Article

Titanium dioxide Nanoparticles Provide Protection Against Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon BaP & Chrysene Induced Perturbation of DNA Repair Machinery: A Computational Biology Approach

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Abstract

We examined the interaction of Polycyclic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) like Benzo-α-Pyrene (BaP), Chrysene and their metabolites 7,8-Dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene,9,10-oxide (BPDE) & Chrysene1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide-2 (CDE), with the enzymes involved in DNA repair. We investigated interaction of120 enzymes with PAHs and screened out 40 probable targets among DNA repair enzymes, on the basis of higher binding energy than positive control. Out of which, 20 enzymes loose their function in the presence of BaP, Chrysene and their metabolites, which may fetter DNA repair pathways resulting in damage accumulation and finally leading to cancer formation. We propose the use of Nanoparticles as a guardian against the PAH's induced toxicity. PAHs enter the cell via aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). TiO2 NP showed a much higher docking score with AHR (12074) as compared to BaP and Chrysene with AHR (4600 & 4186 respectively), indicating a preferential binding of TiO2 NP with the AHR. Further, docking of BaP and chrysene with the TiO2 NP bound AHR-complex revealed their strong adsorption on TiO2 NP itself, and not on their original binding site (at AHR). TiO2 NPs thereby prevent the entry of PAHs into the cell via AHR and hence protect cells against the deleterious effects induced by PAHs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Cigarette smoke carcinogens such as benzo[a]pyrene are implicated in the development of lung cancer. The distribution of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) adducts along exons of the P53 gene in BPDE-treated HeLa cells and bronchial epithelial cells was mapped at nucleotide resolution. Strong and selective adduct formation occurred at guanine positions in codons 157, 248, and 273. These same positions are the major mutational hotspots in human lung cancers. Thus, targeted adduct formation rather than phenotypic selection appears to shape the P53 mutational spectrum in lung cancer. These results provide a direct etiological link between a defined chemical carcinogen and human cancer.
Article
AutoDock 2.4 predicts the bound conformations of a small, flexible ligand to a nonflexible macromolecular target of known structure. The technique combines simulated annealing for conformation searching with a rapid grid-based method of energy evaluation based on the AMBER force field. AutoDock has been optimized in performance without sacrificing accuracy; it incorporates many enhancements and additions, including an intuitive interface. We have developed a set of tools for launching and analyzing many independent docking jobs in parallel on a heterogeneous network of UNIX-based workstations. This paper describes the current release, and the results of a suite of diverse test systems. We also present the results of a systematic investigation into the effects of varying simulated-annealing parameters on molecular docking. We show that even for ligands with a large number of degrees of freedom, root-mean-square deviations of less than 1 A from the crystallographic conformation are obtained for the lowest-energy dockings, although fewer dockings find the crystallographic conformation when there are more degrees of freedom.
Article
The development of scoring functions is of great importance to protein docking. Here we present a new scoring function for the initial stage of unbound docking. It combines our recently developed pairwise shape complementarity with desolvation and electrostatics. We compare this scoring function with three other functions on a large benchmark of 49 nonredundant test cases and show its superior performance, especially for the antibody-antigen category of test cases. For 44 test cases (90% of the benchmark), we can retain at least one near-native structure within the top 2000 predictions at the 6 degrees rotational sampling density, with an average of 52 near-native structures per test case. The remaining five difficult test cases can be explained by a combination of poor binding affinity, large backbone conformational changes, and our algorithm's strong tendency for identifying large concave binding pockets. All four scoring functions have been integrated into our Fast Fourier Transform based docking algorithm ZDOCK, which is freely available to academic users at http://zlab.bu.edu/~ rong/dock.
Article
We describe here a general Amber force field (GAFF) for organic molecules. GAFF is designed to be compatible with existing Amber force fields for proteins and nucleic acids, and has parameters for most organic and pharmaceutical molecules that are composed of H, C, N, O, S, P, and halogens. It uses a simple functional form and a limited number of atom types, but incorporates both empirical and heuristic models to estimate force constants and partial atomic charges. The performance of GAFF in test cases is encouraging. In test I, 74 crystallographic structures were compared to GAFF minimized structures, with a root-mean-square displacement of 0.26 A, which is comparable to that of the Tripos 5.2 force field (0.25 A) and better than those of MMFF 94 and CHARMm (0.47 and 0.44 A, respectively). In test II, gas phase minimizations were performed on 22 nucleic acid base pairs, and the minimized structures and intermolecular energies were compared to MP2/6-31G* results. The RMS of displacements and relative energies were 0.25 A and 1.2 kcal/mol, respectively. These data are comparable to results from Parm99/RESP (0.16 A and 1.18 kcal/mol, respectively), which were parameterized to these base pairs. Test III looked at the relative energies of 71 conformational pairs that were used in development of the Parm99 force field. The RMS error in relative energies (compared to experiment) is about 0.5 kcal/mol. GAFF can be applied to wide range of molecules in an automatic fashion, making it suitable for rational drug design and database searching.
Article
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is expressed in many different tumors, but its precise roles in tumorigenesis remain to be fully defined. Here, we report on a mouse model that demonstrates dose-dependent effects of PDGF-B on glial tumorigenesis. By removing inhibitory regulatory elements in the PDGFB mRNA, we are able to substantially elevate its expression in tumor cells using a retroviral delivery system. This elevation in PDGF-B production results in tumors with shortened latency, increased cellularity, regions of necrosis, and general high-grade character. In addition, elevated PDGF-B in these tumors also mediates vascular smooth muscle cell recruitment that supports tumor angiogenesis. PDGF receptor (PDGFR) signaling appears to be required for the maintenance of these high-grade characteristics, because treatment of high-grade tumors with a small molecule inhibitor of PDGFR results in reversion to a lower grade tumor histology. Our data show that PDGFR signaling quantitatively regulates tumor grade and is required to sustain high-grade oligodendrogliomas.
Article
The design, implementation, and capabilities of an extensible visualization system, UCSF Chimera, are discussed. Chimera is segmented into a core that provides basic services and visualization, and extensions that provide most higher level functionality. This architecture ensures that the extension mechanism satisfies the demands of outside developers who wish to incorporate new features. Two unusual extensions are presented: Multiscale, which adds the ability to visualize large-scale molecular assemblies such as viral coats, and Collaboratory, which allows researchers to share a Chimera session interactively despite being at separate locales. Other extensions include Multalign Viewer, for showing multiple sequence alignments and associated structures; ViewDock, for screening docked ligand orientations; Movie, for replaying molecular dynamics trajectories; and Volume Viewer, for display and analysis of volumetric data. A discussion of the usage of Chimera in real-world situations is given, along with anticipated future directions. Chimera includes full user documentation, is free to academic and nonprofit users, and is available for Microsoft Windows, Linux, Apple Mac OS X, SGI IRIX, and HP Tru64 Unix from http://www.cgl.ucsf.edu/chimera/.
Article
In molecular mechanics (MM) studies, atom types and/or bond types of molecules are needed to determine prior to energy calculations. We present here an automatic algorithm of perceiving atom types that are defined in a description table, and an automatic algorithm of assigning bond types just based on atomic connectivity. The algorithms have been implemented in a new module of the AMBER packages. This auxiliary module, antechamber (roughly meaning "before AMBER"), can be applied to generate necessary inputs of leap-the AMBER program to generate topologies for minimization, molecular dynamics, etc., for most organic molecules. The algorithms behind the manipulations may be useful for other molecular mechanical packages as well as applications that need to designate atom types and bond types.
Army Research Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate
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