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Sponsorship effects on brand image: The role of exposure and activity involvement

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Abstract

Sponsorships capture a significant proportion of marketing budgets. In firm evaluations of the effectiveness of sponsorship engagements, image improvements represent the most important company objective. This study develops and tests a framework for explaining how exposure and activity involvement moderate the effects of event image, event-sponsor fit, and event commercialization on sponsor image. Using empirical data collected at a large sporting event with multiple sponsors, the authors show that increased sponsorship exposure reduces sponsor image if respondents perceive a low fit between the event and sponsor or high levels of event commercialization. Involvement in the sponsored activity improves the sponsor's image, in that the effect of event commercialization is positive for highly involved persons. This paper concludes with some reasons for the findings, implications for the choice and design of sponsorships, and further areas for research.

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... The competitive model also plays an important role in theory-developed research. According to Cornwell et al. (2001), Becker-Olsen andHill (2006), and Grohs and Reisinger (2014), sponsorship perception enhances brand associations to create customers' goodwill toward a sponsor's brand. Although our explorative study did not support this finding, a competitive hypothesis is also developed to test this relationship, which is: H c : Perceived sponsorship effort has a direct positive effect on brand associations. ...
... This may be reasonable because only the brand logo is put in the sponsorship program or the company name is briefly mentioned in the introduction. Even sponsorship can reduce sponsor image if respondents perceive a low fit between the events and sponsor or high levels of event commercialization (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014). Besides, the study also indicated the positive effects of public relations on brand equity dimensions. ...
... Moreover, this study also contributed a deeper understanding of sponsorship by investigating its effect on four dimensions of Aaker's brand equity in the context of the developing market in the soft drink industry. The result consolidated the findings of some previous studies, such as the positive influences of sponsorship on quality and brand loyalty (Cornwell et al., 2001;Mazodier & Merunka, 2012;Nowak, 2004) while it also contrasted with the findings of others, such as no relationship between sponsorship and brand awareness (Becker-Olsen & Hill, 2006;Chadwick & Thwaites, 2004;Cornwell et al., 2001;Hofer & Grohs, 2018;Keller, 2013) or no acceptance of sponsorship's influence on brand associations (Becker-Olsen & Hill, 2006;Cornwell et al., 2001;Grohs & Reisinger, 2014). ...
Article
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The study applied the mixed-method approach to measure sponsorship and public relations, and their influences on Aaker’s four dimensions of brand equity. Applying scale development and Structural Equation Modeling on a final sample of 628 observations on ten leading soft drink brands, the results first developed two consumer-based scales, i.e., sponsorship and public relations, then investigated the effects of sponsorship and public relations on brand equity creation. The study also indicated the country of brand origin does not make any difference in the consumer mentality of the influence of sponsorship and public relations on brand equity dimensions. The findings contribute significantly to the existing knowledge of marketing communications and brand equity. This study also provided several practical implications for both marketing communication designers and brand managers.
... Sponsors want to know what returns they can expect, and owners of sponsorship objects want to know what qualities they should promote in their negotiations with sponsors and consider while pricing sponsorship agreements (Farrelly and Quester, 2005;Farrelly et al., 2006). Former research has focused on outcomes such as exposure, brand awareness, image, fit, attitudes to sponsors, purchase intention and actual purchase in the context of sport sponsorship (Biscaia et al., 2013;Cornwell et al., 2005Cornwell et al., , 2006Grohs and Reisinger, 2014;Keller, 1993;Kim et al., 2015;Olson, 2010;Zaharia et al., 2016) and, to a lesser extent, on networks that are established in connection with sponsorships and the value they have for sponsors and sponsorship objects. We contribute to this research by examining the value of the network. ...
... The sponsorship outcomes consisted of awareness, image, attitudes, liking, preferences, purchase intent, purchase commitment, and purchase. Many sponsorship researchers have applied this model, including Biscaia et al. (2013), Grohs and Reisinger (2014), Tsordia et al. (2018), Kim et al. (2015) and Zaharia et al. (2016). Consumer-oriented sponsorship is central in the classic approaches to the value of sponsorship. ...
... Logo exposure is perhaps the easiest measure to evaluate and has been widely considered in the literature on sponsorship. Several studies on conditioning research have found that logo exposure increases the attention paid to the sponsor (Bornstein, 1989;Cornwell and Maignan, 1998;Cornwell et al., 2006;Grohs and Reisinger, 2014;Kim et al., 2015;Lardinoit and Derbaix, 2001;Meenaghan and Shipley, 1999;Olson and Thjømøe, 2009;Speed and Thompson, 2000;Zaharia et al., 2016;Zajonc, 1968). A sponsor is given the opportunity to present itself to fans and spectators in different arenas as well as to viewers across different media channels. ...
Article
Purpose This study identifies the outcomes prioritised by the sponsors of a sport, specifically football. The authors’ novel thesis is that the network collaboration between sponsors as well as with the sponsorship object (i.e. the football club) is a significant determinant of sponsor satisfaction and the likelihood of renewing the sponsorship deal. This perspective has not been adequately addressed in existing sponsorship research. Design/methodology/approach The authors use an original dataset to empirically analyse networks and their business value for football sponsors. Our data covers sponsors of the Norwegian football club Rosenborg Ballklub (RBK) from 2011 to 2018, which we analyse using regression models. Findings The results indicate that network effects are extremely important for sponsors in the RBK network. The authors’ analyses also indicate that network effects are more important than exposure. Practical implications When planning, sponsors must analyse their motives for being a sponsor and assess how well their network functions by exploring its cohesiveness and scope. It is also very important that the sponsorship object be aware of the value of the network and enable interaction between the sponsors. Originality/value This study confirms that functioning networks contribute to the satisfaction and renewal of sponsorships and can attract a growing number of sponsors for sports clubs, thus serving as an important source of income.
... With regard to cognitive outcomes of sport sponsorship, effective sponsorship activities lead to outcomes such as brand awareness and brand image (Gwinner & Swanson, 2003;Walraven, 2013). Since brand awareness and brand image are considered as the two main classifications for cognitive outcomes, several studies in sport sponsorship focused on how to increase awareness and how to create or strengthen a certain brand image (Biscaia et al., 2013;Grohs & Reisinger, 2014;Gwinner, 1997;Gwinner & Eaton, 1999). With respect to affective outcomes of sponsorship, the concept of attitude toward the sponsor consists of a general evaluation from the consumer's part and is based on specific associations with the brand (Walraven, 2013). ...
... soccer shoe manufacturer sponsors a soccer event), high image fit refers to overlapping attributes associated with the event and the sponsor (e.g. renowned watch producer sponsors a high-class golf tournament) (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014). Another distinction is made by Becker- Olsen & Simmons (2002), differentiating between native and created fit. ...
... However, previous studies found that activity involvement does not significantly moderate the effect of sponsor-event fit and attitude toward the sponsor (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014 (Cohen, 1992). ...
Thesis
The eSports industry is growing rapidly and expected to cross the billion-dollar threshold in 2019, therefore, this relatively new sport can not continue being seen as a niche sport. Additionally, several stakeholder groups, including brands are interested in further insights regarding the effectiveness of sponsorships in eSports. However, there is still a lack of research in the field of eSports and sponsoring in the existing literature. The purpose of this master thesis was to extend the sponsorship literature by investigating domain specific success factors in eSports including the role of involvement and sponsor fit. Thus, this thesis presents the first research paper in the eSports sponsorship literature that considers a domain-specific approach. In order to analyze sponsor fit in more detail, the construct was split into four domains: the sponsor-event fit, the sponsor-team fit, the sponsor player fit as well as the sponsor endorser fit. The same methodology was employed for the domain-specific involvement construct. This research followed a quantitative research paradigm, collecting data through an online survey (n = 450). Based on a theoretical derived framework, the developed models tested if domain-specific involvement is moderating the relationship between the respective sponsor fit domain and attitude toward the sponsor. Reliability tests were undertaken in order to compute indexes, followed by four moderated regression based analyses. Surprisingly, the results revealed that all moderation effects for domain-specific involvement were insignificant. However, the unconditional effects of domain-specific sponsor fit on attitude toward the sponsor were significant and positive, indicating that sponsor-event fit has the strongest impact on attitude toward the sponsor, followed by sponsor-team fit, sponsor-player fit and finally sponsor-endorser fit. Consequently, it is important for sponsorship managers in eSports to correctly analyze the domain-specific sponsor fit construct to ensure the highest possible sponsorship effectiveness. Overall, the findings of this study derive important implications and recommendations for different stakeholders. Key Words: Sport sponsorship, eSports, Involvement, Fit, Attitude toward the sponsor
... The influence of exposure on memory is extensive in advertisements (Walker and Dubitsky, 1994). The influence of exposure on the sponsor's image (Grohs and Reisinger, 2014) and return on investment (Jensen and Cobbs, 2014) has also been demonstrated. Previous research has revealed that attention (and exposure) can be increased by modifying (among other factors) size and position of brand display Rumpf, 2012, 2015). ...
... According to Grohs and Reisinger (2014), sponsorship exposure can influence effectiveness if spectators sense a low "perceived congruence." This situation could lead to a negative effect on sponsorship performance, making it important to examine whether VAR sponsorship exposure influences the perceived congruence. ...
... Similarly, Walraven et al. (2016) reported a positive association between exposure, and recall and recognition. According to Grohs and Reisinger (2014), exposure can be moderated by the impact of event-sponsor fit on sponsor image. However, for these authors, the moderating effect would be negative; the impact of fit on the perception of sponsor image is less positive at higher levels of sponsorship exposure. ...
Article
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PURPOSE: This study explores the effect of video assistant referee (VAR) sponsorship on spectator response and compares it with advertising and conventional sponsorship. DESIGN: An experiment with 809 subjects is conducted by analyzing 20 one-minute video clip stimuli from a Premier League soccer game divided into four formats: two formats of VAR sponsorship, advertising, and conventional sponsorship. FINDINGS: The results show that the indicators of recall, credibility, and perceived congruence improve when the VAR sponsorship format is used. ORIGINALITY: This is the first manuscript to examine the effectiveness of a new type of sponsorship: VAR sponsorship. This manuscript provides metrics that will guide practitioners on whether to use this type of sponsorship.
... Although sponsorship in its purest form can be traced back to more than one hundred years, sponsorship linked marketing only gained momentum in the late 1980s and 1990s (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014) and continues to gain prominence as a global marketing medium. The reason for this growth is because it provides a versatile platform that enables communication with a wide range of stakeholder groups and achieves a variety of corporate and brand objectives (Meenaghan et al., 2013). ...
... While substantial academic research on understanding the influence of sport sponsorship on brand equity elements has been documented and undertaken in the US, Europe and Asia, very limited research has been undertaken in Africa. (Biscaia et al., 2016;Grohs & Reisinger, 2014;Henseler et al., 2011;Ireland et al., 2016;Liu et al., 2015;Pope & Westberg, 2014). Spais and Johnston (2014), suggest that we know little about the strategic practices that support organizations making the transition from sponsoring in domestic markets to sponsoring in international markets. ...
... Sponsorship linked marketing was coined by Cornwell et al. (2005) and continues to gain prominence as a global marketing medium because it provides a versatile platform that enables communication with a wide range of stakeholder groups, and achieves a variety of corporate and brand objectives (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014;Meenaghan et al., 2013). Sport sponsorship dominates sponsorship activities and attracts the greatest proportion of investment in sponsorship. ...
Article
This study scrutinizes the influence of sport sponsorship on brand equity in South Africa. It examines the impact and contribution of brand awareness, brand image, brand loyalty and perceived quality resulting from sports sponsorship. The objective was also to understand the influence of sponsorship fit between event and sponsor on brand awareness and brand image. To date, extant research has been conducted in the developed world, mainly in the United States, Europe and Asia. Investigations of sports sponsorship in Africa are sparse. Marshaling the sports sponsorship and brand equity literature, the results show that sponsorship has a major role to play in building brand awareness and brand image. An important and unexpected finding is that the perceived appropriate fit between the sponsor and the sport event has a negative influence on brand awareness and brand image. The implications and recommendations are then discussed.
... The elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 2012) provides a theoretical background to better understand relationships between congruity and product involvement. High product involvement increases elaboration on consumer ¶ -brand congruity (Malär et al., 2011) and sponsor-sponsee congruity (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014) alike. When consumers perceive that their self and the brand's persona align, they may not be willing to engage in cognitive elaboration; however, consumers exhibiting high levels of product involvement are more motivated to expend the effort that self-verification requires to assess their relationship with a brand (or partnering brands), which in turn, may weaken or strengthen their bond with the brand (or partnering brands) (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014;Malär et al., 2011). ...
... High product involvement increases elaboration on consumer ¶ -brand congruity (Malär et al., 2011) and sponsor-sponsee congruity (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014) alike. When consumers perceive that their self and the brand's persona align, they may not be willing to engage in cognitive elaboration; however, consumers exhibiting high levels of product involvement are more motivated to expend the effort that self-verification requires to assess their relationship with a brand (or partnering brands), which in turn, may weaken or strengthen their bond with the brand (or partnering brands) (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014;Malär et al., 2011). Marketing literature suggests that product involvement positively moderates the relationship between consumer ¶ -brand congruity and affective commitment to a brand (Malär et al., 2011;Pradhan et al., 2020) and this effect can be extended to sponsoring brands thanks to a spillover effect (Sirgy et al., 2008). ...
... Research on sponsor congruity and brand alliances suggests that product involvement moderates the relationships between sponsor-sponsee congruity and affective commitment towards both brands (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014;Ruth & Simonin, 2003;Samuelsen et al., 2015;Simonin & Ruth, 1998), which leads us to posit that both sponsor's product involvement and sport event involvement may moderate the influence of sponsor-MSEO congruity on the affective commitment of the consumers towards each brand. Thus, we propose: ...
Article
Research question: This research extends previous studies on sponsor-event congruity by introducing a larger framework based on triadic relationships among mega sport event organizer (MSEO), sponsor, and consumers. It also revisits the relationships among congruity, product involvement, and consumer awareness of the sponsorship. Research methods: Data collected from American respondents (n=631) were used to study the relationships between an MSEO, the International Olympic Committee, two of its sponsors, Coca-Cola and Airbnb, and their respective consumers. Results and findings: Findings reveal that consumer-brand and sponsor-MSEO congruity influence affective commitment towards the brands. Yet, to interpret the influence of sponsor-MSEO congruity, it is preferable to use values over brand personality. Additionally, the model should be moderated by product involvement and consumer awareness. Implications: Consumer-brand congruity and sponsor MSEO congruity are two potent and complementary tools that should be used to listen to the consumer and to refine brand positioning. Additionally, triadic and dyadic (partial) models provide complementary results and should be used jointly.
... Increasing a brand image through a sponsorship will depends on several related factors such as the event, the sponsor, and consumer (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014). Those factors are the sponsor-event image fit (related to sponsor), commercialization (related to sponsored event), exposure of the sponsorship and involvement to the activity (as a moderating variable). ...
... A study by Petty and Cacioppo (1986) shows that high exposure causes audiences to elaborate on the content of a sponsorship message because audiences focus more attention on the message. Moreover, Grohs and Reisinger (2014) stated that consistent exposure may form new memory associations in the mind of audiences and relate that new exposure to current attitudes, feelings, and knowledge. Audiences will skip scrutinizing a message if there is similar with preexisting attitudes and the sponsorship. ...
... But, audiences might deny the substance of the sponsorship message when memory associations less persuasive than preexisting arguments (Priester & Petty, 1995). Grohs and Reisinger (2014) argued that a higher exposure would increases the chance of reflecting it on customer's current attitudes. They also stated that the recipient elaborates content of the message as not credible, he might reject the sponsorship. ...
... For example, Coca Cola's images ('happiness', 'sharing' and 'liveliness') and Samsung's ('advanced technology' and 'innovation') were mirrored by their on-site sponsorship efforts. The fit was considered functional if a sponsor's product or service was used in the event (Grohs and Reisinger, 2014). Since 'used in the event' can be ambiguous, this study narrowed the scope of functional fit to products or services that were used specifically in sport competitions (e.g., electronic display, stopwatch/clock, sport beverages, etc.). ...
... Finally, we investigated the sponsorship fit of the corporations that employed function-and image-based on-site leveraging. Previous research has emphasised that consumers react more favourably when firms choose to sponsor events where there is a clear fit (Becker-Olsen, 2003;Grohs and Reisinger, 2014). While both have associations with event-sponsor fit, a function-based fit is more explicit than an image-based fit. ...
... Given that the fit was considered functional if the sponsor's product was used in the event, the results of this study indicate that a few TOP sponsors (Omega and Panasonic) demonstrated some functional fit. A strong image-based fit is achieved when a consumer perceives the event and sponsor to have overlapping attributes (Grohs and Reisinger, 2014). Considering the significance of the Olympic Games' ideals (e.g., hope, dreams/inspiration, friendship/fair play, and the joy in effort), sponsors with an image-based fit needed to communicate how their brand motivations, images, and values are aligned with those ideals in order to maximise their investment in the event. ...
... Até este momento buscamos explicar que a lealdade dos torcedores aos clubes e as empresas patrocinadoras poderia ser influenciada pela imagem dos próprios clubes e empresas, como também a imagem de um poderia afetar na lealdade a outro, já que, estes estabeleceram uma relação de vínculo proporcionado pelas ações de marketing. Porém, cabe destacar que aspectos relacionados à imagem do clube também podem influenciar na imagem da marca patrocinadora, no qual, a partir do estabelecimento de uma relação por meio do patrocínio, por exemplo, os torcedores adotariam uma percepção de prestígio e credibilidades com as marcas patrocinadoras, influenciando diretamente em sua imagem (COSTA; ROCHA;OLIVEIRA, 2008;GROHS;REISINGER, 2014). O mesmo pode ocorrer da forma inversa, no qual, torcedores que possuem uma imagem negativa do clube rival podem avaliar negativamente a imagem desses outros clubes. ...
... Até este momento buscamos explicar que a lealdade dos torcedores aos clubes e as empresas patrocinadoras poderia ser influenciada pela imagem dos próprios clubes e empresas, como também a imagem de um poderia afetar na lealdade a outro, já que, estes estabeleceram uma relação de vínculo proporcionado pelas ações de marketing. Porém, cabe destacar que aspectos relacionados à imagem do clube também podem influenciar na imagem da marca patrocinadora, no qual, a partir do estabelecimento de uma relação por meio do patrocínio, por exemplo, os torcedores adotariam uma percepção de prestígio e credibilidades com as marcas patrocinadoras, influenciando diretamente em sua imagem (COSTA; ROCHA;OLIVEIRA, 2008;GROHS;REISINGER, 2014). O mesmo pode ocorrer da forma inversa, no qual, torcedores que possuem uma imagem negativa do clube rival podem avaliar negativamente a imagem desses outros clubes. ...
Conference Paper
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Visando contribuir auxiliando as empresas e clubes de futebol no desenvolvimento de estratégias mais eficientes de marketing, o presente estudo teve como propósito investigar como as ações de marketing esportivo adotadas pelas empresas no futebol brasileiro influenciam no comportamento dos torcedores, mais precisamente, buscou-se analisar como a imagem da marca patrocinadora e do clube afetam no sentimento de lealdade que os torcedores terão a esses. A pesquisa se configurou como uma abordagem descritiva, no qual, por meio da disponibilização de um questionário eletrônico em grupos de sócio torcedores nas redes sociais, os respondentes foram avaliados em relação a quatro dimensões: imagem do clube; imagem da marca patrocinadora; lealdade à marca do clube; e lealdade à marca patrocinadora. A partir dessas dimensões, foram estabelecidas cinco hipóteses, cuja causalidade foi testada por meio da análise de equações estruturais com abordagem alternativa de estimação dos mínimos quadrados parciais – pls-sem. Diante da verificação das hipóteses, concluímos que a lealdade dos torcedores ao clube seria influenciada pela imagem do próprio clube e dos seus patrocinadores; e que ao vincular-se com um clube de futebol por meio de ações de marketing esportivo, isso melhoraria a imagem da marca patrocinadora entre os torcedores, mas não estimularia um comportamento de lealdade.
... One of the most widely used variables to measure a fit is one's perceived overall fit between endorsed brands and linked objects (endorsers, extensions, sponsoring events) (Bhat and Reddy 2001;Choi and Rifon 2012;Grohs and Reisinger 2014;Lau and Phau 2007;Shin et al. 2018;Speed and Thompson 2000;Stumpf and Baum 2016;Torres et al. 2019). Perceived overall fit in the context of endorsements refers to the degree of perceived similarity, congruency, proximity, and compatibility between an endorser and the endorsed brand. ...
... Through the process of meaning transfer, meanings and feelings associated with an object such as an endorsement will be transferred to the linked brand (McCracken 1989). The literature on sponsorship reveals that consumers' evaluations of an event are transferred to their attitudes toward the sponsoring brands (Grohs 2016;Grohs and Reisinger 2014;Martensen et al. 2007;Woisetschläger and Michaelis 2012). In a similar vein, the literature on brand extensions indicates that consumer attitudes toward a brand after launching an extension are influenced by the information conveyed and emotions evoked by the extension's advertisements (Alexander and Colgate 2005;Czellar 2003;Martínez and de Chernatony 2004;Martínez et al. 2009). ...
Article
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As influencer marketing becomes increasingly popular among luxury brands, concerns have arisen regarding the selection of appropriate influencers to represent specific brands. This research examines how a poor fit between influencers and the luxury brands they endorse can lead to brand attitude dilution, which in turn could influence consumers’ WOM and purchase intentions. We also considered whether self-concept clarity, an individual trait regarding clarity of self-beliefs, moderates this effect. A web-based survey was conducted to assess attitudes toward luxury brands’ influencer endorsements in China. The results showed that consumer perceptions of a poor fit between influencer and endorsed luxury brand leads to dissatisfaction with the brand’s endorsement and dilution of the brand, which in turn negatively affects one’s purchase intentions toward the brand and WOM intentions toward the brand’s activity related to the endorsement. This study also revealed that the effects of a poor fit on brand attitude dilution via dissatisfaction is moderated by self-concept clarity. This study highlights the importance of the influencer-brand relationship while considering consumer characteristics to design effective influencer marketing campaigns.
... Event-sponsor fit has become "the most widely used theoretical concept related to the processing of sponsorship stimuli" (Olson & Thjømøe, 2011, p. 57) and is considered one of the most relevant sponsee-related factors in a sponsor-sponsee relationship (Cornwell & Kwon, 2020;Toscani & Prendergast, 2018;Van Rijn et al., 2019). Sponsorship research has used the concept of fit as an independent variable (Grohs et al., 2004;Grohs & Reisinger, 2014;Koo & Lee, 2019), a moderator (Speed & Thompson, 2000), or a mediator (Gwinner & Bennett, 2008). ...
... For the 2006 FIFA World Cup football tournament, Neijens et al. (2009) find a positive effect of sports involvement on a sponsor's brand image. While involvement is often conceptualized as a moderator (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014;Koo & Lee, 2019), three other papers (Bachleda et al., 2016;Dees et al., 2008;Ko et al., 2008) use sports involvement as an independent variable and find a significant positive effect on the intention to purchase a sponsor's goods. An explanation provided from focus-group studies is that consumers highly involved with a sponsor-object have (1) increased awareness of a sponsor, and (2) face sponsors with greater goodwill and gratitude in return for the support of the sponsor-object (Meenaghan, 2001). ...
Article
Most of the ample research literature into the outcomes of sports sponsorship focuses on consequences for the sponsor. Consequences for the sponsor-object, i.e., the sponsored sport, sports event, or team, have generally been ignored. In this paper, we investigate if and how sponsors affect consumers’ motivation for sports consumption. Drawing on the literature on sponsorship, branding, and advertisement, we identify three sponsor-related factors and one consumer-related factor that affect this motivation. To test our hypotheses, an online experiment with a sample size of 104 observations was conducted. Using regression analysis, we find that the perceived sincerity of the sponsoring brand and consumers’ sports involvement have a significant positive direct effect on motivation for sports consumption. We also identify event-sponsor fit as a moderating variable between attitude toward the sponsoring brand and the motivation for sports consumption. This study contributes to academic research by extending the sponsorship literature to outcomes for the sponsor-object/sponsee. It also has practical implications in that it provides sports managers with information about factors they should consider when they want to choose the right sponsor and avoid potential negative fan reactions (e.g., fan boycotts).
... Sponsors consider football as an exclusive path to reach an extensive audience and a new market; create brand awareness; build an image; and increase their sales and value (Gómez, Kase and Urrutia, 2010;Dees, 2012;Grohs and Reisinger, 2014;Semens, 2016;Cornwell, 2017;Rogic et al., 2019). They invest in football seeking customer loyalty and engagement, insights, and prominent brand recognition (Shuv-Ami, Thrassou and Vrontis, 2015; Koronios et al., 2016a). ...
... Since football structures are well regulated, other sports entities may seize the opportunity to adopt specific procedures and gain knowledge from their good practices (Morrow, 2013b;Schyns, 2016). In addition, they may grasp the opportunity to attract the attention of media and sponsors (Gómez, Kase and Urrutia, 2010;Dees, 2012;Grohs and Reisinger, 2014), by investing in the direct relationship with the football club -i.e., if the football club maintains other sporting departments as well-. Some sports entities are unable to partner with big sponsors, as they unevenly struggle in the shadow of football which monopolises the big brands (Chanavat, Desbordes and Lorgnier, 2017). ...
Thesis
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Football has long transcended its state of being a sport, to evolve into a business that supports a complex and dynamic multi-billion industry. Never having lost its identity, it still bears massive influence, far beyond the economic one, affecting and being affected by a multitude of stakeholders. Inexorably, this phenomenon of multi-stakeholder envelopment, entails a wide set of challenges, risks and considerations for football clubs that need to develop the requisite strategies that identify, interrelate and, ultimately, balance the value exchanges involved, towards a sustainable future. The above highlight the imperative of understanding the nature and role of key stakeholders and delineate their delivered value towards a football club. Clubs share value and align interests and strategies with each stakeholder, forming alliances and partnerships that are founded on a win-win principle; and the collection and interconnection of these relationships constitute the backbone of a strategic framework, that enables clubs to respond and adapt efficiently and effectively to the incessant environmental changes. This is, however, not a set of individual linkages, but a systemic network of stakeholders and values, whose collective effect shapes the essence of the football ecosystem. Despite its afore-described importance, existing theory remains in its infancy and new in terms of explicit knowledge and degree of interaction. Extant studies on the topic are only partial and incomplete; or tend to over-focus on individual stakeholder-value relationships; or perceive stakeholders as broad categories overlooking the fact that various sub-categories exist as diverse entities; or analyse the industry’s actors and values individually and not as a system. This research contributes to the field of sports strategic management and bridges the gap in knowledge through its aim, to comprehensively identify the football industry stakeholders and their relative value in the individual club perspective, and to conceptualise and test their interrelationship in the Cyprus context towards the development of a corresponding framework of club benefits. This study addressed the stakeholder theory on a wide range of individuals and groups, enhancing the theory itself, in a context that until now was lacking empirical validation, and developed for the first time a unified club-specific framework of benefits. Methodologically, considering the complex contextual circumstances, the study developed and applied a customised multi-level approach to collect and verify qualitative data. The research deployed every significant relevant study in the field to develop an initial theoretical generic framework, which was first validated by an Experts Panel and subsequently tested in the Cyprus-specific context. The empirical stage applied the qualitative approach, gathering data through forty-one semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with individuals within the top nine football clubs, as well as with key industry stakeholders who de facto represent specific groups, in order to validate the findings. The research findings contribute significantly to knowledge, presenting scholars and practitioners with a systemic and comprehensive understanding and prescription of the individual club stakeholder management relationships and synergies. In this vein, the development of the final framework acts as a map, a blueprint for both theory and practice, bridging the gap in the literature, offering new avenues for further research, and arming executives with practicable valid knowledge. The research’s content, context and methodology generate a holistic set of contributions to scholarly business knowledge, and the gained insights and recommendations act as catalysts to individual football clubs’ strategic redevelopment and repositioning against their internal and external stakeholders
... Gwinner, Larson & Swanson (2009) utilized two settings and nine unique sponsors and found that those who got a higher level of team identification proof and a more grounded fit between the brand and the occasion, detailed a larger amount of image exchange which was related with more higher procurement goals for sponsored items. Grohs & Reisinger (2014) investigated three different constructs that directly impacted the image of the event . The first construct was the image of the event, the second was the event-sponsor fit, and the third was the sponsorship exposure. ...
... This result is contradictory to sports literature, where identification was found to be an important , and behavioral intentions (Kim et al. 2015). The reason in case of KXIP & DD could be the low percentage of wins in the 2018 IPL event; and in the case of the event (IPL), the reason could be over-commercialization of the event (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014). This hypothesis is supported by the study of Jang, Wann & Ko (2016), whom they found that which varies according to the nature of the game (whether exciting or boring) or the outcome of the game (winning and losing of the team). ...
Chapter
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Aspects of the green movement include ecological thinking and sustainability (Dangelico and Pontrandolfo (2010), which are the same basis of organic food. Organic food is considered good for health (Naranjilla and Kaur, 2015) and many parties support the consumption of organic food. The purpose of this study is to investigate how consumers’ psychological interpretations about organic food’s attributes stimulate their intention to purchase the food directly and also through consumers moderating and mediating reciprocation. From the literature review, the study gathered theories and concepts and identified attributes of consumers’ psychology about organic food. Based on the literature review, the researcher developed a conceptual model of the study. The model depicts how the attributes of organic food and consumers psychology together directly and also through the moderating and mediating pathways affect consumers’ intention to purchase the food using the theory of cognitive dissonance and planned behavior. The study is a potential platform to contribute significantly in the emergent field of organic foods’ research arena, specifically in American and South Asian regions.
... Classical conditioning theory posits that an increased prevalence of pairings increases associations between an unconditioned stimulus (the event) and conditioned stimulus (the sponsor) (Yue et al., 2013). One might expect the impact of event image on attitudes towards the sponsor to increase in the face of higher levels of sponsorship exposure (Speed and Thompson, 2000;Grohs and Reisinger, 2014). When tourists appreciate the benefits of sponsorship for an event where patriotism enhances their involvement, they may feel grateful and show goodwill and gratitude towards the sponsoring organization (Crimmins and Horn, 1996;Meenaghan, 2001). ...
Article
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The sponsoring of mega-events enables organizations to capitalize on the power of sport to stimulate passionate brand identifications among attendees. However, a critical issue that has not been addressed by scholars is whether the effects of sponsoring mega-events such as the Olympics by a foreign brand will resemble the equivalent sponsorship by a domestic counterpart. In particular, few scholars have investigated attendee perceptions of congruities between event sponsor and self-sponsor brand favorability emanating from an overseas country with where there are longstanding tensions and from home. This study investigated attendees at the 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, China, a city with a long history of patriotic nationalism directed against Japan. The researchers identify that self-domestic sponsor congruity mediates the impact of patriotism among domestic attendees on their favorability toward domestic brands. Self-foreign sponsor congruity moderates the impact of event liking on favorability, even in the case of sponsors from a country with hostile connotations. The study has managerial implications for targeting and localization strategies by sponsor brands both domestic and overseas. It is proposed that foreign brand sponsors of mega-events should pursue local brand adaption through the incorporation local narratives with which residents can identify.
... Highly involved consumers are more willing to pay more attention and exercise greater effort in processing information (Flynn and Goldsmith, 1993). Thus, if fans more assiduously frequent alternative means of communication about the event (Pritchard et al., 2009), process messages better and have a better attitude toward messages (Grohs and Reisinger, 2014), it is to be expected that the fan's involvement will moderate the relationship between leverage, quality and the process of image transfer, enhancing the effect of leverage. ...
Article
Abstract Purpose – The aim of this study is to examine the influence of perceived sponsorship leverage on perceived product quality and the image transfer model, under moderation by fan involvement. Design/methodology/approach – A self-report online survey was carried out after the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia. Responses were received from 422 individuals in 21 countries. The leverage scale was validated using exploratory factor analysis. Then, partial least squares structural equation modeling was employed to examine the validity and reliability of the scales and test the structural model. Finally, multi-group analysis was used to examine how involvement moderates the influence of leverage. Findings – Attitudes toward sponsorship and purchase intention are influenced by the perceived leverage and quality of the product. The multi-group analysis shows that perceived leverage does not influence the attitudes of individuals with low involvement. The influence of perceived leverage on perceived product quality is greater in individuals with high involvement. Practical implications – Sponsors should use collateral marketing strategies to target specific segments of individuals with high and low involvement separately. Showcasing the sponsoring products of brands renowned for their high quality could positively influence the results of sponsorship. Originality/value – This article contributes to the sponsorship literature by exploring how sponsors can capitalize on collateral marketing actions. It also contributes to the theory of image transfer by exploring how perceived product quality can influence the effectiveness of sponsorship.
... Consumers are more likely to have a positive perception of the motives of a sponsor and will show a positive attitude toward the sponsor if consumers consider the sponsor and the event to be well-aligned (Rifon et al., 2004). Grohs and Reisinger (2014) identified that changing or strengthening a consumer's perception of the brand can be achieved through the use of sports sponsorships. Sponsorships can also deliver additional benefits through the goodwill created in the minds of consumers (Cornwell et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Traditional sport organizations and their sponsors are beginning to embrace esports, but the effectiveness of non-endemic sponsorships in esports remains uncertain. Esports consumers are notoriously hostile to organizations they perceive as seeking to exploit them-including the growing ranks of non-endemics seeking to capitalize on the youth-and tech-centric esports industry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate esports consumers' perceptions of non-endemic sponsorships. We adapt a well established sport sponsorship model to the context of esports to test key relationships' salience to sponsors. We demonstrate that non-endemic sponsors can benefit from esports team sponsorship through enhanced attitudes, perceived goodwill, and product purchase intentions. Moreover, we find that there is only a small effect of esports brand attitude on attitude toward the sponsor, yet a larger effect on perceived goodwill and product purchase intentions. This suggests that firms with limited marketing budgets can benefit from increased goodwill and purchase intentions by sponsoring emerging esports teams who provide low-cost sponsorship opportunities.
... Based on the aforementioned body of theories, the present research was delimited to patronage intention, selfenhancement, perceived control, risk-taking attitude and event image. It adopted measures for re-patronage intention from Kaplanidou and Gibson (2010); for self-enhancement from Shoham et al. (2000); for perceived control from Kang, Hahn, Fortin, Hyun, and Eom, (2006); for risk-taking attitude from Eysenck and Eysenck (1977); and for event image from Grohs and Reisinger (2014). Survey items were measured using 7-point Likert scales ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). ...
Article
This paper tests a moderated sequential mediation model based on hypothesized relationships in extreme sporting events, addressing what drives participants’ destination loyalty. Drawing from edgework theory and sensation-seeking theory, the model accounts for sensation-seeking, event authenticity, self-enhancement, place attachment, and revisit intention. Two opposite paths emerge: a direct, negative relationship between sensation-seeking and destination loyalty, and a positive indirect path mediated by self-enhancement and place attachment. The relationships are explored in two studies: first, Study 1 on 300 individuals attending FISE, the largest freestyle sports event in the world. Then, Study 2, meant to extend the ecological validity of Study 1, based on a panel of 300 attendees of various extreme sporting events in several disciplines. Implications for theory and practice are addressed.
... Una vez comentada esta trasferencia, sería interesante también centrarse en la efectividad que tienen esos patrocinios. Este es un tema muy debatido y que aún necesita continuar investigándose (Grohs y Reisinger, 2014), para entre otras cosas, conseguir crear evaluaciones de este aspecto que puedan estandarizarse (Meng-Lewis et al., 2013) ayudando a medir si un patrocinio es más o menos adecuado o si es más o menos efectivo. Esto nos ayudaría a entender los procesos para poder aportar implicaciones a los gestores de marketing, organizadores de eventos y marcas en general. ...
... The degree of activity involvement affects the value of the activity's own potency (Grohs and Reisinger, 2014). Even when buying physical items, the experience of buying will impact the perception of the value of the actual purchased item (Andrews et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to explore the members of golf clubs in the central region of Taiwan and find out whether their involvement in activities affects the degree of place attachment and to add the two factors of activity experience and experience value so as to develop a theoretical framework. A questionnaire survey was used to collect 534 samples from golf clubs in central Taiwan for analysis using the following research tools: the Activity Involvement scale, Place Attachment scale, and Likert psychological scale. The results of the study show that (1) activity involvement has a significant positive impact on place attachment, activity experience, and experience value; (2) activity experience has a significant positive impact on experience value; (3) experience value has a significant positive impact on place attachment. This result verifies the theory that activity involvement impacts place attachment. It is suggested that the relevant bodies should strengthen the incentives given in the activities and strengthen the value of the leisure experience so as to facilitate the development of related industries in the future.
... perceptions of event commercialization on sponsor image (Grohs and Reisinger 2014). ...
... Images are formed by various stakeholders about a variety of entities such as brands, products, countries, organizations and chains (Fombrun, 1996;Grohs and Reisinger, 2014;Helgesen et al., 2010). The concept denoted "image" is perceived and defined in different ways; for example, as a "summary of the impressions or perceptions of a company" (Chun, 2005, p. 95). ...
Article
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The aim of the paper is to analyze chain loyalty effects of customers' perceived value of loyalty programs in grocery retailing. It contributes to filling a gap in the literature, as there has been little earlier focus on the links between customers' perception of loyalty program value and satisfaction, image, and loyalty, at the chain level. One main finding is that customers’ perceived value of a loyalty program has significant direct and moderating effects on chain loyalty, and the moderation effects are chain dependent. Managers should thus consider satisfaction creation, image building, and loyalty program value creation as parallel processes.
... Demographic variables -age, gender and place of residence -were not significantly associated with different attitudes. Grohs and Reisinger (2014) showed that being present in support improves the image of the sponsor, and in this situation, the event advertising has a positive effect on people with high bias. They believe that compatibility between the sponsor and the event is the most important stimulus for the sponsor's image, and if there is a high degree of compatibility between the sponsor and the event, the bias of the event will have a greater impact on the sponsor's image. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the gap between the current and optimal status of ambush marketing risk management in major sporting events. The research method was descriptive-causal comparative. The statistical population was all people who had the experience of leading sports caravans and being a member of the executive board for holding major sporting events. From them 160 people (by available-random method) were selected as a sample. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of factors affecting the management of risks arising from ambush marketing, which was set in two parts: the current situation and the desired situation. The face and content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by professors and sports experts. The reliability of the questionnaire was obtained through Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.86. Frequency table, frequency percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data at the level of descriptive statistics. Due to the normality of data distribution, correlated t-test was used to compare the current situation of marketing management in ambush with the expected limit and paired t-test was used to analyze the gap between the current and desired status in a significant way (α = 0.05). The results showed that among the factors related to the management of marketing risks lurking in sporting events, cultural factors, spectator factors, rule factors, sport event management factors and media factors were lower than expected (average) and factors related to sports marketing, factors related to sporting events and factors related to sporting event sponsors were higher than expected. Analysis of the gap between the current and optimal status of ambush marketing risk management showed that in terms of professors, elites and organizers of sporting events, the situation of all aspects of ambush marketing risk management in sporting events is relatively weak.
... Aktiviteler açısından ele alındığında ilgilenim kavramı, bir olaya (Lardinoit & Derbaix, 2001) veya spor gibi temel bir aktiviteye birey tarafından gösterilen ilgi olarak kavramsallaştırılabilmektedir (Lascu vd., 1995). Daha spesifik olarak, aktivitenin algılanan kişisel uygunluğundan kaynaklanan, belirli bir aktiviteye güçlü ve sağlam bir ilginin neden olduğu gerçek coşkudur (Zaichkowsky, 1985;Lardinoit & Derbaix, 2001;Grohs & Reisinger, 2014, s.1020. ...
Article
Bu çalışmada bireylerin deneyimledikleri koçluk süreçlerine odaklanılmıştır. Koçluk sürecinin ve koçluk hizmetlerine ilişkin tavsiye alma davranışının koçlukla alakalı olarak bireylerin durumsal güdülenmelerini harekete geçireceği, durumsal güdülenmenin bireylerin bu hizmetlere ilişkin ilgilenimini arttıracağı ve bunun da nihai olarak koçlukla ilgili olarak tavsiye verme eğilimi ile sonuçlanabileceği varsayılmıştır. Ele alınan bu değişkenler arasındaki ilişkilerin ve demografik özelliklerin bu değişkenler bakımından farklılaşma durumunun analiz edilmesi amacıyla nicel araştırma yöntemi kapsamında yer verilen bir online anket uygulamasıyla 270 katılımcıdan yanıt elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen yanıtlar SPSS 24 programında analiz edilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda tüm değişkenler arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı ilişkiler tespit edilmiştir. Tavsiye alma ve koçluk süreci durumsal motivasyonu etkilemiş, durumsal motivasyon ilgilenimi etkilemiş ve ilgilenim ise tavsiye verme eğilimini etkilemiştir. Demografik özelliklerden cinsiyet, yaş, eğitim ve gelir bazı değişkenler bakımından anlamlı fark ortaya koymuştur.
... Regarding consistency, whilst consumers generally recognise the contribution of sponsors towards the event functioning (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014), MSE practitioners perceive a polarisation between short-term revenue generation and longer-term shared value creation. For example, Sponsor27 acknowledged increasing need for sophistication in sponsorship strategy as today's consumers are more educated about the commercial relationship between brands and sport. ...
Article
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Research question: Building on the growing demand for organisations to generate both economic and social value, this study explores the creation of shared value (CSV) by major sport events (MSEs) and their sponsors. Research methods: Semi-structured interview data were collected from multinational, senior industry practitioners with a sponsorship remit. Template analysis was employed to generate a model of shared value creation that extends prior literature. Results and findings: Findings indicate that sponsors and MSEs can utilise organisational capabilities, consistency and cultivation to create shared value. This process is boosted by a symbiotic relationship between MSEs and sponsor(s). The length of sponsorship also affects positive outcomes arising from CSV by a number of additional actors within the ecosystem, including host citizens, athletes, and consumers. Implications: This study posits a model that advances the concept of CSV and its application within the context of MSEs. It contributes to developing enduring sponsor-MSE relationships aimed at creating a lasting footprint with a range of actors within their ecosystem. Also, the study provides nuanced insights for practitioners and academics about the importance of CSV.
... Higher perceived levels of fit (or congruity) between sponsor and sponsored property can lead to more favourable attitudes towards naming rights sponsors (Chen and Zhang, 2011). Considerable empirical evidence exists to support the influence of fit on consumer responses to sponsorship (Petrovici et al., 2015;McDaniel, 1999), including sponsor identification (Johar and Pham, 1999), attitude towards the sponsor (Bruhn and Holzer, 2015;Gwinner and Bennett, 2008;Olson and Thjømøe, 2011;Weeks et al., 2008;Becker-Olsen and Hill, 2006;Rifon et al., 2004;Roy and Cornwell, 2003), attitude towards the sponsorship (Mazodier and Merunka, 2012;Simmons and Becker-Olsen, 2006), sponsor brand image (Grohs and Reisinger, 2014) and purchase intention (Speed and Thompson, 2000). Equally, perceived incongruity (or mis-fit) can harm evaluations ofand the equity attached toboth sponsor (Woisetschläger et al., 2010) and sponsored property (Groza et al., 2012). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore fans’ reactions to corporate naming rights sponsorship of football club stadia and identify a range of contextual factors impacting these reactions. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative, quasi-ethnographic research design is adopted, focusing on three football clubs in North West England. Data are gathered through online message board discussions, focus groups and auto-ethnographic approaches. Findings Geographic, image and functional dimensions of sponsorship fit are noted as contextual factors in determining fans’ reactions to corporate stadium names. It is also proposed that some forms of fit (in particular geographic fit) are more important than others in this regard. Beyond issues of fit, three additional contextual factors are identified that potentially influence fans’ reactions to corporate stadium names: prior involvement with the club by the sponsor; fans’ perceived impact of the sponsorship investment; and whether the stadium is new or long-established. Research limitations/implications Future research might examine the relative importance and implications of the identified contextual factors, alongside seeking other potential areas of contextual framing. Practical implications Sponsorship naming rights negotiations need to be sensitive to a variety of contextual factors. Furthermore, sponsors would do well to have a good awareness of their own brand image and its congruency with the identity of the club and fan base. Originality/value This nuanced, qualitative analysis extends existing, quantitative-based research by identifying a range of contextual factors which shape fans’ reactions to corporate stadium naming.
... Researchers have applied cognitive measures to determine the impact of sports sponsorship on consumer brand awareness, brand image, and brand recall (Bachleda et al., 2016;Chavanat et al., 2009;Grohs and Reisinger, 2014;Lardinoit and Derbaix, 2001). Also, these measures were used to explain four conditions of involvement of consumers in a specific sport, event, or team (Beaton et al., 2011;Kunkel et al., 2014). ...
Article
This study aims to examine the relationship between fans' psychological commitment to team (PCT) with three outcomes to sponsors; i.e., cognitive (product knowledge), affective (attitude towards sponsors), and behavioural (purchase intentions). The covariance-based structural equation modelling (CBSEM) technique was used to examine the consequences of fans' team commitment on sponsors, as well as the influence of each outcome of fans' commitment on one another. Findings from this study provide evidence that PCT has a significant impact on cognitive and affective outcomes, but a negative or no impact was found on behavioural outcome. This implies PCT did not work as a motivational factor and failed to alter attendees' purchase intentions. When it comes to consumption decisions, consumers prefer to make these decisions according to their own life experience rather than being psychologically attached to their team. Such finding helps sport management to extend their knowledge of sponsorship in professional sports setting.
... Öte yandan, güvenilir ilişkiler, sponsorluk yönetiminde etkilidir (Morgan vd., 2020:838). Grohs ve Reisinger (2014), tüketicilerin etkinlik ve sponsor arasında düşük bir uyum veya yüksek düzeyde etkinlik ticarileştirme algılamalarının, sponsor imajını azalttığını belirtmektedir. ...
Article
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Sponsorluk, spor, sanat, eğlence gibi nedenlerle bir etkinliğin ticari olarak kullanılabilir potansiyeline erişim karşılığında ödenen nakit veya ayni ücret olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Tuzak pazarlama, ilk kez 1984 Los Angeles Yaz Olimpiyatları'nda kullanılmış ve sponsorluğa büyük bir tehdit olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Tuzak pazarlama terimi, herhangi bir sponsorluk ücreti ödemeden bir etkinliğin itibarından ve popülaritesinden yararlanma girişimi ya da bir etkinlikle ilgili rakip işletmenin ilgisini zayıflatmak için kasıtlı çabaları ifade etmektedir. Tuzak pazarlamada amaç, tüketicilerde kafa karışıklığı yaratmak, rakibin faaliyetlerini baltalamak ve etkinlik organizatörlerine herhangi bir ücret ödemeden hedef kitlenin zihninde işletme markasını söz konusu etkinlikle ilişkilendirmektir. Bu çalışma, sporda tuzak pazarlama ile ilgili kavramsal bir çerçeve oluşturmaya odaklanmaktadır. Ayrıca çalışma, tuzak pazarlama stratejileri ve tuzak pazarlamayı önlemek için kullanılabilecek yöntemleri de inceleyerek işletme yöneticilerine yardımcı olmayı amaçlamaktadır. Sponsorship is defined as a cash or in-kind fee paid for accessing the commercially usable potential of an event, for reasons such as sports, arts, entertainment. Ambush marketing was first used at the 1984 Los Angeles Summer Olympics and emerged as a major threat to sponsorship. The term ambush marketing refers to an attempt to capitalize on an event's reputation and popularity without paying any sponsorship fees, or deliberate efforts to undermine a rival's interest in an event. The goal of ambush marketing is to confuse consumers, undermine rival activities, and to associate the business brand with the event in the minds of the target audience at no cost to the event organizers. This study focuses on creating a conceptual framework for ambush marketing in sports. In addition, the study aims to help business managers by examining ambush marketing strategies and methods that can be used to prevent ambush marketing.
... The sponsee should also consider the ethical issues when selecting sponsorship opportunities. In fact, however, the administrations do not always consider these aspects, often moved by the urgency of safeguarding part of the heritage destined for decay and abandonment [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. ...
Article
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The topic of the paper is sponsorship for the requalification/conservation of historical-architectural heritage. In the literature, there are many models for evaluating the financial efficiency of sponsorship from the point of view of the sponsor (mostly in the sports field), but none of these jointly support both the sponsor and the sponsee in the selection of financially sustainable cultural sponsorships. Trying to reduce this gap, an innovative model is proposed for estimating the profitability of cultural sponsorship. The model consists of three phases. In the first, which consists of the financial analysis of the investment for the sponsee, the minimum amount that the sponsee can request from the sponsor is established. The second phase analyzes the financial performance of potential sponsors, estimating the optimal sponsorship budget that maximizes profits. In the final phase, where the results of the two analyses are compared, the sponsee eventually reformulates his offer and decides which company to sign the contract with. The model is tested through a case study: the sponsorship of the restoration of the Don Tullio Fountain in Salerno (Italy). It is assumed that two companies are interested in sponsorship. The results show that the investment is financially sustainable for both companies.
... The concept of image has been analysed from a variety of perspectives (Rodrigues et al., 2011) and used in various disciplines, such as philosophy (Rodrigues et al., 2011), psychology (Firestone and Scholl, 2015;Veldhuis et al., 2020), marketing or branding (Arai et al., 2014;Grohs and Reisinger, 2014;Chang et al., 2019), and geography (Jenkins, 1999). Image in the field of tourism has spawned a diversity of definitions and conceptualizations, which could suggest that there is either a significant level of uncertainty as to what constitutes destination image and how it is formed, or that tourism destination image is a 'multi-dimensional and complex' (Gallarza et al., 2002, p. 56) construct that can be embraced by all these definitions. ...
Chapter
This book aims to explore and valorize marketing paradigms utilized by various western European countries in order to manage their tourism offerings and position them in the global tourism arena. The book aims to enhance tourism literature by examining and comparing contemporary marketing tools currently used in western- European countries' case studies for understanding how tourism marketing on this side of the continent has been handled and has evolved in an era of contradictory forces such as competitiveness versus sustainability, locality versus globalization, maturity versus new product development, and traditional media versus new technologies.
... The brand image is then said to allow consumers to easily identify the brand in the market (Alwi& Kitchen, 2014;Arai, Ko, & Ross, 2014;Grohs& Reisinger, 2014) and to help mitigate any "pain" in the decision (Hernandez, Han, &Kardes, 2014;Liu & Liang, 2014;Pfister &Böhm, 2008). ...
Chapter
Currently, the pressure to internationalize is big. Selling outside the domestic market is, also, for the family firms a relevant goal. Knowing that characteristics of family businesses affect their activity and decisions in international markets, understanding how the family ownership determine the earliness and post-internationalization speed, is particularly important. In addition, we intend to analyze how innovation activities moderate this relationship. We propose, therefore, to contribute to a better understanding of the factors that influence the speed of internationalization of family firms.
... The concept of image has been analysed from a variety of perspectives (Rodrigues et al., 2011) and used in various disciplines, such as philosophy (Rodrigues et al., 2011), psychology (Firestone and Scholl, 2015;Veldhuis et al., 2020), marketing or branding (Arai et al., 2014;Grohs and Reisinger, 2014;Chang et al., 2019), and geography (Jenkins, 1999). Image in the field of tourism has spawned a diversity of definitions and conceptualizations, which could suggest that there is either a significant level of uncertainty as to what constitutes destination image and how it is formed, or that tourism destination image is a 'multi-dimensional and complex' (Gallarza et al., 2002, p. 56) construct that can be embraced by all these definitions. ...
Chapter
This book aims to explore and valorize marketing paradigms utilized by various western European countries in order to manage their tourism offerings and position them in the global tourism arena. The book aims to enhance tourism literature by examining and comparing contemporary marketing tools currently used in western- European countries' case studies for understanding how tourism marketing on this side of the continent has been handled and has evolved in an era of contradictory forces such as competitiveness versus sustainability, locality versus globalization, maturity versus new product development, and traditional media versus new technologies.
... Past marketing researches uncovered that a customer's reaction to sponsorship was logically acceptable when diverged from advertising through sport (Grohs & Reisinger, 2014). As shown by the praiseworthy sponsorship thought (Meenaghan, 2001), associations every now and again considered sponsorship as a tool to search after helpful or philanthropic exercises which were considered as important to our overall population. ...
Chapter
The present examination zeroed in on the investigation of the attitudinal and behavioural designs with regards to sport sponsorship. All the more accurately, the focal point of the exploration was to provide certain clarifications of the impact of fans’ engagement with sport, the level of their connection with their preferred team, their views about sponsorship and the foreseen trustworthiness of the sponsors on the awareness of and behaviour toward genuine sponsoring companies, just as its ensuing effect on future purchase purposes regarding sponsoring companies’ products. Information derived from 2.752 supporters were effectively assembled and analysed using auxiliary condition demonstrating examination. The discoveries feature the compelling part of the examined variables on directing sport clubs fans to shape positive attitudes and buy sponsors’ products and services, a result of extensive essentialness for both practitioners and academics in the field.
... (2013) etkinliğin sponsorluğunda imaj transferinin transferin etkililiği ve transfer sürecini etkileyen unsurlar olarak ele alındığını belirtmiştir. Grohs ve Reisinger (2005) etkinlik ve sponsor arası uyumun yüksek olduğu durumlarda sponsorluğa maruz kalmadaki artışın imaj transferini arttırdığını, buna karşın tüketicilerin etkinlik ve sponsorluk arası algıladığı uyumun düşük olduğu durumda ya da sponsorlukta ticari kaygı hissettiklerinde sponsorluk etkinliğine maruz kalmadaki artışın sponsor imajına zarar verdiğini ortaya koymuştur (Grohs ve Reisinger, 2014 (Solomon, 2018;Colbert vd., 2005b). Sponsorluğun bir çeşit marka çağrışımı olduğunun altını çizen Musante ve Milne (1999) markanın imajıyla uyumlu bir sponsorluğun marka imaj şemasını (schema theory/image scheme) güçlendireceğini belirtmiştir. ...
The rapid increase in sport sponsorship expenditure has been accompanied by a significant growth of research studies evaluating sponsorship efficiency in various sport contexts. Nevertheless, the majority of research studies have concentrated on the comprehension of the variables driving to behaviors. A more precise evaluation of sport sponsorship efficiency is of necessity, taking into attitudinal as well as behavioral constructs. This study focused on the exploration of the attitudinal and behavioral constructs in the context of sport sponsorship. More precisely, the aim of this research is to offer some elucidations of the effect of fans’ involvement with sport, the degree of their attachment with their favorite team, their beliefs about sponsorship and the anticipated sincerity of the sponsors on the awareness of and attitude toward real sponsoring firms, as well as its subsequent influence on future purchase intentions concerning sponsoring firms’ merchandise. Data from 2,752 fans were successfully gathered and analyzed utilizing structural equation modeling analysis. The results of a structural equation model provide an exceptional conceptual framework that underlines the significance of comprehending the role of important factors in sponsorship efficiency. The findings highlight the influential role of the examined factors in guiding sport clubs’ supporters to form favorable attitudes and purchase sponsors’ goods and services — an outcome of considerable significance for both the practitioners and academics in the field. Various implications for future research studies as well as strategies to boost the advantages for both the sport clubs and sponsoring firms can be drawn from the suggested model.
Chapter
This chapter considers the determinants affecting active participants’ intention to revisit extreme sports events, accounting for the psychological specificities of extreme sports enthusiasts. Basing on sensation-seeking psychological theory, the present chapter explores the interplay between psychology-based consumer drivers (i.e., sensation-seeking personality traits) and marketing-based drivers (i.e., satisfaction with an event, the event image fit, and intention to revisit). The theoretical model proposed in this chapter is tested using the PROCESS macro for SPSS in a natural setting provided by a sample of 200 active participants of extreme sporting events. Results indicate that sensation-seeking traits only drive the intention to revisit an event indirectly, due to satisfaction; this effect is enhanced in the presence of a higher perceived consumer–event image fit. An executive summary for managers and practitioners is provided at the end of this chapter.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between sponsorship of professional sport teams and consumers' socially responsible perceptions of a sponsoring brand. More specifically, this research investigates if sponsorship of professional sport teams in itself leads consumers to perceive a sponsoring brand as socially responsible, and what factors may produce CSR perceptions and subsequent consumer response. Design/methodology/approach An experimental study was conducted to examine the impact of sponsorship of professional sport teams on consumers' CSR perceptions of a sponsoring brand. Further, a field study was used to explore the role of sponsorship fit in generating CSR perceptions. Findings The results from the experimental study indicated that brand sponsorship of professional sport teams contributes to the socially responsible image of that brand, and sponsorship fit induces consumers' CSR perceptions of a sponsoring brand. Additionally, the results from the field study identified CSR perceptions as an underlying process driving the effect of sponsorship fit on consumers’ behavioral intentions toward a sponsoring brand. Lastly, the role of team identification was shown as a boundary condition shaping the effects of sponsorship fit. Practical implications Brands specifically seeking to create a socially responsible image, thanks to sponsoring a sport team, should consider the importance of perceived fit between their brand and the sponsored sport team as it is a key predictor of CSR perceptions. Originality/value This paper provides empirical evidence for the sport sponsorship and CSR perceptions link and sheds light on important predictors for consumer response.
Article
ABSTRACT Research question: In a world where financial investment in sports sponsorship is at risk of committing corporate irresponsibility, how do professional sports team sponsors’ attribute altruistic motives and favorable attitudes towards the fans influence purchasing with decisions? Research methods: For this purpose, a sample of 2,647 fans from two of Portugal’s most successful soccer teams completed a questionnaire. A Structural Equation Modelling analysis was carried out to test the model and the hypotheses. Results and Findings: Despite the highly commercial context, the high investments made by the sponsors are seen as altruistic by the fans most identified with the sports team. The model explained 46% of attitudes towards sponsors, but the most relevant result in sponsorship effectiveness was the strong mediating role played by the sponsors’ altruistic motives. Implications: This study extends previous research by providing a unique conceptual framework that highlights the importance of understanding how fans supported by the sponsor’s altruistic motives view the sponsor’s brand.
Article
A commonly accepted notion is that companies should leverage their event sponsorships with promotional and communication activities beyond the sponsorship contract. Activational sponsorship leverage is an experiential marketing strategy that encourages consumers to engage actively in brand-related activities. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate how level of consumer participation in brand-related activities at a sponsored event can improve brand evaluations by creating brand experiences. The paper presents findings from a field quasi-experiment conducted at a sponsored sporting event, in which three levels of consumer participation with the sponsoring brand (active-, passive-, or non-participation) were examined. Drawing on brand experience theory, the main prediction is that active participation represents the highest level of consumer brand engagement, and therefore should have the greatest potential for creating impactful brand experiences. The study provides valuable information for brand managers who seek to create memorable brand experiences through sponsorship-linked brand communication and activities.
Article
Event exposure is a fundamental factor, because if the consumer is not exposed to sponsorship, it will not have any effect on him. Consequently, this investigation purpose tries to demonstrate the event exposure influence on consumer of such important factors, as a greater likelihood of recognizing the sponsor, a more positive event image this influences on the sponsor image, this in turn influences on intention to purchase. It was also found that exposure improves the level of knowledge about the sponsor, and finally the consumer’s exposure to the event will have a mediating effect between fit event-sponsor and sponsor image. The event chosen as the framework of this research is The Olympic Games of Rio 2016, one of the biggest sporting events with the largest audience. The statistical measurement analysis has been made with SEM-PLS 3.2.7, both for the assessment of the structural model and to verify the hypotheses proposed. The model after the analyzes performed has a good fit. The study limitation refers to the specificity of the study, as the results depend on the context, and replication would be advisable to generalize the results.
Chapter
The readers of this chapter are expected to understand, through the description of the basic sponsorship operation procedures, the importance of supporting sport event-based business operations. To this end, following a brief introduction including a description of the international situation in the sports sponsorship market, as well as the necessary concepts, types of sponsorships, and developments, the structure of the book chapter focuses on the key elements of the content of a sponsorship management plan for small-scale sporting events. Also important is the contribution of this chapter by presenting, at the end, three small-scale sport events in clarifying how sponsors of a sporting event can be attracted and how the sponsorship exchange system can be more effective.
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A crucial component of many marketing programs, sponsorship has not always received the same research attention as other tactical marketing levers. Although research has been conducted to fill that gap in recent years, we lack a comprehensive, rigorous summary of what is known about sponsorship to capture and interpret that learning. Toward that goal, we offer a new definition of sponsorship and describe a three-step consumer-centric model of sponsorship effects. Highlighting a sequence of antecedents, mediators, and consequences for sponsorship, we also detail the prevailing input, output, and process factors identified in past sponsorship research. Finally, based on our analysis, we derive key summary insights and provide a roadmap for future research.
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Profound knowledge of the behavioral response to sponsorship messages is sparse. In an effort to provide a better understanding of the relationship between sponsorship investments and the consumer’s brand choice, an online experiment was conducted focusing on the role of the sponsorship portfolio size. In the context of sponsorship activities in the English Premier League, the study investigates how brand decision making can be influenced by the number of sponsored players wearing a particular footwear brand. Based on a microeconomic perspective, additional factors influencing the brand decision-making process, such as the overall brand status and prior brand experience, are considered. Logit regression models reveal that brand-choice behavior is sensitive to the extent of sponsorship portfolio size, however, in a non-linear way. The results can be regarded as a next step in predicting the behavioral outcomes from sponsorship activities as the basis to estimate the economic efficiency of sponsorship investment.
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This study aims to know the effect of sport event sponsorship on corporate reputation, and to measure the effect of sport event sponsorship dimensions' on the dimensions of corporate reputation. A survey list of 384 individuals was relied upon, which was distributed to the followers of sport events, of which 337 were valid for analysis. The study found that there was a significant effect of sport event sponsorship on corporate reputation, and a positive effect of some dimensions of sport event sponsorship on the dimensions of corporate reputation. The results also indicate that there is the moral effect of the demographic characteristics of (gender, monthly income) on the relationship between the dimensions of event sponsorship and the dimensions of corporate reputation.
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The cost of sponsoring high-profile events is rising rapidly, making it increasingly important to evaluate the effectiveness of sponsorship arrangements. The present study examines the impact of sponsoring the Olympics on brand valuations measured by the formulary approach. Estimates show that Olympic sponsorships raise brand value over time, an effect which is driven by summer games and compatible with defensive action for brand maintenance. The study contributes to the literature by properly dealing with potential endogeneity in sponsorship outcomes, studying the impact of sponsorships on brand value, and conducting longitudinal analysis on the effect of sports sponsorships.
Chapter
Action sports events are part of a multibillion-dollar industry supported by prominent sponsors—such as Red Bull, GoPro, and Samsung, among others—and individuals engaging with these events through various roles. In fact, the International Extreme Sports Festival (FISE) of Montpellier in France attracts around 600,000 spectators, 1800 athletes, and 400,000 digital followers (VoGo [2019]. VoGo at the FISE World Series Montpellier 2019. Retrieved August 30, 2020, from https://www.vogo-group.com/en/at-the-fise-montpellier-2019/). Nowadays, the average age of athletes and spectators is below 25 years for BMX, skateboarding, and wakeboarding events (Statista. (2018). Number of participants in wakeboarding in the United States from 2006 to 2017 (in millions). Retrieved April 29, 2019, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/191,342/participants-in-wakeboarding-in-the-us-since-2006/), thus making Generation Z the key market for action sports events. This chapter will explore what drives Generation Z participation as sport tourists in action sports events. Specifically, based on underpinnings emerging from recent literature of psychology and marketing, this chapter aims at assessing how Generation Z’s intention participate in extreme sports event is shaped by their need for intense sensations, desire for mastering skills, and feelings of self-enhancement, together with the image participants hold of a particular event. In doing so, a conceptual model is proposed and tested, and outputs indicate Generation Z participation in an international action-sport event. Results will offer insights into key marketing aspects related to Generation Z’s revisit intention to action sport events, and will provide useful managerial implications.
Thesis
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Günden güne hızlanarak gelişen ve beraberinde dünyayı da değiştiren teknoloji sayesinde spor kavramı da değişmektedir. Dijitalleşen dünya ile birlikte geleneksel sporlar (futbol, basketbol, voleybol vb.) teknoloji ile buluşarak evrimleşirken aynı zamanda yeni bir spor dalı da ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu sporun adı “elektronik spor (e-spor)” olarak dünyada kabul edilmiştir. Tezin amacı ülkemizin akademik literatüründe e-sporun kendi yerini bulmasına ve akademik çevrelerde hak ettiği değeri görmesine katkı sağlamaktır. İlerleyen dönemlerde espora yönelik olarak yapılacak çalışmalara katkıda bulunması amaçlanan bu tezle birlikte ülkemizin iletişim yazınında e-sporun temellerinin sağlam bir biçimde atılması amaçlanmıştır. Tezin ilk bölümünde oyun sektörü, internet ve teknolojinin beraberinde getirdiği yenilikler bağlamında e-spor bir kavram olarak incelenerek, e-sporun tanımları, özellikleri, Türkiye’de ve dünyada tarihsel gelişimi ele alınmıştır. Ayrıca ilk bölümün içerisinde sponsorluk kavramı genel hatlarıyla irdelenmiş ve bir halkla ilişkiler aracı olarak sponsorluğun özellikleri belirtilmiştir. Bu bağlamda e-sporun ve e-spor sponsorluğunun pazarlama ve halkla ilişkiler ile olan ilişkisine de bir pencere açılmıştır. İkinci bölümde marka bilinirliği kavramı ve marka bilinirliği yaratma araçları irdelenmiştir. Bu bölümde, marka bilinirliğinin sponsorluk ve özellikle de e-spor sponsorluğu ile olan ilişkisi, ülkemiz akademik literatüründe ender çalışılan konular arasında yer alan ilgilenim düzeyi, olay-sponsor eşleşmesi ve imaj transferi gibi kilit noktaların ortaya konmasıyla derinleştirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Tezin üçüncü bölümünde ise Vodafone ve Riot Games sponsorluk iş birliğinden doğan “Vodafone FreeZone Şampiyonluk Ligi” isimli e-spor organizasyonu, e-spor sponsorluğu ve bileşenleri bağlamında incelenmiştir. Vodafone ve Riot Games özelinde bu e-spor sponsorluğunun hem ticari hem de iletişimsel açıdan avantajları ve getirileri bu bölümde ele alınmıştır.
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Recent surveys find that while managers favored issues of media coverage not more than ten years ago, now they rate sponsor awareness and image transfer from the sponsored event to the sponsor as the main reasons for engaging in sport C. However, the evaluation of C has not kept up with this change in priorities. Companies seem to be reluctant to evaluate sponsor awareness even though measurement is straightforward and not very costly. An important reason might be that previous studies showed unsatisfying effects of “ambush marketing”. In this form of marketing, other firms make consumers believe, incorrectly, that these companies are the actual sponsors of an event. In the case of image transfer, evaluation seems to be difficult due to a lack of a compelling comprehensive and testable model.
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Marketing academics and practitioners frequently employ cross-sectional surveys. In recent years, editors, reviewers, and authors have expressed increasing concern about the validity of this approach. These validity concerns center on reducing common method variance bias and enhancing causal inferences. Longitudinal data collection is commonly offered as a solution to these problems. In this article, the authors conceptually examine the role of longitudinal surveys in addressing these validity concerns. Then, they provide an illustrative comparison of the validity of cross-sectional versus longitudinal surveys using two data sets and a Monte Carlo simulation. The conceptualization and findings suggest that under certain conditions, the results from cross-sectional data exhibit validity comparable to the results obtained from longitudinal data. This article concludes by offering a set of guidelines to assist researchers in deciding whether to employ a longitudinal survey approach.
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A larger role for substantively motivated research can help our field in three ways. Substantively motivated consumer research can remove our paradigmatic blinders to help us see new topics for research that later scholars will recognize as truly central topics for consumer research. It can increase our influence in the public domain and among other social sciences. And it can increase our ability to learn from each other as an interdisciplinary field. http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=16394
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Evaluating sponsorship activities at elite intercollegiate sporting events has become critical to determining sponsorship effectiveness and maximizing the relation-ships between athletic departments and their corporate partners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sponsorship of an elite intercollegiate football program by analyzing the effects of the constructs of attitude toward the sponsor, goodwill, and fan involvement on consumer purchase intentions. In this study (N=394), there were 52% males, 11% Caucasians, and 71% per-cent of the participants ranging from 18-24 years of age. Purchase intentions served as the dependent vari-able while attitude toward the sponsor, goodwill, and fan involvement served as the independent variables. According to the multiple regression analysis, goodwill had the most impact on consumers' intentions to sup-port the corporate sponsors via purchasing behaviors. Although attitude toward the sponsor and fan involve-ment are important facets of sponsorship effectiveness, goodwill may be one of the keys to transforming avid fans into loyal consumers.
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Introduction and Historical PerspectiveTechnical Background Experimental ExperienceSummary Interpretation, and Examples of Diagnosing Actual Data for CollinearityAppendix 3A: The Condition Number and InvertibilityAppendix 3B: Parameterization and ScalingAppendix 3C: The Weakness of Correlation Measures in Providing Diagnostic InformationAppendix 3D: The Harm Caused by Collinearity
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