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The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus: Ibn Rushd’s Grounds for Comparison

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“The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus" received an extended summary in Russian by A.E. Makhov, “Gul’d: ‘Poetika’ ot Afin do al-Andalusa: Ibn Rushd i ego kriterii sravneniia,” National and Foreign Literature [Отечественная и зарубежная литература] 7.3 (2015): 32-35 (attached under "supplementary materials").
The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus: Ibn Rushds
Grounds for Comparison
REBECCA GOULD
YaleNUS College
In his recent reflections on translatability across cultures, literatures, and
languages, ʿAbdelfattah Kilito, one of the most imaginative Arabic intellec-
tuals writing today, expressed his low opinion of Ibn Rushd (112698),the
medieval Arabic philosopher who under his Latin name Averroes earned
aprestigiousplaceinDantesInferno, alongside Avicenna and Saladin
(Inferno 4.144). In particular, Kilito was struck by the distance between Ibn
RushdsMiddle Commentary on AristotlesPoetics(TalkhīKitābArisūālīsfī
al-Shiʿr, ca. 1174)and the Greek text on which it proposed to comment.
Until the Renaissance, Ibn Rushds commentary was the primary medium
through which the Poetics reached Europe. It was translated into Latin in
1256 by Hermannus Alemannus (Hermann the German),whoreliedon
the assistance of the Saracensresiding at that time in Toledo, and in 1337
into Hebrew by Todros Todrosi of Arles.
1
The prestige of this commentary
is indicated by the fact that the Latin translation of the Arabic original
made in 1256 survives in twenty-four manuscript copies, whereas William of
Moerbekes 1278 Latin translation of AristotlesPoetics is extant in only two
manuscript copies.
2
Ó2014 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. 0026- 8232/2014/11201-0001$10.00
I would like to express my gratitude to Modern Philologys excellent anonymous reviewers,
who offered much material for further reflection. I would also like to thank Kathy Eden
(Columbia University)for her elucidations of AristotlesPoetics,andJoshuaWong(YaleNUS
College)for his editorial assistance. The new critical edition of The Poetics by Leonardo Tarán
and Dimitri Gutas (Leiden: Brill, 2012)unfortunately appeared too late for me to make use
of it.
1. The philosopher Roger Bacon later reported a conversation with Hermannus in which
the latter admitted that the Saracens led the way in his translations (in suis translationibus princi-
pals)of the text, while he merely served as their assistant (see Roger Bacon, Compendium studii
philosophiae,cap.8,ed.J.S.Brewer,Opera quaedam hactenus inedita, Rolls Series 15.1 [London,
1859],472).
2. For the dissemination and citation history of Hermannuss translation, see William F.
Boggess, Aristotles Poetics in the Fourteenth Century,Studies in Philology 67 (1970):27894;
1
Yet the influence of Ibn Rushds text did not prevent it from being con-
sidered a failure in the mind of the modern Moroccan intellectual, Kilito.
Despite his well-known erudition and the diversity of his interests,Kilito
concludes, the greatest philosopher of the medieval world did not com-
prehend Aristotles book.
3
For Kilito, Ibn Rushds commentary is an exem-
plary instance of the misrecognition that is entailed in all translation and
that dooms the enterprise of cross-cultural inquiry from the start. Kilito sug-
gests that every commentary, translation, and exegesis by a reader whose
culture is distant from the source text reveals more about the commenting
culture than the culture commented on. Kilito sees in Ibn Rushdsengage-
ment with AristotlesPoetics a document that reveals much about the intel-
lectual horizons (and limits)of twelfth-century Cordoba, yet comparatively
little about Aristotelian poetics.
Kilitos dismal assessment echoes Ernest Renans notorious condemna-
tion in AverroèsetlAverroisme (1852). Working with the limited amount of
material on Ibn Rushd available to him in Latin, Renan criticized the Anda-
lusian philosopher for his complete ignorance of Greek literature [lignor-
ance la plus complète de la littérature grecque].
4
Jorge Luis Borges, citing
Renansaccusationashisepigraph(as Kilito also did in his essay),under-
took to narrate Averroess engagement with Aristotle in the short story
AverroessSearch(La busca de Averroes; 1947). Playing on Orientalist
tropes while also (as will shortly be seen)deconstructing them, Borges nar-
rates the defeat (derrota)that prevented the Arab philosopher bounded
within the circle of Islamfrom grasping Aristotles literary exegesis of trag-
edy and comedy.
5
According to Renan, Borges, and Kilito, Ibn Rushds failure hinged on
the rendering of the Greek terms for tragedy and comedy by praise (madī)
and blame (hijāʾ), respectively. Ibn Rushd stood charged with uncritically
rendering tragōidiā(τραγδα)by madīand komōidiā(κωμδα)by hijāʾ,and
specifically in his statement that every poem and poetic statement is either
praise (madī)or blame (hijāʾ).
6
The idea of translating tragedy by praise
and comedy by blame did not originate with Ibn Rushd. However, Kilito,
Borges, and Renan concentrated their complaints on the Andalusian phi-
O. B. Hardison, The Enduring Monument: A Study of the Idea of Praise in Renaissance Literary Theory
and Practice (Chapel Hill: U niversity of North Carolin a Press, 1962), 34.
3. ʿAbdelfattah Kilito, Lan tatakallam lughatī(Beirut: Dāral-alīʿah, 2002), 48.
4. Ernest Renan, AverroèsetlAverroisme (Paris, 1852), 48.
5. Jorge Luis Borges, La busca de Averroes,in El Aleph (Caracas: Ayacucho, 1993), 135
50, quote on 136. Future references are given parenthetically.
6. Ibn Rushd, TalkhKitābArisūālīsfi-l-Shiʿr, ed. Charles Butterworth and Amad ʿAbd al-
MajīdHarīdī(Cairo: al-Hayʾah al-Mirīyah al-ʿĀmmah lil-Kitāb, 1986), 54. The English version
is Averroess Middle Commentary on AristotlesPoetics, ed. and trans. Charles Butterworth (Prince-
ton University Press, 1986), 59. Future references are given parenthetically with the Arabic text
followed by the English.
2MODERN PHILOLOGY
losopher and deduced from his hermeneutical error a general assumption
concerning Arabic ignorance.
While madīand hijāʾcorrespond to clearly demarcated Arabic poetic
genres, both terms have considerably broader uses as well. In addition to
being the middle and longest section of the qaīda (panegyric ode),madī
can simply mean praise in general. Likewise, while hijāʾcorresponds to a
specific kind of satire or invective that is the qaīdasobverse,italsomore
generally refers to any kind of blame or mocking.
7
The same generality of
meaning clearly does not apply to Greek tragedy and comedy, which pri-
marily signify as specific literary genres. While Ibn Rushds formulation was
influenced by AbūBishr MattāIbn Yūnuss Arabic translation of the Poetics
(ca. 932), these proposed Greek-Arabic equivalencies were applied by Ibn
Rushd more methodically and categorically than the medieval exegetical
tradition had yet seen.
While Aristotle indeed did not suggest that poetry could be reduced to
praise and blame, he did offer an origin theory whereby poetic discourse
arose from ecomium and lampoon, respectively.
8
Ibn Rushd transposed
Aristotles historical genealogy, which pertained only to past literary pro-
duction, into a general theory of poetry and used it to explain literatures
present and future. Both in their initial formulations as madīand hijāʾ,and
through their Latin equivalents as laudatio and vituperatio,praiseandblame
were to shape subsequent discourse about literature in the Islamic world
and Christendom well into the early modern period.
For Kilito, as for the modern interpreters who preceded him, this trans-
position of genres speaks to Ibn Rushds failure to understand the Greek
text. Kilito gave Ibn Rushd a measure of respite by blaming the mistake on
AbūBishrs translation and specifically onthe conditions of the textstrans-
mission from Athens to Baghdad. Kilito even pleaded for mercy for Abū
Bishr, faced with an amputated book(49). For Kilito, Borges, and the Ori-
entalist tradition that mediated Ibn Rushds encounter with Aristotle to
modernity, medieval Arabic literary theory misread Aristotelian poetics
because of translations intrinsic impossibility. Viewing the Greek-Arabic-
Latin exchange through the prism of modernity, these critics perceived
only an unbridgeable incommensurability dividing one literary tradition
from the other. Reverberating across languages, cultures, texts, and genres,
this incommensurability in their view doomed cross-cultural literary
encounters to failure.
7. For an overview of the hijāʾas a genre, see G. J. H. Van Gelder, The Bad and the Ugly: Atti-
tudes towards Invective Poetry (Hijāʾ)in Classical Arabic Literature (Leiden: Brill, 1988).
8. Aristotle, Poetics, trans. Malcolm Heath (New York: Penguin, 1996),7(1449a).Future
references to AristotlesPoetics are given only in the form of Bekker numbers, without refer-
ence to the pages of Heaths translation.
3Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
But rather than viewing the Arabic rendering of tragedy and comedy by
praise and blame respectively as a failure in translation, we might ask how
this particular rendering served the uses Ibn Rushd sought to make of Aris-
totles text. Such a line of inquiry will show that, far from being arbitrary or
simply incorrect, Ibn Rushdsrenderingsexplicateapoeticsmoreappropri-
ate to his Andalusian milieu than a strict rendering of Aristotles meanings
could have enabled. Moreover, Ibn Rushds renderings extract the univer-
sally applicable aspects of Aristotles teaching with a clarity that would have
been invisible in the case of a more commensurable translation.
POETRY, HISTORY, PARABLES
In his opening statement, Ibn Rushd declares his aim as being to summa-
rize the universal rules found in Aristotles book on poetry that all or most
nations share in commoneven as he notes that most of what is in [the
Poetics]are rules particular to [Greek]poetic compositions and customs
(54/59). Ibn Rushds opening statement outlines a methodology for read-
ing Aristotle against the grain, discerning in and extracting from his text
qualities less evident to the general reader. The Arab philosopher specifi-
cally acknowledges his intention to focus on elements of the text that
diverge from the norm, by separating out the general rules (al-qūwanīn),
which are in the minority, from those that occupy the majority of the text
and are specific to Greek literature.
Later on, echoing Poetics 1451b, Ibn Rushd writes that the poet sets
down names for existing things [that]speak about universal things. There-
fore the art of poetry is closer to philosophy than the art of inventing a para-
ble [mathāl](77/84).
9
Ibn Rushd has in mind a corpus of texts that, like
the Arabic Aristotelian tradition itself, was mediated and altered in the pro-
cess of its translation. Kalīla wa Dimna, best known to medieval Arabic read-
ers in Ibn al-Muqaffaʿs translation from Pahlavi (ca. 740), is an Arabic story
cycle that originated in ancient Indian tales and represented for Ibn Rushd
the parable-like narrative form that HerodotussHistories represented for
Aristotle (see Poetics 9.1451b57). Needless to say, Ibn Rushd does not
intend to suggest that Aristotle had Kalīla wa Dimna in mind when he com-
pared poetry to history. But Ibn Rushds primary concern was the repro-
9. Hermannus Alemannus carried the translationof Aristotles passage even further.
Substituting the book by Aesopfor the reference to Kalīla wa Dimna, he states that the poet
gives names only tothings that exist and at times speaks in universals; and thereforethe art of
poetry is closer to philosophy than the art of proverbial tales(Averrois Cordvbensis commen-
tarivm medivm in Aristotelis Poetriam,ed. William Boggess [unpublished PhD diss., Univer-
sity of North Carolina, 1966],2930). As noted by Boggess, sixteen of the twenty-three extant
manuscripts substitute the nonexistent Ysope seu Hesiodi for Aesops fables. For Aristotles state-
ment, see Poetics 1451a36b11.
4MODERN PHILOLOGY
duction of the spirit of Aristotles meaning in its universal dimension, not
in its literal meaning. Ibn Rushd fashioned a reading of Aristotles book
that accorded with his own definition of interpretation (tāʾwīl)as the pro-
cess of extracting the figurative significance [al-majāz]of an utterance [al-
laf]from its true meaning.
10
Far from marking a failure of translation,
Ibn Rushds hermeneutical method was entirely congruent with Aristotles
approach. From a diversity of forms, Aristotle extracted basic principles
concerning poetic meaning, rhetorical expression, and ethical behavior
that pertained to all times and places.
By creatively rendering the particularities of Aristotelian poetics in terms
that resonated in his own milieu, Ibn Rushd showed himself to be a faithful
student of his Greek master. Both the rhetoricization of poetic categories
and the translationof history by an Arabic story cycle demonstrate that
Ibn Rushds commitment to deducing principles applicable to all poetry
superseded literalist fidelity to the Greek text. Given that the very concept
of translation was more fluid and capacious in medieval cultures than it is
in modernity, it hardly seems legitimate to take Ibn Rushd to task for his
creative localization of Greek literary forms.
11
As evidenced by his ready transposition of Aristotleshistoria into mathāl,
Ibn Rushd approaches Aristotles text already persuaded of the legitimacy
and necessity as well as of the possibility of translation. Rather than regard
incommensurability in translation as a sign of hermeneutic failure, he sees
the interpretive gaps that emerge in the course of his exposition as proofs
of poetrys universal applicability. If a set of terms such as tragedy and comedy,
or poetry and history, can be adapted to the categories of a culture radically
distinct from the culture within which the terms originated, such translat-
ability of itself attests to the philosophical salience of a given paradigm. The
hermeneutical disjuncture that some modern scholars and critics have cho-
sen to read as a failure should be read as a demonstration of Ibn Rushds
(and Aristotles)success.
Ibn Rushd does not inform his reader that he has substituted an Arabic
story cycle for the Greek concept of history, nor does he apologize for his
inability to explain Greek literary genres to his Arabic readers. Rather than
seeking to extract data about ancient Greek literature from the Poetics,Ibn
Rushd transformed Aristotles text into a manifesto on Arabic poetics. The
Arab philosopher was less concerned to recover the original meaning of
10. Averroes [Ibn Rushd],Decisive Treatise and Epistle Dedicatory [Kitābfalal-maqāl], trans.
Charles Butterworth (Salt Lake City, UT: Brigham Young University, 2001),9(translation mod-
ified in all citations from this work).
11. For medieval Islamic ways of conceiving translation, see Rebecca Gould, Inimitability
versus Translatability: The Structure of Literary Meaning in Arabo-Persian Poetics,Translator
19, no. 2 (2013):81104.
5Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
the Greek text than to extract from it those aspects that could help him
understand poetry as such. Rather than pursuing the textual estrangement
that Lawrence Venuti and other scholars of translation theory have advo-
cated under the heading of foreignization, Ibn Rushd is an unabashed
domesticator of his foreign text.
12
Ibn Rushds method recalls the postulate
that a society that is confident in itself will often use fluent strategies in
translation of foreign literary works.
13
Domesticating translations, there-
fore, are not necessarily to be seen as betrayals of the source text. Instead,
theyareevidencethataliteraryculturehascomeofage.Thiswasthecase
for twelfth-century Islamic culture. Particularly in al-Andalus, Arabic schol-
ars had moved well beyond the literalizing translational methodologies that,
as Dimitri Gutas and others have shown, characterized the early Abbasid
translation movement based in Baghdad.
14
FROM DRAMA TO RHETORIC
While later readers have silently passed over the translationof the Greek
concept of history in Poetics 1451 by parable,thenomoredomesticating
rendering of tragedy by praise (madī)andcomedybyblame(hijāʾ)has
attracted greater opprobrium. An early assessment by Jaroslaus Tkatsch
(18711927), the first scholar to study AbūBishrs translation in depth, of
Ibn RushdsrenderingofAristotleasa medley of monstrous misunder-
standings and wild fantasieshas set the tone for subsequent generations of
commentators.
15
Such condemnations notwithstanding, the many mean-
ings that attach to madīand hijāʾin classical Arabic mean that Ibn Rushds
interpretive role with respect to the rendering of tragedy and comedy by
praise and blame cannot be assessed from one angle alone.
Contesting the conventional reduction of madīand hijāʾto the formal
genres of encomium and satire, Vicente Cantarino maintains that rather
than using madīand hijāʾin their technical meanings, Ibn Rushd deploys
these terms to express the poets subjective attitude in his rendition of the
contemplated object.
16
Somewhat revising Cantarino, it could be said that
12. Lawrence Venuti, the best-known proponent of foreignization in translation theory,
has authored two manifestos that contest domesticating translation methodologies in Anglo-
phone literatures: The Translators Invisibility (London: Routledge, 1995),andThe Scandals of
Translation (London: Routledge, 1997).
13. John Milton, Foreignization: A Discussion of Theoretical and Practical Issues,Year-
book of Comparative and General Literature 54 (2008): 110.
14. Dimitri Gutas, Greek Thought, Arab Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in
Baghdad and Early Abbasid Society (2nd4th and 8th10th c.)(New York: Routledge, 1998).
15. Jaroslav Tkatsch, Über den Arabischen Kommentar des Averroes zur Poetik des Aristo-
teles,Wiener Studien 24 (1902): 76.
16. Vicente Cantarino, Averroes on Poetry,in Arabic Poetics in the Golden Age: Selection of
Texts Accompanied by a Preliminary Study (Leiden: Brill, 1975), 19.
6MODERN PHILOLOGY
Ibn Rushd uses madīand hijāʾin both their technical and nontechnical
meanings. Even beyond Ibn Rushds uses of praise and blame to evoke the
poets subjectivity, the typologization of poetry into these two modesassimi-
lates it more thoroughly to a globally shared medieval rhetorical tradition.
To identify poetry as either praise or blame (whether such rubrics are
intended in genre-specific or in more general senses)is to foreground
poetry as a normative art, a choice that made eminent sense in Ibn Rushds
milieu. Even more appropriate to the rhetorical orientation of medieval lit-
erary culture was Ibn Rushds distinctly non-Aristotelian foregrounding of
character over plot. With respect to this preference, Ibn Rushd builds on
the exegetical precedent of Ibn Sīnā, the Persian philosopher known to
medieval Europe as Avicenna. In his commentary on the Poetics (1020),Ibn
Sīnādistinguished between Greek and Arabic literature on the grounds that
Greek poetry was generally intended for imitating actions and emotions,
and nothing elsewhile Arabic poetry is occupied with the imitation of per-
sons [dhawāt].
17
Even though it did not specifically reflect on the difference made by the-
ater, the substance of this distinction was already strongly implied in Ibn
Sīnās commentary. Indeed, Ibn SīnāsandIbnRushds emphasis on the
primacy of character over plot corresponds more closely to the aesthetic
hierarchies inculcated by the introspective literary genressuch as lyric
poetry and the novelthat constitute the bulk of modern literature. In this
sense then, Ibn Rushds interpretation marked a step in the Poeticsadapta-
tion to modern aesthetic principles. While for Ibn Rushd and his predeces-
sors all literary expression was reducible to two forms, genre taxonomies
were flexibly applied, so to facilitate rather than constrain the production
of literary meaning. In their antithetical as well as complementary relations,
the rhetorical modes of praise and blame were highly generative. Ibn
Rushds interest lay in uncovering how the structure of meaning confers
coherence on these categories rather than in debating their taxonomic
accuracy.
According to Kilito, the amputations entailed in Ibn Rushdsformative
attempt to render Aristotle into Arabic are intrinsic to the translational
enterprise. Kilito titled his manifesto on this subject Thou Shalt Not Speak My
Language (Lan tatakallamlughatī), as if to remind the reader of the impossi-
bility of ever grasping the authors original intention in translation. And
yet the reading proposed here indicates that Ibn Rushds rendering of trag-
17. Ibn Sīnā,Kitābal-Shiʿr,in Fann al-shiʿr; maʿa al-tarjamah al-ʿarabiyyah al-qadimah wa
shuruh al-Fārābīwa Ibn S īnāwa Ibn Rushd,ed.M.M.Badawī(Cairo: Matabat al-Nahda al-Mir-
iyya, 1953), 170; Avicennas Commentary on the Poetics of Aristotle,trans.IsmailDahiyat(Leiden:
Brill, 1974), 74. Future references aregiven parenthetically with the Arabic text followed by the
English.
7Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
edy and comedy by the rhetorical modes of praise and blame more effec-
tively illustrates cultures translatabilityits capacity to morph and shift
across time and spacethan its singularity.
Renan, Tkatsch, Borges, and Kilito all assume that Ibn Rushdsrender-
ing of tragedy by praise and comedy by blame was motivated by sheer igno-
rance and that a firsthand encounter with the theater would have resulted
in a better translation. But Ibn Rushd followed the precise lead of the Ara-
bic translation of the Poetics. Hence the historical imprecision of Borgess
story, which attributes the transposition of the meanings of tragedy and
comedy exclusively to Ibn Rushd. When Ibn Rushd undertook to interpret
the Poetics, however, the rhetoricization of tragedy and comedy as praise
and blame was already well established in the Islamic exegetical tradition.
Although these renderings were not the only ones available to the would-
be commentator, they were normative. Indeed, the substitution for trag-
edy/comedy of praise/blame predates even the translation of the Syriac
text into Arabic. It is attested in the writings of al-Kindī(80173),thefirst
Arabic philosopher in the Greek tradition. In an epitome of the text that
predates its Arabic translation, al-Kindīstated that the Poetics contains an
account of the meters used in every species of poetry, like the panegyric
[mad],elegy[marāthin],andinvective[hijāʾ].
18
By contrast with Ibn Rushds striving for fluent localization, the only
extant fragment of the Syriac translation is marked by a literalist adherence
to the original Greek lexicon.
19
Terms such as tragedy,comedy,andharmony
are transcribed with exactitude, and no attempt is made to domesticate
their meanings for a readership in late antiquity. One reason for what
appears to have been the Syriac translators literalist approach to the Greek
text may have been that his translation had very few readers. While domesti-
cation features frequently in cultures that have been evolving for centuries,
translators within newer literary cultures are more likely to adhere to strictly
literal renderings of foreign texts.
20
Hence, when Arabic culture became
more confident of itself, Aristotles works were increasingly appropriated,
localized, and adapted to the requirements of a medieval Islamic reader-
ship. Ibn Rushd represents the pinnacle of this domesticating process.
18. Michelangelo Guidi and Richard Walzer, Studi su al-Kindī: Uno scritto introduttivo
allo studio di Aristotele,Atti della Reale Academia dei Lincei, Memorie della classe di scienze morali,
storiche e filologiche 6.6.5 (1940),402(Arabic); 417 (Italian trans.). Also see the reference to al-
Kindīs epitome in al-NadimsFihrist,ed.andtrans.BayardDodge(New York: Columbia Uni-
versity Press, 1970), 2:602.
19. See David Margoliouth, Analecta Orientalum ad Poeticam Aristoteleum (London, 1887),77
79, for a translation of the text in question, which is preserved in the thirteenth-century Dia-
logues of Jacob bar Shakko, for an expl ication of its style (5).
20. Milton, Foreignization,112.
8MODERN PHILOLOGY
The long genealogy for the incorporation of AristotlesPoetics into a
poetic tradition is rooted in the interpretative traditions of late antiquity,
above all in Themistius (ca. 31788 CE)and in Alexander Aphrodisias (fl.
200 CE).Al-Fārābī(870950)specifically cites Themistius, to whom a lost
oration (kalām)on the Poetics was attributed in Arabic sources.
21
Curiously,
given that al-Fārābīstudied under AbūBishr, who translated the Syriac Poet-
ics into Arabic, the pseudo-Aristotelian tradition represented by Themistius
seems to have played a larger role in shaping al-Fārābīs commentary on the
Poetics than did the Poetics itself.
22
Al-Fārābīs brief work, considered by
Arberry as the earliest extant Arabic work on Poetics consciously based on
the teaching of Aristotle,consists primarily of an enumeration of the
twelve literary forms that the philosopher understood to constitute ancient
Greek poetry.
23
Here we see the beginnings of an Arabic rhetoricization of
the dramatic genres, particularly in al-Fārābīs definitions of tragedy and
comedy, respectively: Tragedy is a kind of poetry having a particular
meter, affording pleasure to all who hear or recite it,states al-Fārābī.In
tragedy,al-Fārābīcontinues, good things are mentioned, praiseworthy
matters that are an example for others to emulate(269/275). Comedy by
contrast is a kind of poetry having a particular meterwithin which evil
things are mentioned, personal satires, blameworthy characteristics, and
reprehensible habits(269/27576).
While al-Fārābīs definitions of tragedy and comedy do not by any means
constitute a full-blown epistemology of poiesis according to the praise/
blame antinomy of the sort encountered in Ibn Rushd, the lineaments of a
rhetoricization of a series of originally nonrhetorical literary forms are
already present in this early treatise. Al-Fārābīwrites as a compiler of infor-
mation, not as a philosopher, and is not conscious of breaking new ground
with his typology. Far from being an innovator, al-Fārābīwas a reviver of an
exegetical tradition from late antiquity. Thus, if a misreading is entailed in
the rhetoricization of Aristotles genre typologies, this misreading must be
ascribed to an entire exegetical tradition originating in late antiquity. Like
the later Arabic philosophers, this early Arabic exegetical tradition had lit-
tle use for a theory of poetics based on drama. Partly for this reason, Arabic
theorists of literary language did not regard mimesis as an effective basis
for theorizing literary representation. The concept of literary representa-
21. FarabisCanonsofPoetry,ed. and trans. A. J. Arberry, Rivista degli Studi Orientale 17
(1937): 270 (Arabic text);276(English trans.). Future references are given parenthetically with
the Arabic text followed by the English. For the Arabic attribution of an oration on Aristotle to
Themistius, see J. Tkatsch, Die arabische Übersetzung der Poetik des Aristoteles und die grundlage der
Kritik des griechischen Textes (Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1928), 1:122.
22. For al-FārābīsstudiesunderAbūBishr, see Nicholas Rescher, The Development of Arabic
Logic (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1963), 12122.
23. A. J. Arberry, introduction to FarabisCanonsofPoetry,266.
9Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
tion in the premodern Islamic world was better captured by poiesisacon-
cept Heidegger later glossed as the bringing-forthof new realities through
the imaginationthan by mimesis, which from a premodern Islamic van-
tage point would seem to be merely servile imitation.
24
REPLACING MIMESIS BY THE IMAGINATION
One of Ibn Rushds most startling reversals of the Poeticsmimetic orienta-
tion occurs with the following propositions: Poetic statements are imagi-
native. There are three sorts of imaginative figurations [al-takhyīl]and com-
parison [al-tashbīh](54/60). Adhering impressively close to the Arabic
original, Hermannus Alemannus rendered takhyīl(imagination)as imagina-
tio and tashbīh(resemblance)as assimilatio.
25
Both authors radically de-
parted from the Poeticsoriginal vision with this formulation that shifted
the conversation from the relation between the subject and the object of
representation to the question of how figuration achieves its efficacy and
inscribes itself onto the imagination. While such formulations are nowhere
to be found in Aristotles text, they lay the foundation, in Arabic and Latin,
for theories of poetic perception that stand to make as profound a contri-
bution to the theorization of literary representation as the Aristotelian tra-
dition of equating poiesis and mimetic representation.
So, given that the rendering of tragedy by praise and comedy by blame
was not unique to Ibn Rushd, and this aspect of Ibn Rushdsinterpretation
draws on a lineage that predates the Arabic translation of the Poetics itself,
the right question to ask, then, is not why Ibn Rushd rendered Aristotles
modalities of poetry by praise and blame, or why he replaced mimesis by
imagination, but why he made this choice against the grain of the Arabic
Aristotelian tradition, as represented by al-Fārābīand Ibn Sīnā.WhenIbn
Sīnāundertook to make sense of Aristotles anatomy of literary form in the
Book of Healing (Kitābal-shifāʾ),IbnSīnāimitated al-Fārābīs literalism, even
to the extent of straining comprehension. Although AbūBishrsArabic
translation had already initiated the transposition of drama into poetry by
rendering tragedy as panegyric(madī), Ibn Sīnāfollowed al-Fārābīin
using the Greek genre term, transliterated as arāghūdhīyā.
26
Ibn Sīnās
24. For Heideggers gloss on poiesis, see Martin Heidegger: Philosophical and Political Writings,
ed. Manfred Stassen (New York: Continuum, 2006),284.
25. Hermannus Alemannus, poetria ibinrosdin,appendix to De arte poetica: translatio Guil-
leimi de Moerbeke (Bruges: Desclée de Brouwer, 1968), 42; The Middle Commentary of Averroes
of Cordova on the Poetics of Aristotle,trans. O. B. Hardison, in A. Preminger et al., Classical
and Medieval Literary Criticism: Translations and Interpretations (New York: Ungar, 1974), 349.
Future references are given parenthetically with the Latin text followed by the English.
26. Ibn Sīnā,Kitāb al-Shiʿr,166/67; al-Fārābī, 269/275.
10 MODERN PHILOLOGY
practice was in keeping with the practice of transliterating rather than
translating Greek terms that could not readily be assimilated into Arabic.
27
For the Greek translation movement in its early stages, adopting the most lit-
eral approach seemed the safest translation strategy. By the time the Greek-
Arabic encounter reached twelfth-century Spain, however, pure literalism
had come to seem outmoded and irrelevant to contemporary Arabic and
Mozarabic literary culture. Freer, localizing renderings had come to seem
more interesting as well as more important than strictly literal versions.
The foregoing indication that Ibn Rushd chose to render tragedy and
comedy as praise and blame when he had other options again generates the
question, why did the Andalusian philosopher make such a choice when he
was working within a philosophical-exegetical tradition that placed a high
value on philological exactitude even to the extent of preferring translitera-
tion to translation?Butterworths acknowledgment that Averroes aimed less
to provide a careful explanation of Aristotlesaccountofpoetrythan to
glean from that account features common to all or most nations in the
light of which he can carry out his own investigation of Arabic poetryoffers
one clue regarding the newness of his method.
28
Gutasprovidesanother
clue when he notes that Ibn Rushds innovation as a commentator consisted
of his attempttoapplysomeoftheideaswhich he understood from Aristo-
tles book to specimens taken from Arabic literature.
29
With respect to his interest in using Aristotelian poetics to as a tool to
elucidate Arabic poetry, Ibn Rushd breaks with both al-Fārābīand Ibn Sīnā,
neither of whom cited as extensively from the Arabic poetic canonor
from any poetic canon for that matteras did Ibn Rushd, and both of
whom were less interested in comparing the merits of varying literary forms
than in probing the imaginations philosophical foundations. (At the same
time, it is clear that Ibn Rushds intervention would have been unthinkable
without these two philosophical predecessors.)Of the three Arabic peripa-
tetic philosophers, Ibn Rushd is the most Aristotelian with respect to his
belief in poetrys pedagogical usefulness, while al-Fārābīand Ibn Sīnāare
more interested in locating poetry within a hierarchy of disciplines. While
al-Fārābītook the most comprehensive approach to this task in his Catalogue
of the Sciences (Iḥṣāʾal- ʿUlūm),IbnSīnāaimed to cosmologically uncover
poetrys epistemology in his Book of Healing. Neither approach suited Ibn
Rushd, who was most deeply concerned with the practical business of evalu-
ating poetry as literary figuration.
27. On this methodological distinction between the translatorsand the peripatetic philo-
sophers approach, see Dimitri Gutas, On Translating AverroesCommentaries,Journal of the
American Oriental Society 110 (1990): 95; an d Ismail Dahiyat, AvicennasCommentary,5.
28. Butterworth, Introduction,in AverroesMiddle Commentary on AristotlesPoetics,19.
29. Gutas, On Translating AverroesCommentaries,100.
11Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
An even deeper indication of the reasons behind Ibn Rushds philo-
sophical reworking of Aristotles text is afforded by the philosopher him-
self. In The Incoherence of the Incoherence (Tahāfut al-tahāfut), his refutation of
al-Ghazalis similarly titled attack on the philosophers, The Incoherence of the
Philosophers (Tahāfut al-falāsifa), Ibn Rushd argued out in painstaking detail
the objective reality of philosophical universals. Just as Aristotle had argued
that poetry is more philosophical than history due to its reliance on proba-
bility (Poetics 9.1451b57), so too was Ibn Rushd persuaded of the objective
existence of truths based on reason. This was Ibn Rushds way of conceiving
the relation between the probable and improbable. Whereas al-Ghazali,
persuaded that Gods omniscience limited the scope of human reason,
had reduced philosophical universals to unreal phenomena existing sub-
jectively in the mind, Ibn Rushd maintained against al-Ghazali that univer-
sals exist potentially, not actually in the external world; indeed, if they did
not exist at all in the outside world they would be false.
30
Even more
directly related to his belief in the truth-value of poetry, Ibn Rushd argued
in a later work, The Decisive Treatise (Kitābfalal-maqāl), dedicated to demon-
strating the harmony of religion and philosophy and thereby to defending
the authority of worldly knowledge, that one who is not cognizant of artful-
ness is not cognizant of what has been artfully made [al-manūʿ],andone
who is not cognizant of what has been artfully made is not cognizant of the
Artisan [al-ānaʿa],namely God.
31
To know God was to apprehend the
poetic representation of reality, which accorded with the dictates of reason.
Ibn Rushds belief in the revelation of universals through aesthetic and
rational means motivated his adaptation of Aristotelian poetics to his own
literary milieu and licensed his rhetoricization of literary forms to bring
poetics into closer alignment with philosophy.
In rendering tragedy by praise and comedy by blame, Ibn Rushd chose
the exegetical path most suitable to comparative literary analysis. Had he
followed the path of his illustrious predecessor Ibn Sīnā, and transliterated
rather than translated Aristotles alien terms, Ibn Rushd would not have
attracted the opprobrium of Renan, Borges, and Kilito. And yet such literal-
ism would have done little to advance world literature. Most important,
had Ibn Rushd set forth a theory of poetics in terms alien to Arabic literary
culture but more proximate to Aristotle, he would not have been able to
deploy the Poetics to elucidate the poetry of al-Mutanabbī,AbūFirās, and
AbūTammān. Although Ibn Rushd entered the scene after many centuries
of Qurʾānic exegetes and rhetoricians, from al-Rummānīto al-Bāqillānīto
al-Jurjānī, had cultivated a method for reading Arabic poetry alongside the
30. Ibn Rushd, Tahāfut al-Tahāfut,trans.SimonVanDerBergh(Cambridge: Gibb Memo-
rial, 1954), 65.
31. Ibn Rushd, Kitābfal al-maqāl,9.
12 MODERN PHILOLOGY
Qurʾān, such an interpretive feat with regard to Arabic poetry had never
before been performed within the Arabic Aristotelian tradition.
32
For Ibn
Rushd, the rendering of tragedy and comedy by praise and blame was a
necessary element in his appropriation of a text that would eventually
becomebut which at the time of his writing was notanormative
account of poetic signification. One of Ibn Rushdsmanyachievementsis
to have made it possible for Arabic scholars to see in AristotlesPoetics a tool
for understanding their own literary tradition, rather than an arcane docu-
ment pertaining only to a distant Greek literature.
Ibn Rushds exegesis reveals a kinship between the poets creativity and
the philosophers universalizing aspirations. Indeed, to a greater degree
than his predecessors as well as his modern critics, Ibn Rushd reads Aristo-
tlesPoetics with the eyes of a poet. The concept that guides him is less
mimesisunderstood as the reproduction of realitythan poiesis: imagi-
native recreation in a completely new linguistic and literary environment,
which was for Aristotle congruous with poetry itself. Poiesis was what Arabic
and Greek philosophers of literature shared in common; mimesis was
the grounds on which they diverged. Consequently, Arabic philosophys
grounds for comparison with Aristotelian poetics was more fully encapsu-
lated in the former than the latter. Ibn Rushd approximated the Greek
sense of poiesis through the Arabic term takhyīl(image making).
33
Poiesis,
not mimesis, was uppermost in Ibn Rushds mind when he distinguished
between the poetic statement [qawl al-shiʿrī]that urges belief [al-iʿtiqād]
and the poetic statement that urges character [al-ʿāda](72/78).Whereas
the latter impels us to an action [ʿamal],the former only influences us to
believe that something exists or does not exist, not to seek it or reject it
(72/78).
34
Since poiesis works at a higher level of abstraction than mimesis, its
aims are more philosophical. While Arabic translators and commentators
maneuvered among a series of termsmuāka,takhyīl,tashbīh,andtamthīl
to render mimesis, Islamic philosophys deepest contribution to global
32. For an introduction to Islamic rhetoric, see Gustavevon Grunebaums translation of al-
BāqillānīsIʿjāzal-Qurʾān: A Tenth-Century Document of Arabic Literary Theory and Criticism (Univer-
sity of Chicago Press, 1950).
33. On thisconcept in classical Arabic literary theory, see Takhyīl: The Imaginary in Classical
Arabic Poetics, ed. Geert Jan van Gelder and MarléHammond (Oxford: Oxbow, 2008);and
Wolfhart Heinrichs, Arabische Dichtung und griechische Poetik: āzim al-Qarājannīs Grundlegung
der Poetik mit Hilfearistotelischer Begriffe (Beirut: Beiruter Texte und Studien, 1969), 14954. The
distinction proposed here between mimesis and poiesis is not intended to be definitive and is
explored in greater detail with respect to Perso-Arabic poetics in Rebecca Gould, Travelling
Romance: Persian Narrative and Vernacular Imaginations from South Asia to the Caucasus
(unpublished manuscript, 2014).
34. Hermannuss text here (49/356)is extremely close to the Arabic original.
13Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
poetics lies more in what it had to say about the role of the imagination
than in any theory of mimetic representation. When Ibn Rushd asserted
that poetic discourses are imaginative(54/60)he referenced takhyīl
instead of the more precise Arabic term for mimesis, muāka (inscription,
engraving). Regarding poetrys capacity to approximate reality as one of its
lesser powers, Ibn Rushd set forth an even more ambitious thesis. Buoyed
by an Arabic tradition that saw poetry as a form of creation ex nihilo, he
identified the discursive specificity of poetry through the work it performs
on the imagination.
The rendering of takhyīlby mimesisand its variants in English transla-
tions of Ibn Rushds commentary has served to obscure the Arabic philo-
sophical traditions disengagement from this aspect of the Platonic-Aristo-
telian tradition and its replacement of the Greek theory of representation
by concepts more rooted in Islamic thought.
35
Like Ibn Sīnā, Ibn Rushds
interest in poetry lay primarily in its ability to bring new worlds into being
by fabricating new representations. The relation between these representa-
tions and the nonrepresentational perfection that lay at the pinnacle of the
Platonic hierarchy of forms was not of great concern to the Arabic rhetori-
cal tradition.
And yet, by disengaging from what might be seen as a correspondence
theory of truth applied to literature, neither Ibn Rushd nor his Latin trans-
lator disengaged from the intersection between the text and the world. To
the contrary, persuaded that, as Ibn Rushd elsewhere maintained, the truth
discovered by the ancients agrees with and bears witness to the truthof
Islamic and Christian civilization, both translators intensified that relation
by rhetoricizing ancient Greek literary forms.
36
Among recent scholars,
Karla Mallette is the most discerning with regard to the practical implica-
tions of the rhetorical concept of poetry that reverberated across the medie-
val Mediterranean and the concomitant irrelevance of the mimesis concept
for a medieval readership. Because Ibn Rushd and Hermannus understood
AristotlesPoetics as a manual for those who intended to use words to effect
change in the world, they viewed it in a continuum with ethics,Mallette
notes.
37
Mallette correlates this medieval ethical orientation to poetry with
the rendering of tragedy and comedy by praise and blame.
Aristotle of course famously revised his masters condemnation of poetry
by inverting the Platonic theory of forms and reinterpreting Platonic mime-
sis. Ibn Rushd and his Islamic and Latin contemporaries found other ways
35. The rendering of takhy īlas imitation,followed by Butterworth in his translation, and
criticized by Gutas, On Translating AverroesCommentaries,98. See also n. 22 above.
36. Ibn Rushd, Kitābfal al-maqāl,9.
37. Karla Mallette, Beyond Mimesis: Aristotles Poetics in the Medieval Mediterranean,
PMLA 124 (2009):585.
14 MODERN PHILOLOGY
of elucidating the discursive work done by literature in and on the world.
They were able to elude the Platonic rejection of poetry because they were
not trapped within a theory of forms that made all imitations false simula-
tions of superior originals.
38
Avoiding a hierarchal concept of representa-
tion, they foregrounded ethics over ontology. Whereas the ancient Greek
emphasis on mimesis arose from a culture that saw artistic expression
embodied first and foremost in the performing arts and that was continu-
ously confronted with simulacra of reality, medieval commentators such as
Ibn Rushd and Hermannus Alemannus worked within cultures that dis-
cerned the deepest forms of creativity in the written word.
39
Hence their
preoccupation with poetics was matched by their concern with rhetoric.
This second concern derived its inspiration in part from another Aristote-
lian text, the Rhetoric, while also engaging with the indigenous Arabic tradi-
tion of ʿilm al-balāgha (the science of rhetoric).
40
The Arabic philosophers
belief in poetrys efficacy was contingent on their impulse to classify poetry
as either praise or blame. To interpret their rhetorical-didactic orientation
to poetry as a fall from an imagined Platonic-Aristotelian state of grace is to
instrumentalize the imagination in the service of a metaphysical hierarchy
of forms.
While Aristotle argued that, pace Plato, mimetic art partakes of truth,
even the Stagirite was unable to do away entirely with the assumption that
arts value is measured by the accuracy of its representation of the world.
Islamic aesthetics by contrast emphasized the generative and even magical
powers of the imagination.
41
Herein lies a basic difference between Aris-
totle and his Arabic commentators: the distance between the world and its
aesthetic representation is the beginning of poiesis in Arabic literary criti-
cism. Thebestpoetryisthatwhichliesthemost[khayr al-shiʿr akdhabuhu],
runs a famous Arabic proverb that was cited by many Arabic rhetoricians,
including al-Jurjānī.
42
According to this logic, the distance between the
38. For another account of the impact of this Platonic duality on aesthetics, see Gilles
Deleuze, Plato andthe Simulacrum,trans. Rosalind Krauss, October 27 (1983):4556.
39. For an important attempt to dislocate the normative assumptions guiding the Poetics
dependency on the dramatic forms, see Earl Miner, Comparative Poetics: An Intercultural Essay on
Theories of Literature (Princeton University Press, 1990),esp.26and216.
40. For the Arabic translation of AristotlesRhetoric,seeArisūālīs al-Khiābah: al-tarjamah al-
ʿArabīyah al-qadīmah,ed.ʿAbd al-Ramān Badawī(Kuwait: Wikālat al-Mabūʿāt, 1979); and the
studies by Deborah Black, Logic and Aristotles Rhetoric and Poetics in Medieval Arabic Philosophy
(Leiden: Brill, 1990); and Uwe Vagelpohl, Aristotles Rhetoric in the East: The Syriac and Arabic
Translation and Commentary Tradition (Leiden: Brill, 2008).
41. For a discussion of these local Islamic traditions concerning poetrysmetaphysics,see
J. Christoph Bürgel, The Feather of Simurgh: The Licit Magicof the Arts in Medieval Islam (New
York University Press, 1988).
42. ʿAbd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī,Asrār al-Balāgha , ed. Hellmut Ritter (Istanbul: Istanbul Govern-
ment Press, 1954), 243. For additional engagments with this provocative statement in the Ara-
15Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
world and its representation in literature is to be cultivated, theorized, and
celebrated, whereas in the Platonic tradition this distance is a problem to
be overcome.
By privileging language over representation, poetry over drama, and the
work of the imagination over conformity to representational aesthetics, Ibn
Rushd was able to detach literary meaning from a correspondence theory of
truth without relinquishing literatures capacity to intervene in the world.
Aristotle, preoccupied as his treatise was by the concept of mimesis, assumed
the dependency of art on reality and never sought to reverse that relation.
Aristotles concept of probability enabled him to demonstrate the efficacy
of artistic representation in relation to other discourses (such as history),
but, unlike Arabic and Persian theorists of poetics, Aristotle did not argue
for poetrys ontological primacy in the world of representations. For Aris-
totle, as for Plato, poetry was always, at some level, subordinate to another
level of discourse that was perceived as more proximate to truth. Indeed,
the mere attempt to justify poetry (as against history)in terms of philosophy
shows that, for Aristotle, philosophy was more important than poetry.
As mediators between Greek learning and Islamic literary culture, and as
philosophers, al-Fārābī,IbnSīnā, and Ibn Rushd worked at the peripheries
of an Islamic culture in which their more theologically grounded counter-
parts, al-Rummānī,al-Bāqillānī,andal-Jurjānī, were more deeply immersed.
Most scholars have concluded that medieval Arabic philosophical engage-
ments with Aristotle did not directly impact Arabic poetry or poetics.
43
And
yet the traffic in the opposite directionfrom the Arabic-speaking world to
Western Europewas vibrant and diverse enough to make a lasting impact
on European literary theory. What these marginal philosophers, Ibn Rushd
in particular, accomplished that was original was to enrich the philosophi-
cal traditions of classical antiquity with a medieval Islamic way of reading
the poetic artifact. This worldview included, among other things, an em-
phasis on the rhetorical aspects of artistic expression. The emphasis for
both Plato and Aristotle was on how art represents the world rather than, as
for the Arabic tradition, how art brings the world into being through styl-
ized expression. Far from being a flaw, the value and importance of Ibn
Rushds encounter with Aristotelian Poetics is his adaptation of its alien and
un-Islamic conception of poetry to local rhetorical norms.
bic rhetorical tradition, see J. Christoph Bürgel, “‘Die beste Dichtung ist die lügenreichste:
Wesen und Bedeutung eines literarischen Streites des arabischen Mittelalters im Lichte kom-
paratistisher Betrachtung,Oriens 23/24 (1974):7102.
43. Amjad Trabulsi argues the contrary in La Critique Poétique des Arabes jusquau Ve Siècle de
lHégire (Damascus: Institut français de Damas, 1958). For the (more common)view that there
was no direct influence, see S. A. Bonebakker, Aspects of the History of Literary Rhetoric and
Poetics in Arabic Literature,Viator: Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 1(1970):9095;
andI.G.Krachkovskys introduction to Ibn al-MuʿtazzsKitābal-Badīʿ(London: Luzac, 1930).
16 MODERN PHILOLOGY
BORGESIAN INTERPELLATIONS
Alone among Ibn Rushds detractors, Borges gestured explicitly toward the
otherwise imperceptible advantages of Ibn Rushds imprecise rendering of
tragedy and comedy by praise and blame. One of the most poignant
moments in AverroessSearchis when the philosopher initiates a post-
prandial discussion concerning the merits and demerits of a poetic figure
imagined into being by the pre-Islamic poet Zuhayr (ca. 520609). Zuhayr
is known in the annals of Arabic literature as the poet who, more than
any other of his contemporaries, avoided unfamiliar language and distin-
guished himself by praising a man only according to the virtues he really
possessed.
44
The poetic figure that hovers over the dinner table in the philosophers
home in twelfth-century Cordoba is the likening of destiny to an old, blind
camel. The least learned among Ibn Rushdsguestsclaimsthatfive hun-
dred years of admirationhave worn the image thin and deprived it of
poetic intensity. The guests unanimously assent. Alone among those pres-
ent, Ibn Rushd dissents from the consensus upheld by his guests. He eventu-
ally breaks his silence to deliver the most suggestive words spoken that eve-
ning, in defense of images hallowed by custom and tradition. Ibn Rushds
philosophical speech is conditioned by the different temporalities pertain-
ing to poetry and the discourses of everyday life. Time,Ibn Rushd muses,
which ravages fortresses, enriches poetry(139; emphasis added).IbnRushd
then counters his guestsdisdain for texts that have borne multiple readings
with the argument that Zuhayrs poetry is enriched by the many interpreta-
tions that accrue to it through its journey across the centuries.
Whereas Ibn Rushdsguestsonlynotethatthepassageoftimecanmake
a clichéfrom a brilliant image, Ibn Rushd focuses on the creative infusion
afforded by multiple readings. To embrace polysemy as the goal of poetic
meaning is implicitly to adopt a non-Platonic theory of literary representa-
tion. It is to relinquish the expectation that poetry approximates truth and
instead to assert that, by generating new meanings and new realities, poetry
brings truth into being. Over time, readers graft onto Zuhayrs image new
associations until his poem becomes thicker, denser with meanings, and
more suffused with significations.
Persuaded as he is of the aesthetic superiority of polysemy over singular
meaning, Ibn Rushd celebrates the work done to a literary text in time, as it
acquires new readers who graft their life experiences onto their readings of
the text. The philosopher argues that a text is enriched by every new read-
44. Bonebakker, Aspects of the History,81 n. 17, offers a long list of medieval Arabic liter-
ary critics, from al-JumaitoIbnRashīq, who attributed this assessment of Zuhayr to the caliph
ʿUmar.
17Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
ing to which it is subjected and that nothing is more conducive to multiple
readings than the passage of time. Whereas the original comparison con-
sisted of only two terms, camel and old man,today,notes Ibn Rushd, it
has four. Time widens the circle of the verses(139).
45
Ibn Rushd concludes
by gesturing toward poetrys highest goal. Imyself,he declares, know
some verses that are, like music, all things to all men(139).
There is yet another dimension to Borgess revelation. Whereas Renan
and Kilito begin by assuming that Ibn Rushds ignorance of Greek drama
led deterministically to his rendering of tragedy and comedy by praise and
blame, and thereby deny any scope for the philosophers imagination, Bor-
ges subtly suggests that the concept of drama was available to the Cordoban
philosopher even though this awareness remained opaque in his commen-
tary. Borges follows Renans lead: he begins apologetically, assuming that
the conditions under which Ibn Rushd labored made an accurate under-
standing of Aristotles text impossible. Averroes,Borges writes, ventrilo-
quizing the Orientalist tradition, who knew neither Syriac nor Greek, was
working from a translation of a translation(135). Like Renan before him
and like Kilito afterward, Borges considers the incommensurability of an-
cient Greek and medieval Arabic cultures to lie at the origin of Ibn Rushds
incomprehension. And yet this seemingly straightforward argument for
the impossibility of translation is undermined by two moments in the text,
both of which unfold in lapidary fashion and leave to the reader the task of
assessing Ibn Rushdslegacy.
The first moment occurs when Ibn Rushd takes a break from his arduous
work on The Incoherence of the Incoherence. While surveying his library in search
of illumination regarding the meaning of the terms tragedia and komedia,
Ibn Rushd glances out his window and gazes on the grounds below. There
he sees, through the bars of his balcony, a group of children playing. One
child from among the group is pretending to be a muezzin, the person who
recites the Islamic call to prayer five times a day from the minaret (tower)of
a mosque. A second boy, standing motionless and supporting the erstwhile
muezzin on his shoulders, pretends to be the minaret from which the muez-
zin recites the call to prayer. A third boy, kneeling and bowing low in the dirt,
is the congregation of the faithful. This spectacle does not last long because
all three boys want to play the muezzin and none wants to assume the role of
the motionless minaret or the congregation of the faithful. But this perfor-
45. In the entirety of El Aleph, the story collection of which the Averroes story is part, the
term rendered here as circle(ámbito, more precisely scope,”“ambit)occurs only three
times: at the beginning and end of the Averroes story, with reference to the circlethat
bounded Averroes and prevented him from understanding tragedy and comedy, and here,
with reference to the space of poetrythat is widened by time. Formally reproducing its seman-
tic content by appearing both at the storys beginning and at its end, circlefunctions as a
metonym for a historical horizon that is bounded but also extended by time.
18 MODERN PHILOLOGY
mance drags on long enough to suggest to the discerning reader that, just as
every culture possesses its own distinct notion of literature, so too every cul-
ture possesses its own dramatic forms, whether or not these forms are
denominated as such and whether ornottheseformsaremadefounda-
tional to its genre systems. Given the universal grounds for comparison that
was the motive, stimulus, and goal of Ibn Rushds endeavors, Kilitos untrans-
latability thesis appears untenable within the Borgesian framework.
This Borgesian suggestion concerning the availability to Ibn Rushd of a
concept of tragedy that was within his conceptual grasp even while the term
itself remained a mystery is confirmed by a second postprandial exchange
between Ibn Rushd and his dinner guests. One of his guests, Abu al-Hasan,
has traveled all over the world, as far as China. All of Ibn Rushdsguestsare
eager to hear tales of the sights Abu al-Hasan has seen in the course of
his travels. Abu al-Hasan obliges by telling of a strange phenomenon he
encountered in Canton (Borges borrows the term used by Arabic travel writ-
ers such as Ibn Baṭṭūa to describe this region of southern China: Sin Kalán,
literally meaning Great China).
46
A group of Muslim merchants conduct
Abu al-Hasan to a house of painted woodthat resembles a single room,
with rows of cabinet-like contrivances, or balconies, stacked on top each
other(137). The structure Abu al-Hasan describes without being able to
name is, of course, a theater. There were people eating and drinking,Abu
al-Hasan elaborates, therewerepeoplesittingontheflooraswell,andalso
on a raised terracein the midst of a performance of fifteen or twenty wear-
ing crimson masks who prayed and sang and conversed among themselves
(13738). As with the tableaux of children playacting the roles of a muezzin,
minaret, and congregation below Ibn Rushds window, the imaginary status
of these proceedings is underscored by the narrator: the masked actors
were imprisoned, but no one could see the prison; they rode on horses,
but the horse was not to be seen; they waged battle, but the swords were of
bamboo; they died, and then they walked again(138).
Similarly to the famous opera scene in TolstoysWar and Peace that ren-
ders the spectacle on stage strange through defamiliarization, Abu al-Hasan
describes the performance he witnessed in Canton in terms that convey its
strangeness to the Arab milieu. Without using an Arabic term for drama or
theater, Abu al-Hasan makes available to Ibn Rushd in twelfth-century Cor-
doba all he would have had to know in order to adequately understand what
Aristotle meant by tragedy and comedy. (Meanwhile, apart from Borgess
story, we know that the terms tragedy and comedy had been transliterated into
46. Ibn Baṭṭūa, Voyages dIbn Batoutah, texte arabe, accompagne dune traduction,ed.C.Defrém-
ery and B. R. Sanguinetti (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 185358),9393. For Ibn Baṭṭūasuse
of in Kalān, see Hyunhee Park, Mapping the Chinese and Islamic Worlds: Cross-Cultural Exchange
in Pre-modern Asia (Cambridge University Press, 2012), 155.
19Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
the Arabic lexicon by al-Fārābīand Ibn Sīnāmuch earlier.)Both the playact-
ing children and the travelers tale indicate that the mimetic element
assumed to be missing from Ibn Rushds commentary and necessary for his
comprehension of the text in fact was already abundant in the target
culture. This reading is supplemented by a medievalists lexicographical
observation that throughout the middle ages any place, usually but not
necessarily out of doors, where public and secular entertainments were
givenoften public square or marketplacemight be called a theatre.
47
While Ibn Rushd lived and wrote in an Islamic Spain milieu, the medieval
European theatrical tradition was also part of his world. The mismatch
between tragedy and praise, on the one hand, and comedy and blame, on
the other, is less the result of cultural misrecognition than of two similar phe-
nomena acquiring different names in different literary cultures. Establish-
ing a grounds for comparison, this difference-in-sameness helps the Arabic
philosopher ground the comparative study of literary form, thereby creating
a basis for a comparative poetics that still awaits its analytical realization.
Whatever Borgessintentions,IbnRushds measurement of Zuhayrs
excellencethe ability of his images to signify all things to all readers and
listenerselucidates the Poetics as well as Ibn Rushds commentary on it.
Both texts bear an uncanny capacity for generating multiple interpreta-
tions. The key question generated by their reception histories is not whether
these texts were altered in transmission but rather whether they could
engender new meanings and new ways of reading poetry when considered
in light of different textual traditions. That time widens the circle of mean-
ings does not mean that the old is better than the new. Rather, Borgess
axiom suggests that the translatability of literary form is released into the
world gradually, not in a single instant. The translatability of literary form is
activated through a texts ability to signify different things to different peo-
ple and for its chords to resound differently to different ears.
From this vantage point, Kilitos pessimism regarding the translatability
of cultures seems to evade a deeper issue. It is symptomatic of this evasion
that Kilito cites Petrarchs famous remarks condemning the Arabs and
their poetry as nothing more than seductive ...nothing more disgusting
as the epigraph to his work without noting that, in all likelihood, nearly
everything that Petrarch knew about Arabic poetry would have reached
him via Ibn Rushds commentary, just as Kilitos own access to Petrarchs
writings was mediated by French and Arabic sources.
48
The Greek-Arabic-
47. Mary Marshall, Theatre in the Middle Ages: Evidence from the Dictionaries and
Glosses,Symposium: A Journal Devoted to Modern Foreign Languages and Literature 4(1950): 382.
48. For a recent discussion of Petrarchs access to Ibn Rushds text, see Karla Mallette, Euro-
pean Modernity and the Arab Mediterranean (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press,
2010),3464. Older significant discussions include C. H. L. Bodenham, Petrarch and the
20 MODERN PHILOLOGY
Latin exchange generated far more meanings, including productive mis-
readings, than either Petrarch or Kilito are willing or able to acknowledge.
In order for AristotlesPoetics to illuminate medieval Arabic poetry, the lit-
erary forms specific to ancient Greece had to undergo modification. But
there is no mandate for reading the modification Ibn Rushd performed on
Aristotles text as a reduction in its meaning. Indeed, such modifications
were probably underway before Aristotles ideas on poetry were given tex-
tual form, for as we know today, the Poetics is a set of lecture notes probably
compiled by Aristotles students.
49
Aristotlesworksarewellknowntohave
become esoteric for most readers during their late antique reception.
50
In
the form in which it has reached us, Aristotles text hardly represents the
philosophers unmediated reflections on the interface between form and
meaning or representation and the making of poetry.
Notwithstanding the assumption of a linear, if fragmented, continuity
between the literary forms of ancient Greece and modern European literary
genres that still pervades scholarship on the Poetics, few theorists of modern
literature turn to drama as to a normative model for literary discourse.
51
Those for whom modern literature is thenormlooktothenovelasmodern
literaturesur-genre(perhaps arguing for the epic as the novelsprecursor),
while those oriented to premodern literary cultures look to the lyric.
52
With
respect to the foregrounding of drama as the normative model for litera-
ture by classical theorists of literary language, the real parallel is between
ancient Greece and ancient India, not between Greece and Europe.
53
With
respect to the emphasis on rhetoric, the closest parallels are between medie-
val Islam, late antiquity, and ancient Greece. Against this background, mod-
ern European theories of literature are foreign and strange, worth examin-
ing on their own terms but hardly adequate guides to the aesthetic values of
places and times that never came under their influence.
Poetry of the Arabs,Romanische Forschungen 94 (1982): 16778; H. A. Kelly, Aristotle-Averroes-
Alemannus on Tragedy: The Influence of the Poetics on the Middle Ages,Viator 10 (1979):
206; and Charles Burnett, Petrarch and Averroes: An Episode in the History of Poetics,in
The Medieval Mind: Hispanic Studies in Honour ofAlan Deyermond,ed.RalphPennyandIanMac-
pherson (Woodbridge: Tamesis, 1997),4956.
49. Matthew Potolsky, Mimesis (New York: Routledge, 2006), 32.
50. See D. S. Margoliouth, The Poetics of Aristotle (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1911),21
76.
51. An unfortunate instance of the master narrative linking ancient Greece to modern
Europe is thecollection Essays on AristotlesPoetics,ed.Amélie Rorty (Princeton University Press,
1992), particularly the essay by Stephen Halliwell on The Poetics and Its Interpreters(409
23), which makes no reference to the Arabic exegetical tradition.
52. Miner, Comparative Poetics, esp. 26 and 216.
53. Much like AristotlesPoetics, the earliest Sanskrit treatise on aesthetics, the Natyasastra
attributed to Bharata-Muni, is exclusively concerned with drama. For a translation of this text
by Manomohan Ghosh, see The Natyasastra: A Treatise on Ancient Indian Dramaturgy and Histrion-
ics (Calcutta: Manisha Granthalaya, 1956).
21Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
When the Poetics is interpreted as a prolegomenon to literary theory
today, and as one of the foundational texts establishing a grounds for com-
parative literature, when it is used as an introductory text in graduate prose-
minars on comparative literature, it is read as Ibn Rushd himself read the
text: for what it has to say about poetics, beyond ancient Greece. While this
approach has contributed to the texts extraordinary afterlife, it can make
no claims to be consistent with the usages envisioned for the Poetics in its
original context. Nor does Ibn Rushds approach correspond to the later
reception of the Poetics in early modern Europe, wherein Italian critics such
as Antonio Riccoboni (154199)made of Aristotlestextapractical man-
ual for poets and playwrights.
54
At the same time, Ibn Rushds willingness
to assimilate the culturally specific aspects of Aristotles text into his imme-
diate milieu paved the way for the subsequent European appropriations of
the text by Hermannus Alemannus, Lorenzo Valla, Julius Caesar Scaliger,
and Umberto Eco. The rendering of tragedy by praise and comedy by
blame licensed later adaptations, which in turn made of the Poetics a text
that could elucidate all literatures, if in inevitably differing ways, and only
after reading the original against the grain.
With respect to its emphasis on dramatic literature, AristotlesPoetics is
indisputably a product of its epoch. The texts relevance beyond its original
milieu resides more in its exegetical methodincluding especially the use
of textual citations to substantiate epistemological claims that Ibn Rushd
put to good use in his commentarythan in general precepts. Rather than
offer a universal theory of poetry, as Plato did through Socrates in the
Republic, Aristotle and Ibn Rushd pioneered a method for comparative
poetics. Their achievement suggests that the Poetics and its commentarys
merging of literary form and philosophical analysis should be regarded as a
strength rather than as a weakness. That Aristotles explications are tied to
readings of specific texts and genres attests to the literary acumen that
accompanied his philosophical agenda. Just as Aristotles insights were tied
to his time and place, so too were Ibn Rushds horizons intensively shaped
by his immersion in Arabic poetry.
To fault the Arab philosopher for rendering tragedy as praise and com-
edy as blame is to internalize the Orientalist fallacy that makes of ancient
Athens the gold standard for all literary cultures and regards any departure
from Greek norms as a fall from grace. A more productive way of narrating
the circuitous route followed by the Poetics as it journeyed from Athens to
Baghdad (via AbūBishr and al-Fārābī)to Central Asia (via Ibn Sīnā)and to
54. John Edwin Sandys, A History of Classical Scholarship: From the Revival of Learning (Cam-
bridge University Press, 1908), 134. For a recent facsimile reprint of this work, see Poetica Aristo-
telis Latine conversa (1587)Compendium Artis poeticae Aristotelis [ab]Antonio Riccoboni (1591)
(Munich: Fink, 1970).
22 MODERN PHILOLOGY
al-Andalus (via Ibn Rushd)is to see each iteration as a testimony to the
translatability of literary norms that in turn makes possible the translatabil-
ity of literary form. In all its multifarious deployments, the power of poetry
resides in its ability to act on the imagination. In the words of al-Fārābī,
poetry is composed of things that aim at imaginative assent ...and result in
seeing it as better or worse, more beautiful or uglier, dignified or base.
55
Ibn Rushd echoes al-Fārābīwhen he notes that, unlike rhetoric, poetry
achieves its mission when it persuades us of a particular belief (iʿtiqād).
56
The
imaginative assent referenced by al-Fārābīand Ibn Rushd stimulates a trans-
formation of the seer as well as of the seen. The translatability of literary form
across time and space gives the lie to the still-prevalent scholarly habit of
treating Arab poets, translators, commentators, and philosophers as merely
the flawed and ignorant mediators of an immutable Greek civilization.
Ibn Rushds illustrious predecessor Ibn Sīnāopened the second chapter
of his commentary on the Poetics by limiting his interpretation to that part
of the Poetics which we are able to understand(177).IbnSīnāacknowl-
edged that the text was full of discussions of poems and descriptions
peculiar to the Greeks (177). The Cordoban philosopher declared his inter-
est in precisely that part of the Poetics that could be understood without ref-
erence to the Greek tradition. While al-Fārābīand Ibn Sīnāsystematically
sought to gain a deeper grasp of the Greek genre system, Ibn Rushd did
not subordinate his inquiry to such an information-gathering end. Far
from seeking to understand Greek literature, Ibn Rushd aimed to under-
stand those aspects of AristotlesPoetics that pertain to the literatures of all
peoples, including the Arabs. While Ibn Sīnās approach was more lexically
precise, Ibn Rushds hermeneutics offers a more substantial precedent for
the discipline of comparative literature. What the latters commentary
sacrifices with respect to technical precision it gains with respect to creative
intervention. While Ibn Rushd failed to explicate Greek literary forms to an
Arab readership, he made great strides toward enabling a comparative
poetics that could give the lie to the only lesson that Petrarch took away
from his encounter with Ibn Rushd in Hermannusstranslation.
In what remains the best study of the poetics of praise for the early mod-
ern period, O. B. Hardison foregrounds the centrality of Ibn Rushdsinter-
vention. Had [Ibn Rushds]paraphrase added only the magic name of
Aristotle to the theory of praise,Hardison notes, it would be a significant
document.
57
However, Ibn Rushd went beyond the mere infusion of Aris-
55. Al-Fārābī,Iḥṣāʾal-ʿUlūm,ed.ʿUthmānAmīn(Cairo: Maktabat al-Anjlūal-Mirīyah, 1968),
83.
56. See Ibn Rushd, Talkhī,6872, 79/7579, 86. Ibn Sīnāstermisraʾy(179/94),which
comes closer to meaning opinion.Both terms correspond to Aristotlesdianoia.
57. Hardison, The Enduring Monument, 35.
23Rebecca Gould The Poetics from Athens to al-Andalus
totle and revived a discussion from late antiquity concerning the modalities
of poetic speech. Looking beyond the Latin critics Donatus and Fulgentius,
who had discussed praise solely in connection with VergilsAeneid,Ibn
Rushd broadened the theory of praise to include all literary genres.
It may be the case that Ibn Rushd achieved this clarity by neglecting
essential aspects of Aristotles poetics, such as plot (mythos)and mimesis. It
may also be true that Ibn Rushd chose to focus exclusively on those aspects
of Aristotles poetics that could be easily assimilated by the Arabic literary
canon. But if the reduction of poiesis to praise and blame is regarded as an
error, it must be acknowledged that Ibn Rushds mistranslationwhich is
better understood as simply a variant interpretationwas one of the most
productive misreadings in world literary history.
24 MODERN PHILOLOGY
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La imagen que un solo hombre puede formar es la que no toca a ninguno. … El tiempo, que despoja los alcázares, enriquece los versos. —Jorge Luis Borges, “La busca de Averroes” (586) The image that a single man can form touches no one. … Time, which despoils fortresses, enriches poetry. How should literary historians aiming to describe literary traditions that predated the modern nation use the methodological tool kit developed contemporaneously with the European nationalisms? Can philology be separated from the logic of the nation and from the teleological vanishing point—the languages and literatures of (for instance) modern France, Spain, or Italy—that has traditionally provided a rationale for readings of medieval literature (and jobs for philologists)? Medieval literary historians have known for some time that we must get out of the habit of thinking in terms of the national literatures that would emerge centuries after the texts we study were written. And we have absorbed the lesson that the nineteenth-century philologists on whose shoulders we stand worked (frequently, if not systematically) under the influence of the nationalizing movements emerging as they wrote, so that their pronouncements on medieval texts must be read with appropriate caution. We have not, however, yet produced new geographic and historical formulations to replace the narrative that traces the origin of the modern European nations to a medieval Latin Christian crucible.
  • Matthew Potolsky
Matthew Potolsky, Mimesis (New York: Routledge, 2006), 32.
The Poetics of Aristotle
  • See D S Margoliouth
See D. S. Margoliouth, The Poetics of Aristotle (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1911), 21– 76.
Petrarch and Averroes: An Episode in the History of Poetics
  • Charles Burnett
and Charles Burnett, "Petrarch and Averroes: An Episode in the History of Poetics," in The Medieval Mind: Hispanic Studies in Honour of Alan Deyermond, ed. Ralph Penny and Ian Macpherson (Woodbridge: Tamesis, 1997), 49-56.
For a recent discussion of Petrarch's access to Ibn Rushd's text, see Karla Mallette
  • Mary Marshall
Mary Marshall, "Theatre in the Middle Ages: Evidence from the Dictionaries and Glosses," Symposium: A Journal Devoted to Modern Foreign Languages and Literature 4 (1950): 382. 48. For a recent discussion of Petrarch's access to Ibn Rushd's text, see Karla Mallette, European Modernity and the Arab Mediterranean (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010), 34-64. Older significant discussions include C. H. L. Bodenham, "Petrarch and the Poetry of the Arabs," Romanische Forschungen 94 (1982): 167-78;
Ibn Sīnā's term is raʾy (179/94), which comes closer to meaning "opinion
  • Talkhīṣ See Ibn Rushd
See Ibn Rushd, Talkhīṣ, 68-72, 79/75-79, 86. Ibn Sīnā's term is raʾy (179/94), which comes closer to meaning "opinion." Both terms correspond to Aristotle's dianoia.
The Enduring Monument
  • Hardison
Hardison, The Enduring Monument, 35.