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A new species of Hechtia (Bromeliaceae) from southwestern Tamaulipas, Mexico


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A new species of Hechtia from the Mexican State of Tamaulipas is herein proposed as new: Hechtia hernandezsandovalii, which is known only from the municipality of Villa de Miquihuana in the southwestern portion of the state. The new species is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: its white cotton-like indument (turning brownish with age) on the branches, rachis, and peduncle of both staminate and pistillate inflorescences. The new taxon is compared with H. glomerata, a species morphologically similar.
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Accepted by Eric Gouda: 30 May 2013; published online in PDF: 19 June 2013
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 33
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press
Phytotaxa 112 (2): 33–42 (2013)
A new species of Hechtia (Bromeliaceae) from southwestern Tamaulipas, Mexico
1Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, A. C., Unidad de Recursos Naturales-Herbario CICY, Calle 43 # 130. Colonia
Chuburná de Hidalgo, Mérida, Yucatán 97200, México.
2Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Centro Universitario Adolfo López Mateos, Cd. Victoria,
Tamaulipas 87149, México.
A new species of Hechtia from the Mexican State of Tamaulipas is herein proposed as new: Hechtia hernandez-
sandovalii, which is known only from the municipality of Villa de Miquihuana in the southwestern portion of the state.
The new species is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: its white cotton-like indument (turning
brownish with age) on the branches, rachis, and peduncle of both staminate and pistillate inflorescences. The new taxon
is compared with H. glomerata, a species morphologically similar.
Una nueva especie de Hechtia Klotszch del estado mexicano de Tamaulipas se propone como nueva: Hechtia hernandez-
sandovalii, la cual se conoce solo del Municipio de Villa de Miquihuana en la porción suroeste del estado. La nueva
especie se reconoce fácilmente por la siguiente combinación de caracteres: inflorescencia, ramas, pedúnculo y raquis
cubiertas por un indumento blanco parecido al algodón, que se torna café con el tiempo. El nuevo taxón se compara con
H. glomerata, especie morfológicamente similar.
Key words: Dioecy, endemism, Hechtia glomerata, IUCN, lateral inflorescence
Hechtia Klotzsch (1835: 401) members range from Southern Texas (Big Bend National Park) to northern
Nicaragua in Central America (Departments of Nueva Segovia and Jinotega), occurring on an area defined as
Megamexico III by Rzedowski (1991). Most of the species of the genus are in Mexico (94% of them) and are
endemic to it; Oaxaca houses ca. 20 species (Espejo et al., 2007), but species numbers decrease toward
northern Mexico, with only 2-3 species reported for the northern states of Baja California: H. montana
Brandegee (1889: 9) and H. gayorum Lenz (1995: 59), and only three species reported from Tamaulipas: H.
epigyna Harms (1935: 531–532) described from Jaumave but recently reported from Hidalgo as well (Espejo
et al., 2010b), H. mexicana Smith (1935: 149) described from Sierra del Abra in San Luis Potosí, and H.
glomerata Zuccarini (1840:240). This last binomial has been applied to several populations from Tamaulipas
in Mexico to Honduras in Central America but the status of this species was recently clarified by Jiménez
(2011) and Espejo et al. (2010a) currently remaining restricted to the Mexican states of Guanajuato, Hidalgo,
Querétaro, and San Luis Potosí. Espejo et al. (2004) referred Hechtia populations from several municipalities
in Tamaulipas to H. glomerata. Among these, some actually represent a new entity from the Municipio de
Miquihuana, herein described as a new species and henceforth compared with H. glomerata.
RAMÍREZ ET AL.34 Phytotaxa 112 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press
Materials and methods
Herbarium specimens were prepared from plants collected in Tamaulipas from 2009 through 2012.
Morphological variation of rosette features at population level was evaluated in the field. The complete
material was cross examined to verify its status as a new species against all species recorded from Tamaulipas
and neighboring states with the information on the protologues, including type material or images of them.
Species assessed include Hechtia epigyna Harms, H. glomerata Zucc., and H. mexicana.
We compared different structures ranging from growth habit, through rosette features, inflorescence
origin and architecture, flower shapes, color, etc. across species with close geographical distributions. We
consider this approach very useful for people trying to identify populations from the same general area. In
performing this exercise, we aim at the use of characters preserved in herbarium specimens as well as those
only observed in living plants. To accomplish this, besides relevant description, we provide images and
The sequence of the description of the fertile structures of new entity is as follows: first the staminate
inflorescence, then the pistillate inflorescence followed by fruit characteristics.
Hechtia hernandez-sandovalii I. Ramírez, C. F. Jiménez & Treviño, sp. nov. (Fig. 1 (A,C,E,F), 2, 3).
Species similar to Hechtia glomerata Zucc. in its acaule rosettes with narrowly triangular blades, glabrous above,
densely white lepidote below, lateral inflorescence, and staminate and pistillate flowers with white petals. However,
H. hernandez-sandovalii presents branches of the inflorescence densely covered with a initially white indumentum
that turns brownish with age and flowers totally immersed in it (vs. thin indumentums and flowers not immersed in
it), rosettes taller than wide, leaves erect, falcate, laminae green, never developing red color (vs. rosette ellipsoid,
wider than tall, leaves horizontally extended, apices deflexed, leaves green, shiny above, usually develop red color
in H. glomerata); foliar sheaths shorter (2.5–3 cm vs. 3–6 cm in H. glomerata); floral parts (floral bracts, petals,
sepals, ovary, anthers, and staminodes) and fruits larger, but seeds smaller in H. hernandez-sandovalii.
TYPE:—MEXICO. Tamaulipas: Municipio de Miquihuana, 17 km al W de Miquihuana camino a Estanque de Los
Walle, 23°62’N, 98°57’–99°06'W, 28 mayo 1986, Hernández & Martínez 1797 (holotype MEXU! (2), isotypes
Terrestrial, caespitose, rosetofilous herbs, when blooming 1–1.80 m tall. Rosettes up to 35 cm diameter, taller
than wide, leaves erect, falcate, new rosettes originating at the base of old ones and forming large colonies.
Leaves 25–35 per rosette, succulent, straight and pointing upwards, foliar sheaths transversally oblong, 2.5–3
cm long, (2.6–) 3.7–4.8 cm wide, when dry white-yellowish adaxially and brownish abaxially, sometimes
with a distally darker brown area, glabrous on both surfaces, basally entire, finely dentate close to the lamina;
foliar blades narrowly triangular, acuminate, pungent, 21–39 cm long, 1.3–2.9 cm wide at base, 0.5–1.1 cm
wide on the mid area, green, glabrous to sparsely white lepidote adaxially, white lepidote abaxially, margins
spinose, spines 4–7 mm long, , uncinate, generally retrorse, (0.8–) 1.6–4.4 (–5.1) cm apart, laxly arranged
toward the apex, reddish. Inflorescence lateral, erect.
Staminate inflorescence a 2-divided panicle, 1.15–1.53 m long; peduncle 58–61 cm long, 0.9–1.3 cm
diameter, base flattened, light brown, sparsely white lepidote but sometimes glabrous, much longer than
leaves; peduncle bracts triangular to triangular-ovate, acuminate, 2.3–6.2 cm long, 1–2.7 cm wide, brownish,
sparsely lepidote, finely and laxly denticulate at base, entire towards the apex, strongly nerved, longer than
internodes at the base, shorter towards the apex; main axis 57–92 cm long, 0.4–0.8 cm diameter, cylindrical,
sometimes slightly sinuose, light brown, sparsely lepidote, soon glabrous; its internodes 1.4–4.8 cm long,
shorter towards the base; primary bracts triangular, acute, acuminate, 1–4 cm long, 0.6–1.2 cm wide,
brownish, sparsely lepidote, entire, strongly nerved; primary branches ca. 30 per inflorescence, 2–8.3 cm
long, 0.8–1.3 cm diameter, sessile, ascending or appressed to main axis, ca. 8–50 (–70) flowers per branch;
Phytotaxa 112 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press 35
FIGURE 1. Hechtia hernandez-sandovalii (A, C, E, F). A. Plant in habit. C. Young staminate inflorescence showing white
indumentum. E. Staminate branch. F. Pistillate branch. Hechtia glomerata (B, D). B . Plant in habit, see rosette shape and leaf color. D.
Staminate (above) and pistillate (below) flowers. Photographs A, B, C, D by Ivón Ramirez; E and F by Jacinto Treviño Carreón.
RAMÍREZ ET AL.36 Phytotaxa 112 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 2. Hechtia hernandez-sandovalii. Pistillate plant. A. Floral bract. B. Sepals. C. Petals. D. Ovary with sessile stigma E.
Longitudinal section of the ovary showing details of ovules. F. Staminode. (Based on C. Jiménez et al. 27 (CICY)). Illustration by
Carlos Jiménez.
secondary branches 1.3–2.5 cm long, ca. 10–20 flowers on each branch; floral bract long-ovate, short-
acuminate, 6.3–8.2 mm long, 4–4.4 mm wide, brownish, erose, densely white lepidote, 7-nerved, exceeding
sepals and petals; flowers densely clustered and covered by a dense white indumentums which is cotton like
and becomes brownish with age, 6.5–7.5 mm long, 3–3.2 mm diameter, sessile; sepals connate by ½ of their
Phytotaxa 112 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press 37
length, oblong, acute, 4.4–5.3 mm long, 2.3–2.5 mm wide, brownish, erose, densely white-lepidote, 5-nerved,
slightly carinate, shorter than petals; petals free, obovate, rounded, 5.5–6 mm long, 2.8–3 mm wide, entire,
white, densely white-lepidote, 7-nerved; stamens erect, adnate to the petals and pistillode base, barely
protruding at anthesis, 3.2–4 mm long; filaments narrowly triangular, 2.9–3.5 mm long, 0.7 mm wide, white;
anthers ca. 2.2 mm long, ca. 0.8 mm wide; pistillode conical, 1.4 mm long including vestigial stigmatic lobes,
ca. 1.2 mm diameter, greenish to almost white; vestigial stigmatic lobes narrow, erect, 0.7 mm long.
FIGURE 3. Hechtia hernandez-sandovalii. Staminate plant. A. Floral bract. B. Sepals. C. Petals. D. Pistillode. E. Stamen. (Based on
C. Jiménez et al. 27a (CICY)). Illustration by Carlos Jiménez.
RAMÍREZ ET AL.38 Phytotaxa 112 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press
Pistillate inflorescence a 1–2 divided panicle, 0.73–1.30 m long; peduncle 37–75 cm long, 0.5–0.9 cm
diameter, base flattened, reddish or brownish, sparsely white lepidote, soon glabrous, much longer than
leaves; peduncle bracts triangular, acuminate, 1.7–6.3 cm long, 0.7–2.6 cm wide, brownish, sparsely lepidote,
finely and loosely denticulate at base, entire towards the apex, strongly nerved, longer than basal internodes,
equal or shorter on apical ones, its internodes 1.5–2.6 cm long, increasing in length from base to apex; main
axis 27–80 cm long, 0.3–0.4 cm diameter, terete, sometimes sinuous, reddish or brownish, sparsely lepidote,
sometimes glabrous, its internodes 1.5–5.8 cm long; primary bracts triangular, acuminate, 0.9–3 cm long, 0.7–
1 cm wide, brownish, sparsely lepidote, entire, strongly nerved; primary branches 11–13 per inflorescence,
0.9–4.7 cm long, (0.5–) 0.9–1.7 cm diameter; its rachis 0.15–0.2 cm diameter, basal portion of the branch
(sterile portion), ca. 1–3 (–12) mm, flattened at base, ascending or appressed to the main axis, ca. 6–30
flowers on primary branches; secondary branches 1–1.5 cm long, with ca. 4–10 flowers each ; floral bracts
transversely oblong to wide elliptic, short acuminate, 8.7–9.4 mm long, 5.8–6 mm wide, brownish, margin
erose, densely white lepidote, 7-nerved, exceeding sepals and petals; flowers densely clustered and covered
by a dense white indumentums which is cotton like and becomes brownish with age, 7–7.5 mm long, 4–4.6
mm diameter, sessile; sepals connate by ½ of their length, ovate, acute, 6.2–6.5 mm long, 4–4.2 mm wide,
brownish, margin erose, densely white lepidote, 5-nerved, carinate, sometimes as long as the petals; petals
free, ovate, acute, 6.5–6.9 mm long, 3.8–4.4 mm wide, white, entire, densely white lepidote, 7-nerved;
staminodes narrowly triangular, 2.6–3.8 mm long, 0.5–0.7 mm wide at base; vestigial anthers triangular;
filaments adnate to the base of petals and ovary, white; ovary superior, ovoid, 6 mm long, 3 mm diameter,
white or greenish; stigmatic lobes erect, ca. 1.5–1.8 mm long; placentation central, ovules ovoid, covered by a
membranous, transparent wing, 0.8 mm long, 0.6 mm de diameter including the wing. Fruits ellipsoid to wide
ellipsoid, 7.2–8 mm long, 4–5.2 mm wide, brown, sepals, petals, staminodes, and stigmatic lobes persistent
remaining on the fruit; seeds fusiform, 3.3–3.9 mm long, 1–1.4 mm wide, brown with two apical wings; apical
wing 0.3–0.5 mm long, basal wing 0.4–0.9 mm long.
Distribution and habitat:—Hechtia hernandez-sandovalii has been so far only collected in a very
restricted area in the extreme southwestern portion of Tamaulipas, Municipio Miquihuana, at the localities of
La Peña, Estanque de Los Walle, Estanque Eguia, Servando Canales, La Perdida, San José del Llano, and
Miquihuana (figure 4). The new species is an important component of what has been denominated
“rosetofilous acaulescent thickets of Hechtia” (Treviño-Carreón & Valiente-Banuet, 2005), on extensive
limestone hills or rocky exposed areas. Also but less often, the new species can be found inhabiting the lower
stratum of pine forest and rosetofilous caulescent thickets of Dasylirion miquihuanense Bogler (1998: 76) and
D. qudrangulatum S. Watson (1879: 250). In the plains and plateaus of these same sites, Hechtia hernandez-
sandovalii is often found associated with Agave lechuguilla Torrey (1858: 213) forming a plant association
called “Agave-Hechtia acaulescent rosetofilous shrubland”. Rosetofilous shrublands are interspaced with
rosetofilous forests of Yucca filifera Chabaud (1876: 432) and Y. carnerosana (Trelease 1902: 118) McKelvey
(1938: 24), as well as microphilous shrublands of Larrea tridentata (Candolle 1824:706) Coville (1893: 75).
The distribution area is located between 1800 to 2200 m above sea level, with rains during summer (July to
September) ranging from 500 to 700 mm, with temperatures ranging from -4°C and 41°C. The new species
blooms from May to June, producing fruits in the following three months, which remain on the plant for a
year when they open and free the seeds.
Other species usually found growing with Hechtia hernandez-sandovalii are Agave striata Zucc.
(Karwinsky & Zuccarini, 1833: 678), Celtis pallida Torrey (1859: 250), Cylindropuntia leptocaulis (Candolle
1828b: 118) F.M. Knuth (Backeberg & Knuth 1935:122), Euphorbia antisiphylitica Zuccarini (1832: 292),
Jatropha dioica Sessé in Cervantes (1794: 4), Koeberlinia spinosa Zuccarini (1832: 359), Lippia graveolens
Kunth (1817 “1818“: 266), Opuntia imbricata (Haworth 1819: 70) Candolle (1828a: 278), Opuntia
stenopetala Engelmann (1856: 289), Pinus cembroides Zuccarini (1832: 392), Pinus nelsonii Shaw (1904:
122), Prosopis glandulosa Torrey (1827: 192), among others.
Additional specimens examined (paratypes):—MEXICO. Tamaulipas: Mun. Palmillas, 8.5 al noroeste
de Palmillas [23°22’06’’N, 99°30’53’’O], 1550 m snm, 7 Julio 1985, P. Hiriart, V. Juárez y R. Molczadzki 937
Phytotaxa 112 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press 39
fruits (MEXU!, UAT!); 926 (MEXU!); Mun. Miquihuana, 1 km delante de la Perdida, [23°33’18’’N,
99°51’58’’O], 1850 m snm, 4 Junio 1986, H. Sánchez-Mejorada 3648 (MEXU! (2)); 17 km al O de
Miquihuana camino a Estanque de Los Walle, 23°62' N, 99°06' W, 28 Mayo 1986, L. Hernández & M.
Martínez 1799 (MEXU! (2), TEX-LL!, UAT!); 1.5 km después de la desviación hacia Estanque Los Walle,
23°32’41’’N, 99°53’53’’O, 1461 m snm, 12 Julio 2012, C. Jiménez, J. Treviño, A. de León, O. López y T.
Hernández 27 (CICY!, IEB!, US!), C. Jiménez, J. Treviño, A. de León, O. López y T. Hernández 27a
(CICY!, HGOM!, IEB!, US!, XAL!); 5.5 km al O de Miquihuana, por la carretera a San José del Llano, 2
km antes del entronque de la Perdida, 23°32’34.3’’N, 99°50’31.5’’W, 1592 m, 12 Junio 2009, I. Ramírez, J.
Treviño & S. Terán Treviño 1610 (CICY!); 1610a fruits (CICY!).
FIGURE 4. Geographical distribution of Hechtia hernandez-sandovalii (black triangles) and Hechtia glomerata (black circles).
Etymology:—We dedicate this species to Luis G. Hernández Sandoval who collected the type material of
this new species.
Discussion:—The new species along with additional ca. 10 taxa, are part of a group defined as the
Hechtia glomerata Zucc. complex by Jiménez (2011) who characterized it by the presence of lateral,
paniculate inflorescences, 1–3 divided, peduncle flattened at its base, a white indumentum covering all the
inflorescences and its parts in both staminate and pistillate plants. Flowers on species on this complex are
generally grouped in glomerules or sometimes laxly disposed along the branches, sessile to subsessile,
pistillate and staminate flowers with white petals, those staminate with white filaments, green to yellow-
greenish anthers, those pistillate with white stigma, and fruits with fusiform seeds. Phylogenetic analysis are
on their way but preliminary results with morphological characters and sequences of the plastid region rpl32
for 38 taxa of Hechtia suggest the monophyly of the complex (I. Ramírez et al., unpublished).
The new species resembles Hechtia glomerata Zucc., a species also characterized by the presence of
lateral inflorescences, but with rosettes producing stolons, leaves horizontally extended with deflexed apices,
producing open rosettes that are wider than tall, foliar laminae with adaxial surface shiny and usually coloring
red. Its pistillate branches are condensed, glomerule like, but staminate branches are elongated, and both of
RAMÍREZ ET AL.40 Phytotaxa 112 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press
them covered by a thin layer of white indumentums and flowers present white petals. On the other hand,
rosettes of Hechtia hernandez-sandovalii do not produce stolons, their leaves are erect, falcate, producing
rosettes that are taller than wide, with foliar laminae green without developing red color. Its pistillate as well
as staminate branches are cylindrical and these covered by a dense white indumentums which is cotton like
and becomes brownish with age.
A more detailed study of floral features shows that foliar sheaths on the new taxon are shorter (2.5–3 cm
vs. 3–6 cm in H. glomerata), its floral parts larger (floral bracts, petals, sepals, ovary, anthers, and
staminodes), as well as larger fruits but contrastingly smaller seeds in H. hernandez-sandovalii. Growth habit
also differs between these species: H. hernandez-sandovalii form circular colonies of tens of rosettes. New
ones are produced on the periphery with central, old ones gradually dying (and becoming black when
eventually burned), making the colony acquire the aspect of a "fairy ring". On the other hand, rosettes of H.
glomerata form small colonies of few rosettes, usually developing stolons, but never forming a circular
colony on a shape of a fairy ring, with and all rosettes remaining alive.
The indumentum density in the new taxon varies from populations at high elevations (ca. 1800 m, e.j.
locality La Peña) to slighter thinner at elevations below 1800 m. We have under cultivation representatives of
several populations of Hechtia glomerata spanning the altitudinal range of the species and the indumentum
density in the inflorescences is not affected by changes of elevation brought about by this common garden
experiment, thus supporting the notion that this character is not affected by elevation differences within the
IUCN Conservation assessment:IUCN Conservation assessment:—VU. Hechtia hernandez-
sandovalii meets criteria D2 of the IUCN (2001). The species is known from an area of less than 2 km2 within
which it occurs only at a handful of small sites. Albeit local populations of the species can be rich in
individuals and are often inaccessible, they are widely dispersed and isolated on the slopes and tops of small
MER Conservation assessment:MER Conservation assessment:—A (“Amenazada”, “threatened”).
Hechtia hernandez-sandovalii is known from an area of smaller that 0.2% of the Mexican territory. After
assessing all the criteria of this method, and based upon the relevant factors established in the preceding
paragraphs, H. hernandez-sandovalii scores 12 points, which places it in the mentioned category
(SEMARNAT, 2002).
TABLE 1. Main differences between Hechtia glomerata Zucc. and H. hernandez-sandovalii.
Feature H. glomerata H. hernandez-sandovalii
Rosette features Leaves horizontally extended with apices
deflexed, green, may develop red color;
rosette ellipsoid, wider than tall
Leaves erect, apices erect; falcate, green,
never develop red color; rosettes taller than
Foliar sheaths 3–6 cm long 2.5–3 cm long
Floral bract (staminate flower) 4–5 mm long, as long as the petals 6.3–8.2 mm long, longer than the petals
Petals (staminate flowers) 3.5–4 mm long, ovate to wide-elliptical 4.4–5.3 mm long, oblong
Floral bract (pistillate flower) Triangular-ovate to triangular, 4.5–6 mm
long, equal to the petals Transversely oblong, 8.7–9.4 mm long,
longer than the petals
Sepals (pistillate flower) 4.2–6 mm long 6.2–6.5 mm long
Ovary Ellipsoid to oblong, ca. 5 mm long Ovoid, 6 mm long
Anthers Ca. 1 mm long Ca. 2.2 mm long
Staminodes Ca. 2 mm long, no vestigial anthers 2.6–3.8 mm long, with vestigial anthers
Fruit Ovoid Ellipsoid
Seeds 5.2–7.2 mm long 3.3–3.9 mm long
Phytotaxa 112 (2) © 2013 Magnolia Press 41
We are indebted to the Elizabeth Bascom Fellowship and to the KLARF Program for the scholarship granted
to the first author that allowed the study of material from several herbaria while at Herbarium MO and
Herbarium K respectively. To the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD), Botanischer Garten
und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Freie Universität Berlin and Centro de Investigación Científica de
Yucatán, A. C. for financial support to visit and study the Bromeliaceae collection at Herbarium B during
2011. Our thanks to the curators of the following herbaria: B, BM, CICY, F, GH, IEB, HEID, HGOM, K, LG,
allowing us to study the herbarium material deposited at their herbaria. We would like to thank Tania
Hernández López, Oscar López Hernández, Adán De León Contreras, and Sergio Antonio Terán, for their
help in the field, Paola Marfil for editing the line drawings figures and Germán Carnevali for editing the
English of this paper. Finally, we thank two anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions which
improved the clarity and quality of this paper. Field work was supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y
Tecnología’s Project 183281, as well as Proyect UAT10-NAT0101 of Dirección de Estudios de Posgrado e
Investigación de la Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, awarded to the first and third author respectively.
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... only partially known and the taxonomist´s task here consists in documenting the species to fill up voids of information. In many cases, it has been necessary to epitypify species whose types include only one sex, rendering the species ambiguously diagnosable or publish accounts of species where both sexual morphs as well as fruits are documented and reconciled (Ramírez, Jiménez & Treviño 2013;Ramírez et al. 2014;Ramírez-Morillo et al. 2016). Most modern Hechtia taxonomists have taken up the task to fully document morphologically their new species, as well as providing field observations to understand natural variation (Burt-Utley & Utley 1993;Burt-Utley et al. 2011;Espejo-Serna et al. 2008;Espejo-Serna et al. 2010;García-Ruiz et al. 2014;González-Rocha et al. 2014;López-Ferrari & Espejo-Serna 2013Martínez-Correa et al. 2010;Ramírez-Morillo et al. 2014;Ramírez-Morillo et al. 2015;Ramírez-Morillo et al. 2016). ...
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This is the first phylogenetic analysis of the Megamexican Bromeliaceae genus Hechtia and includes 82.6 % of the known taxa. We used plastid (ycf1, rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer), and nuclear (PRK) DNA regions, as well as morphological characters. We generated 244 new sequences for a total of 62 taxa (including 12 species of the outgroup). Results of combined data using parsimony and Bayesian inference reveal the monophyly of Hechtia, as well as identify five well supported clades: (1) a clade (H. tillandsioides complex) as the sister group to the rest of Hechtia; (2) a clade including the species of the H. guatemalensis complex, distributed in Southern Megamexico; the remaining taxa of the genus are retained in a clade which consists of three well-supported clades; (3) the H. glomerata complex distributed in the Gulf of Mexico drainage; (4) a clade of two species (H. deceptrix and H. epigyna) that share an inferior ovary and are distributed north of the Tehuantepec Isthmus in the Sierra Madre Oriental; and (5) an internally poorly resolved clade with the remaining species containing several well-supported, geographically restricted clades. At this time it is uncertain what part of Megamexico was first invaded by the ancestor of Hechtia. Regardless, it becomes clear that from the original point of invasion in what is now Megamexico, it radiated into restricted geographical realms with secondary radiations occurring within them, which resulted in some recurrent particular evolutionary trends most likely associated with the invasion of dry, highly seasonal climates, or cooler areas subject to occasional frosts. Lateral inflorescences and flower morphology suggesting pollination syndromes other than melittophily (psychophily/trochilophily) have evolved more than once in Hechtia.
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p> Background : Bromeliaceae family in Mexico has been the object of interest by botanists since 1789; their systematic study was approached from the 1970s onwards, and now there are significant advances in its taxonomic-floristic knowledge. Question: How many and which species of Bromeliaceae occur in Mexico? How they are distributed, and how many are endemic? Study site : México, 1887-2017. Methods : Based on the study of the Mexican Bromeliaceae, including botanical collection, literature review, and revision, analysis and determination of specimens in 50 herbaria, data about species richness, Mexican endemics, and distribution of their taxa in the country, were obtained. Results : In Mexico are represented four of the eight subfamilies of Bromeliaceae, 19 genera, 422 species, and 8 infraespecific taxa. The genera with the highest number of species in the country are Tillandsia (230/54.5 %), Hechtia (71/16.8 %) and Pitcairnia (50/11.8 %). 318 of the Bromeliaceae species are endemics to Mexico, as well as Ursulaea and Viridantha genera ; 172 species are microendemic. The entity with the highest number of taxa is Oaxaca, followed by Chiapas, Veracruz and Guerrero. Tlaxcala and Baja California Sur have the lowest species number. Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Ciudad de México, San Luis Potosí, Sonora, Tabasco y Tlaxcala have not strict endemic taxa. Conclusion : Although progress in the knowledge of Mexican Bromeliaceae has been constant, exploration and recollection work is still required before concluding the Mexican bromeliad flora. It is also necessary to promote studies considering aspects of conservation and sustainable use.</p
Alkaloids occur in many classes of living organisms, and their origin can be synthesis or sequestration. They are very diverse natural compounds, abundant in number and form. Species endemic to the tropics and subtropics are especially rich in alkaloids. In many cases, these compounds are present in a symbiotic or antagonistic relationship with other organisms, and they participate in the diversification of life and evolutionary processes by genetic drift. The diversification of life involves the existence of different groups of organisms. Such groups are bacteria, archaea, eukarya, protists, green algae, land plants, fungi, viruses, protostome, and deuterostome animals. Alkaloids are important not only for individuals and species but also for populations. New species develop cross-hybridization and -adaptation and prolong life. Alkaloids are promoting compounds in this process. Microevolution is most important for the synthesis of alkaloids; their profile, content, and functionality changes the cells and cellular parts of organisms. It leads first into organelle polymorphism and, after that, into polymorphism of individuals, populations, and species. MECs (microevolutionary coefficients) are useful for determining trends in the genetic oscillation of plants and alkaloid evolutionary trends during a relatively short evolutionary period.
Alkaloids - Secrets of Life: Alkaloid Chemistry, Biological Significance, Applications and Ecological Role, Second Edition provides knowledge on structural typology, biosynthesis and metabolism in relation to recent research work on alkaloids, considering an organic chemistry approach to alkaloids using biological and ecological explanation. The book approaches several questions and unresearched areas that persist in this field of research. It provides a beneficial text for academics, professionals or anyone who is interested in the fascinating subject of alkaloids. Each chapter features an abstract. Appendices, a listing of alkaloids, and plants containing alkaloids are all included, as are basic protocols of alkaloid analysis.
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Hechtia epigyna Harms is reported for the first time from the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. This species was previously known only from Tamaulipas. A complete morphological description, photographs of male and female individuals, and a distribution map are given.
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A summary of Mexican Bromeliaceae diversity and distribution is presented along with a checklist of species. The checklist includes information on type specimens, synonymy, distribution by state and municipality, and notes on endemism. Two new combination/status changes are made in Tillandsia (T. arroyoensis, T. glabrior). RESUMEN. Se presenta una sinopsis de la diversidad y distribución de las Bromeliaceae Mexicanas, junto con un listado de referencia que incluye información sobre especímenes tipo, sinonimia, distribución por estado y municipio, asi como datos sobre endemismo. Se hacen dos nuevas combinaciones/cambios de status en Tillandsia (T. arroyoensis, T. glabrior).
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Hechtia epigyna Harms is reported for the first time from the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. This species was previously known only from Tamaulipas. A complete morphological description, photographs of male and female individuals, and a distribution map are given. Se reporta el hallazgo de Hechtia epigyna Harms en el estado de Hidalgo, México. La especie se tenía registrada previamente sólo de Tamaulipas. Se proporciona una descripción completa de la planta y fotografías de los individuos femeninos y masculinos del taxon, así como un mapa de distribución del mismo.
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The current knowledge of the bromeliad flora of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico is presented. Oaxaca is the Mexican state with the largest number of bromeliad species. Based on the study of 2,624 herbarium specimens corresponding to 1,643 collections, and a detailed bibliographic revision, we conclude that the currently known bromeliad flora for Oaxaca comprises 172 species and 15 genera. All Mexican species of the genera Bromelia, Fosterella, Greigia, Hohenbergiopsis, Racinaea, and Vriesea are represented in the state. Aechmea nudicaulis, Bromelia hemisphaerica, Catopsis nitida, C. oerstediana, C. wawranea, Pitcairnia schiedeana, P. tuerckheimii, Racinaea adscendens, Tillandsia balbisiana, T. belloensis, T. brachycaulos, T. compressa, T. dugesii, T. foliosa, T. flavobracteata, T. limbata, T. maritima, T. ortgiesiana, T. paucifolia, T. pseudobaileyi, T. rettigiana, T. utriculata, T. x marceloi, Werauhia pycnantha, and W. nutans are recorded for the first time from Oaxaca. Collections from 226 (of 570) municipalities and all 30 districts of the state were studied. Among the vegetation types occurring in Oaxaca, oak forest is the richest with 83 taxa, followed by tropical deciduous forest with 74, and cloud forest with 73 species. Species representation and distribution in Oaxaca are analyzed in detail. We also provide a comparison with bromeliad floras of the states of Chiapas, Guerrero, Puebla and Veracruz. The analysis of the species and collections by altitudinal intervals shows that the highest numbers of both ocurre between 1,500 and 2,000 m, with the number of species markedly decreasing above 2,500 m. Se presenta el estado actual del conocimiento de la flora bromeliológica del estado de Oaxaca, México. La entidad ocupa el primer lugar en el país en cuanto a número de especies de Bromeliaceae se refiere. Los resultados obtenidos de la revisión de 2,624 ejemplares herborizados, correspondientes a 1,643 colectas, así como la revisión de bibliografía especializada, muestran que en el estado están presentes 172 especies agrupadas en 15 géneros. Bromelia, Fosterella, Greigia, Hohenbergiopsis, Racinaea y Vriesea tienen representados a todos sus taxa mexicanos. Se registran por primera vez para el estado: Aechmea nudicaulis, Bromelia hemisphaerica, Catopsis nitida, C. oerstediana, C. wawranea, Pitcairnia schiedeana, P. tuerckheimii, Racinaea adscendens, Tillandsia balbisiana, T. belloensis, T. brachycaulos, T. compressa, T. dugesii, T. foliosa, T. flavobracteata, T. limbata, T. maritima, T. ortgiesiana, T. paucifolia, T. pseudobaileyi, T. rettigiana, T. utriculata, T. x marceloi, Werauhia pycnantha y W. nutans. Se registraron colectas para 226 municipios de los 570 y para el total de los distritos (30) en los que está dividido políticamente el estado. Se hizo una comparación de la flora bromeliológica de Oaxaca con la de Chiapas, Guerrero, Puebla y Veracruz. De los tipos de vegetación presentes, el Bosque de Quercus es el que presenta mayor riqueza de taxa (83), seguido por el Bosque Tropical Caducifolio (74) y el Bosque Mesófilo de Montaña (73). El análisis del número de especies y de colecciones por intervalo altitudinal muestra que las cantidades más altas, tanto de colectas como de especies, se concentran entre los 1,500 y los 2,000 m s.n.m., disminuyendo claramente por arriba de los 2,500 m.
Fire is an important ecological force in many southwestern ecosystems, but frequencies, sizes, and intensities of fire have been altered historically by grazing, logging, exotic vegetation, and suppression. Prescribed burning should be applied widely, but under experimental conditions that facilitate studying its impacts on birds and other components of biodiversity. Exceptions are Sonoran, Mojave, and Chihuahuan desert scrub, and riparian woodlands, where the increased fuel loads caused by invasions of exotic grasses and trees have increased the frequency and intensity of wildfires that now are generally destructive to native vegetation. Fire once played a critical role in maintaining a balance between herbaceous and woody vegetation in desert grasslands, and in providing a short-term stimulus to forb and seed production. A 3-5 yr fire-return interval likely will sustain most desert grassland birds, but large areas should remain unburned to serve species dependent upon woody vegetation. Understory fire once maintained relatively open oak savanna, pinyon-juniper, pine-oak, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and low elevation mixed-conifer forests and their bird assemblages, but current fuel conditions are more likely to result in stand-replacement fires outside the range of natural variation. Prescribed burning, thinning, and grazing management will be needed to return fire to its prehistoric role in these habitats. Fire also should be applied in high elevation mixed-conifer forests, especially to increase aspen stands that are important for many birds, but this will be an especially difficult challenge in an ecosystem where stand-replacement fires are natural events. Overall, surprisingly little is known about avian responses to southwestern fires, except as can be inferred from fire effects on vegetation. We call for cooperation between managers and researchers to replicate burns in appropriate habitats that will permit rigorous study of community and population-demographic responses of breeding, migrating, and wintering birds. This research is critical and urgent, given the present threat to many southwestern ecosystems from destructive wildfires, and the need to develop fire management strategies that not only reduce risk but also sustain bird populations and other components of southwestern biological diversity.
Three new species ofDasylirion and a new variety ofD. longissimum Lem. from the mountains of northern Mexico are described and illustrated. Two of the new species are from northwestern Mexico:D. gentryi, with large, rosecolored fruits and glossy, non-waxy leaves; andD. sereke, characterized by roundish fruits with an unusuall large style.Dasylirion miquihuanense is a new species from northeastern Mexico with narrow, strictly upright leaves and widely separated marginal prickles. TheDasylirion longissimum complex consists of two species,D. quadrangulatum S. Wats andD. longissimum Lem., characterized by narrow, quadrangulate leaves with reduced or absents marginal prickles. Distinguishing features of these two species, which have often been confused, are presented andD. longissimum var.treleasei, characterized by small flowers and fruits, is described.
New species of plants from Mexico
  • T S Brandegee
Brandegee, T.S. (1889) New species of plants from Mexico. Erythea 7: 1-12.