Conference Paper

Interference Aware Inverse EEDBR protocol for Underwater WSNs

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Abstract

The unique characteristics of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) attracted the research community to explore different aspects of these networks. Routing is one of the most important and challenging function in UWSNs, for efficient data communication and longevity of sensor node's battery timing. Sensor nodes have energy constraint because replacing the batteries of sensor nodes is an expensive and tough task in harsh aqueous environment. Also interference is a major performance influencing factor. Providing solutions for interference-free communication are also essential. In this paper, we propose three energy-efficient and interference-aware routing protocols named as Inverse Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IEEDBR), Interference-Aware Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IA-EEDBR) and Interference-Aware Inverse Energy Efficient Depth-Based Routing protocol (IA-IEEDBR). Unlike EEDBR, IEEDBR protocol uses depth and minimum residual energy information for selecting data for-warder. While IA-EEDBR takes minimum number of neighbors for forwarder selection. IA-IEEDBR considers depth, minimum residual energy along with minimum number of neighbors for selection of forwarder. Our proposed schemes are validated through simulation and the results demonstrate better performance in terms of improved network lifetime, maximized throughput and reduced path loss.

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... Energy is the main constraint in UWSNs. In IAEEDBR[7], there is no energy balancing mechanism that result in decreased network lifetime. Lower depth nodes in the network have much burden of data transmission as they are supposed to relay data from higher depth nodes with their own sensed data, so their energy grade falls and nodes die quickly. ...
... We also compare our protocol with IAIEEDBR [7]. In IAIEEDBR, the node selection is on a basis of low depth, minimum residual energy and a minimum number of neighbors. ...
... Data forwarding is based on relative distance. IAEEDBR [7] In this protocol the author focus on the interference avoidance technique. The node with a minimum number of neighbors is considered as a good forwarder. ...
... The major reasons behind improved results in EEBET are: Minimizing the number of hops towards sink and overcomes the data load on nodes nearer to the sink. In [7], an Interference Aware Energy Efficient Depth Based Routing (IARRDBE) protocol has been proposed. The IAEEDBR works for energy efficiency and prolongs the network lifetime. ...
... If a node fails to transmit that data packet due to any reason, the second highest priority node transmits data. This is done with the help of holding time as defined by [7]. A node having highest priority will have shortest holding time so it transmits packet earlier. ...
Conference Paper
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have captured interest of many researchers with the desire to control the large portion of the world overspread by water. Energy efficiency is one of the major concerns in UWSNs due to the limited energy of the underwater sensor nodes. In order to enhance the network lifetime, efficient and reliable protocols must be presented while considering the underwater acoustic communication challenges like low bandwidth, longer propagation delays and limited battery life of sensor nodes. In this paper, we present Modified Geographic and Opportunistic Depth Adjustment based Routing (MGEDAR) protocol to minimize the energy hole problem in UWSNs. Our protocol works by adaptively adjusting the transmission range of sensor nodes in case of void holes. Each node selects its forwarder on the basis of a cost function. Simulation results showed that our proposed scheme improves network performance in terms of maximum throughput, minimum energy consumption and reduced void holes.
... The authors propose three energy efficient protocols in [20]. In the first protocol, the DSNs are chosen on the lowest depth and residual energy. ...
... Nodes closer to the final destination are used most often and thus die more quickly. [20] EECOR ...
Article
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Mitigation of channel unfavorable circumstances during data routing in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has utmost significance. It guarantees saving packet corruption along unfavorable channels so that vital data is not lost or become meaningless. This paper proposes two routing protocols for UWSNs: localization free energy efficient routing (LFEER) and its improved version, localization free energy efficient cooperative routing (Co-LFEER). The LFEER makes decision of choosing a relay based on its maximum residual energy, number of hops and the bit error rate of the link over which packets are transmitted. These metrics are chosen to save packets from corruption to the maximum limit and maintain stable paths (where nodes do not die soon). Since a single link is used in the LFEER for packets forwarding, the link may become worse with changing circumstances of the channel. To deal with this issue, cooperative routing is added to the LFFER to construct the Co-LFEER protocol, in which some copies of packets are received by destination to decide about packets quality. Converse to some prevalent protocols, both LFEER and Co-LFEER are independent of knowing the sensor nodes’ positions, which increases computational complexity and wasteful utilization of resources. Based on extensive simulations, the proposed schemes are better than Co-DBR in reducing energy utilization and advancing packets to the desired destination.
... Acoustic communication has different techniques for data transmission. However, here we discuss two approaches for data advancement from water bottom to the upper sink [8]. The multi-hops transmission and direct transmission methods. ...
... Reducing the energy consumption is one of the major concerns in U-WSNs [9]. The replacement of the node batteries in the sea is quite a difficult job. ...
Article
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Underwater deployed sensors nodes are energy-constrained. Therefore, energy efficiency becomes crucial in underwater wireless sensor networks (U-WSNs). The adverse channel corrupts the packets and challenges their reliability. To handle these challenges, two routing schemes are introduced in this paper. They are effective energy and reliable delivery (EERD) and cooperative effective energy and reliable delivery (CoEERD). In EERD, the packets follow single-path routing and the best forwarder node is selected using a weight function such that packets are transferred via the reliable paths with low energy usage. Packet transfer via a single route in EERD has, however, compromised reliability as the undersea links bear harshness and unpredictability. Therefore, the CoEERD scheme adds cooperative routing to EERD, in which a relay node is introduced between a source-destination pair. The destination requests the relay when the packets it gets from the source are corrupted beyond a threshold value. Selection of weight function is unique and considers many factors to ensure low energy usage with reliability while considering nodes for data transfer. This also helps in selecting a single relay node rather than many relays in the conventional cooperative routing model. Based on simulation results, the EERD and CoEERD protocols have improved performance in energy usage, reliable packet transfer and delay.
... However, the protocol suffers from an early death of nodes due to opportunistic routing. The interference-aware inverse energy-efficient depth-based routing (IA-IEEDBR) protocol addresses the minimization of interference in underwater routing [24]. The protocol routes data by selecting forwarder nodes having the lowest residual energy, the least number of neighbors and the least depth. ...
Article
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Interference and energy holes formation in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) threaten the reliable delivery of data packets from a source to a destination. Interference also causes inefficient utilization of the limited battery power of the sensor nodes in that more power is consumed in the retransmission of the lost packets. Energy holes are dead nodes close to the surface of water, and their early death interrupts data delivery even when the network has live nodes. This paper proposes a localization-free interference and energy holes minimization (LF-IEHM) routing protocol for UWSNs. The proposed algorithm overcomes interference during data packet forwarding by defining a unique packet holding time for every sensor node. The energy holes formation is mitigated by a variable transmission range of the sensor nodes. As compared to the conventional routing protocols, the proposed protocol does not require the localization information of the sensor nodes, which is cumbersome and difficult to obtain, as nodes change their positions with water currents. Simulation results show superior performance of the proposed scheme in terms of packets received at the final destination and end-to-end delay.
... Localization of sensor nodes is generally difficult to implement and expensive in underwater communication as nodes have to constantly update and share their location information. Mahreen et al [18] propose three protocols: inverse EEDBR (IEEDBR), interference-aware EEDBR (IA-EEDBR) and interference-aware inverse energy efficient EEDBR (IA-IEEDBR). These protocols improve the delay, energy consumption, network stability period, path loss and transmission loss of EEDBR. ...
Article
Interference-aware routing protocol design for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) is one of the key strategies in reducing packet loss in the highly hostile underwater environment. The reduced interference causes efficient utilization of the limited battery power of the sensor nodes that, in consequence, prolongs the entire network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient interference-aware routing (EEIAR) protocol for UWSNs. A sender node selects the best relay node in its neighborhood with the lowest depth and the least number of neighbors. Combination of the two routing metrics ensures that data packets are forwarded along the least interference paths to reach the final destination. The proposed work is unique in that it does not require the full dimensional localization information of sensor nodes and the network total depth is segmented to identify source, relay and neighbor nodes. Simulation results reveal better performance of the scheme than the counterparts DBR and EEDBR techniques in terms of energy efficiency, packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay.
... Shah et al., in [14] proposed three energy-efficient and interference-aware routing protocols named as inverse energy efficient depth-based routing (IEEDBR), interferenceaware energy efficient depth-based routing (IA-EEDBR) and interference-aware inverse energy efficient depth-based routing (IA-IEEDBR) protocols for UWSNs. IEEDBR considers depth and residual energy as a forwarding metrics for data forwarding. ...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we present a virtual chain based routing (VCBR) protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Due to sparse deployment of sensor nodes and dynamic network topology in UWSNs, void hole problem occurs. In VCBR, we build a virtual chains between sensor nodes and sink nodes to avoid void hole problem. VCBR also minimizes collision probability due to channel interference in the network. The proposed VCBR protocol, introduces a mechanism to forward data packet through the shortest virtual chain in order to manage the energy resources of sensor nodes. The shortest virtual chain between source node and destination is calculated based on the local knowledge of sensor nodes.
... In forwarding phase, each node uses its routing table to forward data packets to that node which has high residual energy and least depth from the sink. Interference Aware EEDBR (IA-IEEDBR) [3] is an improved version of EEDBR. In which, when there is congestion in a region, then sensor nodes in that region will select a forwarding node which has least number of neighbors. ...
Conference Paper
Developing an energy efficient routing protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) is a challenging task due to long propagation delay, low bandwidth, high error probability, and most importantly limited energy. Unlike terrestrial sensor networks, UWSN environment is harsh. Nodes are provided with limited energy. The replacement or charging of batteries is not an easy task. By minimizing number of transmissions and considering some time critical applications. We have proposed an enhanced energy efficient depth based routing protocol, EEEDBR, for UWSNs. EEEDBR, selects a forwarding node based on high residual energy, least depth from the sink. In EEEDBR network lifetime is increased by deploying idle nodes in the medium depth region. As, sensor nodes gets die earlier in low or medium depth region due to the additional relaying of data packets. Moreover, In our proposed scheme nodes can vary their transmission range up to a certain limit in order to find a suitable forwarding node.
... First node in list forwards the packet immediately, if remaining nodes overhear the same packet within a holding time, packet is dropped. In [4], IA-IEEDBR author proposes scheme in which data is forwarded to that node which has minimum depth and minimum energy as well as minimum number of neighbours. In this scheme author proposes strategy to tackle the problem of interference by selecting minimum neighbours node for data forwarding. ...
... The global optimum path increase the throughput, network lifetime and reduces the end-to-end delay. The Interference Aware EEDBR, (IA-EEDBR) and IEEDBR, (IA-IEEDBR) are proposed in [11]. IA-EEDBR and IA-IEEDBR selects a forwarding node having less number of neighbors. ...
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Chapter
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Thesis
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