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AS/stat user's guide. Release 6.04

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... Progeny effects were analyzed according to an incomplete block design with the sources of variation: trial or experiment (block) and progeny. All progenies were compared with the controls according to T test for corrected means (22). ...
... Thus, the DIs of each plant were corrected for the effects of the trial to which they belong by the ratio between the mean DIs of the controls in that trial and the mean DIs of the controls for all trials. With corrected DIs, parent effects were analyzed in a model with the sources of variation: father and mother; means (22) were compared according to T Test. ...
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Progenies from 69 crosses between parents obtained by recurrent selection for resistance and yield were inoculated with Moniliophthora perniciosa basidiospores. The symptoms were evaluated and compared with those in the equally inoculated progenies of Catongo, SIC 23 and SCA 6. Forty-three of the new progenies did not differ statistically from SCA 6, while 10 new progenies were statistically better than this control. The female parents that can be highlighted are (P4B x SCA 6), (MA 16 x SCA 6), (CEPEC 86 x SCA 6), and the EET 75 clone. The best male parents were (CAB 214), (CAB 208) and (P4B x OC 67), which did not differ from each other. This study proved the existence of gene combinations between fathers and mothers, the occurrence of additive effects and the dominant inheritance of these factors, which should allow the selection of clones with higher resistance levels and durability.
... Counting was done between 7:00 am -8:30 am when the flea beetles were less active and the number of each species was recorded separately. The data collected were log transformed before being subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures [15] and Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test was used to separate mean values at 5% level of probability. Back-transformed (original) data are presented in the Tables. ...
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The pattern of field infestation by the flea beetles, Podagrica spp., was assessed in okra-kenaf intercrop system with a view to determining a cropping pattern that would assist in controlling the pest problem. Okra and kenaf were intercropped in row combinations of 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 2:2 while sole-cropped okra and kenaf served for comparison. Field sampling for flea beetles commenced three weeks after planting and it lasted till the 12th week, a period that extended to the postharvest stage of okra. There was a significant difference (P Ë‚ 0.01) between the population of the two Podagrica spp. (with P. uniforma being more abundant than P. sjostedti) and among the six planting patterns. The pest population also differed (P Ë‚ 0.05) between the two crops and among (P Ë‚ 0.001) the vegetative, reproductive and postharvest stages of okra. Sole kenaf had a significantly higher level of infestation by the flea beetles followed by sole okra and two rows of okra intercropped with one row of kenaf in descending order. All the other three intercrop patterns had a significantly lower infestation level. Kenaf attracted more flea beetles than okra at the vegetative stage while stumps of okra left in the field after harvesting was over sustained a significantly higher population of flea beetles. Obtained results showed that intercropping could be used, especially by poor rural farmers, as a pest control strategy against Podagrica spp. Due to the considerable population of flea beetles sustained by okra stumps, farmers should be encouraged to get rid of leftovers after harvesting as a way of further controlling Podagrica spp. The combination of intercropping and farm sanitation would assist in reducing reliance on synthetic chemical insecticides.
... La proporción de vacas en estro y los porcentajes de gestación entre tratamientos se compararon mediante una prueba de Chi cuadrada. De la misma manera se analizaron los efectos de DFP y de la CC sobre frecuencia de estros y gestación, pero sin incluir el efecto de la eCG (SAS, 2004). Las tasas de gestación acumuladas con la resincronización, a partir del día 30 posterior a la primera IATF, se sometieron a un análisis estadístico descriptivo. ...
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Introduction: the objectives were to evaluate estrus and gestation in Bos taurus cows, treated with a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol (FTAI) that included or not equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Cumulative gestation with resynchronization at 30 days after the first FTAI was also evaluated. Method: the cows were divided into: Treatment 1 (n = 60), synchronized with 2 mg of estradiol benzoate and an intravaginal device (IVD) of progesterone (1.3 g) on day 0; IVD was removed on day 8 and 25 mg of prostaglandin F2-alpha, 1 mg of estradiol cypionate and 300 IU of eCG were injected; 48-52 hours later the FTAI was performed. Treatment 2 (n = 50) consisted in the same protocol, not including eCG. Ovulation was resynchronized in cows that were no pregnant in the pregnancy diagnosis, performed 30 days after the first FTAI. The same protocol applied in Treatment 1 for the first FTAI was used in all animals. The second FTAI was performed 40 days after starting the program. Body condition score (BCS) was classified as low (< 2.5), moderate (2.5 to 3.5) and high (> 3.5). On the day of the FTAI, the preovulatory follicle diameter (DFP) was classified into three categories (DFP1: < 11 mm; DFP2: 11 to 14 mm; DFP3: > 14 mm). Results: the gestation percentage was different between treatments (p = 0.04; 73 % Group 1 and 53 % Group 2). The proportion of cows in estrus before the FTAI was 75 % in the eCG treatment and 57 % in the control (p = 0.04). Cows with DFP2 and DFP3 registered a higher gestation rate (p = 0.03) than DFP1. The percentage of pregnancies was higher (p = 0.04) in cows with moderate and high BCS. Overall gestation in the first FTAI was 63 %. The gestation percentage with the second FTAI was 51.61 %, accumulating 82.1 % in 40 days. Conclusion: eCG increased the proportion of cows in estrus and gestation; and resynchronization allows the accumulation of an additional percentage of pregnant cows.
... Rosell et al. (2009) reported that 54.1% of the urgent visits to commercial rabbit farms in Spain and Portugal during 1997 to 2007 were due to digestive tract diseases. Under these circumstances, increasing the dietary soluble fibre content has shown to be an effective strategy to improve the integrity of the intestinal mucosa and modulate the intestinal microbiota of rabbits (Gómez-Conde et al., 2007, 2009Trocino et al., 2013a). Thus, the inclusion of 20 to World Rabbit Sci. ...
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This study aims to determine the effect of dietary inclusion of fenugreek seed gum (FSG), rich in galactomannans, on nutrient apparent digestibility and caecal environment, as well as on in vitro caecal fermentation of Tunisian growing rabbits. Three experimental diets were formulated, including 0, 0.25 and 0.5% of FSG (FSG0, FSG0.25 and FSG0.5, respectively) for the in vivo trial and 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 100% of FSG (FSG0, FSG0125, FSG0.25, FSG0.5 and FSG100, respectively) for the in vitro trial. In the in vivo trial, 45 weaned rabbits 31 d old (15 per treatment) were housed in individual cages until 94 d of age. Apparent digestibility coefficients were determined at two ages, from 38 to 41 and from 56 to 59 d old, and caecal traits were recorded after slaughtering. In the in vitro trial, the five experimental diets were incubated with a rabbit caecal inoculum. Gas production was measured and modelled until 72 h and the fermentation traits were measured. Apparent faecal digestibility coefficients of main nutrients and main caecal environment traits were not significantly affected by the dietary inclusion of FSG (P>0.05). However, animals fed with FSG showed lower caecal pH (–0.15; P
... The data was arranged in Microsoft Excel 2007. The effect of sorghum and their varieties were determined by using PROC MIXED procedure of Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 2003). P values equal or less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. ...
... All data for continuous variables were subjected to oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) using PROG GLM in SAS program (SAS Institute Inc, 1989). Mortality data were subjected to arcsine transformation and used for ANOVA. ...
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Xenorhabdus hominickii ANU1 is known to be an entomopathogenic bacterium symbiotic to nematode Steinernema monticolum. Another bacterial strain X. hominickii DY1 was isolated from a local population of S. monticolum. This bacterial strain X. hominickii DY1 was found to exhibit high insecticidal activities against lepidopteran and coleopteran species after hemocoelic injection. However, these two X. hominickii strains exhibited significant variations in insecticidal activities, with ANU1 strain being more potent than DY1 strain. To clarify their virulence difference, bacterial culture broths of these two strains were compared for secondary metabolite compositions. GC-MS analysis revealed that these two strains had different compositions, including pyrrolopyrazines, piperazines, cyclopeptides, and indoles. Some of these compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against phospholipase A2 to block eicosanoid biosynthesis and induce significant immunosuppression. They also exhibited significant insecticidal activities after oral feeding, with indole derivatives being the most potent. More kinds of indole derivatives were detected in the culture broth of ANU1 strain. To investigate variations in regulation of secondary metabolite production, expression level of leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp), a global transcription factor, was compared. ANU1 strain exhibited significantly lower Lrp expression level than DY1 strain. To assess genetic variations associated with secondary metabolite synthesis, bacterial loci encoding non-ribosomal protein synthase and polyketide synthase (NRPS-PKS) were compared. Three NRPS and four PKS loci were predicted from the genome of X. hominickii. The two bacterial strains exhibited genetic variations (0.12∼0.67%) in amino acid sequences of these NRPS-PKS. Most NRPS-PKS genes exhibited high expression peaks at stationary phase of bacterial growth. However, their expression levels were significantly different between the two strains. These results suggest that differential virulence of the two bacterial strains is caused by the difference in Lrp expression level, leading to difference in the production of indole compounds and other NRPS-PKS-associated secondary metabolites.
... Statistical Analysis: All data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System [18]. Comparisons between treatments within each analysis were tested. ...
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This study was done to evaluate the impact of using organic acid and sodium sulfite on the quality criteria of unpeeled shrimp. Total five kilograms of unpeeled shrimp were collected from retail markets at Giza city. Samples were divided into five lots each about one kilogram (approximately fifty samples for each). Samples were subjected to various treatments with (6% vinegar, 3% citric acid and 2% sodium sulfite). Treated samples were evaluated by sensory and bacterial examinations. Treated samples with 6% vinegar and 3 % citric acid improved the sensory quality and extended the shelf life of the samples stored at 0°C, also reduce the bacterial counts especially (APC, coliforms and fecal coliforms). Samples packed in crushed ice and those treated with 2% sodium sulfite (stored at 0°C for 4 days) showed deterioration changes (black color and abnormal odors) and also increasing pH values. The public health significance of isolated microorganism was also discussed. Key words: Shrimp % Citric Acid % Sodium Sulfite % Vinegar % Coliforms % APC % Ph % Salmonella % E. coli
... Data was analyzed with SAS version 9.0. Differences among treatments were calculated by Tukey mean comparison at 5% probability [18]. An economic analysis was performed with the data [19]. ...
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Chickpea contains high levels of protein, vitamins and minerals. Acceptable chickpea yield is the result of meeting nitrogen and phosphorus requirements. The effect of appropriately meeting such requirements reflects on growth and can easily be evaluated using growth analysis. This research determined: (a) The effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on phenology, net assimilation rate, number of green leaves, leaf area, leaf area index and leaf area duration; (b) Green chickpea yield and number of pods due to fertilization; and (c) The combination of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization that yields the most net revenue. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization was evaluated; each at the doses of 0, 75 and 150 kg ha-1 (N0, N75, N150; P0, P75 and P150, respectively). The combination of the levels of both nutrients generated nine combinations of treatments which were distributed in the field in a randomized complete block design in an arrangement of divided plots with four repetitions. Timing of phenological phases were similar among treatments. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization increased number of leaves, leaf area index, and leaf area duration that translated into increased green chickpea yield (GCY). Combinations N150-P75 and N150-P150 produced the highest GCY. The highest net revenue and revenue per peso invested was obtained with N150-P75.
... Least square analyses of variance were performed to study the effect of different fixed effect of the studied factors on measurements under investigation at the different slaughtering age for the 152 lambs. General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 1994) was utilized for this purpose. Least square means were calculated for all factors levels. ...
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In Jordan, crossing local sheep with exotic breed has acceptable sound by farmers but need scientific proof for planned-ahead crossing and introgression. This work aimed to find best mating strategy on economic carcass and non-carcass traits of produced lambs under intensive production system in Jordan. Mating strategy among Awassi and Chios for two years was designed to obtain different pure-and cross-bred lambs.They were pure Awassi, pure Chios and reciprocal crosses of Awassi-Chios and Chios-Awassi lambs for two years. The studied factors included sex of lamb, breed, lamb birth type, age at slaughtering and their two-way interactions. The lamb sex significantly affected (P < 0.001) most carcass and non-carcass traits of economic importance. Similarly, effect of age was notable (P < 0.05) on all carcass and non-carcass traits. The breeds were significantly different (P < 0.05) for hot carcass, tail and internal organs weights. Therefore, the use of Awassi sire as a paternal contributor for producing meat over one year in crossbreeding can be implemented for increasing carcass weights. Heterosis effect had only significantly for tail weight. Significant differences for liver with and without trachea, kidney with and without fat, heart with and without fat and lung between reciprocal crosses for heterosis percentages always favored the reciprocal cross of Awassi female parent. Finally, interaction effects of age with sex were detected on body weight, carcass length and kidney. While interaction effect of birth type with sex was significant for body weight and some internal organs. Lastly, significant interaction effects of breed with both sex and birth type were significant for cold carcass, tail and some organs weights. In present study, sheep producers might be benefited better if Awassi sire is used as a paternal contributor for producing meat over one year in crossbreeding strategy with Chios for increasing carcass weights.
... Data obtained were submitted to ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM) procedure of SAS software. 24 Means were compared by the Duncan's multiple range test at 5% probability. ...
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This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary flaxseed meal (FSM) supplemented with dried tomato pomace (DTP) and dried grape pomace (DGP) on performance, egg quality, biochemical parameters traits and antioxidant status of laying hens. Birds (1825 ± 87 g of body weight) were divided into 12 dietary groups with six replicates per group (eight birds per replicate), under a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement 2 × 3 × 2 consisted of two levels of DTP (0 and 15%), three FSM levels (0, 4 and 8%) and two levels of DGP (0 and 5%). As a result of this study, there were no significant differences in egg production and weight as well in feed conversion ratio (FCR) among treatments (p > 0.05). Feeding of DGP reduced significantly feed intake and egg mass when compared to control group (p < 0.05). There was no effect (p > 0.05) of dietary treatment on shell thickness and strength, shape index, Haugh unit and egg specific gravity. Hens consuming 15% DTP and 5% DGP revealed a significantly higher yolk color compared to the other dietary treatments (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was no difference among dietary treatments in terms of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) cholesterol, atherogenic index, triglycerides, total cholesterol levels (p > 0.05). Serum antioxidant parameters as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (TSOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were not influenced by treatments (p > 0.05). Based on findings, FSM and DTP supplements did not significantly impact most of hens' performance indicators and egg quality parameters, whereas significant improvements were observed by feeding of 15% DTP and 5% DGP on egg traits, in particular on egg-yolk color that plays a key-role in consumer's choice. However, the supplementation of FSM and DTP or DGP even in laying hen diet is still controversial and further research is needed.
... The data were analysed by simple linear regression utilizing PROC REG. In addition, the PROC CORR statements were used to perform a Pearson correlation (R) analysis (SAS, 2006). ...
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The objective of this report was to classify ingredients based on their flowability. Twenty-six different feed ingredients (52 samples) were used including cereal grains, cereal by-products, oilseeds, oilseed meals, and animal-origin products. As an indication of flowability, the angle of repose was determined using a funnel test. In general, high protein oilseed meals had the lowest angle of repose, and therefore they had the highest flow-ability with the exception of cottonseed meal. Corn gluten feed and wheat middlings had the highest angle of repose values (39 and 34°, respectively), and therefore they had the lowest flowabil-ity. Ingredients with a range of angle of repose values between 22 and 25°, between 27 and 30°, and more than 30°, were categorized as having an easy flow, a moderate flow, and cohesive, respectively. The greater the protein content, the smaller the compressibility value (r =-0.38) and the lower the angle of repose (r =-0.42). An increase in the ether extract content of the ingredients resulted in a subsequent increase in angle of repose (r = 0.31) and therefore a decrease in flowability (p<0.05). The angle of repose was positively correlated with compressibility and the Hausner ratio.
... All data were statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute, 1998). Both research years' values of the all characteristics were evaluated separately. ...
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The sustainability of warm-season turfgrass species in winter dormancy is a major concern in Mediterranean ecology. The concept of overseed a lawn has been still new for many developing countries such as Turkey as part of a regular maintenance. Therefore, a 2-year study was conducted at the experimental fields of Ege University, Izmir/Turkey during 2014-2016 years to compare the effects of four different overseeding times (September 15, September 30, October 15 and October 30) on four warm season turfgrass species (Cynodon dactylon cv. SR9554, Cynodon dactylon × Cynodon transvaalensis cv. Tifway-419, Paspalum vaginatum cv. Sea Spray and Zoysia japonica cv. Zenith) by measuring visual turf quality (1-9 score) and some related characteristics as texture (mm), cover (1-9 score), weed infestation (1-9 score) and colour (1-9 score). ‘50% cv. Troya+50% cv. Esquire’ perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) mixture was used for overseeding in trial. According to results, visual turf quality performance of 6.0 scores and above were obtained from all treatments. We concluded that October 15 should be most suitable time for overseeding applications. Additionally, L. perenne L. can be practiced successfully in Mediterranean region in order to eliminate the concerns of warm-season turfgrasses in the winter dormancy period observed in cold temperatures. Highlights - No gaps were formed in plots and high coverage degrees were maintained during overseeding periods in all treatments. - Homogeneous spring transition was occurred from Lolium perenne L. to warm-season turfgrass species in all overseeding times. - Visual turf quality performance of 6.0 scores and above which is acceptable level were obtained from all overseeding times. - Better results were obtained from overseeding applications on Paspalum vaginatum and Cynodon dactylon × Cynodon transvaalensis. - The different results among the warm-season turfgrass species can provide effective information for future research studies.
... Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and treatment means were separated using the Duncan's multiple range test at the 5% probability level using a statistical analysis system (SAS, 1990). Correlation and regression analyses were done to estimate relationships and their magnitude among the soil P availability indices, PSR and other soil properties. ...
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The use of phosphorus saturation ratio (PSR) as the index for soil pollution potential in some animal waste dump sites of southwest Nigeria was evaluated. Surface and sub-surface soil samples were taken from 20 animal waste dump sites. Soil chemical properties, phosphorus availability indices and PSR were determined and analyzed. Results indicated that the unregulated dumping of manures in soils resulted in high phosphorus availability with a higher concentration in the top 20 cm of the soils. The PSR of the soils (0.42, topsoil and 0.32, subsoil) are more than the threshold values of 0.10-0.15, indicating soil P pollution of the environment. Some P availability indices could be used as a proxy for estimating soil PSR and hence soil P pollution potential. The soil P load is more than the amount that could be sorbed by the soil clay but has a strong correlation with soil organic matter. It was concluded that there is potential pollution of surface and groundwater in the vicinities of the dumpsites with possible attendant health hazards. Hence, the need to exploit alternative soluble P management options like precipitating the soluble P in the manure by applying materials rich in Al, Fe and Ca.
... Therefore, the analysis was performed on the original data. The ANOVA was used to assess differences among the seasons, and correlations between fatty acids the SAS ® software computer program (Cary, NC, USA) [47]. The treatment means were compared by Duncan's multiple range test [48]. ...
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Seasonal variations in the fatty acid (FA) compositions of pollen loads collected from the Al-Ahsa Oasis in eastern Saudi Arabia throughout one year were determined to identify the optimal season for harvesting bee pollen rich in essential fatty acids (EFAs) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). The highest values (%) of lipids, linolenic acid (C18:3), stearic acid (C18:0), linoleic acid (C18:2), arachidic acid (C20:0), the sum of the C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 concentrations, and EFAs were obtained from bee pollen harvested during autumn. The maximum values (%) of oleic acid (C18:1), palmitic acid (C16:0), UFAs, and the UFA/saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio were found in bee pollen harvested during summer. The highest concentrations (%) of behenic acid (C22:0), lignoceric acid (C24:0), and SFAs were found in bee pollen harvested during winter. Bee pollen harvested during spring ranked second in its oleic, palmitic, linolenic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acid concentrations and for EFAs, UFAs, and the UFA/SFA ratio. The lowest SFA concentration was found in bee pollen harvested during summer. Oleic, palmitic, and linolenic acids were the most predominant FAs found in bee pollen. It was concluded that the FA composition of bee pollen varied among the harvest seasons due to the influence of the dominant botanical origins. We recommend harvesting pollen loads during spring and summer to feed honeybee colonies during periods of scarcity and for use as a healthy, nutritious food for humans.
... p < .01 and p < .001. The Statistical Analysis System software (SAS, 1990) was used to perform this statistical analysis of the data. ...
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Uniformity, understood as a similar performance in relevant livestock traits, such as birth weight within the litter, is being included as one of the selection objectives in breeding programmes, especially for polytocous livestock species. A divergent selection experiment for birth weight within-litter variability in mice during 23 generations showed that homogeneous animals were better for litter size, survival and feed efficiency but less heavy than heterogeneous animals. The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive longevity in both divergent lines as time to the end of the reproductive period. Two generations from both lines with an initial number of 43 females and 43 males were mated one to one and stayed together to have consecutive parturitions until the end of the reproductive life. Females were discarded when the time elapsed from the last parturition was longer than 63 days. The time to the end of the reproductive period between both lines was compared by fitting a Cox proportional hazard regression model adjusting for line, generation and its interaction. The rate of parturitions in both lines was also compared using a Prentice-Williams-Peterson model adjusted for the same effects. The low variability line was associated with a higher parturition rate, e.g., adjusted hazard ratio was 2.93 (95% CI 2.17-3.94). The Cox model showed that the low variability females also presented benefits of time to the end of the reproductive period, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.26 (95% CI 0.16-0.41). The median of reproductive days was 55.50 in the high variability line whilst the median was 252.50 days for the low variability females. The homogeneous line presented important reproductive advantages suggesting higher robustness and animal welfare. Further research should confirm whether the findings presented here of a better performance in the low variability line could be properly applied to some livestock species.
... Stat൴st൴cal analys൴s. The data obta൴ned from study were stat൴st൴cally analyzed us൴ng analys൴s of var൴ance (ANOVA) w൴th the Stat൴st൴cal Analys൴s System [21] and d൴fferences between means were compared by the LSD test at 0.05 probab൴l൴ty level as descr൴bed by [22]. ...
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The only negative environmental impact to adaptability and sustainability of warm season turfgrass species in sport fields are temperature in their dormancy period during the winter season. Overseeding is the practice of seeding cool season turfgrass into warm season turfgrass late in its growing season prior to the onset of this dormancy. This 2-year study was conducted in the research fields of Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ege University, Izmir/Turkey in Mediterranean climatic conditions during 2014-2016 years. The objective of research was to evaluate the effects of different overseeding times (September 15, September 30, October 15 and October 30) on some warm season turfgrass species (Cynodon dactylon cv. SR9554, Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis cv. Tifway-419, Paspalum vaginatum cv. Sea Spray and Zoysia japonica cv. Zenith) in terms of visual assessment and some playing quality characteristics. For this purpose, dark green colour index (DGCI), ball rebound (cm), force reduction (%) and vertical deformation (mm) traits were determined. According to results, the best overseeding time was October 15 in Mediterrenean ecology. In terms of DGCI trait, which are in strong agreement with visual assessment, the highest values were obtained from overseeding applications on Paspalum vaginatum and Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis species. All playing quality characteristics’ values of different overseeding times performed on all warm season turfgrass species were found between the lower and upper limit values of the FIFA standards. It has been concluded that warm season turfgrass species can be used successfully in sports fields by overseeding with Lolium perenne L. during winter.
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Genetic selection in commercial rabbit lines based on litter size has positively improved the number of kits suckling, presumably to weaning. Although it has been proven that the energetic balance of primiparous does is due to the need to satisfy pregnancy, lactation and growth requirements, litter size adjustment from 7 to 12 kits is applied as a routine in commercial rabbit farms. The suckling stimulus provokes a prolactin (PRL) secretion, which in turn can modulate the preovulatory release of luteinising hormone (LH) and, consequently, the ovulatory and productive responses of the does. This study aimed to determine if litter size of prolific primiparous rabbit does during lactation [Group HL, with high litter density (10-12 kits; n=21) and Group LL, with low litter density (7-9 kits; n=29)] influences plasma concentration of PRL. Blood samples from lactating does were taken weekly throughout lactation starting on day 4 post-partum, until day 32 post-partum, before and immediately after suckling. In addition, the does were re-inseminated after weaning (day 32 post-partum), and sampled at 0 and 60 min after induction of ovulation to determine whether litter size affected the peak of LH, progesterone (P4) concentrations and the main productive parameters of their second pregnancy. All hormones were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that the PRL concentrations of hyperprolific rabbit does before and immediately after a suckling stimulus from 7-9 or 10-12 kits were significanltly different, as we only detected basal levels, with a rise after weaning in both groups. More studies are necessary, delaying blood sampling to later periods of time after the suckling stimulus, in order to conclude whether the peak release of this hormone is altered or not. There were also no differences in plasma LH and progesterone levels after artificial insemination, or in productive performance of these females after their second pregnancy. In conclusion, the litter size adjustment of prolific primiparous rabbits with 7 to 12 kits determines adequate pituitary, ovarian and reproductive responses at second parturition if the does are inseminated after weaning.
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Con el fin de llevar a cabo la caracterización morfométrica y faneróptica del ganado bovino criollo Chinampo de México se estudió una muestra compuesta por 1150 hembras y 300 machos. Las hembras se clasificaron de acuerdo a su edad en animales de 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 y >6 años. Los machos fueron clasificados en individuos de 1, 2, 3 y =4 años. Las variables que se midieron fueron: el peso corporal, longitud escápulo-isquial, longitud de la grupa, altura a la cruz, perímetro torácico y la longitud y perímetro del cuerno. Se hizo un análisis estadístico descriptivo de dichas variables. Las medidas corporales se encuentran dentro de los rangos reportados para otras poblaciones de ganado bovino criollo en México.
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Selection has been used to create replicated outbred stocks of Drosophila melanogaster with increased longevity, increased later fecundity, and increased levels of physiological performance at later ages. The present study analyzed the quantitative transmission patterns of such stocks, employing extensive replication in numbers of stocks, individuals, and assayed characters. The populations used derived from five lines with postponed aging and five control lines, all created in 1980 from the same founding base population. The following characters were studied: early 24-hr fecundity, early ovary weight, early female starvation resistance, early male starvation resistance, female longevity and male longevity. Numerous crosses were performed to test for non-Mendelian inheritance, average dominance, maternal effects, sex-linkage and between-line heterogeneity. There was only slight evidence for any of these phenomena arising reproducibly in the characters studied. These findings suggest the value of this set of stocks for studies of the physiological basis of postponed aging.
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This study aimed at determining the impact of dietary soy hulls (SH) addition on growth performance, digestive tract attributes, and apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, and phosphorus (P) in broiler chickens. Male broilers (Ross 308, n = 224) were assigned to one of four diets, including 0, 20, 40, or 60 g/kg SH, with eight replications per treatment from 0 to 21 d of age in a completely randomised design. Dietary chromic oxide was the indigestible marker for determining the apparent ileal digestibility. Data were subjected to orthogonal polynomial contrasts using the Proc GLM of SAS. Growth performance and small intestine weight and length, and gizzard content pH were not influenced (p > .05) by increasing levels of dietary SH. Increasing the dietary SH level resulted in a linear increase (p < .01) in absolute empty gizzard weight. Relative gizzard weight was greater (p < .05) in birds fed on 60 g/kg SH diet compared to birds fed on 40 g/kg SH diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen was not affected (p > .05) by dietary SH inclusion. However, apparent ileal digestibility of DM and P increased linearly (p < .01) with increasing dietary SH levels. In conclusion, the addition of SH up to 60 g/kg improved the ileal digestibility of DM and P and increased gizzard weight without affecting the proportionate small intestine morphology and live performance of broiler chickens at 21 d of age. • HIGHLIGHTS • Soy hulls did not have any effect on growth • Soy hulls increased the digestibility of P • Soy hulls increased gizzard weight
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