Article

Transformational leadership, work engagement, and occupational success

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Abstract

Purpose: The aim of the present study is to give insights into the interplay between leadership, well-being and occupational success by examining the indirect effect of transformational leadership on subjective occupational success mediated by work engagement. Design/methodology/approach: A gender-sensitive approach was applied in order to reveal possible differences in the relations and to deduce gender-specific recommendations. Data were retrieved from 530 women and 602 men. The participants were questioned on their leader's behavior, their work engagement, and occupational success. Findings: Results show significant positive relations between transformational leadership, work engagement, and subjective occupational success for men and women. Work engagement is found to partially mediate the relation between transformational leadership and subjective occupational success. A significantly higher mediation effect was found for women, although the mediation is present in both gender groups. Practical implications: Both for men and women transformational leadership training, as well as interventions promoting work engagement, are promising approaches for the enhancement of occupational success. Originality/value: The findings advance the understanding of how leaders enhance employees' occupational success and provide gender-specific insights into the mediating mechanism of work engagement regarding this relation.

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... In the literatures researchers observe the significant relationship of transformational leadership and project success (Bass & Avolio, 1993;Vincent-Höper, Muser, & Janneck, 2012). But specifically People oriented and task oriented leadership is not assessed with project success with mediating effect of employee engagement. ...
... As the previous research leadership style increase the EE and EE leads to Project Success (Saks, 2006). In the study of Vincent-Höper et al. (2012) it is empirically tested that the relation between transformational leadership and subjective occupational success is significantly mediated by work engagement. So in this study we predict that EE mediates the relationship of task oriented leadership and project success. ...
... Leadership style increase the EE and EE leads to Project Success (Saks, 2006). In the study of Vincent-Höper et al. (2012) empirically tested that the relation between transformational leadership and subjective occupational success is significantly mediated by work engagement. So in this study we predict that EE mediates the relationship of people oriented leadership and project success. ...
Thesis
The study aims to get the affect of leadership styles on project success, Employee engagement uses as mediator. This study was carried on sample of 122 (91 males and 31 females) project professionals and data was collected by using the electronic questionnaire link (developed on Google forms) from 122 project professionals (Project managers, Project Coordinators, Team leaders) of different projects in Lahore, Multan and Faisalabad. The study was cross sectional in nature. The analysis on data was done by descriptive statistics, correlation, Cronbach’s alpha, linear regression and Hayes PROCESS (for mediating variables) by using through SPSS 20. Results of linear regression illustrated the significant impact of Leadership Styles and Project Success. Results demonstrated that in the Pakistani’s project based industries task oriented leadership styles have more impact on project success instead of people oriented leadership. Results of mediation through Hayes PROCESS showed the positive effect of leadership styles on project success via employee engagement. Research has both practical and theoretical implications for project managers in manufacturing and construction project based organizations in Pakistan.
... Past research conducted by Hoper, Muser, and Janneck [23], Ghadi, Fernando, and Caputi [24], Hayati, Charkhabi and Naami [10], Wang, C. Li and X. Li [25] presented that transformational leadership had a significant and (+) connection with work engagement. Wells and Peachey [26] confirmed that transformational leadership has a direct (-) influence on turnover intention. ...
... There were several previous studies on transformational leadership connections and work engagement done by Hoper, Muser, and Janneck [23]. Their studies presented that transformational leadership has a (+) connection to work engagement. ...
... This notion was also supported by the outcome of this research that the connection among transformational leadership and work engagement, producing a (+) and significant connection with β = 0.003 level of regression significance 0,0.466. It is also supported by previous studies undertaken by Hoper, Muser, and Janneck [23], Ghadi, Fernando, and Caputi [24], Hayati, Charkhabi and Naami [10], Wang, C. Li and X Li [25] suggests that transformational leadership has a significant and (+) connection to work engagement. ...
... These considerations are important when determining for whom, and in which situations, the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being is deemed pertinent. For instance, a significant difference between the genders was found in the relationship between transformational leadership and career satisfaction [25], suggesting that employees' personal characteristics are an important factor that may influence the transformational leadership and well-being relationship. ...
... This finding suggests that perceptions of well-being tend to be higher in male employees compared with female employees when leaders demonstrate high levels of transformational leadership behaviors. This result contradicts previous findings that showed that transformational leadership has a bigger impact on women's work satisfaction than that of men [25]. This disparity may have arisenbecause the study participants from previous research were mainly engineering and/or computing employees, whereas the samples of the present study comprised of employees working in the service industry-related sectors. ...
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Leaders play a significant role in organizations and their leadership behaviors can either enhance or undermine the well-being of their employees. This study aimed to meta-analyze the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being in the service industry, and how employees’ gender and service sector moderated the strength of this relationship. This study used a convergent mixed-method approach. PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, AMED, and Scopus electronic databases were utilized to search for relevant studies. Textual data were analyzed using a text data-mining technique (Leximancer) to determine the relevant themes and concepts. Statistical data were examined through a comprehensive meta-analysis to determine their effect sizes. The qualitative results outline the major themes that emerged: leadership, well-being, and health. The quantitative findings revealed that the perceived well-being of male employees and those working outside of the health-care service sector was positively higher when employees’ leaders showed transformational leadership. In general, the findings from the qualitative and quantitative data converge. The findings confirm the positive relationship between transformational leadership and employee well-being. This study also highlights the applicability of a convergent mixed-method approach as a useful methodological strategy when analyzing both lexical and statistical data.
... Work Engagement is a job that is carried out with full responsibility, hard work, and joy (Schaufeli and Bakker, 2001). Gozukara and Simsek (2015), Raja (2012), Vincent et al. (2012), and Tims et al. (2011), states that a well-implemented Transformational Leadership style will be able to increase employee work engagement in service companies and higher education / public and private universities. Various research results confirm that Transformational Leadership has a positive effect on work engagement. ...
... This study is not in line with the results of previous studies which found that Transformational Leadership will affect Work Engagement (Raja, 2012;Gozukara and Simsek, 2015;Tims et al., 2011;Vincent et al., 2012;Troena et al., 2014;Park et al., 2016;Henkel, 2017). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to analyze the direct effect of transformational leadership on work engagement and the indirect effect mediated by remuneration and educator motivation. This type of research is positivist research. The object of this research is the lecturer at State Polytechnic of Malang. The population in this study amounted to 182 lecturers of Malang State Polytechnic. The sampling technique used census techniques, all populations were used as research samples. The analytical tool used is the Partial Least Square Smart Program (PLS) based on the Variance Based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The results show that Transformational Leadership affects Work Engagement, Remuneration does not mediate the effect of Transformational Leadership on Work Engagement, Educator Motivation mediates the Effect of Transformational Leadership on Engagement. Implementation of Remunerationneed to be repaired to meet related to the performance of supporting activities, indirect rewards, research performance, the performance of teaching/lectures, the performance of community service. Future researchers are expected to research teaching staff at all levels of office.
... In addition, the moderation effect could be another area worth examining in the leadership and engagement context. A certain leadership style may have an interaction (i.e., work better or worse) with a specific factor than others as the gender (Vincent-Höper et al., 2012), the spatial distance (Whitford and Moss, 2009), follower characteristics (Zhu et al., 2009) ...
... Esses resultados estão de acordo com as teorias de liderança ao apontar o protagonismo do líder transformacional para dirigir as atitudes dos funcionários (AVOLIO et al., 2009;WANG et al., 2011). Especificamente, os resultados encontrados reforçam a relação positiva da liderança transformacional com o engajamento (VINCENT-HÖPER et al., 2012), a satisfação (BRAUN et al., 2013) e o desempenho no trabalho (PICCOLO; COLQUITT, 2006). O líder transformacional influencia as atitudes dos funcionários por incentivá-los a ultrapassar os anseios para o sucesso da organização, fornecendo um modelo a ser seguido, inspirando a motivação no trabalho, estimulando intelectualmente e exercendo mentoria (AVOLIO, 1993). ...
Article
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A literatura sugere que a liderança transformacional e a inteligência emocional desempenham um papel significativo na motivação dos funcionários no local de trabalho (i.e., engajamento no trabalho, desempenho no trabalho e satisfação no trabalho). Embora seja relevante o papel do líder transformacional, Kerr e Jermier (1978) destacaram situações do contexto do trabalho em que o líder pode ser substituído, uma vez que se sua atuação se torna redundante para o funcionário. Neste artigo, propõe-se que a inteligência emocional é uma característica do subordinado que substitui o líder transformacional na motivação do trabalho. Um levantamento online foi realizado com 163 funcionários que ocupam diferentes cargos e posição hierárquica de organizações de diversos setores econômicos. As análises estatísticas de correlação e regressão linear múltipla foram realizadas com o software Jasp. Os resultados desta pesquisa mostram que tanto a liderança transformacional quanto a inteligência emocional do funcionário aumentam o engajamento, desempenho e satisfação no trabalho. No entanto, quando a inteligência emocional do funcionário é alta, a liderança transformacional não é necessária para que o mesmo tenha elevados índices de desempenho e satisfação no trabalho.
... In terms of IWB, García-Buades et al. [36] have provided collective-level findings showing that engaged employees usually 'infect' their colleagues with their enthusiasm and vigor as an emotional contagion, whereby all their co-workers are more willing to perform IWB because they perceive a supportive and passionate innovative climate. Moreover, work engagement has been found to be a vital antecedent of individuals' job satisfaction and subjective occupational success [37][38][39]. ...
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China’s manufacturing employees are confronted with unprecedent occupational and innovation challenges caused by the ongoing COVID-19 crisis coupled with the pressure of being replaced by digital technologies. To gain a better understanding of the rising occupational uncertainty during this critical time, based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, we examined the associations of employees’ job crafting behaviors (JCB) with their occupational satisfaction and innovation workplace behavior (IWB), as well as the mediating effect of work engagement on the above relationships. The final usable data were obtained from the formal survey of 311 employees of six manufacturing companies that have returned to work amid COVID-19. Structural equation modelling was adopted to analyze the data. Results show that employees’ JCB strengthens their occupational satisfaction and IWB via work engagement. Theoretically, our research enriches the existing body of knowledge about JCB from a cross-disciplinary angle integrating the perspectives of career and psychology. Practically, we offer valuable first-hand evidence about how manufacturing employees conducted JCB to re-orient their careers and to innovate in the face of the high unemployment situation.
... Leaders have the ability to drive performance, create organizational culture changes, and ultimately empower employees to achieve the organization's mission. Certain leadership styles, such as transformational leadership, have been associated with employees indicating increased work engagement, receiving higher performance ratings, and executing enhanced job performance (Breevaart et al., 2016;Ghafoor et al., 2011;Vincent-Höper et al., 2012). The third subfactor of the EEI, Leaders Lead "reflects employee perceptions of the integrity of leadership, as well as leadership behaviors such as communication and workforce motivation" (OPM, 2016a), which are elements of transformational leadership. ...
Article
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Employee turnover is a major challenge facing the federal workforce, which has lost more employees to voluntary turnover than any other form of turnover. This study determined the associations between engagement, demographic factors, and voluntary turnover intention by analyzing 2015 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey data. The findings indicate that employees with higher engagement levels are less likely to report an intention to leave their jobs than those with lower engagement levels. All engagement factors—perceptions of supervisors, leaders, and intrinsic work experience—are independently associated with turnover intention. Demographics also influenced turnover intention; being younger, male, and in a supervisory role and having a higher education level and shorter tenure were more likely to indicate turnover intention. Increasing employee engagement can have a positive effect on retaining a productive federal workforce. To retain an effective federal workforce, human capital management practices are needed to optimize factors that reduce turnover intention.
... Work engagement reflects individuals' positive and spirited mentality. Studies have proved the close relationship between work engagement and employee loyalty (Vigoda-Gadot et al., 2013), subjective career success (Muser et al., 2012), and work performance (Bakker and Bal, 2011). ...
Article
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Although work engagement as a positive organizational behavior has gained considerable achievements in recent years, there is still a lack of content research based on certain culture, job, and group characteristics. This study conducts a grounded theory research on work engagement by coding and analyzing the interview files from public servants working in the government located in Eastern China. The result shows a five-dimension construct of work engagement, which includes loyalty to the work, commitment to the working relationships, positive emotion, initiative action, and priority for mixed roles. Additionally, the current study also constructs a theoretical model which discovers the dynamic variables motivating the process of work engagement and the influence of Confucianism.
... Dinçlik boyutu, bireyin çalışma faaliyeti sürecinde sahip olduğu enerji düzeyi, çaba gösterme azmini ve zihinsel dayanıklılığını ifade etmektedir (Bakker, Timsve Derks, 2012;Hartog ve Belschak, 2012). Adanmışlık, kişinin yaptığı işe yönelik güçlü bir bağlılığını belirtmektedir (Vincent-Hoper, Muser ve Janneck, 2012;Schaufeli ve diğerleri, 2002). Yoğunlaşma ise kişinin yapmış olduğu faaliyete odaklanması anlamına gelmektedir. ...
Article
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Bu çalışmada, sağlık çalışanlarının iş becerikliliği, çalışmaya tutkunluk, örgütsel erdemlilik, duygusal öz yeterlik ve duygusal zekâ puanlarının, çeşitli sosyo-demografik (cinsiyet, medeni durum, öğrenim durumu, görev değişkeni, yaş, kurum çalışma süresi, kurum türü değişkenleri) açılarından farklılık araştırması yapılmıştır. Çalışma, Konya ilinde bulunan kamu ve üniversite hastanelerinden rastgele örnekleme yöntemiyle seçilen toplam 5 hastanede yapılmıştır. Bu hastanelerde farklı dallarda çalışan 700 sağlık çalışanına ulaşılmıştır. Çalışma, sağlık çalışanıyla yüz yüze anket yöntemiyle ve basit rastgele örnekleme tekniğiyle gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada tanımlayıcı istatistikler ve farklılık testleri çalışılmıştır. Araştırmada çalışmaya tutkunluk, örgütsel erdemlilik puanlarının, çeşitli sosyo-demografik (cinsiyet, medeni durum, görev değişkeni, yaş, kurum çalışma süresi, çalışılan kurum) açılardan farklılık oluşturduğu saptanmıştır.
... Work engagement is mostly related to positive individual and organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction and job performance, and less turnover intentions (Halbesleben, 2010). Moreover, work engagement has been shown to be positively related to subjective career success (Ng & Feldman, 2014b;Vincent-Höper, Muser, & Janneck, 2012) and is usually seen as one variable representing the motivation-enhancing perspective within the JD-R model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017;Demerouti et al., 2001). Importantly, one study showed that challenge appraisals related to the stressors of time urgency, role conflict, and emotional demands were positively related to work engagement (Li, Taris, & Peeters, 2020). ...
Article
This study integrated research on competitive psychological climate (CPC) and successful career development within transactional stress theory and the job‑demands resources model. The theoretical model assumed two different processes from CPC at work that might either foster or hamper career success. Specifically, CPC might be positively related to work engagement (motivation‑enhancing path, CPC appraised as challenge) or burnout (energy‑decreasing path, CPC appraised as hindrance), which then should be positively or negatively related to objective and subjective career success, respectively. High versus low leader‑member exchange relationships are assumed to moderate the relationships between CPC and work engagement and burnout. In Study 1, we tested the theoretical model within a sample of 808 academic scientists from different research fields in Germany. By doing so, we applied conditional indirect effects analyses within a path‑modeling framework. The results largely supported the theoretical model, and showed that CPC is positively related to the number of publications and career satisfaction via work engagement under the condition of a high LMX quality. By contrast, CPC was negatively related to career satisfaction via burnout under the condition of a low LMX quality. Within Study 2 and an additional independent sample, results showed that these pathways are explained via hindrance and challenge appraisals of CPC. We discuss these results against the background of competition‑based HR systems, as well as the integration of challenge–hindrance frameworks in career developmental research.
... We believe that leaders' work engagement is likely to play a role in followers' subjective career success by enhancing their work engagement. Supporting this argument, Vincent-Höper et al. (2012) reported that employees' work engagement was found to partially mediate the relationship between transformational leadership characteristics and subjective career success. Many studies have also found that employees' work engagement mediates the link between leaders' relational behaviors and employees' job attitude and performance (Shuck and Herd, 2012;Carasco-Saul et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Using a sample of 52 work teams (52 work team leaders and their 348 followers) in China, we investigated the influence mechanism of leaders' work engagement on their followers' work engagement and subjective career success. A multilevel structural equation model (MSEM) was applied to analyze the survey data. The results of this study indicated that leaders' work engagement positively influenced their followers' subjective career success, and this relationship was mediated by the followers' work engagement. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed in the final section of the paper.
... The role of work engagement as a potential mediator in transmitting the implication of multiple level of independent variables on dependent variables have gained a growing interest from many scholars in the literature. Organization level independent variables which is applied in work engagement mediation analysis includes organization politics (Agarwal & Agarwal, 2016), perceived organizational support (Freeney & Fellenz, 2013;Sulea et al., 2012), corporate social responsibility (Chaudhary & Akhouri, 2018; Ilkhanizadeh & Karatepe, 2017), learning organization (Maura Sheehan et al., 2013), high performance work system (HPWS) (Ang et al., 2013;Karatepe, 2013), organization public value (Meynhardt, Brieger, & Hermann, 2018) organization identification (Karanika-Murray et al., 2015) and transformational leadership (Vincent-Höper, Muser, & Janneck, 2012).Similarly, the impacted organizational level dependent variable due to work engagement indirect mediation effect includes organization citizenship behaviour, (OCB) (Sulea et al., 2012) ...
... [15].Researcher stated that engaged worker perform better than non engaged workers, because they often experience positive emotions, include happines, joy and enthuasiasm. [16] H3: Work engagement positively influences the productivity of teachers and lecturers. ...
... Many scholars have investigated the antecedents and consequences of work engagement and found that the precursors of work engagement include perceived organizational support and job characteristics (Saks, 2006); high job autonomy and low time pressure (De Spiegelaere et al., 2014); organizational role stress and high-performance work practices (Garg, 2015); service climate, job satisfaction, and affective commitment (Barnes & Collier, 2013); regulatory, supervisory, and social support (Freeney & Fellenz, 2013); job resources (Klusmann et al. 2008;de Lange et al., 2008;Kühnel et al., 2012;Timms & Brough, 2013); transformational leadership (Vincent-Höper et al., 2012); LMX (Agarwal et al. 2012;Matta et al., 2015); authentic leadership and employee trust (Hsieh & Wang, 2015); perceived line manager behaviour and human resource management practices (Alfes et al., 2013); and ethics environment and organizational trust (Hough et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Throughout the 21st century, change has been a predominant theme in the workplace. Increased technology and globalization are two key contributors to the changing landscape. The costs of occupational health and well-being are increasingly being considered as sound “investments” as healthy and engaged employees yield direct economic benefits to the company. The concept of work engagement plays a vital role in this endeavour because engagement entails positive definitions of employee health and promotes the optimal functioning of employees within an organizational setting. The present article reviewed existing human resource management and leadership literature and then proposes a framework that links employee engagement, workplace spirituality and ethical leadership. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT) that proffers workplace spirituality as an arbitrator in the relationship between employee work engagement and ethical leadership. A set of propositions that represent an empirically driven research agenda are presented.
... Moreover, employee engagement is a mediating construct of relevance to many studies. For example, employee engagement was found to have a mediating effect between leadership and occupational success (Vincent-Hoper et al., 2012); quality of work life and employee voice/neglect, exit intentions (Wahlberg et al., 2017), as well as organisational climate for innovation and innovative work behaviour (Ali et al., 2020). Therefore, the present study also sought to examine the mediating role of employee engagement between quality of work life and lifelong learning. ...
Article
There has been a significantly increasing emphasis on the quality of interactions between employers and employees in the context of managerial and organisational studies in Malaysia. To encourage a desirable workforce, organisations often list factors associated with quality of work life, employee engagement, and lifelong learning as contributors to achieving optimal organisational goals. However, do quality of work life and employee engagement truly lead to employee disposition for lifelong learning? This paper aims to explore quality of work life and employee engagement as precursors to establishing a workforce that embraces lifelong learning. Structural Equation Modeling analysis was employed on 472 samples obtained from working adults holding different positions in various organisations in the country. The empirical results demonstrate that quality of work life leads to employee engagement, which in turn, positively contributes to lifelong learning. The results also suggest that employee engagement fully mediates the relationship between quality of work life and lifelong learning. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of what it takes to create a workforce that engages in continuous learning, and sets the tone for compelling narratives in rolling out organisational vision and mission for lifelong learning in Malaysia.
... Crossover between leaders and subordinates has been studied as well, and much of it has focused on how the leader affects the subordinates' stressors and strains. This is because leaders play an active role in shaping their subordinates' job demands (Brown & Benson, 2005) and can craft their subordinates' work conditions in a way that helps some aspects of employee well-being, such as work engagement (Vincent-Höper, Muser, & Janneck, 2012). Although the leaders' actions can help alleviate subordinates' stressors and/or strains (e.g., transformational leadership behaviors; Diebig, Bormann, & Rowold, 2017), they can also be an inherent source of stress for their subordinates (e.g., abusive supervision; Wu & Hu, 2009). ...
... Çalışırken yüksek derecede dinçlik hisseden çalışan yaptığı iş ile güdülendiği ve zorluklara karşı pes etmediği görülmektedir (Turgut 2011, Bakker ve ark., 2012Hartog ve Belschak, 2012). Adanmışlık, çalışanın işine olan güçlü bağlılığı olarak değerlendirilmektedir (Schaufeli ve ark., 2002;Vincent-Hoper, Muser ve Janneck, 2012). Çalışmaya adanmış bireyler, işlerinin çekici ve anlamlı olduğunu, mücadele gerektirdiğini düşünmektedirler. ...
... Another factor that also influences motivation is the leadership style that the superior has towards his subordinates. Leadership style or leadership behavior, namely a leader in carrying out various leadership functions and is influenced by various factors, including education, experience, personality, and situation (Vincent-Höper, Muser, & Janneck, 2012).Leadership can also be interpreted as the ability to direct followers to cooperate with trust and to be able to do a job well. A leader always has the authority to govern subordinates with their respective leadership styles and subordinates will receive orders from their leaders with different views (Soekarso & Putong, 2015). ...
... Early research demonstrates that supervisor leadership style critically affects employee morale and subjective wellbeing with "employee-oriented" leaders to have a significantly more positive effect on employees' morale compared to a "production-oriented" leadership style (Pestonjee & Singh, 1977). Subsequent research consistently demonstrates the critical role of various supervisor leadership styles on employee morale and subjective wellbeing such as ethical leaders (Yang, 2014), transformational leaders (Vincent-Höper, Muser, & Janneck, 2012) and empowering leaders (Kim & Beehr, 2018), among others. Relatedly, Myrden and Kelloway (2015) demonstrate the crucial role of transformational leaders in enhancing the relationship among employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction and loyalty, and company profitability, in line with the premises of the service-profit chain model. ...
Article
Customer incivility toward frontline employees (FLEs) is a widespread phenomenon within tourism and hospitality industries, severely depleting the psychological resources of FLEs and delivered customer service. Drawing on the job demands-resources and conservation of resources frameworks, the current research compares the effects of the two most common forms of customer incivility on FLEs' psychological responses and behavioral intentions (study 1). Moreover, this work explores the degree to which supervisor leadership style can mitigate the depleting effects of these two forms of customer incivility on FLEs (study 2). Findings demonstrate that FLEs' responses to customer incivility episodes remain contingent upon supervisor's leadership style and acknowledge that an empowering (vs. laissez-faire) leadership style can better mitigate the depleting effects of both customer incivility forms on FLEs' role stress, rumination, retaliation and withdrawal intentions. The implications of these findings for tourism and hospitality theory and practicing managers are discussed.
... These attributes tend to have become essential/necessary in fostering employee engagement. Many of these attributes reflect a transformational leadership style that positively impacts individual employee outcomes (employee engagement) and leads to business outcomes (market orientation, customer orientation and service orientation) (Popli & Rizvi, 2015;Song et al., 2012;Vincent-Hoper et al., 2012;Yuan et al., 2012). While further research may be needed to establish an association between the transformational leadership attributes and the effective leadership communication components proposed here, preliminary evidence from this study suggests that organizations will need to measure and promote transformational leadership behaviours. ...
Article
Effective communication is critical for leaders to influence and create an impact within and outside organizations. Despite this, questions are raised regarding the efficacy & effectiveness of organizational leaders in conducting meaningful communication & conversations with their teams. Often, organizations are unsure of the specific leadership communication attributes and their outcomes at the individual, team and organizational levels. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of leaders’ communication on the feelings and thoughts of subordinates and to identify attributes for a possible measure of ‘effective leadership communication’. On the basis of ‘communicative leadership’ theorization by Johansson et al. (2014) , primary data was collected from employees’ across organizations. The study reveals gaps in the leader’s communication competence and suggests a need for more meaningful conversation with subordinates. The study proposes a tool for leadership communication assessment comprising two factors: transforming thoughts and transforming individuals.
... Colakoglu et al., 2006) we also underline the possible importance of resources in the person's context. Typical context resources that have been studied earlier, within the work context, include organizational support for career development (e.g., Barnett and Bradley, 2007), supportive relationships incorporating mentoring (Allen et al., 2004), developmental networks (Bozionelos, 2008), and leadership (Janneck et al., 2012). ...
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Research has shown the importance of engaging in networking behaviors for employees’ career success. Networking behaviors can be seen as a proactive way of creating access to career-related social resources and we argue that this type of proactive career behaviors might be particularly relevant for freelancers who cannot depend on an organizational career system supporting their further development, yet whose careers are characterized by high levels of uncertainty and unpredictability. To date, however, our understanding of how freelancers, being a category of workers that are deprived of an organizational context of support for career development, can safeguard their employability, is limited. Therefore, this study addresses this gap and investigates whether freelancers’ networking behaviors are positively associated with career outcomes, through the mediating role of the need for relatedness fulfillment and employability-enhancing competencies. Hypotheses are tested via Structural Equation Modeling using a sample of 1,874 freelancers from Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The results generally support our hypotheses, providing evidence for a significant association between networking behaviors and need for relatedness fulfillment, and between networking behaviors and employability-enhancing competencies. Moreover, we found a significant association between need for relatedness fulfillment and employability-enhancing competencies, being the mediators in our research model and the outcomes of career satisfaction and perceived future career opportunities. Implications for career development in the contemporary workplace are discussed, with particular attention for need for relatedness fulfillment, employability-enhancing competencies, and sustainable careers of freelance workers.
... Altogether, the results of these overviews indicate a clear pattern: specifically, transformational leaders are able to successfully motivate employees, thereby contributing to a higher level of employee work engagement (e.g. Ghadi, Fernando, & Caputi, 2012;Vincent-Höper, Muser, & Janneck, 2012). ...
Article
The goal of this study is to provide a cross-lagged examination of the relationships between engaging leadership, job resources and employee work engagement. We propose a mediation model and we postulate that engaging leadership can increase perceptions of three specific job resources (i.e. auton- omy, support from colleagues and opportunities for learning and development) which theoretically correspond to the three facets of engaging leadership (i.e., inspiring, connecting and strengthening, respectively). Subsequently, in keeping with the extant body of Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) research, we link job resources to employee work engagement. Our hypotheses were tested on data collected at two time-points e T1 (N 1⁄4 759) and T2 (N 1⁄4 273) efrom employees working for a hotel chain in the Netherlands. In line with our expectations, engaging leadership showed a significant cross-lagged relationship with autonomy and support from colleagues, but did not predict learning opportunities and work engagement across time. While we formulated specific hypotheses, we also tested reversed causation relationships. We found no direct effect from engaging leadership on employee work engagement, however, the reversed effect was significant; employee perceptions of engaging leadership were shaped by their own engagement experiences. Importantly, engaged employees at T1 reported more job resources at T2. By providing a cross-lagged examination of our model, we showed that engaging leaders as well as employees’ positive affective state of being engaged, are essential to shaping a resourceful work context. A comprehensive view on the triggers and outcomes of work engagement and engaging leadership is needed, as the traditional unidirectional cause-effect rationale fails to explain how these concepts relate to one another and to employee experiences of job resources.
... The manager might be a facilitator or reinforcer of workaholic behaviours among the employees. Taking into account the fact that work-related behaviour of the employees can develop in response to the leaders' behaviour (Vincent-Höper et al., 2012;Mazzetti et al., 2014), the transformational leadership style was chosen as another variable in the present study. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between dimensions of the perceived transformational leadership style and the employees’ workaholism. Design/methodology/approach The quantitative approach with a cross-sectional research design was adopted in the present study. The study involved 250 employees working in different Lithuanian organisations. The perceived transformational leadership style was assessed with the help of the Transformational Leadership Inventory (Podsakoff et al. , 1990). The ten-item Dutch Work Addiction Scale developed by Schaufeli et al. (2009) was used for measuring workaholism. Findings The results revealed a significant positive correlation between the perceived high expectations of the manager, employees’ excessive work and general workaholism. The perceived individualised support was negatively related to the employees’ excessive, compulsive work and general workaholism. It was also found that high performance expectations could predict the employees’ greater excessive work and general workaholism. Moreover, a higher level of individualised support appears to be the most important factor decreasing the employees’ excessive work and proneness to general workaholism. It was further found that the probability of higher levels of workaholism was stronger among the middle managers than among the non-executive employees. Originality/value This study contributes to limited empirical research into the negative effect of the transformational leadership style in determining the employees’ health-damaging work behaviour.
... While idealized influence was found to be not significant (β=.067, p>0.05). These findings were consistent with previous research on leadership related to career outcomes (Mullen & Kelloway, 2010;Xanthopoulou et al., 2008;Janneck, 2012). These determinations were also consonant with other researchers in other disciplines (Voon et al., 2011;Hinduan et al., 2009;Pattern, 1995) which found significant relationships between transformational leadership characteristics and job satisfaction. ...
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Grooming successful leaders is more important now than ever for the public sector. Thus, to groom potential future leaders, the organization not only needs a succession planning program, but also commitment from the leaders. This paper analyzes the influence of leadership style characteristics on preparing future leaders through succession planning programs in Malaysia's public sector. Four dimensions of transformational leadership styles were used which included idealized influence, inspirational motivation, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. This study employed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the effective Succession Planning and Management Questionnaire which were administered to 394 public servants from Malaysia's public sector. Data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The results of the multiple regression analysis demonstrated that individualized influence was the main predictor of succession planning programs. Therefore, it is crucial for leaders to continue observing and modifying their leadership style(s) and behavior to be effective leaders.
... Strong assertions were made in leadership literature regarding the beneficial effect of transformational leadership on subordinates (Alvesson and Karreman, 2016;Martin, 2016;Pounder, 2003;Vincent-Höper et al., 2012;Yamfei et al., 2018). A number of studies suggested that transformational leadership had a profound positive influence on subordinates' motivation (Lee and Kuo, 2019;Masi and Cooke, 2000;Rita et al., 2018;Zareen et al., 2015). ...
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Purpose This paper aims to deal with a study aimed at clarifying the relationship between the dimensions of the perceived transformational leadership style and work motivation in a sample of female employees. Design/methodology/approach A total of 168 Lithuanian employees participated in the empirical study. Work motivation was assessed using the work extrinsic and intrinsic motivation scale (Tremblay et al. , 2009). The perceived transformational leadership style was assessed with the help of the transformational leadership inventory (Podsakoff et al. , 1990). Findings The results revealed that both intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation of female employees was enhanced when the leader was perceived as a person articulating the vision of the future, providing an appropriate role model, fostering the acceptance of group goals and applying intellectual stimulation. High-performance expectations of the transformational leader lead to an increased level of women’s extrinsic motivation. Originality/value This study contributes to the limited empirical research into the role of discrete dimensions of transformational leadership in determining both intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation of female employees.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: investigate job resources as a moderator in the relationship between transformational leadership and employee engagement in service sector organizations, and investigate the relative importance of each dimension of job resources in relation to employee engagement. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative data were collected using a survey design for which 187 employees responded. These employees were sourced from retail stores across ten shopping malls located in Trinidad. Findings Findings from a hierarchical multiple regression supported the first two hypotheses and showed that transformational leadership was positively related to employee engagement and job resources moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and employee engagement. However, findings from structural equation modeling did not support the third hypothesis because supervisor support was negatively related to employee engagement. Practical implications Implications for service organizations include the provision of adequate job resources so that the effect of transformational leadership on employee engagement can be realized. Specifically, organizations must provide job control to employees, promote free access to information, create an innovative climate and develop a supportive work climate. Instead of focusing on the job resource of supervisor support, service organizations may need to build an environment that stimulates coworker support. Originality/value This study not only adds to the limited body of research on organizational leadership in emerging markets, but also contributes to the field of organizational behavior by showing an important condition (i.e. job resources) under which the relationship between transformational leadership and employee engagement varies and unraveling the dimensions of job resources in relation to employee engagement.
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This study examined a comprehensive model including transformational leadership, individual- and organisational-level knowledge assets (i.e., work engagement and a supportive learning culture), and knowledge creation practices with a cultural comparison between South Korean and US schools. The results indicated that a principal’s transformational leadership strongly affected a supportive learning culture, which is an organisational-level knowledge asset, which in turn led to knowledge creation practices in schools. From a cross-cultural perspective, a principal’s leadership directly affected knowledge creation practices of teachers in Korean schools, whereas a supportive learning culture was found to be more influential on teachers’ attitudes and behaviours related to knowledge creation in US schools. Our study contributes to a better understanding of conditions for knowledge creation practices from a cross-cultural perspective and provides several important implications for the knowledge management literature.
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A systematic succession planning program, couple with solid career development is important to public sector employees. With this in mind, practicing the appropriate leadership strategy may contribute to a good management system. Therefore, this study intends to explore the relationship between leadership styles and career development program. The questionnaires also probed subordinates perceptions of leadership styles and expectations for greater career development. Quantitative research design was employed by distributing survey questionnaires to 576 Malaysian Public Sector government servants. The results of this research offer new insights into the importance of leadership values in the succession planning of government organizations.
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Malaysian government linked companies (GLCs) are expected to not only sustain their performance but also to contribute more on the long term business and societal value. Thus, in moving towards this direction, organization needs employees that are energetic and have strong positive connection to their job. The aims of this study are to determine job and individual related factors that influence an individual work engagement. Specifically, this study aims at determining the (1) relationship between job crafting and work engagement; (2) relationship between psychological capital and work engagement. Data were collected from 201 executives level employees of a high performance GLC in Malaysia. The findings revealed that employees need to have self efficacy and optimism in order to be engaged in their work. Additionally, social job resources such as feedback and support is also found to be crucial to create high work engagement workforce. This study is significant to the top management, human resource practitioners, managers and supervisors in understanding job and individual factors that would lead to work engagement. This input is also beneficial in designing jobs and creating programs that would lead to high work engagement among employees
Article
Purpose In 2006, Saks (2006) published one of the first empirical studies of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Since then dozens of studies on engagement have been published and most of them have used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) to measure work engagement. The purpose of this paper is to revisit Saks (2006) to try and address some issues that have arisen during the last ten years and to assess the generalizability of his findings and model using the UWES measure of work engagement and single-item measures of job and organization engagement. Design/methodology/approach Additional analyses was conducted using the data from Saks (2006) including measures of each job characteristic, the use of the UWES measure of work engagement, and single-item general measures of job engagement and organization engagement. In addition, a review of engagement research was conducted as well as research that used Saks’ (2006) measures of job engagement and organization engagement. Findings The results indicate that skill variety is the main job characteristic that predicts job engagement. The results of the analysis using the UWES measure of work engagement found that job characteristics and perceived organizational support are significant predictors of work engagement, and work engagement predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and intentions to quit and mediates the relationship between the antecedents and the consequences. Similar results were found using the single-item measures of job engagement and organization engagement. A review of the engagement literature indicates general support for the Saks (2006) model of the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement and for his measures of job and organization engagement. A revised and updated model is provided with additional antecedents and consequences. Practical implications The results indicate that organizations can drive employee engagement by focusing on skill variety as well as providing social support, rewards and recognition, procedural and distributive fairness, and opportunities for learning and development. In addition, organizations can assess employee engagement more frequently and easily by using single-item measures of job and organization engagement. Originality/value This paper provides an update and revision of the Saks (2006) model of employee engagement and suggests that the main findings are similar when using the UWES measure of work engagement and single-item general measures of job engagement and organization engagement.
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Leading a team effectively is a very important factor for any leader or organization that wants to achieve success and its goals. The thesis research was conducted in order to investigate and understand the relationship between leadership styles and organizational outcomes, employee engagement, and generational differences through three specific studies. Bass and Avolio’s (2004) multifactorial leadership questionnaire (MLQ) and the Utrecht labor involvement scale (UWES-17) were used for the global research. The study sample consisted of 167 respondents. The results of the thesis made important and original contributions to validate and expand the evidence of the benefits of the transformational leadership style. The thesis concludes that transformational behaviors are the ones that have the most positive impact on organizational outcomes, employee engagement, and millennial job satisfaction. Each leader who wishes to manage teams successfully may benefit from analyzing their inner style and implement transformational behavioral approaches towards their teams.
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Purpose Lucrative employment in agriculture is fundamental to poverty alleviation in Africa. The paper examined employment along gender, impact of materials and proportion of female employment in African agriculture. Design/methodology/approach Time series econometrics was employed in the framework of production function analysis involving 36 years of data. Findings Results show that world labour in agriculture decreased from 49.77 to 40.04% but increased from 12.43 to 16.94% in Africa. World female employment in agriculture ranged from 40.56 to 42.81% and from 40.40 to 43.02% in developing economies, but decreased from 40.39 to 36.08% in developed economies. Total agricultural labour in Africa was negatively and significantly related to agricultural gross production index number (APIN). Research limitations/implications Interaction of cattle stock and females employed in agriculture was positive and significant at pooled African values. Interaction of irrigation facilities and female labour was positive and significant in West Africa. Interaction of cattle stock and total labour in Southern Africa had negative relationship with APIN. Interaction of total labour and irrigation had negative relationship with APIN in Africa. Insufficient agricultural facilities in terms of cattle stock and irrigation infrastructure for the populace exist. It recommends increased investments to expand irrigated lands and livestock. Practical implications African governments need to use good political will to effect the needed transformation in agriculture. It is possible for agriculture to offer lucrative employment to both males and females in less developed world as in developed economies. Originality/value The paper noted very limited agricultural facilities in terms of cattle stock and irrigation facilities for the populace engaged in agriculture. It recommends investments to expand irrigated lands and livestock.
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The core objective of this chapter is to explore the risks associated with organizational factors influencing the professional growth of women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during the pandemic. The collected data were summarized and coded using software R Studio, and the variables were encoded and reduced using the one-hot encoding method and principal component analysis (PCA). The researchers identified that organizational and situational factors have a high degree of impact on women's professional development, which creates a significant effect of discontent over the mindset of women employees even in uncertain conditions. The study covers women employees working only in two emirates, Dubai and Sharjah. It includes telecom, banking, education, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations. This chapter is valuable to all the policymakers of the entire corporate sector and government authorities to set the right things by observing diverse organizational factors that influence women employees.
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RESUMEN Las investigaciones de los últimos años confirman que los liderazgos basados en los valores morales traen resultados positivos para los líderes, sus seguidores y las organizaciones. Dentro de los estilos de liderazgo con un importante componente moral destacan dos: el liderazgo transformacional y el liderazgo ético. Aunque existe una amplia literatura acerca de los dos liderazgos, éstos se han investigado por separado y no existen investigaciones que comparen ambos estilos de liderazgo. Por ello el objetivo del presente estudio es analizar cuál de los dos estilos de liderazgo (transformacional y ético) es más eficaz. Esto se realiza vinculando los dos liderazgos con diferentes variables organizacionales: el compromiso afectivo con la marca del empleador, el comportamiento organizacional ciudadano, el rendimiento individual del empleado y el rendimiento de equipo. Esta investigación tiene un carácter empírico y transversal, llevando a cabo una encuesta basada en cuestionarios. Se han obtenido 166 respuestas válidas. Los principales resultados de esta investigación son 2: en primer lugar que, a pesar de que ambos estilos de liderazgo están muy consolidados en la literatura como constructos diferenciados, a la hora de analizarlos en una misma investigación, las personas que responden al cuestionario no logran diferenciarlos. En segundo lugar, que el liderazgo basado en valores (transformacional + ético) afecta positiva y significativamente no solo la actitud (compromiso afectivo con la marca del empleador) sino también el comportamiento individual y al rendimiento de equipo, creando beneficios en la organización. Palabras clave: liderazgo transformacional; liderazgo ético; compromiso afectivo con la marca del empleador; comportamiento organizacional ciudadano (OCB); rendimiento individual; rendimiento de equipo.
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In modern business conditions, growth and development of an organization depends on the ability of its managers to adequately coordinate the activities of employees. Managers are required to systematically and permanently improve and develop their own knowledge, abilities and skills in accordance with the dynamic changes of the global organizational environment. All this is reflected on their status in the organization. The aim of this paper is to investigate the interdependence and connection between socio-demographic characteristics of managers and professional status. Data collection was performed by an anonymous survey on a sample of 110 managers of different hierarchical levels. Descriptive statistics and factor analysis were used in data analysis. The obtained results showed that practical experience and family situation are the dominant socio-demographic factors. Only those employees who establish a balance between professional and family life, can fully dedicate themselves to the work they do and thus contribute to the improvement of business.
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Introduction: The success of an organization is determined by its human ‎resources. Work engagement leads to higher productivity and performance of the organization. Leaders seek to understand the impact of ‎their leadership style on work engagement. This is even more important in educational organizations but research in this area is insufficient. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between department ‎manager’s leadership styles and faculty member’s work engagement in some Iranian universities of medical ‎sciences‎. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical correlational study. 149 people including faculty members and department managers with at least 6 months of work experience were selected through the convenience sampling method. Data collection tools included ‎a demographic questionnaire, a multi-factor leadership questionnaire, and a Schaufeli & Bakker work engagement questionnaire whose validity and reliability were examined. ‎Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Result: A total of 114 faculty members with 13.42 ± 9.75 and 35 department managers with 19.91 ± 8.67 work experience participated in this study. Faculty members reported high work engagement. There was a positive and significant relationship between work engagement and interactional (P = 0.010) and transformational leadership (P = 0.001). ‎There was a significant difference between manager’s and employee’s views on the interactional ‎and transformational leadership (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Managers can promote job engagement by selecting the proper leadership style, and the advantages can be leveraged to boost organizational productivity.
Article
Purpose The current study investigates the mediating role of job resources (JRs) (i.e. person-–ob fit, value congruence, alignment, job control, use of skills, participation in decision-making, coworker support and performance feedback) and basic psychological need satisfaction at work (i.e. autonomy, relatedness, competence and meaningfulness) in the relationship between engaging leadership (EL) (i.e. inspiring, strengthening, empowering and connecting) and work engagement. Design/methodology/approach Structural equation analysis was used to test the mediation hypotheses, using a two-wave longitudinal design and an Indonesian sample of 412 employees from an agribusiness state-owned company. Findings The results show that EL at baseline 2017 (T1) predicts T1–T2 increase in work engagement (WE) directly, as well as indirectly through T1 JRs, and T1–T2 increase in basic psychological need satisfaction. Originality/value This research extends the job demands-resources (JD-R) model by showing the important role of ELfor fostering WE through increasing JRs and satisfying basic psychological needs at work.
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This study aims to review and quantify the value of several well-established positive leadership styles for employee work engagement in organizations. We perform both a quantitative and qualitative review (k = 86). Our (moderated) meta-analysis indicates that transformational, authentic, empowering, ethical, and servant leadership all share overlap in confidence and credibility intervals, and they may result in the same effect on work engagement (general r = 0.47). Additional theoretical analysis indicated a common ground within these positive leadership styles, i.e., having a moral perspective as a leader, role-modelling behaviour, follower self-determination, and positive social exchanges with employees. Based on the studies in the sample, we also build an integrative research model with several categories of mediators and moderators that have a well-established impact on work engagement. The moderator categories were follower characteristics and team- and organizational-level moderators. The mediator categories were psychological needs, trust, resources, and organizational-level variables. The combination of a meta-analysis with systematic review and research model can facilitate future research and supports practitioners to improve leadership.
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The role of a leader is fundamental to increase organizational culture and facilitate employee engagement. However, organizations are not providing clear guidance on how to do it. This study aims to determine the relationship between leadership styles and employee engagement as well as to understand whether there is a correlation between an engaged employee and extra effort. The study uses a Multi-Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5x Rater Form) to measure employee perception of the leader styles and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17) to determine employee engagement. The scope of the study is limited to a sample of 167 employees from 7 different multinational companies and 31 different nationalities. Results show that all the transformational behaviors and, concretely the idealized behavior, are significantly positively related to work engagement in multinational environments. Results also reveal a strong correlation between employee engagement and extra effort. The study concludes that leaders or managers should use transformational behaviors if they want to increase engagement and extra effort with their teams. They should increase transformational behaviors like being transparent, consistent, and having a strong sense of purpose to catalyze a collective engagement. These results expand previous studies of transformational leadership and work engagement in multinational environments.
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Employee engagement has been closely linked to work attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction, intentions to quit, withdrawal), employees' innovation, organizational success and financial performance (e.g., profits, shareholder return) and, therefore, getting much attention from academia and practitioner communities. Additionally, to have a full insight in employees, organizations have to take care of psychological side of employees, which manifests in psychological empowerment. This study investigates the mediating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between transformational leadership and employee engagement in the context of Vietnam. Data were collected through a survey conducted in Vietnam using 254 respondents who are employees and managers. A researcher-administered questionnaire survey method was used for data collection. The findings reveal that Psychological Empowerment is significantly related with Transformational leadership and Employee Engagement; there is a direct effect of Psychological Empowerment and Employee Engagement; and Transformational leadership not only has a direct impact on Employee Engagement, but also has indirect effect through Psychological Empowerment as a mediating variable. These findings have several implications also for human resource practices in organizations. It is expected that this study provides valuable information to consider in business practice for the development of interventions aimed at mitigating turnover behavior and maximizing organizational performances through an engaged workforce.
Article
Purpose Based on career construction theory and job embeddedness theory, the aim of the present study is to give insights into the interplay between transformational leadership and perceived career success by examining the indirect effects through serial mediation of career adaptability and job embeddedness, respectively. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative approach was used for this study. Data were gathered from 469 nurses working in government hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Findings The results show that transformational leaders enhance perceived career success. Moreover, the relationship between transformational leadership and perceived career success is serially mediated by career adaptability and job embeddedness. Originality/value The role of leadership in promoting employee's perceived career success has been seldom studied in the literature. This is the first study of its kind to examine the effect of transformational leadership on nurses' perceived career success along with the mediating roles of career adaptability and job embeddedness.
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The current research examined the relationship of green human resource management practices with employees’ retention in the pharmaceutical industry of Oman. The study also checked the mediating effect of work engagement in the relationships of Green HRM practices with employee retention. Following the current purpose, the study targeted employees in the pharmaceutical industry as the unit of analyses. Five hundred seventy-six respondents were selected through simple random sampling. Data were collected through a self-administrative questionnaire. Collected data was screened through SPSS23, which concluded with 349 usable questionnaires for data analysis and assessment. Structural equation modeling via Smart PLS 3.2.8 was employed to test the proposed model. The findings of the study show a positive but insignificant association of green HRM practices toward employee retention. However, the study found a significant positive influence of green HRM practices with work engagement and work engagement with employee retention. The study also reported the mediation of work engagement in the green HRM and employee retention relationship. The findings of the study have contributed theoretically and practically.
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This study investigates the effect of teachers' perception of head of school transformational leadership, transparency, and school's financial management accountability. Using 120 samples from high school teachers' perception in Madiun Central Java region, this study found that teachers' perception of head of school transformational leadership has a positive impact on the transparency and accountability of the school's financial management. This implies that transformational leadership style of the head of school is an important factor of the school's financial management to increase its transparency and accountability.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The goal of this study was to examine the effects of transformational leadership behaviors, within the context of Kerr and Jermier’s (1978) substitutes for leadership. Data were collected from 1539 employees across a wide variety of different industries, organizational settings, and job levels. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis procedures generally showed that few of the substitutes variables moderated the effects of the transformational leader behaviors on followers’ attitudes, role perceptions, and “in-role” and “citizenship” behaviors in a manner consistent with the predictions of Howell, Dorfman and Kerr (1986). However, the results did show that: (a) the transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership each had unique effects on follower criterion variables; (b) the total amount of variance accounted for by the substitutes for leadership and the transformational leader behaviors was substantially greater than that reported in prior leadership research; and (c) several of the transformational behaviors were significantly related to several of the substitutes for leadership variables. Implications of these findings for our understanding of the effects of transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership are then discussed.
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This study sought to provide information about the relationship between supervisors' leadership styles and subordinates' experience of chronic stress. Drawing on a sample of employees (N = 244) working in a German government agency, we tested relationships between transformational, transactional and nonleadership styles and facets of chronic stress (i.e., excessive work and social demands, dissatisfaction with work and social recognition, performance pressure, and social conflicts), while controlling for subordinates' demographics and hierarchical level. Findings: It was found that one of the transformational leadership scales (i.e., individualized consideration) was negatively related to dissatisfaction. In contrast, the transactional subscale of management- by-exception passive was positively related to four indicators of chronic stress, while controlling for all other transformational and transactional leadership styles. Future research should include objective indicators of stress. Managers in governmental organizations should avoid utilizing the transactional leadership style of management-by-exception passive in order to foster employees' health. The results allow for a more thorough and detailed understanding of leadership behavior, stress prevention, and occupational health.
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Findings about the effectiveness of leadership training vary. This research tests for the effectiveness of transformational leadership training, using the Full Range Leadership Development (FRLD) programme, upon leader behaviours and interactions. The impact of transformational leadership upon organizational performance has already been established. Quasi-field experiment research was conducted, resulting in an increase in the display of all five transformational leadership factors and contingent reward behaviour. There was a reduction in the display of passive transactional leadership behaviour as a result of the training. The extra effort of followers was increased. Goal-setting was found to be effective. Implications are discussed for practitioners and for future research.
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This study is an overview of published empirical research on the impact of leaders and leadership styles on employee stress and affective well-being. A computerized search and systematic review of nearly 30 years of empirical research was conducted. Forty-nine papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria, which include the requirements for papers to report empirical studies and to be published during the period 1980 to 2009 in English-language peer-reviewed journals. The studies were mostly cross-sectional (43/49 papers) and examined the impact of leaders' stress (4 papers), leaders' behaviours (e.g. support, consideration and empowerment) (30 papers) and specific leadership styles (20 papers) on employees' stress and affective well-being. Three research questions were addressed. The review found some support for leader stress and affective well-being being associated with employee stress and affective well-being. Leader behaviours, the relationship between leaders and their employees and specific leadership styles were all associated with employee stress and affective well-being. It is recommended that future studies include more qualitative data, use standardize questionnaires and examine the processes linking leaders with employee stress. This may lead to effective interventions.
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New developments in concepts and approaches to job stress should incorporate all relevant types of resources that promote well-being and health. The success resource model of job stress conceptualizes subjective success as causal agents for employee well-being and health (Grebner, Elfering, & Semmer, 2008a). So far, very little is known about what kinds of work experiences are perceived as success. The success resource model defines four dimensions of subjective occupational success: goal attainment, pro-social success, positive feedback, and career success. The model assumes that subjective success is a resource because it is valued in its own right, triggers positive affect and emotions (e.g., pleasure, cf., Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996), helps to protect and gain other resources like self-efficacy (Hobfoll, 1998, 2001), has direct positive effects on well-being (e.g., job satisfaction, cf., Locke & Latham, 1990) and health (Carver & Scheier, 1999), facilitates learning (Frese & Zapf, 1994), and has an energizing (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2002) and attention-directing effect (Carver, 2003), which can promote recovery by promoting mental detachment from work tasks in terms of absence of job-related rumination in leisure time (Sonnentag & Bayer, 2005). The model proposes that success is promoted by other resources like job control (Frese & Zapf, 1994) while job stressors, like hindrance stressors such as performance constraints and role ambiguity (LePine, Podsakoff, & LePine, 2005), can work against success (Frese & Zapf, 1994). The model assumes reciprocal direct effects of subjective success on well-being, health, and recovery (upward spiral), and a moderator effect of success on the stressor–strain relationship. The chapter discusses research evidence, measurement of subjective occupational success, value of the model for job stress interventions, future research requirements, and methodological concerns.
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This study examines the influence of transformational leadership style on employees’ organizational commitment to change in Malaysia higher education context. Recently there has been a wave of changes due to the ranking system issue whereby Malaysian universities have not been able to break into the top 200 universities in the world. A total of 458 lecturers voluntarily participated in this study. The findings suggested that two dimensions of transformational leadership style namely, idealized influence and inspirational motivation were found to have positive relationship with personal commitment to change. Implications of the findings are further discussed.
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Transformational leaders employ a visionary and creative style of leadership that inspires employees to broaden their interest in their work and to be innovative and creative. There is some evidence that transformational leadership style is linked to employee psychological well-being. However, it is not clear whether this is due to (1) a direct relationship between leadership behaviour and affective well-being outcomes, or (2) a relationship between leadership behaviour and well-being that is mediated by followers’ perceived work characteristics. (Such characteristics include role clarity, meaningfulness, and opportunities for development.) This study aims to extend previous work by examining the validity of these two mechanisms in a longitudinal questionnaire study. The study was carried out within the elderly care sector in a Danish local governmental department. A theory-driven model of the relationships between leadership, work characteristics, and psychological well-being was tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The results indicated that followers’ perceptions of their work characteristics did mediate the relationship between transformational leadership style and psychological well-being. However, there was only limited evidence of the existence of a direct path between leadership behaviour and employee well-being. These findings have implications for design, implementation, and management of efforts to improve employee well-being.
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This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement—a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Data were collected in 10 different countries (N = 14,521), and results indicated that the original 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) can be shortened to 9 items (UWES-9). The factorial validity of the UWES-9 was demonstrated using confirmatory factor analyses, and the three scale scores have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Furthermore, a two-factor model with a reduced Burnout factor (including exhaustion and cynicism) and an expanded Engagement factor (including vigor, dedication, absorption, and professional efficacy) fit best to the data. These results confirm that work engagement may be conceived as the positive antipode of burnout. It is concluded that the UWES-9 scores has acceptable psychometric properties and that the instrument can be used in studies on positive organizational behavior.
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High levels of work engagement are when employees are involved with, committed to, enthusiastic, and passionate about their work. This article provides a review of the literature on employee engagement, based on studies from academic and business sources. Areas of focus include defining the concept of employee work engagement, how it is measured, how often it occurs, the costs of disengagement, the business benefits linked to positive engagement, and how workplaces can be changed to encourage engagement. The findings indicate that work engagement can be improved through adopting certain workplace behavioral health practices that address supervisory communication, job design, resource support, working conditions, corporate culture, and leadership style. Also featured are several case studies from employers who measure and use employee engagement data to improve their work culture, retain employees, and increase business financial success. Implications for improving the service of employee assistance and behavioral health providers are discussed.
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Although the effects of transformational leadership on task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) are well-documented, the mechanisms that explain those effects remain unclear. We propose that transformational leadership is associated with the way followers view their jobs, in terms of Hackman and Oldham's (1976) core job characteristics. Results of our study support a structural model whereby indirect effects supplement the direct effects of transformational leadership on task performance and OCB through the mechanisms of job characteristics, intrinsic motivation, and goal commitment. Additional analyses revealed that transformational leadership relationships were significantly stronger for followers who perceived high-quality leader-member exchange.
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Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.
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On the basis of 7 charismatic and transformational leadership theories, 3 core components (vision, vision implementation through task cues, and communication style) were identified. A laboratory simulation manipulated the 3 components in a completely crossed experimental design, where 2 trained actors portrayed the leader. Participants were 282 students in upper level business classes who performed a simulated production task. The vision of high quality weakly affected performance quality but significantly affected many attitudes. Vision implementation, in the form of task cues, affected performance quality and quantity. Charismatic communication style affected only the perception of charisma. Mediation was not found; rather, an exploratory path analysis found a 2-part causal sequence, where the vision of quality and vision implementation each affected self-set goals and self-efficacy, which, in turn, affected performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Demonstrates the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in testing 1st- and higher-order factor models and their invariance across independent groups, using a LISREL (linear structural relations) framework. Data from a study by the 1st author et al (see record 1985-09311-001) gathered from administration of the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ) to 658 Australian children in Grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used to examine the factor structure. The original study tested theoretical predications about the structure of self-concept advanced by R. J. Shavelson et al (see record 1978-30429-001) and Shavelson and R. Bolus (see record 1982-22201-001). In the present demonstration, CFA indicated that the basic factor model hypothesized to underlie the SDQ provided a good fit to the data across 4 age groups. Model 5, which proposes that there are 2 academic factors at the 2nd-order level that combine with the nonacademic factor to form a General Self factor at the 3rd-order level, was found to provide the best fit. Means and standard deviations for the 28 subscales of the SDQ are appended. (63 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We extend existing theories by linking transformational leadership to "self-concordance" at work. In two studies using diverse samples and methods, leader behaviors were associated with follower tendencies to set self-concordant goals. In general, followers of transformational leaders viewed their work as more important and as more self-congruent. The effects of self-concordant work goals on job attitudes and performance were generally positive; however, the pattern of relationships differed in the field study and the experimental study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The pursuit of happiness is an important goal for many people. However, surprisingly little scientific research has focused on the question of how happiness can be increased and then sustained, probably because of pessimism engendered by the concepts of genetic determinism and hedonic adaptation. Nevertheless, emerging sources of optimism exist regarding the possibility of permanent increases in happiness. Drawing on the past well-being literature, the authors propose that a person's chronic happiness level is governed by 3 major factors: a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices. The authors then consider adaptation and dynamic processes to show why the activity category offers the best opportunities for sustainably increasing happiness. Finally, existing research is discussed in support of the model, including 2 preliminary happiness-increasing interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This research examined linkages between mentor leadership behaviors (laissez-faire, transactional contingent reward, and transformational), protégé perception of mentoring functions received (career development and psychosocial support) and job-related stress of 204 mentor–protégé dyads. Results of Partial Least Squares analysis revealed that mentor transformational behavior was more positively related to mentoring functions received than transactional contingent reward behavior, while mentor laissez-faire behavior was negatively related to mentoring functions received. Both mentor transformational behavior and mentoring functions received were negatively related to protégé job-related stress. The relationship between mentor transformational behavior and protégé job-related stress was moderated by the level of mentoring functions received. Results are discussed as they relate to researchers and practitioners who are becoming interested in finding ways to develop organizational members and allay job-related stress. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The motivational effects of charismatic leadership are examined in greater detail. Charismatic leadership is assumed to have three core components: envisioning, empathy, and empowerment. A charismatic leader's envisioning behavior influences followers' need for achievement, and the leader's empathic behavior stimulates followers' need for affiliation. Followers' need for power is enhanced by a charismatic leader's empowerment practices. It is further suggested that the behaviors of a charismatic leader and the enhanced followers' needs promote clearer role perceptions, improved task performance, greater job satisfaction, stronger collective identity and group cohesiveness, more organization citizenship behaviors, and stronger self-leadership among the followers. The contextual factors which may influence the motivational effects of charismatic leadership are also discussed.
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This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
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This study examined how transformational leadership directly and indirectly relates to supervisory-rated performance collected over time including 437 participants employed by 6 U.S. banking organizations in the midwest. Results revealed that one's identification with his or her work unit, self-efficacy, and means efficacy were related to supervisor-rated performance. The effect of transformational leadership on rated performance was also mediated by the interaction of identification and means efficacy, as well as partially mediated by the interaction of self-efficacy and means efficacy. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed.
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More than a trait of individuals, gender is an institutionalized system of social practices. The gender system is deeply entwined with social hierarchy and leadership because gender stereotypes contain status beliefs that associate greater status worthiness and competence with men than women. This review uses expectation states theory to describe how gender status beliefs create a network of constraining expectations and interpersonal reactions that is a major cause of the “glass ceiling.” In mixed-sex or gender-relevant contexts, gender status beliefs shape men's and women's assertiveness, the attention and evaluation their performances receive, ability attributed to them on the basis of performance, the influence they achieve, and the likelihood that they emerge as leaders. Gender status beliefs also create legitimacy reactions that penalize assertive women leaders for violating the expected status order and reduce their ability to gain complaince with directives.
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Using a sample of 520 staff nurses employed by a large public hospital in Singapore, we examined whether psychological empowerment mediated the effects of transformational leadership on followers' organizational commitment. We also examined how structural distance (direct and indirect leadership) between leaders and followers moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. Results from HLM analyses showed that psychological empowerment mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. Similarly, structural distance between the leader and follower moderated the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. Implications for research and practice of our findings are discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The present longitudinal survey among 201 telecom managers supports the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that postulates a health impairment process and a motivational process. As hypothesized, results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that: (1) increases in job demands (i.e., overload, emotional demands, and work-home interference) and decreases in job resources (i.e., social support, autonomy, opportunities to learn, and feedback) predict burnout, (2) increases in job resources predict work engagement, and (3) burnout (positively) and engagement (negatively) predict registered sickness duration (“involuntary” absence) and frequency (“involuntary” absence), respectively. Finally, consistent with predictions results suggest a positive gain spiral: initial work engagement predicts an increase in job resources, which, in its turn, further increases work engagement. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The present research reports on the impact of occupational self-efficacy and of career-advancement goals on objective (salary, status) and subjective (career satisfaction) career attainments. Seven hundred and thirty four highly educated and full-time employed professionals answered questionnaires immediately after graduation, three years later, and seven years later. Controlling for discipline, GPA at master’s level, and gender, we found that occupational self-efficacy measured at career entry had a positive impact on salary and status three years later and a positive impact on salary change and career satisfaction seven years later. Career-advancement goals at career entry had a positive impact on salary and status after three years and a positive impact on status change after seven years, but a negative impact on career satisfaction after seven years. Women earned less than men, but did not differ from men in hierarchical status and in career satisfaction. Theoretical implications for socio-cognitive theorizing and for career-success research as well as applied implications for vocational behavior are discussed.