Centre for Translational Inﬂammation and Fibrosis Research, School of Clinical and
Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, School of Clinical and
Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
Renal Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston,
Department of Medicine, Concord Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney,
New South Wales, Australia
Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, University College London, London, UK
Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick,
Correction notice This article has been corrected since it was published Online First.
The author’snameWilliam M Fraser was incorrect and should be William D Fraser.
Acknowledgements We would like to thank the staff and patients of the Queen
Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham and Heart of England NHS trust for their help in
recruiting to and taking part in these studies. We would like to thank Teresa Melody
and Amy Bradley for trial nurse support for the study.
Contributors RCAD and DP are joint ﬁrst authors. DRT, FG, ARM, PMS, MSC,
WMF and GDP designed the study. SL, VD, SZ, CRB, DP, BN, RM, AMT and ES
recruited the patients and undertook lab analysis/animal work. WW, PMS, WMF,
KBC and MSC provided expert advice in their specialist areas. All authors
contributed to the writing of the paper. DT is the guarantor of the data.
Funding These studies were funded by the Wellcome trust (DRT, PMS, MSC, SL),
QEHB charities (RCAD, VD, DRT), the Medical Research Council UK (DRT, DP, RCAD)
and the NIHR (DP, DRT, GDP). DB was funded by an ERS long-term training
fellowship and a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Obtained
Ethics approval NHS LREC West midlands and all clinical investigations were
conducted according to Declaration of Helsinki principles.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement The microarray dataset outlined in this paper is freely
available to search on PubMed GEOSET.
Open Access This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the
terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits
others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use,
provided the original work is properly cited. See: http://creativecommons.org/
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