Article

Usefulness of Simultaneous Use of Several Methods for the Estimation of Phytoplanktonic Biomass

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Abstract

The annual cycle of phytoplankton biomass was followed in a eutrophic lake (Lake Aydat, Massif Central, France), using classic descriptors (biovolumes and chlorophyll a) as well as adenosine-5'-phosphate (ATP) levels. ATP is the metabolite indicating living biomass. ATP/Cell count and ATP/Chlorophyll a ratios were elevated due to the presenceof heterotrophic organisms, such as several species of ciliates. The first ratio is greater than the second. The difference can be explained either by an underestimation of the nanoplankton fraction through the cell count method, or by a lack of sedimentation in the settling chambers used for counting cells.

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... Some of the estimated flows were measured during previous studies that focused on spring blooms in Lake Pavin and are introduced as additional equations (lines 12-15 of Table 1); these include values for total gross and net primary production (Devaux, 1980;Bettarel et al., 2003), bacterial production (Bettarel et al., 2003) and viral lysis of bacteria (Bettarel et al., 2003) considered as the value of the flux from bacteria to DOC. Some other equalities were introduced for the Aydat model and values of total gross primary production (Aleya et al., 1988), bacterivory by heterotrophic nanoflagellates and microzooplankton (Bettarel et al., 2004) were considered (lines 16-18 of Table 1). Primary production values used for Pavin and Aydat were measured from 14C uptake according to Steemann-Nielsen (1952). ...
... mgC m −2 d −1 , March to June 2007). These values corroborate previous findings on the trophic status of both an oligo-mesotrophic lake (Amblard et al., 1992) and a eutrophic lake (Aleya et al., 1988). These values are consistent with gross primary production measured during a study conducted during spring phytoplankton proliferation in the north basin of the mesotrophic Japanese Lake Biwa (1639 mgC m −2 d −1 ; Yoshimizu et al., 2001). ...
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The use of adensine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for freshwate algal and plankton populations was evaluated as a measure of biomass and as a bioassay response parameter. ATP analysis was performed using the firefly luminescence procedure. In short term laboratory studies. ATP levels in cultured algae and lake plankton correlate well with other standard biomass parameters, including chlorophyll a and dry weight. Algal ATP responded rapidly to mercury addition and pH changes, indicating its usefulness as a measurement of toxicity. The rapid response of ATP following nutrient additions to starved algal cultures suggests ATP may be useful as a tool in nutrient bioassay studies.
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Three methods for phytoplanktonic standing crop estimations have been used during ecological successions in a meso-oligotrophic lake (Le Pavin, France). In this study, it appears that cell counting and pigment concentrations overestimate the biomass of pioneer population, by taking into account a high number of dead cells. It seems preferable to estimate biomass from ATP concentrations, to measure living phytoplanktonic standing crop and to calculate activity coefficients. However, continuous rearrangements exist between ATP, ADP and AMP in the pool of adenine nucleotides. These rearrangements, which are revealed by energy charge variations, indicate changes in intracellular ATP concentrations. Consequently it is desirable to integrate energy charge variations in standing crop estimates from ATP concentrations.
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Forrest, W. W. (University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia). Adenosine triphosphate pool during the growth cycle in Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 90 1013–1018. 1965.—The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) pool has been studied throughout the growth cycle of Streptococcus faecalis. Normally, the pool is quantitatively related to the concentration of organisms and the growth rate, but deviations from these relationships can occur without affecting the growth rate of the organisms. A critical concentration of ATP seems necessary for exponential growth, and, at lower levels, only linear growth can occur. If no growth can take place, catabolism of added energy source gives rise to a large increase in the pool level. The pool level represents the balance between the demands of the organisms for energy and the supply of energy derived from catabolism of the substrate.
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1.1. Three types of light-measuring devices have been used to measure the effect of various chemical agents on firefly luminescence. They are the commercially available Farrand photofluorometer, a recording DC IP21 photomultiplier, and a liquid-nitrogen-temperature quantum counter whose ultimate sensitivity is of the order of 10−9 g. ATP/ml.2.2. It has been possible to use both the crude and partially purified water extracts of Photinus pyralis to measure light production in the presence of “potential” or actual ATP by using arsenate buffer.3.3. Differential-determination of ATP and ADP in the presence of each other is possible through the use of myokinase.4.4. Phosphocreatine may be determined by the use of the appropriate transphosphorylase and adenylic acid.5.5. Glucose may be determined by the use of hexokinase and ATP, measuring the depression in luminescence.6.6. Chloride ion has a strong inhibitory effect on luminescence which must be controlled rigorously.7.7. Myokinase, hexokinase, apyrase, and creatine adenylic transphosphorylase may be determined in small concentrations with this system.8.8. Preliminary examination of certain biological processes with this tool suggests its wide applicability for routine surveys of phosphorylative energetic mechanisms.
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