzinnym, jak i doświadczeń związanych z dodatkowymi zajęciami medialnymi realizowanymi w szkole.
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Purpose This study aims to determine the differences in information professionals’ perceived news literacy skills and sharing behaviours with their demographics (gender, age, qualification, professional experience and working designation). Design/methodology/approach Using a quantitative research design, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to collect the data from information professionals working in university libraries. Findings Findings reveal that the use of social media channels for sharing news was significantly higher among the professionals in the age group <30 years as compared to the older age groups. Female professionals determine the authenticity of a news story more frequently than males. The study concludes that the factors such as age, education level and work experience significantly influence information professionals’ use of social media for sharing news and their news literacy skills. Practical implications The study holds some important practical implications in terms of identifying demographic factors in the perceived news literacy skills and sharing behaviours. Having information about the significant variations in demographics may help in adopting the targeted approaches for organizing news literacy sessions, as well as to develop a framework for news literacy instructions. Originality/value This study adopted the Framework for Information Literacy in Higher Education given by the Association for College and Research Libraries (ACRL) to develop the theoretical framework and questionnaire. The validated questionnaire on news literacy skills has been specifically constructed for the study in absence of finding any in the literature. Moreover, studies were hardly found assessing the difference of demographics with information professionals’ perceived news literacy skills and their news sharing behaviours.
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Concerns about “fake news,” misinformation, and disinformation have led to increasingly urgent calls for News Literacy (NL) education interventions and assessments of their effectiveness. New technologies create ongoing changes in the ways people consume news, which means that NL education assessments must be continuously updated and adapted to address current trends. The purpose of this study was to augment existing NL assessments to incorporate recent aspects of hard news consumption in digital news environments by testing two new scales: the Headline Literacy Scale and the Hard News Standards Knowledge Scale. The results demonstrated both scales were reliable and valid.
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This paper discusses the fragmented nature of media literacy and its relationship with technology. It highlights the need for standardised media literacy strategies, particularly the strand that deal with evaluation, which can help address the challenges of the current media landscape (e.g. the fake news phenomenon). Subsequently, we introduce early work towards developing a new evaluative media literacy tool that can empower media consumers to think strategically about the information they are exposed to. This tool, called Fallasigns, is based primarily on research that suggests news topics can attract specific logical flaws. Fallasigns cultivates the ability to anticipate the most likely logical and rhetorical pitfalls to emerge in a news story before being exposed to it. We argue that this strategy may work to effectively inoculate media consumers and provide a more systematic approachwhen evaluating information.
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Article History The study aimed to reveal the degree to which female students of practical education, specializing in class teacher, at Yarmouk University possess media education skills,The descriptive method was adopted, and the study population consisted of all students of practical education in the classroom specialization at Yarmouk University, who were registered for the first semester of the academic year 2019-2020; Their number reached (115) students. All were chosen as an intentional sample for the study. The questionnaire was used, it consisted of two parts: the section dealing with the variables of the study, which is the branch of the General Certificate of Secondary Education, the type of school in which the student would apply, and the student's GPA. the second part of questionnaire included (19) paragraphs to measure the degree of students 'possession of media education skills. The results of the study showed that the degree of students 'possession of media education skills was average, and there were statistically significant differences in the variable of the general secondary certificate for female students in favor of the certificate branch (scientific), also the existence of differences in the school variable in which the student applied in favor of (private) schools, and the existence of differences On the variable of the cumulative average of the student in favor of the (accepted) average holders. The study recommended the necessity to propose a national media education plan that includes universities and Jordanian schools.
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During this Covid situation, the bulk numbers of students have confined themselves to new media more than ever, and their dependency level has already proved how severe this can be in the future. As a consequence of staying tangled with lots of confusing information, students often have to face dilemmas in news and sources. Judging this situation after conducting this study on Journalism and non-Journalism students, the finding uncovers a moderate knowledge level of students in identifying the news quality of a source of information. Normally, Journalism students are thought to be involved with formal media education; nevertheless, this study observes an expectant number of non-Journalism students are wrapping up themselves with media education with endeavors during this pandemic. What is more, this study follows W. J. Potter's cognitive model of media literacy. With this model, this study digs the news literacy skills among students. In contrast, the study found moderate skills among students in cases of having more conscious mindful thought than automatic thought about the media messages, moderate motivation for news consumption, the satisfactory awareness level of media control and influence, and more trust in news media. But the shocking result is that all students have almost bottom-line knowledge about the media system, including knowledge of the media industry, media content, and media effects. So, all these knowledge gaps ultimately show the poor curriculums where enough practical-based media education is absent. Hence, this study proves the demand for more practical-based media education in all curriculums, especially at the tertiary levels universities in Bangladesh, with more importance.
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