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From mood to food and from food to mood: A psychological perspective on the measurement of food-related emotions in consumer research

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... Unlike modification of the physical testing environment, written scenarios allow consumers to individualize their consumption context by imagining specific aspects of the consumption context that are relevant to him/her. A benefit of this approach (Köster & Mojet, 2015) is that while the written scenario evokes a common context, the details of that context are unique to the consumer. ...
... A higher frequency of use of negative emotion words in the less appropriate consumption contexts was observed. In accordance with Köster and Mojet (2015) this could suggest that stimulus presentation and context evocation that is less, rather than more specific, may be desirable since it allows participants to imagine a more individualized consumption circumstance. Piqueras-Fiszman and Jaeger (2019) concur, but also report that asking participants to both vividly imagine elaborate meal contexts and product sensory perceptions may be too demanding and reduce the emotional experience with detrimental effects for data relevance and quality. ...
... This effect could be due to the analytic versus synthetic nature of the two tasks, as Prescott et al. (2011) suggested. Alternatively, as Köster and Mojet (2015) suggested, it may be due to the fact that the rating of 39 emotions, as in the EsSense Profile Method, some of which consumers may struggle to connect to foods and beverages interferes with the hedonic task. ...
Chapter
Within academia and industry, product-focused emotion research has been attracting considerable attention for more than a decade. In this chapter, focus is directed to the use of emotion word questionnaires for product emotion research with an emphasis on methodological issues. By creating awareness of important empirical considerations in product emotion research, we seek to provide guidance for existing/new investigators in this area of research. The chapter has been updated and a new section added regarding the single-response circumplex-inspired emotion questionnaire.
... These models therefore represent a promising way of assessing affective engagement while learning (Ahn & Harley, 2020;Emerson, Cloude, Azevedo, & Lester, 2020). Importantly, while self-report measures predominantly reflect emotions of which the reporter is consciously aware, automatic facial expression analysis can capture fast changing emotions in the implicit dimension of the subconscious (He, Boesveldt, de Graaf, & de Wijk, 2016;Köster & Mojet, 2015;van Bommel, Stieger, Visalli, de Wijk, & Jager, 2020). ...
... The results indicated that despite the great fluctuations in facial expressions during the learning experience, there was no significant change in the three PANAS self-reported questionnaires completed at different stages of the learning process. This finding highlights the additive value of a continuous automated measure of facial expressions, which appears more sensitive to implicit emotional fluctuations (He et al., 2016;Köster & Mojet, 2015). Indeed, previous studies have documented the fact that self-reports predominantly reveal only the emotions of which the responder is aware, while complex emotion processes in other subsystems remain hidden (Köster & Mojet, 2015;Scherer, 2009). ...
... This finding highlights the additive value of a continuous automated measure of facial expressions, which appears more sensitive to implicit emotional fluctuations (He et al., 2016;Köster & Mojet, 2015). Indeed, previous studies have documented the fact that self-reports predominantly reveal only the emotions of which the responder is aware, while complex emotion processes in other subsystems remain hidden (Köster & Mojet, 2015;Scherer, 2009). Another study concluded that the results of self-reports are not directly comparable to facial expression analysis and indeed show little overlap because of differences in intensities and durations (van Bommel et al. (2020). ...
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This study uses a multimodal data analysis approach to provide a more continuous and objective insight into how students' engagement unfolds and impacts learning achievements. In this study, 61 nursing students' learning processes with a virtual reality (VR)-based simulation were captured by psycho-physiological data streams of facial expression, eye-tracking, and electrodermal activity (EDA) sensors, as well as by subjective self-reports. Students’ learning achievements were evaluated by a pre- and post-test content knowledge test. Overall, while both facial expression and self-report modalities revealed that students experienced significantly higher levels of positive than negative emotions, only the facial expression data channel was able to detect fluctuations in engagement during the different learning session phases. Findings point towards the VR procedural learning phase as a reengaging learning activity, which induces more facial expressions of joy and triggers a higher mental effort as measured by eye tracking and EDA metrics. Most importantly, a regression analysis demonstrated that the combination of modalities explained 51% of post-test knowledge achievements. Specifically, higher levels of prior knowledge and self-reported enthusiasm, and lower levels of angry facial expressions, blink rate, and devotion of visual fixations to irrelevant information, were associated with higher achievements. This study demonstrates that the methodology of using multimodal data channels encompassing different types of objective and subjective measures, can provide insights into a more holistic understanding of engagement in learning and learning achievements.
... Cette dynamique de l'expérience produit peut également apparaitre lors de souvenirs plus anciens, dans lesquels les facteurs émotionnels ont une forte influence sur les choix et les comportements alimentaires. Comme l'expliquent Köster & Mojet (2015), les souvenirs des situations évoquées par l'expérience de consommation, plus que ceux liés à la nature de la nourriture elle-même, peuvent être en lien étroit avec des souvenirs d'enfance ou d'occasions particulières survenues plus tardivement dans la vie. Ces souvenirs ne surgissent néanmoins que lors d'expériences alimentaires suffisamment proches de l'expérience originelle. ...
... changement d'épice, changement de texture) seront facilement détectés, conduisant à une surprise agréable, ou inversement, perturberont le souvenir, conduisant l'individu à une déception ou à une insatisfaction. Les émotions évoquées par le souvenir du produit sont essentielles dans la construction des attentes qui guideront les décisions de retour vers ce produit (Köster & Mojet, 2015). ...
... Pourtant lorsqu'un changement de comportement alimentaire est nécessaire, les facteurs situationnels rendent souvent difficile la mise en place des pratiques alimentaires recommandées . Parmi les facteurs contextuels par exemple, l'influence de l'état émotionnel sur les choix et les comportements alimentaires joue un rôle important dans les facteurs de développement de l'obésité où la consommation alimentaire intervient pour réduire les émotions fortes et désagréables (Köster & Mojet, 2015). ...
Thesis
Dans l’étude du comportement alimentaire, la prise en compte du contexte de consommation au sein du cadre expérimental assure la capacité des données collectées à être généralisées au fonctionnement humain dans son monde réel. À travers cette thèse, nous testons la validité de l’outil de « réalité virtuelle » à amener le consommateur, par une activité-sensorimotrice en reconstruction numérique de l’épisode de consommation, à un comportement représentatif de sa réalité. Pour évaluer cet outil, nous nous en référons à l’état de présence du consommateur, son sentiment d’existence au sein de l’environnement virtuel (d’être là où il agit). Nous examinons cette immersion virtuelle, dans, sa forme (enrichissement perceptif du contexte), son contenu (identification du réel à reproduire), jusqu’à la crédibilité globale de l’expérience de consommation (intégration de l’aliment au monde virtuel). Les résultats de six études sont ici présentés. En définitive, la réalité virtuelle se présente comme un outil méthodologique valide pour recontextualiser le cadre expérimental des sciences « sensorielles et consommateurs ». Malgré son caractère numérique, elle apporte un fort sentiment de présence, l’illusion « physique » d’un lieu, dans une interaction cross-modale guidée par la modalité visuelle. Cette forte illusion la mène au niveau d’un environnement physiquement reconstruit. Sur un plan plus global, l’enrichissement perceptif assure ici le contrôle de l’immersion dans un épisode précis de consommation. Nous identifions également des clés de lecture du contexte réel pour la sélection des éléments à implémenter. Ces éléments clés entourant le scénario de consommation favoriseront l’évocation de ce qui ne peut être recréé. L’intégration de l’aliment au monde virtuel soulève de nouveaux défis, mais cette technologique est en constante évolution. Sur une catégorisation « physique » de l’aliment, nous validons ici l’intégration d’aliments solides « non-déformables », tel que les « cookies », au monde virtuel, pour une expérience fidèle de dégustation. La réalité virtuelle mérite néanmoins encore un temps de développement, pour se généraliser à une plus vaste diversité alimentaire. Ainsi, elle s’ouvrira à de nouvelles perspectives, telles que celles de rétablir le dialogue avec le consommateur, plus en amont, en phases de conception des produits alimentaires.
... Word-based questionnaires have been commonly used in several research fields for this purpose. However, their questionable ecological validity [2,3], the ambiguity between selected emotion words and the actual emotion experienced [4], poor understanding of terms listed in questionnaires [2], and the inability to capture intuitive and automatic emotional evoked associations [3], have prompted the need to develop non-verbal methods. ...
... Word-based questionnaires have been commonly used in several research fields for this purpose. However, their questionable ecological validity [2,3], the ambiguity between selected emotion words and the actual emotion experienced [4], poor understanding of terms listed in questionnaires [2], and the inability to capture intuitive and automatic emotional evoked associations [3], have prompted the need to develop non-verbal methods. ...
... As mentioned above, it has been suggested that self-reported measures of emotional response are better captured along dimensions rather than specific states [1]. Although verbal methods would also meet this premise [29][30][31][32], these do not capture automatic emotional evoked associations [3]. On the contrary, emoji, being images that reflect expressions commonly used in people's interactions [6], would have the ability to intuitively provide this information [6,7]. ...
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Abstract Background Emoji are pictograms frequently used in social networks capable of expressing emotions. These tools can provide insights into people's behavior that could not be obtained with the use of textual communication. Recently, emoji have been introduced to various research fields as successful alternatives to word-based questionnaires for measure emotional responses. The objective of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the discriminating ability and relationship of these tools with different occlusal conditions/malocclusions. Methods Online surveys were applied to adult individuals (n = 201; mean age = 27.4 ± 5.7; 37.3% males, 62.7% females). Subjects issued acceptance scores (10-point scale) and expressed their emotional status using a 30-emoji list in relation to nine occlusal conditions: C1–crowding, C2–anterior open bite, C3–interincisal diastema, C4–increased overjet + deep bite (Class II div. 1), C5–anterior crossbite (Class III), C6–ideal occlusion, C7–unilateral posterior crossbite, C8–anterior open bite plus bilateral posterior crossbite plus crowding, and C9–deep bite (Class II div. 2). Cochran's Q and McNemar tests were used to compare the frequencies of choice of emoji between conditions. Correspondence analyses were applied to assess the association between occlusal conditions and emoji. Kendall's correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the relationship between mean acceptance scores and frequency counts of each emoji. Results The frequency of choice between conditions showed a significant difference for 25 of the 30 emoji (P
... The authors concluded that all variants were appropriate, though greater sample discrimination and descriptive detail may be obtained with the CATA question format (Jaeger, Roigard, & Chheang, 2021). However using emotion words in emotion measurement questionnaires can have some shortcomings: Firstly, emotions are difficult to verbalize (Köster & Mojet, 2015). Secondly, they can pose a problem especially when using existing emotion word lists across different languages and cultures (Desmet, Hekkert, & Jacobs, 2000;Mesquita & Frijda, 1992;Spinelli et al., 2014), particularly when it comes to foods (Gutjar et al., 2015). ...
... As emotions are much influenced by interactions between the person and the environment, it is important to consider contextual aspects in emotion research with children (Zeman et al., 2007). Foods evoke associated memories of previous eating occasions and are thus linked to emotions experienced on these occasions (Köster & Mojet, 2015), which highlights the importance of including situational factors when evoking food-related emotions. ...
... However, emotions in a real-life consumption situation also occur below the level of consciousness and therefore additional measurements such as implicit measurements are needed to capture a more complete spectrum of emotions. They can be used with subjects without them being explicitly aware of the relation between the measurement and the food eaten, and without having the explicit power over his/her reaction (Köster & Mojet, 2015). For example, it would be worthwhile to assess emotional responses to foods with physiological measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) (Kreibig, 2010), brain imaging techniques such as functional MRI neuroscience (Grabenhorst, Rolls, & Bilderbeck, 2008) or other implicit methods such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT) (DeJesus, Gelman, & Lumeng, 2020). ...
Thesis
Given the rise of food products targeted at children and the need of healthier products to combat the global rise of childhood obesity, children take an important role in nowadays’ consumer testing. Although children between 4-11 years are already able to perform a range of consumer tests similar to adults, the assessment of children’s food preferences requires engaging and age-appropriate methods. Emotions have been shown to give additional information about food products compared to hedonic measurements, however, they are understudied in children. Growing interest for emoji to measure consumer’s product-elicited emotions emerged in the field of sensory and consumer science over the past years. However, previous studies often selected emoji without the consideration of how emoji are interpreted by preadolescents regarding their semantic and dimensional meanings. Moreover, research found associations between personality traits, taste responsiveness and food preferences, which constitutes another understudied topic in emotion research with children. Understanding this relationship could further help to understand factors influencing preadolescents’ food preferences. To tackle this problem, the aim of the PhD thesis was to develop an emoji-based self-report questionnaire, the Emoji Pair Questionnaire, for preadolescents consisting of a food-specific emoji list with identified emotional meaning and to validate and apply the tool to test its discriminant ability in response to food. A further aim was to investigate individual differences in emotional responses to foods by clustering children according to patterns of emotional responses and by testing the clusters for differences in personality traits, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) status and sensory responsiveness to basic tastes. A total of 711 children (9-13-y.o.) participated in seven studies, which attended primary and secondary school classes in schools based in Italy (n=454, Study 1-5) and Norway (n=257, Study 6 and 7). Study 1 identified 46 of 92 emoji as food-related and relevant for children to describe their emotions in response to food experiences. Study 2, that used projective mapping, showed that emoji were discriminated along three dimensions, that were interpreted as valence, power, and arousal. Results of Study 3 and 4, that used the Check-All-That-Apply method with emoji and emotion words respectively, were congruent in linking emoji and emotions words. Positive emoji were described by more words in general, which could be xii explained by the context dependent use of emoji, which was clarified in Study 5 (qualitative interviews). Emoji expressing similar semantic and dimensional meanings were grouped in pairs of two, based on the idea that the grouping of the two emoji with the most similar semantic and dimensional meaning allows to better identify the overall meaning of the emoji pair. Emoji with ambiguous meaning were excluded. Finally, the Emoji Pair Questionnaire contained a reduced list of 17 emoji pairs (n=34 emoji) varying in valence, power, and arousal dimension. Italian and Norwegian preadolescents were found to describe emoji with overlapping emotional meaning (Study 6), which allowed the validation and application of the Emoji Pair Questionnaire in Norway. Findings of Study 7 showed that emoji pairs varied between food categories and were able to discriminate between familiar foods despite similar liking. Emoji also discriminated significantly among food products despite similar liking within the food categories of vegetables and desserts/juices, but not within the fruit category. The tasted samples (grapefruit juice spiked with sucrose) differed in liking and in associated emoji. Children were classified into three clusters according to their emotional patterns in Principal Component Analysis. The three clusters differed also in liking, surprise, sensitivity to reward, responsiveness to sweet, sour, and ability to discriminate between food samples. The findings obtained in this PhD thesis illustrate that the newly developed Emoji Pair Questionnaire can be used to not only understand children’s food behavior but also to develop novel products targeted at specific clusters of children considering their individual differences in emotions, personality traits and sensory responsiveness by providing target-specific products.
... Although widely used, it has been argued that lexicon-based tools force people to express their feelings through a limited set of prescribed words, resulting in rationalized answers that do not necessarily reflect the unconscious influences that play a major role in emotional food perception [17]. Moreover, people typically find it difficult to express or verbalize their emotions (especially for mixed or complex ones) and the labels (emotion terms) that are provided to describe them are often inherently ambiguous [17,18] or even perceived as strange or irrelevant in a food-related context [19]. ...
... Although widely used, it has been argued that lexicon-based tools force people to express their feelings through a limited set of prescribed words, resulting in rationalized answers that do not necessarily reflect the unconscious influences that play a major role in emotional food perception [17]. Moreover, people typically find it difficult to express or verbalize their emotions (especially for mixed or complex ones) and the labels (emotion terms) that are provided to describe them are often inherently ambiguous [17,18] or even perceived as strange or irrelevant in a food-related context [19]. These considerations have stimulated the development of graphical (non-verbal) tools that allow users to report their feelings in a more intuitive manner by indicating or rating the figures that best represent their current affective state (for a review see [20]). ...
... It has been observed that verbal labeling diminishes one's response to affective stimuli [30]. Intuitive (graphical) self-report tools that limit analytical thinking may therefore be preferred for measuring (food-related) emotions since they may tap more directly into the irrational and non-cognitive thought processes that are involved in food choice than verbal methods can [17]. Hence, tools like the EmojiGrid may yield responses that more closely reflect the truly experienced emotions than self-reports that are obtained with verbal tools [2]. ...
Article
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Reflecting the two main prevailing and opposing views on the nature of emotions, emotional responses to food and beverages are typically measured using either (a) a categorical (lexicon-based) approach where users select or rate the terms that best express their food-related feelings or (b) a dimensional approach where they rate perceived food items along the dimensions of valence and arousal. Relating these two approaches is problematic since a response in terms of valence and arousal is not easily expressed in terms of emotions (like happy or disgusted). In this study, we linked the dimensional approach to a categorical approach by establishing mapping between a set of 25 emotion terms (EsSense25) and the valence-arousal space (via the EmojiGrid graphical response tool), using a set of 20 food images. In two 'matching' tasks, the participants first imagined how the food shown in a given image would make them feel and then reported either the emotional terms or the combination of valence and arousal that best described their feelings. In two labeling tasks, the participants first imagined experiencing a given emotion term and then they selected either the foods (images) that appeared capable to elicit that feeling or reported the combination of valence and arousal that best reflected that feeling. By combining (1) the mapping between the emotion terms and the food images with (2) the mapping of the food images to the valence-arousal space, we established (3) an indirect (via the images) mapping of the emotion terms to the valence-arousal space. The results show that the mapping between terms and images was reliable and that the linkages have straightforward and meaningful interpretations. The valence and arousal values that were assigned to the emotion terms through indirect mapping to the valence-arousal space were typically less extreme than those that were assigned through direct mapping.
... Collecting emotional responses that offer insight into consumer experience can provide additional useful information for product development [1]. Several findings have noted that emotions influence consumers' eating behavior and decision-making processes [2][3][4]. Understanding the emotions elicited by their products could be beneficial for food industries when considering packaging design, branding, and advertising [2]. ...
... Mean ± SD of overall liking scores based on a 9-points hedonic scale (1 = extremely dislike to 5 = extremely like).2 Mean ± SD of rating scores based on a 5-points scale (1 = not at all to 5 = extremely).3 Mean ± SD of RATA rating scores based on a 5-points scale (1 = slightly to 5 = extremely). ...
Article
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The emotion and wellness profiles of herbal drinks were assessed using six different questionnaire designs. The questionnaire designs were constructed from two formats of questionnaire items, including words and sentences, and three types of measuring scales, including a rating scale (5-point intensity; 1 = ‘not at all’, 5 = ‘extremely’), a checklist scale (check-all-that-apply, CATA), and a combination of CATA and rating scales (rate-all-that-apply, RATA; 5-point intensity; 1 = ‘slightly’, 5 = ‘extremely’). The 39 emotional terms of the EsSense Profile® and the 45 wellness terms of the WellSense ProfileTM were translated into Thai, then screened for relevance to herbal drinks. The seven positive emotional terms (active, energetic, good, happy, polite, satisfied, and warm), three negative emotional terms (bored, disgusted, and worried), and five wellness terms (comforted, healthy, invigorated, relaxed, and refreshed) were selected and included in the questionnaire. A central location test was performed to determine the emotion and wellness profiles of five herbal drinks: roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) drink, chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) drink, ginger (Zingiber officinale) drink, Jubliang (a mixture of eight herbs) drink, and Krachai Dam (Kaempferia parviflora) drink. For herbal drinks, measuring emotion and wellness with a questionnaire using full sentences did not show increased benefit over questionnaires using words alone. All three measuring methods—a rating scale, CATA, and RATA—produced similar emotion and wellness profiles. However, each method has different advantages and limitations, which researchers should carefully consider.
... Explicit facial expressions might, to a certain extent, be relevant in real -life eating situations, where expressions are used to communicate with others. In this sense, Köster and Mojet (2015) highlighted that situational factors, such as eating alone vs. eating with family are closely linked to emotions and that emotion tests in laboratories might fail to measure emotions of ecologic validity. It is therefore of interest to explore more natural eating situations which may call for different test protocols and evaluation methods. ...
... Last but not least, the focus on individual differences might be highly relevant for the measurement of emotions (Köster & Mojet, 2015). The preliminary analysis performed in the present study suggested differences in expression level (poker vs. expressive faces) as well as valence (more positive or negative basic emotions). ...
Article
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Sensory and consumer research increasingly aims to gain direct input from children to study their eating behaviour. However, answering self-administered questionnaires can be challenging for children. In this sense, the prediction of basic emotions via facial decoding, generating quantitative observational data, could offer an alternative to questionnaires. The present study aimed to measure children’s implicit and explicit basic emotions elicited by tasting, through the use of facial decoding and compare them to children’s liking ratings in a case study with flavoured chocolate milk samples. Children aged 9-10 participated in the study (n=48). Six samples based on two design of experiment factors Added sugar (yes / no) and Surprise flavour (peppermint / liquorice/ no added flavour) were tested. The software iMotions with the AFFDEX algorithm was used for facial decoding. For each sample, facial expression was measured immediately after tasting (implicit basic emotions). Then, children were asked to show a facial expression related to their feelings when they tasted the chocolate milk (explicit basic emotions) and rate their liking on a 7-point-scale. Implicit and explicit basic emotion likelihoods from facial decoding were correlated to liking ratings regarding the factor Surprise flavour. As in previous studies, the measurement of implicit basic emotions discriminated samples according to negative emotions (anger and disgust) which had higher likelihoods in disliked samples with Surprise flavour (peppermint and liquorice). Facial decoding of explicit basic emotions was the only measurement discriminating samples also according to the factor Added sugar, an advantage over liking ratings. The positive emotion joy, as well as negative emotions (sadness, fear, anger, disgust and contempt), were significant in the explicit evaluation. The results add to previous literature suggesting that the measurement of implicit emotions via facial decoding can be useful to study negative emotions. Further, explicit basic emotions enhanced the discrimination of liked samples with the involved age group.
... It has been demonstrated that food cues in the environment affect consumer behavior through the emotions that they evoke (12,13). Thus, emotions can help us to understand consumers' food experiences and choices (14,15). ...
... In view of the emotional effects on consumer behavior (12,13), policy makers may want to consider evidence on emotional responses to UPF and UMPF when developing and testing public health strategies to promote healthy and sustainable food environments. Food environments include the physical spaces where consumers engage with food systems to make decisions about acquiring and consuming UPF and UMPF (11,66,67). ...
Article
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Background Ultra-processed foods (UPF) are becoming extensively available in the food environments. UPF are industrial formulations that are designed to maximize palatability and consumption through a combination of calorie-dense ingredients and chemical additives. UPFs are also aggressively marketed, which may make them more attractive than unprocessed/minimally processed foods (UMPF). Since consumers' purchase decisions are guided by food-evoked emotions, we aimed to provide evidence that UPF visual cues trigger higher emotional responses and approach motivation than UMPF visual cues, with potential impacts on individuals' intention to consume the UPF over the UMPF.Methods Participants (n = 174; 144 women; mean age = 20.7 years; standard deviation = 4.35) performed two tasks. In the first task, 16 pictures of foods (8 UPF and 8 UMPF), and 74 pictures from other affective categories, were presented. After viewing each picture, the participants rated it along two basic dimensions of emotion through the Self-Assessment Manikin scale: pleasantness and arousal. In the second task, the participants viewed the same food pictures, and they rated their intention to consume the foods depicted in the pictures. Each picture was plotted in terms of its mean pleasantness and arousal ratings in a Cartesian plane, which resulted in an affective space.ResultsPictures of UPF and UMPF were positioned in the upper arm of the boomerang-shaped affective space that represents approach motivation. Pictures containing UPF triggered higher approach motivation and intention to consume than pictures containing UMPF. We also found a stronger association between emotional responses and intention to consume UPF relative to UMPF.Conclusion These results shed new light on the role of ultra-processed foods evoked emotions that contribute to less healthy and sustainable food environments.
... The low frequency of emoji use could also be caused by the limited ability of consumers to assess or indicate their emotions upon consumption. One of the major limitations of explicit measures is that consumers are not always able to describe their feelings (Jaeger et al., 2013;Köster & Mojet, 2015). It has been suggested that using non-verbal emotional assessment is more intuitive than using verbal emotional terms (Jaeger et al., 2021;Marengo, Giannotta, & Settanni, 2017). ...
... The Correspondence Analysis showed that the emotional profiling of consumers is mostly valence-driven, which confirms earlier results from product-elicited emotion studies (Danner et al., 2016;Köster & Mojet, 2015;Ng et al., 2013a). Additionally, emotional profiling is also arousaldriven. ...
Article
An increasing focus on emotion in consumer and sensory research has led to the development of many instruments to capture consumers’ emotions elicited by food, with a growing interest in the use of emoji in recent years. While emoji are considered a suitable tool to assess food-evoked emotions, it is still unclear to what extent consumers’ emotional state impacts the measurements. This study explored product-emotion associations within a single product category (dark chocolate) and assessed the effect of emotional state on the emotional profiling of chocolate using 33 facial emoji with RATA questions. The study involved 146 adult participants (mean age: 25.5 ± 5.4). Emotional state influenced the emotional conceptualization of some chocolate samples. Use of positive emoji was associated with a positive emotional state, and a similar positive correlation was found between negative/neutral emotional state and the valence related to emoji use. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that the emotional state only impacted emotional responses of the same valence, e.g. a positive emotional state was only correlated with positive emotions and a positive emotional state was not able to decrease negative emotional responses evoked by chocolate. Further, only 5 out of 33 emoji discriminated significantly among the dark chocolate samples. This study showcases that including a measurement of emotional state when using emoji for emotional profiling can be of interest for framing the results and illustrates that emoji can discriminate between (equally-liked) products within the same product category.
... Results from experimental studies typically show that when eating in front of the TV, people eat moreas demonstrated by a higher energy intakethan when eating without watching TV (6,(18)(19)(20) . This may be the result of several mechanisms, such as distraction (4)(5)(6) , learned associations between TV viewing and eating resulting from repeatedly pairing these two behaviours in the past (6,21) or a positive mood induced by TV viewing (6,22) . Importantly, eating while watching TV likely contributes to an overall increase in (the time spent) eating across the day and is thus not compensated for during another moment. ...
... reading a newspaper v. checking social media updates) was beyond the scope of the present research but is worthy of future investigation. Although distraction seems a plausible explanation for the findings of the current study, other potential mechanisms may account for the relationship between TV viewing and increased (concurrent) eating as well, such as learned associations between these two behaviours resulting from repeatedly pairing TV viewing and eating in the past (4,21) and a positive mood induced by TV viewing (6,22) . Future research should investigate to what extent the findings of the current study can be explained by distraction, and/or potential other mechanisms. ...
Article
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Objective: One explanation for the relationship between TV viewing and obesity is that people may (over)eat while watching TV. The current study investigated associations between TV viewing and the time spent on (concurrent) eating in a naturalistic setting among a general population sample. Design: Preregistered secondary data analyses were performed of a diary survey in which respondents reported their time use in 10-min blocks for 7 d. Setting: Concurrent TV viewing and eating was operationalised as all blocks in which TV viewing and eating occurred simultaneously. Furthermore, the TV content respondents watched was coded as food-related (i.e. culinary content) or non-food related. Participants: The sample composed of 2292 adults (58·9 % female) in the Netherlands, aged ≥ 20 years, from all educational levels (18·1 % low, 29·8 % middle and 51·4 % high). Results: More than half of the respondents (51·3 %) reported concurrent TV viewing and eating at least once during the 7-d diary period. The average eating occasion was longer in duration while watching TV (v. without media use), and the total time spent on eating was longer on days of concurrent TV viewing and eating (v. days of eating without media use). The percentage of TV viewing time spent on concurrent eating did not differ between food-related and non-food-related TV content. Conclusions: Eating while watching TV was related to an increased time spent on eating. Even though energy intake was not assessed, these findings from a naturalistic setting provide further evidence that concurrent TV viewing and eating may contribute to overeating.
... Additionally, consumers with a positive mood (reassured) were more likely to purchase more food with sustainable attributes while those with a negative mood (angry) were less likely. One possible explanation was that positive emotions make consumers perceive sustainable food (e.g., organic food) as more attractive, and they are eager to purchase and consume healthy food [110]. ...
... Mood was found to be associated with expenditure and purchasing food with sustainable attributes. This may be because, on the one hand, positive emotions make consumers perceive sustainable food (e.g., organic food) as more attractive, and they are more likely to be eager to purchase and consume healthy food [110]. On the other hand, positive emotion was correlated with high appetite levels [46], and it has been a neglected trigger for eating more food [47]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic poses a threat to global food security, and it changes consumers’ food buying and consumption behavior. This research not only investigates trends in Spanish consumers’ general food shopping and consumption habits during the lockdown, but also investigates these trends from the perspective of sustainable purchasing. Specifically, total food consumption (C), food expenditure (E), and purchase of food with sustainable attributes (S) were measured. Data were collected from a semi-structured questionnaire which was distributed online among 1203 participants. The logit models showed that gender, age, employment status, and consumers’ experiences were associated with total food consumption and expenditure during the lockdown. In addition, consumers’ risk perceptions, shopping places, trust level in information sources, and risk preference were highly essential factors influencing consumers’ preferences and sustainable behavior. Consumers’ objective knowledge regarding COVID-19 was related to expenditure. Furthermore, family structure only affected expenditure, while income and place of residence influenced food consumption. Mood was associated with expenditure and the purchase of sustainable food. Household size affected purchasing behavior towards food with sustainable attributes. This research provides references for stakeholders that help them to adapt to the new COVID-19 situation.
... Among psychological factors, emotions were identified as an essential determinant of the amount of food consumed and the energy density of this food [24]. For example, Lyman [25] demonstrated that positive emotions are primarily associated with consuming healthy foods while negative ones are associated with junk food. ...
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Nudges, or subtle changes to a choice environment, are increasingly used in online food ordering platforms to improve dietary choices and reduce calorie intake. We report the results of an experiment aimed at nudging young adults to reduce calories in a fast-food order (N = 994). The nudging interventions used were: an order assistant, a color-coded system, and a combination of the order assistant and color-coded system. We hypothesized that participants’ characteristics (sex, BMI, education) and states (positive affect, negative affect, hunger) moderate the effectiveness of nudges. Our analysis shows that the effect of nudges is slightly increasing at higher BMI levels. In the combined treatment, hunger and negative affect significantly moderate the effect of nudges. We do not observe the moderating effects of participants’ sex, educational level, and positive affect in any of the treatments.
... Emotion research has gained widespread popularity in productfocused research (e.g., Meiselman, 2021), driven by the interest in understanding the influences that consuming food and beverages have on people's mood and emotions (Köster & Mojet, 2015). Reasoning that purchase decisions for F&B products are seldom driven exclusively by rational considerations, emotion researchers seek to understand how intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of F&Bs relate to the emotions experienced during consumption so that new products can be designed to deliver the desired emotional benefits. ...
Article
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Sensory and consumer science is concerned with measuring perceptual and affective responses to consumer products. Historically, hedonic responses (degree of liking or preference for a set of test products) have been the primary measure of product performance in food-related consumer research, but recent years has seen an increase in the uptake of perceptual measures that go “beyond liking”, with interest primarily focusing on product-elicited emotions, conceptualisations and situational appropriateness. Although the ultimate purpose of collecting such responses is that they are predictive of what consumers will like, choose and consume in their everyday life, such data are very rarely validated against actual consumer behaviour. Against this backdrop, the present research aimed to evaluate the ability of emotional, conceptual, and situational appropriateness responses to predict a behaviourally relevant measure of product performance – frequency of past consumption. Two (online) consumer studies were conducted with US adults, using salads (Study 1, n=606) and non-alcoholic beverages (Study 2, n=603) as product categories. In each study, the predictive ability of each set of measures was benchmarked against that of expected liking to identify the optimal (most predictive of consumption) combination of product-related measures. Both studies provided evidence that all included measures (liking, emotional, conceptual, and situational responses) were significantly correlated with frequency of past consumption, and importantly, that inclusion of “beyond liking” measures improved behavioural prediction over and above models based on hedonic responses only. These findings confirmed that liking in and of itself is insufficient as a predictor of consumption and supported calls for the purposeful combination of different response types using “global” or multi-response approaches. Differences between the two studies pertaining to the relative importance of liking and the best combination of predictors were uncovered, suggesting that the optimal combination of “beyond liking” measures in practical applications is likely to be study-specific.
... For example, research showed that people select activities that bring greater happiness to regulate their emotions (Cuijpers, van Straten, & Warmerdam, 2007). The interaction between food and emotions has been noted in previous research as well (Köster & Mojet, 2015). Emotions influence food choices and food consumption can affect people's emotions in turn. ...
Article
Some travelers feel reluctant to try novel food in foreign countries. However, limited empirical research has been done on tourists with food neophobic tendencies and their well-being associated with comfort food consumption. The purposes of this research were to explore the relationship between food neophobic tendencies and perceived well-being derived from eating comfort food and the effects of emotions on food neophobic tendencies and perceived well-being. The influence of demographic characteristics on the perceived well-being of comfort food consumers was also investigated. Purposive sampling was conducted at two major international airports in Taiwan, and a total of 381 responses were collected. The results showed that: (1) food neophobic tendencies had a positive influence on perceived well-being when consuming comfort food on international trips; (2) emotions played a moderating effect between food neophobic tendencies and perceived well-being; and (3) demographics and consumption characteristics did not affect neophobic tourists’ perceived well-being. Based on the results, suggestions for academic researchers and industry were proposed.
... Similarly to DA, several lists of emotions and feelings are now available together with emotion wheels through which liking, preference or appreciation are assessed (Coppin et al., 2021;Desmet & Schifferstein, 2008;Niimi et al., 2019). The sensory drivers of emotions may not correspond to the sensory drivers of liking because they depend on the type of food and on consumer groups (Spinelli et al., 2019), but because they are considered to go "beyond liking" they become more stable indicators of day-life behaviour (Köster & Mojet, 2015). Therefore, it seems appropriate to include emotions when constructing olfactory conceptual spaces (Alegre et al., 2017;Sáenz-Navajas et al., 2021). ...
Chapter
The tasting methods in wines have long been used for many diversified purposes related to sensory research, wine quality, or consumer studies. Recent advancements in neuroscience have explained how sensory perception is processed justifying the adaptation of methods to meet the functions of neuronal mechanisms. In particular, the implications of the emotional nature of olfaction in wine description and appreciation have not been taken into account properly by most common tasting approaches. The purpose of the present chapter is to present a critical appraisal of current tasting methods with a focus on those most frequently applied at the winery and consumer levels. The limitations will be explained and improvements will be proposed together with an alternative method gathering emotional and sensory responses. Moreover, the issue of fine wine evaluation will be addressed regarding the synthetic properties that distinguish these wines from their international commercial counterparts. A holistic approach to wine tasting would benefit from the inputs of scholars with backgrounds in philosophy, psychology, or economy. Hopefully, mutual understanding among wine professionals, researchers, and consumers would be facilitated by changing the paradigm of wine tasting methodologies.
... In the female group, the "calm" and "tame" emotions were selected fewer times when CBWO was presented under ECP+ disclosed information; yet this effect is difficult to interpret as it could be both, positive and negative because it could reflect an "energetic" but also "nervous" or "anxious" short-term response or long-lasting state [70]. In fact, other researchers have categorized the "tame" emotion as an unclassified term [71,72]. ...
Article
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Edible insects, a sustainable and nutritious alternative to conventionally derived proteins, are unfamiliar to Westerners and often associated with negative sentiments. Edible-cricket protein (ECP) added to chocolate brownies (CB) [0% ECP = CBWO (without) vs. 6% w/w ECP = CBW (with)], and disclosed information [no ECP added = (-) vs. ECP with benefits = (+), ECP− and ECP+, respectively] yielded four CB treatments (CBWO−, CBWO+, CBW−, and CBW+). Subjects (n = 112 female and n = 98 male) rated liking, selected emotions before- and after-tasting, and determined consumption (CI) and purchase intent (PI) after tasting. Likings were analyzed with mixed-effects ANOVA and post hoc Tukey’s HSD test. Emotions were evaluated with Cochran’s-Q test and correspondence analysis. Emotions driving or inhibiting overall liking (OL) were assessed with penalty-lift analyses using two-sample T-tests. A random forest algorithm was used to predict PI and estimate variables’ importance. Female’s and male’s expected OL were higher for CBWO− than for CBWO+. Females’ actual OL was higher for CBWO than for CBW regardless of the disclosed information but males’ actual OL was the same across treatments. Females exhibited negative-liking disconfirmation for CBW−. In both tasting conditions, the disclosed information affected treatments’ emotional profiles more than formulation. After-tasting emotions “happy” and “satisfied” were critical predictors of PI.
... Previous studies revealed the bi-directional influence between drink intake and mood (Köster & Mojet, 2015); this latter was here conceived as a diffuse and pervasive affect state that emerges without an apparent cause and affects the individual's perception and motivation behaviours (Desmet, 2015;Scherer, 2005). Moreover, according to Thayer (1990), the mood is conceptualised as a long-lasting psychological state that may appear and persist in the absence of specific stimuli and maybe not be covert to other persons. ...
Article
This study investigated the covariation between Italian millennials’ attitudes towards drinking craft beer and food choice factors grounding on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). Considering that no previous researches have explored these association, findings participate in advancing knowledge in this field of study. A survey was administered online to five craft beer thematic groups on Facebook (n=273 craft beer enthusiasts), including FCQ’s items and items assessing attitudes towards drinking craft beers. Correlation analysis performed after defining the factor structure of the FCQ that best describe the sample indicated that sensorial appeal, mood and (online)convenience had a positive association with attitude towards drinking craft beer. Weight control, instead, discourages the consumers’ attitude towards drinking craft beer. Results confirmed the validity of the FCQ and pinpointed as craft breweries must consider these factors both in designing their products and tailoring communications strategies.
... Although it is known that consumers make different choices in different contexts, whether their Food Choice Motives also differ across contexts has rarely been studied. Related bodies of research already include contextual variations, for example in emotions (Köster & Mojet, 2015;Piqueras-Fiszman & Jaeger, 2014) and moods (Patel & Schlundt, 2001), though these studies focus on unconscious processes and singular effects. We aim to addresses this research gap by specifically focussing on Food Choice ...
Article
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Food choice motives (FCMs) such as price, sensory appeal and health are important in understanding food consumption. FCMs are traditionally investigated at a general level, for food choices on ‘a typical day’. However, food choices have been shown to differ across temporal, situational and social contexts. This suggests that measuring FCMs at a context-specific level could increase our understanding of food consumption in different contexts. Therefore, the current paper aims to explore whether FCMs are indeed context-specific for different meal moments, locations and social contexts. Two studies were conducted among Dutch adults (Study 1: N=935; Study 2: N=642). Both studies measured FCMs in context, either by using 2-hour recalls (Study 1) or recalls of the last consumption moment (Study 2). Result showed that participants rated and ranked FCMs significantly different across most contexts showing the relevance of considering the context when studying FCMs. Egocentric motives of taste, affordability, and convenience were the most important motives across all contexts, as was health. In contrast, sustainability-related motives were consistently rated as least important. Most variability occurred in the middle part of the rankings and mainly in health-related motives such as weight control and safety. This shows the added value of measuring FCMs in different contexts, particularly for health-related motives. The contexts snacking versus main meals, eating out of home versus at home and eating alone versus with others showed the most pronounced contrasts in ranking of FCMs. The current study is the first to quantitatively explore the variability of FCMs across eating contexts, both in rating and ranking of FCMs. The chosen research method resulted in a representative, though unbalanced sample of consumption contexts in the Netherlands, which limits the generalizability of the results to an international context and restricts the insights in out-of-home contexts as food is mainly consumed at home in the Netherlands. The results enable public health authorities and food companies to target messages, interventions and products to consumers’ food choice motives in specific contexts.
... The results that public health authorities expected were not obtained because it had been assumed that consumers were aware of the advantages and disadvantages of their food choices and that they were going to make rational decisions (L opez-Gal an and Magistris, 2017). Gutjar et al. (2015), however, noted that the reality has been different, as consumers often make unconscious food decisions (Tangari et al., 2019) and often these decisions are driven by an emotional component or an eating disorder (Köster and Mojet, 2015), which, in turn, favors the creation of bad eating habits that are difficult to modify (Mayer et al., 2016). ...
Article
Purpose Rates of diseases caused by poor diet have seen no reduction in recent years. In this scenario, nutritional information labels and health claims could play a decisive role in modifying product attitudes and purchase intention (consequently, eating habits). In this frame, the first objective is to analyze the role of three antecedents on attitudes toward nutritional labels and credibility from health claims. These three starting antecedents are as follows: psychological characteristics of the consumer associated with eating disorders, body image attitudes and affective reactions (pleasure and arousal). Second, this paper aims to analyze if both elements (attitudes toward nutritional labels and credibility from health claims) improve (or not) food product attitudes and then, its purchase intention. Design/methodology/approach The sample comprised 300 young people between 18 and 25 years old. They provided their opinion about a healthy product by completing a structured and personal questionnaire after inspecting the packaging. Path analysis with partial least squares (PLS) was carried out to test the hypotheses stated. Findings First, psychological characteristics associated with eating disorders (self-concept and self-esteem) have a positive significant influence on body image attitudes. Second, attitudes toward their body image have a great effect on the perception that these consumers have about the information provided by healthy food packaging. Insofar as those whose attitudes toward their body image is “damaged” seek in the nutritional label indications that make them feel calm understanding that the food they are going to buy is not harmful to their health. Moreover, credibility from health claims improves positive attitudes toward the nutritional label. On the contrary, those consumers with higher punctuations in body image assigned lower values to those items concerning nutritional information and health claims in the packaging. Third, if attitudes to nutritional information improve, then product attitudes improve too. Fourth, if product attitudes improve, then purchase intention improves too. So, food product managers should be aware of the need to improve product attitudes by working on the packaging (label and claim) to improve purchase intention. Originality/value First, although previous literature has investigated individual psychological characteristics related to food disorders in the health area, the study of these specific individual psychological characteristics (ineffectiveness, perfectionism, interpersonal distrust, interceptive awareness, maturity fears), is under-researched in the marketing discipline. Second, to date, different authors have investigated how important the use of credibility from health claims in packaging can be in terms of increasing product attitudes and purchase intention, as well as the development of positive attitudes toward nutritional information on the label. However, the joint study of both information sources in the packaging (credibility from health claims and attitudes toward nutritional labels) remains under-investigated.
... Similarly to DA, several lists of emotions and feelings are now available together with emotion wheels through which liking, preference or appreciation are assessed (Coppin et al., 2021;Desmet & Schifferstein, 2008;Niimi et al., 2019). The sensory drivers of emotions may not correspond to the sensory drivers of liking because they depend on the type of food and on consumer groups (Spinelli et al., 2019), but because they are considered to go "beyond liking" they become more stable indicators of day-life behaviour (Köster & Mojet, 2015). Therefore, it seems appropriate to include emotions when constructing olfactory conceptual spaces (Alegre et al., 2017;Sáenz-Navajas et al., 2021). ...
Article
Background Wine flavour has been methodically studied since the beginning of sensory research, with various purposes relating to product quality and consumer preferences. Recent advances in neuroscience have provided a deeper insight into how the perceptions elicited by flavour-active molecules are processed by the brain. In particular, the implications of the synthetic, emotional and mental imagery features of olfaction, together with the cross-modal influences on flavour perception, should be properly acknowledged in tasting methods. Scope and approach The purpose of this review is to present a critical appraisal of current tasting methods, with focus on those that are most frequently applied to assess fine wine. The remarkable ability to distinguish odours, and the emotional nature of the sense of smell, are the basis for the development of alternative tasting approaches that have lead to recent advances. The limitations of aroma and flavour descriptive analysis resulting from the synthetic nature of olfaction will be discussed and, in particular, those limitations that relate to the holistic evaluation of quality that constitutes the core of aesthetic judgements. Key findings and conclusions We argue that the conventional tasting sequence and the dominance given to descriptive analysis contributes to the subordination of the holistic nature of wine assessment. Further, expert quality judgements may be strongly biased by cognitive factors and wine preferences. Hence, the highest level of expertise may be attained when individuals are able to recognise a fine wine's synthetic properties (e.g. complexity, harmony, persistence) in association with socio-cultural aspects (e.g. origin, winemaking traditions), and then produce aesthetic judgements independently from wine enjoyment. Overall, fine wines may be defined as those characterized by superior synthetic or holistic properties that are perceived and appreciated by individuals who understand, and in the context of, their cultural meaning.
... Emotional attitudes towards food are considered to be important in predicting consumer behavior [1][2][3][4][5]. It has been shown that, compared to verbal liking preferences, food-evoked emotions have more predictive value in foreseeing whether consumers will like a product or not [1]. ...
Article
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Implicit (‘unconscious’) approach–avoidance tendencies towards stimuli can be measured using the Approach Avoidance Task (AAT). We recently expanded a toolbox for analyzing the raw data of a novel, mobile version of the AAT (mAAT), that asks participants to move their phone towards their face (pull) or away (push) in response to images presented on the phone. We here tested the mAAT reaction time and the mAAT distance in a study with 71 Dutch participants that were recruited online and performed an experiment without coming to the laboratory. The participants used both the mAAT and (explicit) rating scales to respond to photographic images of food. As hypothesized, the rated wanting, rated valence and mAAT reaction time indicated a preference for palatable over unpalatable food, and for Dutch over Asian food. Additionally, as expected, arousal was rated higher for unpalatable than for palatable food, and higher for Dutch than for Asian food. The mAAT distance indicated that the unpalatable food images were moved across larger distances, regardless of the movement direction (pull or push), compared to the palatable food images; and the Dutch food images were moved across larger distances than the Asian food images. We conclude that the mAAT can be used to implicitly probe approach–avoidance motivation for complex images in the food domain. The new measure of mAAT distance may be used as an implicit measure of arousal. The ratings and the mAAT measures do not reflect the exact same information and may complement each other. Implicit measures, such as mAAT variables, are particularly valuable when response biases that can occur when using explicit ratings are expected.
... O alimento afeta a forma como as pessoas se sentem e pode ser não apenas a causa de uma emoção, como também o objeto, ou ainda as duas coisas simultaneamente. Há uma relação de influência bidirecional entre as emoções e a alimentação, isto é, as emoções tanto afetam o comportamento alimentar como também são afetadas por ele (Köster & Mojet, 2015). Tais fatores têm despertado o interesse dos pesquisadores que nos últimos anos têm voltado seus estudos para o efeito das emoções no comportamento alimentar. ...
Article
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Considerando o crescimento no número de pessoas com 60 anos de idade ou mais, torna-se relevante conhecer o seu perfil e suas preferências de consumo, uma vez que representam um importante segmento de mercado. Este estudo investigou as emoções evocadas pelos idosos em resposta ao consumo de dois distintos tipos de alimento - churrasco e salada. Também se verificou o impacto das emoções na avaliação, recomendação e intenção de recompra. Foi utilizado o modelo EsSence Profile composto por 39 atributos de emoção classificados em positivos, neutros e negativos. Foram entrevistados 103 idosos. Os resultados revelaram a predominância de emoções positivas, especialmente quando comparadas às negativas, nos dois tipos de alimento. Emoções positivas como satisfeito, feliz, prazeroso e agradável foram experienciadas com maior frequência. Os resultados indicaram que as respostas emocionais foram altamente preditivas para a avaliação, recomendação e intenção de comer novamente os alimentos pesquisados.
... Piqueras-Fiszman and Jaeger (2014a,b,c) conducted a series of experiments that showed how the imagined context and appropriateness of different eating situations influenced emotional responses, emphasizing that emotions are more related to the eating situations than to the food itself. Moreover, for Köster and Mojet (2015), "there is ample evidence that we do not remember the food we ate earlier with precision, but are immediately reminded of the earlier situation in which we ate it (its ambiance or the company we ate it with) or we note deviations from it as a surprise and warning" (p. 184). ...
Chapter
Personal and home care products are nowadays similar in terms of hedonic value and performance. In this context, the consideration of their emotional value, in harmony with consumer expectations, can be a differentiating factor for fragrance development. This chapter aims at providing examples that show how emotional responses to odors, personal products, and home care products can be measured. After describing the strong influence of olfaction on emotional processing and the role of associative learning, we propose a definition of emotion and feelings. We focus on the verbal report of feelings, or the verbalization of the subjective experience of emotions, by mainly referring to the conscious part of the emotional response elicited by odors and fragranced products. Although the unconscious part of the emotional response related to physiological and behavioral responses should not be underestimated, this topic is covered in part 1 of the book, which is dedicated to the basic studies of emotions. The current chapter provides a review of a methodology developed to measure food-elicited feelings or fragrance- elicited feelings, with consideration of cross-cultural differences. Fundamental ques- tions and critical choices that arise when such an approach is undertaken are also highlighted. A series of results is presented to illustrate the use of this methodology in sensory settings for product development. In this context, we propose that in- vestigations should be undertaken into the effects of changing the product label, packaging, and color of fragranced products on consumer emotional expectations and on the overall emotional response when the product is experienced in real-life situa- tions. Finally, we present measures other than verbal reports that examine the existence of automatic associations between odors and subtle emotions, with the caveat that we should continue asking about feelings in any fundamental or applied research.
... In this sense, and according to Wansink (2004), most of the choices related to eating behavior, including food purchases, are unarticulated and unconscious. Even more, as Köster and Mojet (2015) have remarked, physiological reactions could be used without explicit awareness of the relation between the measurement and the food eaten although in most cases the subjects are aware of the relationship. ...
Article
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Because most consistent findings from previous studies have found the inconsistency between consumers' statements and their behaviour, this paper analyses diverse young consumers’ responses that can affect their low‐fat food purchase intentions. The main objective is to evaluate the differences in the orientation response (OR) between two product categories (“juice 0%” and “sweet 0%”) also considering the gender of the participant. To this end, responses from men and women towards two kind of product presentation (juice 0% vs. sweet 0%) were collected through Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Electromyography (EMG) measures. We hypothesize that men would obtain different OR regarding women, and we explore possible different OR regarding product category. With a sample of young consumers (46 men and 51 women), our results show product category differences but not gender differences.
... Consumers in different mood states are likely to perform different evaluations and exhibit different attitudes when presented with messages and information. Moreover, Köster and Mojet (25) proposed a bidirectional relationship between mood states and foods and argued that mood states affect food choice and food intake and food consumption, in turn, influences feelings of people. Hence, investigating how consumers in different mood states respond to message sidedness while searching for healthy food products is crucial (26). ...
Article
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Most of the previous studies with respect to message sidedness mainly focus on the effect of message sidedness in advertising on behavior of consumers and it is unknown how consumers respond to different message sidedness when a one-sided or two-sided message in claims shown on the package of a healthy food product. This study explores the underlying mechanisms how consumers respond to different message sidedness in claims. The results indicate that two-sided messages in claims are more persuasive than one-sided messages because they pass the “sufficiency threshold.” In addition, the results of this article show that mood state, product involvement, and self-rated health of individuals moderate the relationship between message sidedness in claims and product evaluation.
... Nevertheless, it is thought that the measurement of the emotions elicited by food products could contribute to the understanding of children's preferences and food choices in the same manner that it was reported for adults(Dalenberg et al., 2014).Laureati et al. (2015) outlined that the methodology chosen to be used with children should be adapted to their cognitive, physical and social stage of development. Considering this, the traditional verbal self-questionnaires used in sensory testing might not be appropriate to children (specially young children) due to their reduced capability of reading and to the high cognitive effort that questionnaires demand(Köster & Mojet, 2015). On the contrary, methods that involve cognitive, physiological and/or behavioural expressions could be an alternative to evaluate conscious and unconscious emotional responses without the limitation of traditional methods(Kaneko et al., 2018).Facial expressions are the most studied type of behavioural expression for the study of emotions(Coppin & Sander, 2016). ...
... Food taste and emotion are highly linked, and they can influence each other [22]. In this study, the satiating and energizing effects were specifically investigated using a line scale. ...
Article
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Pecan is one of the top five most widely consumed tree nuts, and pecan nut quality is a major factor for consideration in breeding better pecan cultivars for use by producers. However, the pecan industry faces a hurdle to evaluate its nutmeat taste, and there has so far been limited evaluation of consumer attitudes toward pecan nutmeat. This study aimed to investigate the consumer (n = 198) hedonic rating, diagnostic sensory attribute intensity, and emotional response for 14 pecan samples, consisting of native/seedling and improved varieties. The results showed all kernels received positive hedonic scores (>5, 9-point hedonic scale) for overall acceptance and the acceptability of size, interior color, typical-pecan flavor, and raw-nut flavor. The primary sensory attributes (intensities > 5.0, 0–10 line scale) were typical-pecan and raw-nut flavors, followed by buttery flavor, sweetness, and astringency. Kernel off-flavors were not perceived in general. For 20 emotion-associated terms, the intensity of the satiating effect was medium, while the energizing effect was lower. The major emotional responses were healthy, satisfied, and comfort, followed by calm, interested, premium, and relaxed. Kernel variety difference was significant (p ≤ 0.05) for all these measured variables. Consumer overall acceptance toward pecan kernels was driven by the acceptability of flavor and interior color, flavor intensities, no off-flavors, and positive emotional responses; kernel size was not an impactful factor. The six most preferred varieties were 86TX2-1.5, Pawnee, Barton, 1997-09-0012, 1991-01-0026, and Harris Super. This study is the first to use consumer input to assess nut quality and consumption preference and will be foundational to ongoing breeding programs to develop new pecan cultivars that will better meet consumer preferences and expectations, and therefore will be accepted by the processing industry and growers.
... The study of emotions related to food has been widely explored in sensory science, gaining prominence due to the possibility of providing additional information on acceptance (hedonic) and in general on consumer behavior (Köster and Mojet, 2015;Meiselman, 2015). ...
Chapter
Market products are becoming more and more competitive, understanding the drivers of linking that going beyond sensory attributes and understanding the emotions involved in the consumption of a product help in product development, marketing, and sales actions to drive product differentiation. This chapter provides an overview of the study of emotions applied to meat products and practical aspects of applying a self-report questionnaire using the RATA methodology.
... Respecto a la asociación con la génesis de obesidad, se estima que es causada por la ingesta emocional y por las conductas asociadas a la sobrealimentación (Köster & Mojet, 2015), tales como comer sin hambre, que favorece el incremento en la frecuencia de la ingesta y en cantidad de alimentos; la predilección de alimentos con alto contenido de grasa y azúcar, por la asociación de bienestar inmediato; el comer en exceso motivado por la elección de alimentos favoritos; el aumento en la velocidad de la ingesta por emociones positivas, lo que dificulta la digestión y la regulación cognitiva de la ingesta (Geliebter & Aversa, 2003;Macht, 2008;Macht & Simons, 2000;Singh, 2014). ...
Article
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La medición apropiada de la influencia de las emociones en la ingesta de alimentos resulta relevante para encaminar las estrategias de salud en materia de prevención de obesidad y Trastornos de Conducta Alimentaria. El objetivo del presente estudio fue validar un instrumento para medir la influencia de las emociones en la motivación de la ingesta, desde la construcción hasta su validación. En la construcción participaron 6 jueces expertos en psicología y en la validación participaron 416 adultos mexicanos (56 % mujeres, 44 % hombres, edad M = 39.43 años, DE = 12.56). Se obtuvo una confiabilidad a través del coeficiente alpha de Cronbach de 0.906. La validez de constructo fue a través del análisis factorial de componentes principales con rotación varimax, del cual se obtuvieron 4 factores que explican 50.36% de la varianza, con un KMO de 0.888 un valor χ2 de la prueba de Bartlett de 4418.36 p < 0.001. Una limitación del estudio fue la regionalización de la muestra, por lo que se sugiere replicar el estudio con otras poblaciones. La escala mostró buenas propiedades psicométricas para medir la influencia de las emociones en la motivación de la ingesta.
... Understanding the relationships between primary sensations such as flavor, taste, and texture, and higher-level sensations or judgments such as freshness and richness of tastes when eating food products is essential for determining the food values. Relationships between primary sensations and higher-level human responses, including emotions, have been intensively researched using static sensory evaluation methods [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. For example, in [10], primary sensations such as tastes and mouth feels of several vegetables and fruits were linked with higher-level of attributes such as summery, refreshing, and fresh-made. ...
Article
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Sensory responses dynamically change while eating foods. Temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) methods record temporal evolution and have attracted attention in the last decade. ISO 13299 recommends that different levels of attributes are investigated in separate TDS trials. However, only a few studies have attempted to link the dynamics of two different levels of sensory attributes. We propose a method to link the concurrent values of dominance proportions for primary- and multi-sensory attributes using canonical correlation analysis. First, panels categorized several attributes into primary- and multi-sensory attributes. Primary-sensory attributes included sweet, sour, fruity, green, watery, juicy, aromatic, and light. Multi-sensory attributes included refreshing, fresh, pleasurable, rich/deep, ripe, and mild. We applied the TDS methods to strawberries using these two categories of attributes. The obtained canonical correlation model reasonably represented the relationship between the sensations in a reductive manner using five latent variables. The latent variables couple multiple primary- and multi-sensory responses that covary. Hence, the latent variables suggest key components to comprehend food intake experiences. We further compared the model based on the dominance proportions and the time-derivatives of the dominance proportions. We found that the former model was better in terms of the ease of interpreting the canonical variables and the degree to which the canonical variables explain the dominance proportions. Thus, these models help understand and leverage the sensory values of food products.
... This is not just limited to food but also drinks, as fasting people drink nearly half more amount of uids than those that are not fasting within the fasting period (Kerimoglu et al., 2010). These habits (dietary restriction during the daytime and or excessive eating at night) may seem to be a risk for later development of eating disorders, which have been found to affect mental wellbeing (Köster & Mojet, 2015). However, most of the studies that examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on disordered eating behaviour showed no signi cant relationship between the two. ...
Preprint
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This study examined mental wellbeing and associated factors among Nigerian adults who observed Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) amid the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional online study was conducted among 770 adult Nigerians who observed RIF. Using pre-tested, web-based questionnaires, data about mental wellbeing (depression, anxiety), spirituality, and intrinsic religiosity were collected using validated generalized anxiety disorder-2 (GAD-2) and Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2), four-item spiritual wellbeing index (4-ISWBI) and the Muslim intrinsic religiosity questionnaire. Respondents' mental wellbeing before and during Ramadan was compared. The factors associated with the feeling of depression and anxiety were determined using multinomial regression analysis. When compared to mental wellbeing prior to Ramadan, observing RIF by Nigerian adults were associated with improved mental wellbeing.
... Despite the popularity of word-based approaches for examining emotional associations with tasted food products, concerns have been raised about the ecological validity as consumers seldom use words to express their food-related emotions (Köster & Mojet, 2015). Jaeger et al. (2013) indicated that several consumers found it a rather weird task to perform and that participants can even struggle to connect food stimuli to emotional words listed in a questionnaire. ...
Article
Emoji have been proposed as a way to get additional insights in how consumers perceive food products. Recent works have indicated that emoji are able to provide distinctive emotional associations with food products, regardless of whether one is using the check-all-that-apply (CATA) or the rate-all-that-apply (RATA) scaling approach. Typically, in examining emotional associations one can work with either a general list which can be used with all food products or a product-specific emotion list. To date, a comparison between the performance of a general and product-specific emoji list with adults is lacking. Moreover, it is unclear to which extent emotional data of emoji help to better predict the actual food choice of adult consumers. Using five samples of chocolates, this study compared the use of a general list of 39 emoji with a product-specific list of 20 emoji (based upon input of 32 consumers). In total, 138 consumers assessed the samples using the general list while 136 consumers evaluated the samples with the product-specific emoji list. The RATA approach was used for the evaluation of the samples and the actual food choice was registered as participants received a snack portion of the chosen sample to take home. Results indicated that, considering the frequency of selection, 10 emoji discriminated between the samples for both the general and product-specific lists. Similar results were obtained when considering the rating intensities. Including emoji did not lead to a significant increase in the food choice prediction regardless the type of list used. However, emoji data obtained from the product-specific emoji list was able to predict the food choice as accurate as the liking data when using the RATA intensity scores. This study suggests that both general and product-specific emoji lists are able to generate distinguishing emotional profiles for chocolate samples. While further research is necessary with other food products and measurement methods (e.g. CATA), this study proposes that emoji measurements might be an alternative to liking data in order to better understand of consumers’ food choice.
... Verbal self-reporting surveys are the most common technique used to measure food-associated emotional responses, due to their easiness in terms of application, cost-effectiveness, and discriminative power [52]. However, they present several shortcomings, including (i) generally, emotions are difficult to verbalise [53]; (ii) the lexicon of emotions varies across cultures and languages, especially for foods [44]; and (iii) verbalising emotions might obstruct the food experience itself [51]. To overcome some of these barriers, we use the PrEmo2, which is a cross-cultural validated tool [54]. ...
Article
p>This work examines the associated emotions of consumers transmitted from extrinsic attributes (fat‐related nutrition claims (full‐fat, low‐fat, and fat‐free) and ingredient features (plain, berries, and double chocolate chunk)) labelled on yoghurt packages. It differentiates by consumption context (health versus indulgent) at the time of the survey and studies the relationship between the associated emotions (e.g., positive versus negative) attached to extrinsic attributes and the actual choices. The research was conducted in the Netherlands in 2019, with 209 regular consumers of yoghurt. Participants were divided into two treatments according to each consumption context and a control group (no context); they were instructed to imagine purchasing yoghurt to consume it as a healthy snack or as a dessert or received no instructions. After choosing their preferred option from a discrete choice experiment, participants indicated how the choice made them feel from a list of emotions. The results revealed significant differences between positive emotional profiles for choosing healthy (low‐fat) yoghurts with berries and negative profiles for choosing less healthy alternatives (full‐fat) with double chocolate chunk sensory features. The findings from a random parameter logit model showed that participants who continuously chose the same type of yoghurt in all choice tasks selected mostly positive rather than negative emotions. The overall findings suggest that the associated emotions affect yoghurt choices. However, the emotions were mainly affected by the consumption context.</p
... Their results revealed that each cultural group (Korean, Chinese and English-speaking-Western consumers) evaluated nuttiness in soymilk based on similar criteria, which avoided misunderstandings in sensory attributes caused by conceptual differences across culture. Köster and Mojet (2015) recommended the use of nonverbal methods, such as PrEmo (a tool used to measure the emotions evoked by materials), in cross-cultural research in order to overcome language differences in the use of emotional terms. ...
Article
Countries with an established dairy tradition consume milk, milk powder, yoghurt and butter directly or as an ingredient; however, in countries without this tradition the lack of familiarity and unknown expectations can be challenging to overcome. Therefore, having a better understanding of the volatile properties that influence their sensory appeal can aid overcoming these challenges. This review focusses on traditional and novel sensory methods used to research milk, milk powders, yoghurt and butter as well as the extraction techniques used in gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography olfactometry to identify volatiles in these products that influence sensory perception. Sensory and Volatile Analysis of milk, dairy powders, yoghurt and butter.
... In addition, the majority of studies on the effect of emotional state or context focus on the instantaneous effect on food pleasantness. However, Köster and Mojet (2015) argued that the role of memory is probably much more important than the "first impression" experience that is commonly investigated. They emphasized that products should be tested for the emotions they evoke before, during, a few hours after, and a week (or even longer) after consumption, to obtain a more complete picture of the experience of the product. ...
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Experimental setups that probe consumers’ underlying feelings, purchase intentions, and choices. The Topic Editors are honoured to present 14 multidisciplinary contributions that focus on successful implementations of physiological and neuroscientific measures in the field of cognitive psychology, marketing, design, and psychiatry. Keywords: preference formation, neuroscience, physiology, evaluative processing, consumer behavior
Chapter
Menschliche Emotionen spielen in allen Bereichen des Lebens eine zentrale Rolle. Auch deshalb haben Emotionen und deren Messung schon lange das Interesse verschiedener Forscher geweckt. In unserem Beitrag bauen wir auf bestehenden Emotionstheorien auf und erläutern das Konzept der emotionalen künstlichen Intelligenz, auch bekannt als Emotion AI. Der Fokus dieses Beitrags liegt insbesondere auf dem Vergleich traditioneller und moderner, KI-basierter Methoden zur Emotionserkennung. Anhand eines Experiments im Onlineshopping werden dafür eine klassische Selbstauskunftsmethode mit der automatisierten und KI-basierten Emotionserkennungssoftware TAWNY verglichen, die gleichermaßen zur Messung des Nutzererlebnisses eingesetzt werden. Außerdem zeigen wir auf, wie sich, insbesondere in der Markt- und Konsumentenforschung, zahlreiche Einsatzmöglichkeiten für die Emotion AI Technologie ergeben.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of our current understanding of emotions and their measurement in older people. The first part briefly reviews our current understanding of both “the elderly” in general and various facets of emotional aging, such as emotional experiences, emotion regulation, emotion perception, emotion-related attention, and memory. The multidirectionality of the late-life development in the different emotion-related functional domains is stressed. The second part describes published results on the application of various emotion measurement tools in older populations. For all these methods, their general suitability for emotion measurement in elderly populations is discussed and, where applicable, directions for future research are pointed out.
Chapter
Product emotion research is a burgeoning area of research within academia and industry. The explosion in the number of methods for measuring emotions and the rapidly growing range of applications for emotion research has created a situation filled with both important measurement and methodological issues. In this chapter we describe the measurement techniques that are currently available to capture emotional responses to products using self-report questionnaires. In addition, we address the fundamental issues related to the application of these measurement techniques, including scale issues, reliability of methods, temporal capture of self-reports and issues related to stimulus formats, presenting the most relevant research that addresses these issues. In this way, it is our hope to provide actionable guidance and direction to new investigators coming into this area of research, as well as to stimulate thought and ideas for new avenues of research related to the self-report of emotions using questionnaires.
Chapter
We hope this chapter will provide an overview on current theoretical approaches to emotion and its measurement, without neglecting their historical roots. Simultaneously, our goal is to bring the major conceptual foundations for the work described in the following chapters. We have grouped theories of emotion in three families, a taxonomy grounded in historical and conceptual reasons that is helpful to grasp theoretical developments in affective sciences, and to systematically present key concepts and theories in the field. Such a classification provides the readers with an organized description of theoretical roots and major conceptual distinctions in affective sciences.
Article
Article Navigation Understanding Food-Related Well-Being in a Diaspora Situation: The Psychological and Social Dimensions Lubana Al-Sayed, Claudia Bieling Journal of Refugee Studies, feab069, https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/feab069 Published: 21 April 2021 Article history Cite Permissions Share Abstract Food and related practices have a substantial impact on the well-being of individuals. When people are forced to migrate, it is unclear how this affects and potentially reshapes their understanding of food-related well-being. By drawing upon 34 semi-structured interviews with Syrian refugees in Stuttgart, Germany, this article presents an in-depth investigation of the psychological and social dimensions of food-related well-being in a diaspora situation. Interview partners express a strong affinity to their past food-related life and a constant comparison between what they are used to and what is currently available to them in the new food environment. Moreover, participants articulate a low autonomy and weak environmental mastery over food choices, which plays out differently according to the stage of displacement. Food is important for building new bridges with the host community and expressing social identities. The insights gained from this research are useful to design strategies to promote the well-being of refugees.
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To explore the presence of predatory food and beverage marketing in different neighborhoods in New York City (NYC), this study describes the methodology of an outdoor environmental scan of the physical environment. The study was conducted in four NYC neighborhoods over a three-week period, in which pairs of trained researchers canvassed designated neighborhoods to document the presence of food and beverage marketing using photographs taken on digital smart phone devices. Commercial areas in the vicinity of NYC Public Schools and NYC Housing Authority campuses located in four neighborhoods with the highest and lowest nutrition related health indicators were studied: South Bronx, Pelham Throggs Neck, Upper West Side, Chelsea/Greenwich Village. Advertisements were coded against 50+ indicators to quantify pertinent variables including the frequency and content of food and beverages advertised and all forms of predatory marketing observed. Comparisons of prevalence and content of food and beverage advertisements and predatory marketing were made across neighborhoods with the highest and lowest health indicators, using chi-squared analysis, and a significance level of p < 0.05. This article demonstrates a disproportionate presence of predatory marketing in low income NYC neighborhoods with negative health outcomes compared to wealthier neighborhoods. Further, this paper demonstrates the benefits and limitations of using an environmental scan methodology to assess predatory food and beverage marketing in a large urban area such as NYC.
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Purpose Online images can convey sensory-based elements affecting digital users' emotions and digital engagement. The purpose of this study is to investigate which image-based features are more effective in conveying and stimulating particular emotions and engagement towards organizations operating in the food industry. Design/methodology/approach An online experimental survey was implemented. Two image-based features, narrativity and dynamism were chosen. The stimuli comprise four images, one with high and one with low level of narrativity, and one with high and one with low dynamism, published by a food company on its official Instagram account. Food-identity, emotional appeals and digital visual engagement behaviours were measured. A total of 141 students between 19 and 25 years old of a European University completed the questionnaire. Data was analysed through SPSS software using t -test analysis. Findings Results show that both narrativity and dynamism impact digital users' emotions and it was found to impact digital visual engagement attitude. Food involvement was measured in terms of food identity impact the effects of specific image-based features on emotions and visual engagement. Research limitations/implications The study focuses on only two visual social semiotics features – narrativity and dynamism – and therefore, only partially captures the potentialities of images in digital communications. Practical implications This study provides professionals with empirical evidence and insights for effectively planning a visual social media strategy. Originality/value This paper contributes to the stream of research in social media communications by investigating the visual social semiotic features of images published online by a food company.
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Entre as doenças, o câncer é a segunda principal causa de mortes no mundo. Sendo que, atualmente, a sua incidência vem aumentando nos países em desenvolvimento. Por estes motivos, existe um grande interesse na busca por melhores estratégias de prevenção, bem como pelo aumento na eficácia dos tratamentos atuais. Neste sentido, a prática de exercícios físicos vem ganhando destaque tanto como fator preventivo quanto como práticas concomitantes nas terapias anticâncer. Contudo, estudos científicos no que tange os benefícios do exercício físico concomitantemente a terapia anticâncer ainda são bastante limitados ou mesmo raros. Desta forma, neste estudo de caso, buscou-se relatar os efeitos do exercício físico concomitantes e posteriores ao tratamento oncológico na forma de percepções desenvolvidas no decorrer de quatro anos de acompanhamento de uma paciente diagnosticada com câncer de mama (carcinoma ductal in situ). Foi enfatizada a experiência da paciente sujeita a terapia convencional associada à prática de atividade física. Como resultado, obteve-se que o exercício físico é uma excelente alternativa para melhoria da autoestima, capacidade funcional, qualidade de vida, bem como outros aspectos psicológicos e fisiológicos que tornam mais positivo o perpasse do adoecimento por câncer. Finalmente, apesar deste estudo contribuir de maneira considerável para o esclarecimento de várias questões subjetivas, são necessários maiores e mais detalhados estudos sobre os efeitos objetivos do exercício físico no câncer.
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Generally, people prefer to dine in beautiful environments. Previous studies have reported that environmental factors affect an individual's perception of food; however, little is known about the effect of environmental aesthetics on food perception. In Experiment 1, we used photographs of restaurant (1a) or non-restaurant (1b) environments with high or low aesthetic value, paired with images of foods, and participants were asked to rate the visual, olfactory, and gustatory aesthetic value of the food. Results showed significantly higher ratings for food perception in all three sensory modalities in the high aesthetic value environment, together with positive emotion and the desire to eat, compared with the low aesthetic environment. Experiment 2 extended the study to two real-world environments (one high and one low aesthetic value) and actual food consumption. The results also found higher aesthetic ratings in the olfactory and gustatory systems and greater desire to eat again in an environment with high aesthetic value than in an environment with low aesthetic value. This research also explored the mediating role of emotion in the relationship between environmental aesthetics and food perception and found a significant mediating relationship. In conclusion, environmental aesthetics play an important role in food perception, and these findings provide insights into increasing positive food perception in daily life.
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Background: Food art therapy (FAT) has multiple modalities in which cognition, emotion, and social changes are stimulated. The purpose of this study was to design a multimodal approach to a food art therapy (MM-FAT) program and identify its effects on cognitive ability, daily living functioning, depression, self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-expression, and social functioning in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia by employing a mixed methods research design. Methods: The participants included 39 patients from a public dementia care centre in Seoul, Korea. The intervention group, which comprised 20 participants, received 12 MM-FAT sessions 3 times a week for 4 weeks, and the control group, which included 19 participants, received usual care. The MM-FAT program was evaluated based on its effectiveness on cognitive, daily living, emotional, and social functioning outcome measures at three time points using repeated measures analysis of variance. Semi-structured interviews (n = 9) were conducted to evaluate the overall experience of the MM-FAT program and its outcomes. Results: The findings reveal that MM-FAT has a positive effect on the cognitive, emotional, and social functioning of individuals with MCI and mild dementia. However, there were no enhancements in individuals' daily living functioning, and the lasting effects of the intervention could not be assessed. Cognition and depression increased significantly at the end of the MM-FAT program. Self-expression and self-efficacy were significantly higher in the MM-FAT group than in the control group. The semi-structured interviews revealed improvements in participants' behaviour, communication, and interaction. Conclusion: This mixed methods study focused on individuals with MCI or mild dementia contributes to an understanding of the effectiveness of a FAT program employing a multimodal approach. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the study was able to enrich the effects of MM-FAT on cognitive, emotional, and social functioning through qualitative findings.
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This research measured consumers’ emotions and change in emotion to the specific sensory taste properties and attitudes of chocolate-based biscuits. The sample size involved 216 respondents from South Africa (n = 106) and Switzerland (n = 110). Respondents tasted chocolate-based biscuits and completed an online questionnaire. The increase in consumers’ levels of guilt after chocolate-based biscuit consumption and the contribution of a chocolate taste and craving attitude to consumers’ subsequent positive emotions and change in positive emotions could help food and consumer scientists to understand the link between emotions and the sensory descriptors of chocolate-based biscuits. Investigating the association between the emotional responses and sensory attributes of sweet baked products could benefit product developers when formulating food products for specific target markets and aid in the understanding of the emotional profile of food products.
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One way to promote healthier eating behaviors is to reduce food portion sizes and thereby decrease the average daily energy consumed. Positive emotion is a crucial factor in consumers affective responses to food and add to liking ratings in predicting food preferences and choices. Despite this, we know little about the emotional experiences in response to variations in portion size. This study investigated dynamic changes in hedonic and emotional responses to high energy-dense foods varying in portion size. In a within-subjects design, 58 participants (aged 24.1 ± 2.9 years) randomly consumed three different food portions (i.e., small, regular and large) of two food products (i.e., ice cream and pizza) across six experimental sessions. Explicit measures included liking scores and scores on hunger, arousal, overall satisfaction and Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE). Implicit measures included facial (emotional) expressions using FaceReaderTM. Results showed that the small and regular portions scored higher on liking than the large portions, for both the ice cream and pizza. In addition, the small portions had similar emotional (TDE) profiles as the regular portions (happy, relaxed and peace), whereas the large portions evoked more negative emotional (TDE) profiles compared to the small and regular portions (bored, guilty, disgusted). The implicit measure facial expressions resulted in a less clear picture, except for the dimensions valence and arousal for ice cream. Participants showed more negative facial expressions and were more aroused during consumption of the regular and large (too much) portion as compared to the small portion during consumption of ice cream. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the role of emotions in the consumption experience of food products varying in portion size and will help to identify the ideal size of a food product for inducing a positive emotional response.
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A growing body of consumer research studies emotions evoked by marketing stimuli, products and brands. Yet, there has been a wide divergence in the content and structure of emotions used in these studies. In this paper, we will show that the seemingly diverging research streams can be integrated in a hierarchical consumer emotions model. The superordinate level consists of the frequently encountered general dimensions positive and negative affect. The subordinate level consists of specific emotions, based on Richins' (Richins, Marsha L. Measuring Emotions in the Consumption Experience. J. Consum. Res. 24 (2) (1997) 127–146) Consumption Emotion Set (CES), and as an intermediate level, we propose four negative and four positive basic emotions. We successfully conducted a preliminary test of this second-order model, and compare the superordinate and basic level emotion means for different types of food. The results suggest that basic emotions provide more information about the feelings of the consumer over and above positive and negative affect. D 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Comfort eating, that is eating induced by negative affect, has been a core theme of explanations for overeating and obesity. Psychobiological explanations and processes underlying comfort eating are examined, as well as its prevalence in clinical and nonclinical populations, to consider who may be susceptible, whether certain foods are comforting, and what the implications for treatment may be. Comfort eating may occur in a substantial minority, particularly in women and the obese. Human and animal theories and models of emotional or stress-induced eating show some convergence, and may incorporate genetic predispositions such as impulsivity and reward sensitivity, associated with dopamine dysregulation underlying incentive salience. Comfort eaters show vulnerability to depression, emotional dysregulation and a need to escape negative affect and rumination. During negative affect, they preferentially consume sweet, fatty, energy-dense food, which may confer protection against stress, evidenced by suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response, although activation of the hypothalamic– pituitary–adrenal axis may itself drive appetite for these palatable foods, and the risk of weight gain is increased. Benefits to mood may be transient, but perhaps sufficient to encourage repeated attempts to prolong mood improvement or distract from negative rumination. Cognitive behavioural treatments may be useful, but reliable drug therapy awaits further pharmacogenomic developments.
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Neuroscience research over the past few decades has reached a strong consensus that the amygdala plays a key role in emotion processing. However, many questions remain unanswered, especially concerning emotion perception. Based on mnemonic theories of olfactory perception and in light of the highly associative nature of olfactory cortical processing, here I propose a sensory cortical model of olfactory threat perception (i.e., sensory-cortex-based threat perception): the olfactory cortex stores threat codes as acquired associative representations (AARs) formed via aversive life experiences, thereby enabling encoding of threat cues during sensory processing. Rodent and human research in olfactory aversive conditioning was reviewed, indicating learning-induced plasticity in the amygdala and the olfactory piriform cortex. In addition, as aversive learning becomes consolidated in the amygdala, the associative olfactory (piriform) cortex may undergo (long-term) plastic changes, resulting in modified neural response patterns that underpin threat AARs. This proposal thus brings forward a sensory cortical pathway to threat processing (in addition to amygdala-based processes), potentially accounting for an alternative mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression.
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Ever since William James, psychologists of emotion have tended to view affective states as intrinsically conscious. We argue that nonconscious affect also exists, and focus specifically on the possibility of unconscious "liking". We present evidence that positive and negative affective reactions can be elicited subliminally, while a person is completely unaware of any affective reaction at all (in addition to being unaware of the causal stimulus). Despite the absence of any detectable subjective experience of emotion, subliminally induced unconscious "liking" can influence later consumption behaviour. We suggest that unconscious "liking" is mediated by specific subcortical brain systems, such as the nucleus accumbens and its connections. Ordinarily, conscious liking (feelings of pleasure) results from the interaction of separate brain systems of conscious awareness with those core processes of unconscious affect. But under some conditions, activity in brain systems mediating unconscious core "liking" may become decoupled from conscious awareness. The result is a genuinely unconscious emotion.
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Our senses have developed as an answer to the world we live in (Gibson, 1966) and so have the forms of memory that accompany them. All senses serve different purposes and do so in different ways. In vision, where orientation and object recognition are important, memory is strongly linked to identification. In olfaction, the guardian of vital functions such as breathing and food ingestion, perhaps the most important (and least noticed and researched) role of odor memory is to help us not to notice the well-known odors or flavors in our everyday surroundings, but to react immediately to the unexpected ones. At the same time it provides us with a feeling of safety when our expectancies are met. All this happens without any smelling intention or conscious knowledge of our expectations. Identification by odor naming is not involved in this and people are notoriously bad at it. Odors are usually best identified via the episodic memory of the situation in which they once occurred. Spontaneous conscious odor perception normally only occurs in situations where attention is demanded, either because the inhaled air or the food smell is particularly good or particularly bad and people search for its source or because people want to actively enjoy the healthiness and pleasantness of their surroundings or food. Odor memory is concerned with novelty detection rather than with recollection of odors. In this paper, these points are illustrated with experimental results and their consequences for doing ecologically valid odor memory research are drawn. Furthermore, suggestions for ecologically valid research on everyday odor memory and some illustrative examples are given.
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Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla) could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times), psychological (emotions and mood) and behavioral (food choice) measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P <0.05), shortened response times in young participants (P <0.05), decreased negative emotions (P <0.05), and affected food choice (P <0.05). Exposure to ambient vanilla aroma increased projected introvert emotions (P <0.05). All effects were small relative to estimated effect sizes. Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi-) real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.
Article
This paper sketches a procedure to reduce the failure rate of new food products in the market by providing better pre-launch decision criteria. The method also offers considerable potential for the improvement of internal collaboration between the different departments (marketing, R&D and production) involved in new product development. The procedure is based on a thorough diagnostic analysis of previous flops by a team of people involved in the development of the failed product, led by an impartial expert. This first part discusses the diagnostic questions to be asked and the most frequent causes of flops.
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The addictions model of obesity claims that individuals gain excess weight due to their dependence on and inability to control the intake of certain food substances. The dependence and lack of control over these food substances is undergirded by, according to the addictions model, the psychoactive properties of foods. The article reviews the literature on the purported psychoactive effects of foods and concludes that although, under certain circumstances, some food substances may have subtle effects on mood and behavior, the effects of food are quite different from that of psychoactive drugs such as nicotine and alcohol. Therefore, the food addictions model is unlikely to provide a fruitful paradigm for understanding the complex problem of obesity.
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In an effort to find a simplemethod tomeasure implicit and unconscious emotional effects of food consumption, a number of methods were compared in an experiment in which 3 groups of at least 24 subjects were each exposed to a pair of yoghurts of the same brand and marketed in the same way, but with different flavours or fat content. Themethods used were eye tracking of the packaging, face reading during consumption, a newemotive projection test (EPT) and an autobiographical reaction time test based onmood congruency. In the emotive projection test the subjects rated photographs of others on 6 positive and 6 negative personality traits after having eaten the yoghurt. It showed clear differences in two of the three pairs of yoghurt. The autobiographical congruency test failed to reach significance although all findingswent in the same direction as the ones in the EPT. Liking and familiarity with the products were also measured and the fact that they were not related to the emotional effectswas established. Eye tracking showed effects of familiarity when the measurements before and after consumption of the yoghurts were compared. The results of the face reading test are not reported due to technical difficulties. Although liking itself was not correlated with the emotional effects in the emotive projection test, shifts in liking caused by consumption of the product did, indicating the emotional importance of pleasant surprise or disappointment in the confrontation between the expected and the actual experience of the product. Sensory differences in the fruit flavours had no effects on the emotional reactions, but change in fat content did, while vanilla flavour had a strong positive emotional effect.
Article
This paper sketches a procedure to reduce the failure rate of new food products in the market by providing better pre-launch decision criteria. The method also offers considerable potential for the improvement of internal collaboration between the different departments (marketing, R&D and production) involved in new product development. The procedure is based on a thorough diagnostic analysis of previous flops by a team of people involved in the development of the failed product, led by an impartial expert. This first part discusses the diagnostic questions to be asked and the most frequent causes of flops.
Article
In an effort to find a simple method to measure implicit and unconscious emotional effects of food consumption, a number of methods were compared in an experiment in which 3 groups of at least 24 subjects were each exposed to a pair of yoghurts of the same brand and marketed in the same way, but with different flavours or fat content. The methods used were eye tracking of the packaging, face reading during consumption, a new emotive projection test (EPT) and an autobiographical reaction time test based on mood congruency. In the emotive projection test the subjects rated photographs of others on 6 positive and 6 negative personality traits after having eaten the yoghurt. It showed clear differences in two of the three pairs of yoghurt. The autobiographical congru-ency test failed to reach significance although all findings went in the same direction as the ones in the EPT. Liking and familiarity with the products were also measured and the fact that they were not related to the emotional effects was established. Eye tracking showed effects of familiarity when the measurements before and after consumption of the yoghurts were compared. The results of the face reading test are not reported due to technical difficulties. Although liking itself was not correlated with the emotional effects in the emotive projection test, shifts in liking caused by consumption of the product did, indicating the emotional importance of pleasant surprise or disappointment in the confrontation between the expected and the actual experience of the product. Sensory differences in the fruit flavours had no effects on the emotional reactions, but change in fat content did, while vanilla flavour had a strong positive emotional effect.
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One hundred and fifty-two subjects, divided into eight groups, were exposed to a room with a low concentration of either orange or lavender and to an odorless room. In a careful double-blind procedure, neither the subjects nor the experimenters were made aware of the presence of the odors in the experimental conditions. Later they were asked to indicate how well each of 12 odor stimuli, including the experimental and control odors, befitted each of 12 visual contexts, including the exposure rooms. At the end of this session they rated the pleasantness and the familiarity of the odors, and identified them by name. Finally they were debriefed and asked specifically whether they had perceived the experimental odors anywhere in the building. The results of four subjects who answered positively to the latter question were omitted. The results confirm the earlier finding that non-identifiers implicitly link odor and exposure room, whereas identifiers do not show such a link. It is suggested that episodic information is an essential constituent of olfactory memory and that its function is comparable to that of form and structure in visual and auditory memory systems.
Conference Paper
Consumer-oriented quality is an important issue in the food industry. Consu-mers differ in their sensitivities, in their food habits and in their ways of eating. Even the same individual is a different consumer depending on his age, the roles he plays in life and the situations he encounters. Who then is the consumer and what is the quality he wants ? The life style approaches encoun-te¬red in market research are often gross simplifications. A situational appro-ach, specifying the adequacy of products for different occasions and the frequency and importance of these occasions in the life of different individuals is propo¬sed. To test this approach new and different methods are needed. Résumé La notion d'une qualité qui est orienté par le consommateur est importante dans l'industrie alimentaire. Les consommateurs diffèrent en sensibilité et en habitudes alimentaires. De plus, le même individu est un consommateur différent selon son âge, les rôles qu'il joue dans la vie et les situations dans lesquelles il se trouve. Mais alors, qui est ce consommateur et quelle est la qualité désirée ? Les approches "Style de Vie" des marqueteurs sont souvent des simplifications grossières. On propose une approche "situationnelle", qui spécifie l'adéquati¬on des produits pour différentes occasions et la fréquence et l'importance de ces occasions dans la vie de différents individus. Pour tester cette approche des méthodes nouvelles sont à développer.
Article
Objectives. Two studies examined the cognitive regulation of restrained eaters' eating behaviour. It was hypothesized that restrained dieters should have more restraint-related cognitions in the presence of food stimuli than unrestrained eaters, whereas restrained non-dieters should occupy an intermediate position. The correlation between cognition and consumption should be zero for unrestrained eaters and negative for restrained eaters. Design. Participants currently dieting or not dieting and of high or low restraint status (median split) were presented in Study 1 with high and low calorie food words and asked to list their thoughts. In Study 2, participants listed thoughts following a taste test. In both studies diet and restraint status were related to restraint relevant thoughts. In Study 2 thoughts were also related to actual consumption. Methods. Participants were female students; restraint status was measured with the Restraint Scale; current diet status was assessed with one question. Fifty-two unrestrained eaters, 38 restrained non-dieters and 18 restrained dieters participated in Study 1; 33 unrestrained eaters, 19 restrained non-dieters and 11 restrained dieters participated in Study 2. Results. Food stimuli elicited more eating control, weight- and shape-related thoughts in restrained dieters than in unrestrained eaters, with the restrained non-dieters occupying an intermediate position. Consistent with predictions, the cognition-consumption correlation was zero for unrestrained eaters and negative (trend) for restrained dieters. Contrary to prediction, this correlation was positive for restrained non-dieters. Conclusions. Results show that cognitions play an important role in the regulation of the eating behaviour of restrained individuals. They further suggest that the cognitive regulation of food intake in restrained eaters may be based on different mechanisms in dieters as compared to non-dieters.
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