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Once upon a time... the sexuality: adolescents and sexual risk.

Authors:
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Once upon a time... the sexuality:
adolescents and sexual risk
Anna Gargiulo, Valentina Manna, Valentina Boursier, Giorgia Margherita
Department of Humanities, University of Naples Federico II
At risk behaviours in adolescence
Biological-based body transformations, psychic reshuffles (Freud,
1905; Laufer, 1984), developmental challenges (Blos, 1979)
Period of transition and crisis (Erikson, 1968; Winnicott, 1961)
Identity construction and process of subjectivation (Cahn, 1998).
The integration of a new sexed body and the use of sexuality as
narcissistic confirmation are involved in the construction of
gender identity (Nunziante Cesàro 2014; Boursier & De Rosa, 2006).
At risk behaviours
= actions that may endanger the
physical, psychological and social well-being of the
adolescent (Argentero, 2006)
Acting out = unmentalised motor
«discharge» (Laufer e Laufer, 1988)
Acting out omnipotent and
narcissistic aspects, based on denial
mechanisms (Ferruzza et al., 2007).
Acting out defense mechanism and
means of Self expression (Margherita,
2009; Troisi & Gargiulo, 2014)
…BUT…
Psychosexual maturity: the ability to
think about sexuality and schedule it
(Rossi, 2002).
the narration is able to promote knowledge and transformation (Shafer, 1983;
Spence, 1982; Ricoeur, 1983; Bruner, 1991; ; Ferro, 2006; Freda, 2011; Margherita, 2009; Margherita et al,
2014).
to explore how adolescents represent the sexual risk in
their life contexts;
to evaluate the role of gender differences in promoting
and influencing these representations.
About adolescence: psychodynamic background
Aims
Discussion
118 high school students
from South Italy
Average age: 16 years old
Instruments and Data Analysis
«Write a story in which the main character enacts a risky
sexual behaviour…»
Quali-quantitative Content Analysis with the T-lab
Software (Lancia, 2004):
1. Analysis of the Elementary Contexts identification of
the dominant themes
2. Analysis of the Specificities evaluation of gender
differences through the search for typical and
exclusive words.
Participants
Results: Cluster Analysis
References
Splitting between a
phantasy dimension and a
concrete one: a splitted
way of living sexual
behaviours (“acted
sexuality) and feelings
(“affectivesexuality)
Sex and sexuality are
splitted!
Worries about
sexuality:
Boys performance
(the success of the sex
act, the risk of
physical arousal);
Girls consequences
of “irresponsible
behaviours cutting off
the dimension of love.
Usefullness of
the narrative
device
-It promotes
projection and
identification
-It allowes the
access to
unconscious
contents
-It promotes
mentalization.
Importance of
preventive
interventions taking
in account the
phantasies
associated to
sexuality, beyond
sexual behaviours
and practices.
In adolescence the desire to risk occurs more strongly
(Jesso, 1998, Bonino e Cattelino, 2000), as a developmental
phenomenon useful to define adolescent’s own limits
(Giannotta et al., 2007; Silbereisen and Noack, 1988)
Gender differences in risk perception (Boursier, Margherita,
Gargiulo & Manna, 2013)
Psychosocial risk (Bonino et al, 2003) due to:
Inexperience in evaluating the consequences and
effects of their own actions
Sensation seeking and unrealistic optimism
(Cicognani e Zani, 1999)
Dependence on strong sensations (Racalbuto, 2004)
3rd Iberoamerican Congress
of Health Psychology
Sevilla, 14-16 November 2014
0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 -0,2 -0,4 -0,6
0,2
0,4
0,6
-0,2
-0,4
-0,6
-0,8
-1,0
C5
Concrete dimension of
adolescence
C1
Love between
desire and fear
C2
Risks linked to
sexuality
C3
Openess to change
From phantasy dimension To concrete level
The period of adolescence The consequences
x
y
C4
Be a
child/
make a
child
Analysis
of the
Specificities:
male
fulfillment of
sexual desire
, achievement of
pleasure
,
partner’s
satisfaction
, conquest and relief of
tension
Sex associated with
love
, desire for satisfy the
beloved
person’s
wishes
rather than a personal choice meeting
their own needs and desires.
Sexual behaviours and gender differences (Simonelli et al., 2008):
unwanted pregnancies and STDs (Silvaggi et al., 2005)
PRINCIPAL LEMMA CLUSTER
To love, person, know, feel, bar, start, attract, fail, succeed, experience,
feeling, accept, trust, reveal, group,
facebook
, cry, hug, respect, date, fall
in love, love
Cluster 1
“LOVE”
Love between desire and fear
Illness, test, rape, medical, protected, AIDS / HIV, detect, woman, birth
control pills, pregnancy, analysis, victim die , control, delay, caring, risk,
contract, terminate, serious, negative, positive, ruin, precaution
Cluster 2
“ILLNESS”
Risks linked to sexuality
Change, start, rise, begin, dinner, friends, first, kiss, beautiful, tell, test,
"Paul“, become, transform, happy, to kiss, save, exchange
Cluster 3
“CHANGE”
Openess to change
Child, parent, pregnant, grow, discover, stay, care, have an abortion,
small, betrothed, father, explain, responsible, successful, escape, future,
now, hold, birth, behavior, right, mother, face, pregnancy, give birth,
decide
Cluster 4
“CHILD”
Be a child/make a child
Friends, "Sabrina", disco, school, strip, birthday, room, class, assign, woo,
desire, drink, run, party, pleasure, friends, fun , local, now, out, teen,
scream, reach
Cluster 5
“FRIENDS”
Concrete dimension of adolescence
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