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An intervention was designed that combined physical activity with learning activities. It was based upon evidence for positive effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on academic achievement. The aim of this study was to describe the program implementation and effects on academic achievement after 1 year. Second- and third-grade classes of 6 elementary schools were included in the study. The intervention group participated in physically active academic lessons and the control group in regular classroom lessons. Implementation measures were obtained and the children were pretested and posttested on mathematics and reading. Teacher observations and self-reports indicated that the lessons were implemented as planned. Classroom observations showed that children's on-task behavior during the lessons was above 70%. On the basis of heart rate measures, on average 64% of the lesson time was spent in MVPA. Posttest mathematics and reading scores of third-grade children who participated in the intervention were significantly higher in comparison with control children. Posttest mathematics scores of second-grade children in the intervention condition were significantly lower in comparison with control children. The intervention program was successfully implemented and the lessons contributed to the academic outcomes of third-grade children. © 2015, American School Health Association.

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... After removal of duplicates and ineligible manuscripts, 11 articles were eligible for inclusion. 22,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] The flow of the search process is summarized in Figure 1. Studies were excluded mainly because they reported on PA breaks without learning, assessed cognitive outcomes/observations such as ''time-on-task'' without the inclusion of academic measures, were crosssectional studies, or were reviews. ...
... Studies were excluded mainly because they reported on PA breaks without learning, assessed cognitive outcomes/observations such as ''time-on-task'' without the inclusion of academic measures, were crosssectional studies, or were reviews. One group reported a quasi-experimental study in 2015 36 with the program repeated as an RCT in 2016. 31 ...
... The quality of the papers ranged from 11 to 24 out of 26, with an average of 17.4. The main limitations concerned blinding of participants 22,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] or researchers, 22,[29][30][31][32][33][35][36][37][38] and reliability of compliance. 29,32,33,35 Refer to Table 1. ...
Article
Background: Despite increased interest in combining learning and physical activity (PA), the academic and PA benefits of active learning are uncertain. Methods: A systematic search of 5 databases for studies combining learning math with PA in primary/elementary schools was conducted. Academic benefit was evaluated by pre-post intervention math scores compared to a control group. Effect sizes (ES) were extracted/calculated when possible. Due to study heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not conducted. Results: Six randomized controlled trials and 5 quasi-experimental studies evaluating 4082 participants (53% girls; mean age 7.5-11.1 years) were eligible. Math scores were significantly better in the intervention group in 6 of 11 studies on at least 1 test (ES: 0.42-4.7; p ≤ .03). Other math tests either were not all statistically significant (2 studies) or the benefit varied across grades (1 study). No studies reported a decline in math scores. Of studies measuring PA with accelerometers, 4 of 5 reported significantly greater PA in the intervention group during the intervention (p < .05) or across the school day (p < .01). Conclusions: Undertaking PA while learning was largely equivocal for math scores but showed promising results for increasing daily PA, without detrimental effects on math performance. The need for more rigorous studies with comprehensive assessment of academic performance and PA is highlighted.
... Memory and processing skills might be influenced when PA is added to mathematics instruction or to the school day. For instance, Mullender-Wijnsma and colleagues [36,37] used repetition and memorization strategies to promote numerical processing speed in their PA intervention study. ...
... The content of the interventions varied greatly. In 11 studies, PA was integrated into mathematics lessons and included curriculum-based mathematics goals [10,36,37,40,54,55,[62][63][64][65][66]. Positive results were reported in 5 (45%) of these 11 studies [36,54,55,62,63]. ...
... Positive results were reported in 5 (45%) of these 11 studies [36,54,55,62,63]. Only one study reported significant negative results [37] for a subgroup of 8-year old children in the first half of the intervention. Two studies reported partly positive and partly neutral results [40,66]. ...
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Background: The benefits of physical activity (PA) on children's health and wellbeing are well established. However, the benefits of PA on academic performance and particularly on mathematics performance warrant systematic analysis. Mathematics is one of the core subjects in school education globally. Methods: We systematically searched, analysed and synthesized the literature on the effects of school-based PA interventions on mathematics performance in children aged 4-16. A total of 29 studies consisting of randomised trials and other interventions with control groups were identified through a systematic search, and 11 of them provided sufficient data and appropriate design for a meta-analysis. Results: Of the 29 studies involving 11,264 participants, positive overall effects of a PA intervention on mathematics performance were found in 13 studies (45%) and neutral overall effects in 15 studies (52%). Only one study reported a significant negative result for a subgroup of children in the first half of the intervention. In a risk-of-bias assessment, 12 studies had low, 17 moderate, and none had a high risk of bias. The meta-analysis of 11 studies suggested an overall small positive effect (ES = 0.23) of the interventions. Only one study in the meta-analysis indicated a negative effect in one of the intervention groups. Conclusions: Adding PA to the school day may enhance children's mathematics performance or has no negative effects on performance. Several types of PA interventions can be recommended to be added to the school day.
... Aadland et al. 12,14 Beck et al. 11 Donnelly et al. 6 Gao et al. 15 Greeff et al. 10 Lind et al. 16 Ma et al. 8 Martin y Murtagh 7 Mullender-Wijnsma et al. 17 Norris et al. 18 Resaland et al. 19,20 Riley et al. 21 Vetter et al. 5 Educación Infantil (0-6 años) 4 Mavildi et al. 1 En cuanto a la duración de las intervenciones, la mayoría tuvieron una duración de entre uno y cinco meses (n=10). ...
... Ardoy et al. 4 Beck et al. 11 Greeff et al. 10 Lind et al. 16 Mullender-Wijnsma et al. 17 Norris et al. 18 Riley et al. 21 Shoval et al. 24 Tarp et al. 25 Vetter el at. 5 6-10 meses 4 Aadland et al. 12,14 Resaland et al. 19,20 >10 meses 2 Donnelly et al. 6 Gao et al. 15 En relación con el tipo de intervención, atendiendo a las categorías establecidas por Watson et al. (2017) que fueron complementadas con el análisis inductivo desarrollado con Atlas.ti, ...
... Ardoy et al. 4 Donnelly et al. 6 Martin y Murtagh 7 Norris et al. 18 Riley et al. 21 Beck et al. 11 (en la intervención con motricidad gruesa) Mavildi et al. 1,22,23 Mullender-Wijnsma et al. 17 Incremento de AFMV 8 ...
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Los objetivos de este estudio fueron conocer en profundidad las características de los programas con clases basadas en actividad física (AF) en la escuela y su influencia sobre los niveles de AF y el desarrollo físico-motriz del alumnado. Para explorar estos objetivos, se desarrolló una revisión sistemática. La búsqueda se realizó en “ISI Web of Knowledge” y “PubMed”, utilizando términos como “physical activity” y “school”. Se establecieron criterios de inclusión y se seleccionaron 21 artículos. Los documentos fueron analizados de forma cualitativa empleando Atlas.ti y Excel. Los resultados recogen cinco tipos de programas con clases basadas en AF. Diez de los estudios obtuvieron una incidencia positiva en los niveles de AF, así como en cuatro investigaciones se mejoró la condición física del alumnado del grupo de intervención. No obstante, es necesario profundizar en el problema, pues estas clases pueden ser una herramienta para la promoción de salud en los escolares.
... Existing literature emphasizes the positive effects of PA on children's motor development [7], physical fitness [8], cognition, attention, learning [9,10], academic achievement [11][12][13], and mental health [8]. Unfortunately, PA levels are decreasing for children while childhood health problems rise [14]. ...
... Present literature support school-based PA interventions as an effective strategy for improving health outcomes [22] and academic achievement [13,16]. Positive effects are also noted in terms of brain function [11], maintaining student attention [12], and increased PA in school settings [23]. ...
... Active breaks during school are effective at improving children's cognitive function [12,15], academic achievement [11,13], and classroom behavior [24]. Teachers employing such learning strategies prefer activity breaks that are quick and easy to manage, academically oriented, and enjoyable for students [25]. ...
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Classroom-based physical activity (PA) interventions have received considerable attention due to improvements seen in academic achievement, classroom behaviors, and attitude toward PA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Brain Breaks® Physical Activity Solutions in changing children’s attitudes toward PA. Students (N = 3036) aged 8–11 years from schools in Croatia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia, South Africa, and Turkey were randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental group. The experimental group received Brain Breaks® videos during classroom sessions throughout the four months of intervention. Student attitudes toward PA were measured using the Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale (APAS) before and after the intervention. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a time interaction effect for all APAS variables except fitness. Time-by-group interaction effects with different effect sizes were found for most APAS variables, with the greatest gain effect noted in the experimental group for self-efficacy, followed by learning from the videos concerning PA benefits, exercise importance, and enjoyment from engaging in PA. This study provides evidence supporting Brain Breaks® in terms of learning experience, attitudes towards PA, and personal motivation. Using exercise videos is recommended as an interactive, technology-based PA solution that can be easily integrated into the school setting.
... De manera general, se observa como la AF influye de manera positiva en la mayoría de los casos n = 23 [4], [5] [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26]. En los resultados de estas intervenciones los efectos positivos no siempre existían en todas las pruebas de evaluación, sino que en algunos de ellos solo afectaba de forma positiva en algunas de las asignaturas medidas o pruebas realizadas. ...
... Estos artículos se encuentran rebatidos por otros en los que no se aprecia esta influencia de forma tan evidente, no obteniendo resultados significativos [28], [30]. El otro tipo de intervenciones llevadas a cabo en mayor medida, junto con las mencionadas en el párrafo anterior, son aquellas que proponen descansos activos o clases más activas [4], [11], [14], [21], [22]. Estas intervenciones, al igual que las anteriores, aumentan el tiempo total que el alumno se encuentra activo a lo largo de la jornada escolar, obteniendo los mismos resultados positivos tanto en el RA como en el DC. ...
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Los datos reflejados en diferentes informes educativos reflejan los bajos resultados académicos de los alumnos españoles, mostrándose como un aspecto social preocupante. Una forma de actuar sobre esto podría ser a través de intervenciones de actividad física desde la escuela, aumentando el tiempo de actividad física semanal de los menores. Esto se encuentra relacionado con el efecto positivo que podría tener la actividad física sobre el rendimiento académico y el desarrollo cognitivo, por lo que se ha llevado a cabo una revisión de los estudios existentes sobre el tema en cuestión, con el objetivo de determinar si la actividad física tiene algún tipo de influencia sobre el rendimiento académico y el desarrollo cognitivo en menores. Además, en caso de que exista dicha relación, se buscará identificar el tipo de intervención más efectivo para generar dichas mejoras. Para ello se ha realizado una búsqueda en 5 bases de datos de estudios dirigidos desde la escuela con una población comprendida entre la etapa de primaria y secundaria. Finalmente, se observan mejoras en estas variables gracias a las intervenciones realizadas, siendo las más efectivas aquellas que aumentan el tiempo de actividad física a través de las sesiones de Educación Física o bien la realización de descansos activos.
... As far as the duration of the various studies is concerned, they range from three years (Donnelly et al., 2009) to a few days (Vazou & Smiley-Oyen, 2014). Most of the research lasted between three (Elofsson et al., 2018) and twenty-one weeks (Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015). ...
... Considering the structure of the experiments, we can divide the studies into two categories. One comprises protocols in which a disciplinary integration between physical activity and mathematics is carried out through lessons that have a higher or lower frequency during the school week (Duijzer et al., 2019;Vazou & Skrade, 2017;Mullender -Wijnsma et al., 2015;Elofsson et al., 2018;Riley et al., 2015;Have et al., 2018). ...
... No obstante, a pesar de esbozarse una tendencia positiva, los resultados de algunas investigaciones siguen arrojando ciertas incógnitas con respecto a la efectividad de estos programas sobre el rendimiento académico, la cognición y los niveles de AF. Por un lado, ciertos estudios informaron de progresos en el aprendizaje de ciencias (Mavilidi, Okely, Chandler y Paas, 2017), matemáticas (Mavilidi et al., 2018), lengua materna (Mullender, Hartman, de Greeff, Bosker y Doolaard, 2015) y extranjera (Mavilidi, Okely, Chandler, Cliff y Paas, 2015;Toumpaniari, Loyens, Mavilidi y Paas, 2015), así como la consecución de beneficios cognitivos, como la reducción de comportamientos de desconcentración (Ma, Le y Gurd, 2014) o la mejora de la atención (Lind, Geertsen, Ørntoft, Madsen, Larsen, Dvorak, Ritz y Krustrup, 2018), y físicos, como el incremento de los niveles de AF (Martin y Murtagh, 2015;Mullender et al., 2015). En contraposición, ciertos estudios no evidenciaron cambios significativos sobre el rendimiento académico (Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams y Stamatakis, 2015), la cognición (Tarp, Domazet, Froberg, Hillman, Andersen y Bugge, 2016) o los niveles de AF (Aadland, Aadland, Andersen, Lervåg, Moe, Resaland y Ommundsen, 2018;Tarp et al., 2016). ...
... No obstante, a pesar de esbozarse una tendencia positiva, los resultados de algunas investigaciones siguen arrojando ciertas incógnitas con respecto a la efectividad de estos programas sobre el rendimiento académico, la cognición y los niveles de AF. Por un lado, ciertos estudios informaron de progresos en el aprendizaje de ciencias (Mavilidi, Okely, Chandler y Paas, 2017), matemáticas (Mavilidi et al., 2018), lengua materna (Mullender, Hartman, de Greeff, Bosker y Doolaard, 2015) y extranjera (Mavilidi, Okely, Chandler, Cliff y Paas, 2015;Toumpaniari, Loyens, Mavilidi y Paas, 2015), así como la consecución de beneficios cognitivos, como la reducción de comportamientos de desconcentración (Ma, Le y Gurd, 2014) o la mejora de la atención (Lind, Geertsen, Ørntoft, Madsen, Larsen, Dvorak, Ritz y Krustrup, 2018), y físicos, como el incremento de los niveles de AF (Martin y Murtagh, 2015;Mullender et al., 2015). En contraposición, ciertos estudios no evidenciaron cambios significativos sobre el rendimiento académico (Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams y Stamatakis, 2015), la cognición (Tarp, Domazet, Froberg, Hillman, Andersen y Bugge, 2016) o los niveles de AF (Aadland, Aadland, Andersen, Lervåg, Moe, Resaland y Ommundsen, 2018;Tarp et al., 2016). ...
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INTRODUCCIÓN: las clases basadas en actividad física (AF) surgieron como una estrategia para incrementar los niveles de AF, el aprendizaje y el desarrollo del alumnado en la escuela. La investigación sobre la efectividad de estos programas mantiene ciertas incógnitas, por lo que este trabajo busca conocer en profundidad las creencias de los implicados como factor que puede influir en los resultados de estas intervenciones. MÉTODO: se desarrolló una revisión sistemática sobre doce estudios con una metodología cualitativa. Estos fueron seleccionados tras una búsqueda en Web of Science y PubMed usando criterios de elegibilidad. Se aplicó un análisis de contenido con procedimientos inductivos, apoyado en el modelo “Grounded Theory” usando Atlas.ti. Este se complementó con un análisis de las características principales de los estudios en Excel. RESULTADOS: las creencias mayoritariamente manifestadas en las investigaciones fueron relativas a la aceptación y rechazo de las clases basadas en AF y a los beneficios y perjuicios percibidos por profesorado y alumnado. Los resultados informaron de una visión positiva del profesorado y alumnado, que expresaron satisfacción e interés en las clases basadas en AF, así como percibieron diversos beneficios derivados de la implementación de estas clases. No obstante, se recogió cierta controversia y se enumeraron algunas dificultades, como la formación y organización de recursos, para la inclusión de estas clases. DISCUSIÓN: se discuten las diferencias encontradas con las creencias, mayoritariamente negativas, manifestadas en otros estudios sobre promoción de AF en la escuela, así como la efectividad de las intervenciones de los estudios seleccionados. Estas diferencias pueden deberse a que en los estudios de esta revisión se formó previamente al profesorado participante o las clases fueron responsabilidad del equipo investigador. Futuros estudios deben profundizar sobre las creencias del profesorado y el alumnado y cómo estas se relacionan con la efectividad de las clases basadas en AF.
... De fysiske aktiviteter, der integreres i undervisningen, defineres generelt ved "any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level" (Mavilidi et al., 2018, s. 2). I studierne har man undersøgt, hvordan fysisk aktivitet som fx løb på løbebånd, step og boldøvelser bidrager til at optimere kognitive processer og forbedre elevernes akademiske praestationer (Budde, Voelcker-Rehage, Pietraßyk-Kendziorra, Ribeiro, & Tidow, 2008;Hillman et al., 2009;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015). Studierne i denne forskningstradition fokuserer isaer på, hvordan fysisk aktivitet, der øger pulsen eller involverer koordination, forbedrer kognitive processer og hjernestrukturer (Pesce, Crova, Cereatti, Casella & Bellucio, 2009;Tomporowski, Mccullick, Pendleton & Pesce, 2015). ...
... Praksissen er informeret af studier, der udspringer af exercise and cognition research, og det medfører, at de fysiske aktiviteter i undervisningen sigter på at fremme fx eksekutive funktioner gennem høj intensitet. Samtidig bliver de fysiske aktiviteter kombineret med fagligt arbejde i et forsøg på at gøre dem til en integreret del af undervisningen (Beck et al., 2016;Have et al., 2016;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015). ...
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Indførelsen af kravet om 45 minutters daglig motion og bevægelse i folkeskolen har forandret lærernes undervisningspraksis. I dette kvalitative interviewstudie undersøger vi, hvilke didaktiske overvejelser lærere gør sig, når de integrerer bevægelse i deres undervisning. Undersøgelsen sigter på at nuancere forståelsen af og beskrive mulighederne i at integrere motion og bevægelse i undervisningen i folkeskolen. Studiets interviews peger på, at lærerne opfatter bevægelse som kropslige handlinger, der bidrager til indsigt i det faglige indhold frem for som fysiske aktiviteter, der fremmer eksekutive funktioner. Ifølge lærerne skal bevægelse i undervisningen give sansemotoriske, sociale og følelsesmæssige erfaringer, der bidrager til elevernes læring på en måde, som traditionel tavleundervisning ikke gør. Det er derfor lærernes didaktiske overvejelser om faglige mål og elevernes læring, der former bevægelsesaktiviteterne, og disse integreres således i lærernes fagdidaktik. Lærerne giver imidlertid udtryk for, at det er udfordrende at identificere berøringsflader mellem bevægelse og fagligt indhold. Ifølge lærerne øger bevægelsesaktiviteterne elevernes kropslige interaktion, hvilket gør undervisningen mere levende og engagerer eleverne. Det kan forstyrre undervisningen, men interviewene viser, at en handlingsorienteret bevægelsespraksis har potentiale til at skabe balance mellem bevægelsens vitalitet og den faglige styring.
... Both cross-sectional studies and repeated measures studies were methodologically assessed through the modified Down and Black scale providing an adequate assessment of the articles based on the scale scores. Finally, 13 papers (46.42%) were interventional studies (Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015;Käll et al., 2014;Erwin et al., 2012;Hillman et al., 2014;Fisher et al., 2011;Kamijo et al., 2011;Ou et al., 2016;de Greeff et al., 2016;Sardinha et al., 2016;Kvalø et al. 2017;Lind et al., 2018;Chaddock-Heyman et al., 2020;Layne et al., 2021) . These articles were assessed through the PEDro scales obtaining an evaluation of Good Quality or Excellent Quality. ...
... The result of this intervention was positive regarding the national goals. On the other hand, active lessons of MVPA in the classroom for several weeks improved the AP and EF of students due to the fact that they exercise not only the body but also the cognitive processes reflected in the AP (Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015;Erwin et al., 2012;Layne et al., 2021). Hillman et al. (2009) showed that an intervention over 9 months where children do short periods of moderateintense aerobic exercise can improve cognitive control and attention. ...
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This systematic review sought to investigate the influence of physical activity and physical fitness on cognitive functions and academic performance. Studies were identified in four databases from January 2010 through January 2021. A total of 26 studies were selected after meeting the established criteria. Nine studies showed an association between physical activity and physical fitness variables and academic performance. Cardiorespiratory fitness, speed-agility, motor coordination, and perceptual-motor skill had the strongest association with executive function, including attention, memory, inhibition and shifting in 17 studies. High levels of physical activity and physical fitness are associated with higher academic performance and executive function. More hours of Physical Education are needed to more effectively develop the cognitive aspects and physical fitness of children in elementary school. Resumen Esta revisión sistemática buscó investigar la influencia de la actividad física y la aptitud física en las funciones cognitivas y el rendimiento académico. Los estudios se identificaron en cuatro bases de datos desde enero de 2010 hasta enero de 2021. Se seleccionaron un total de 26 estudios después de cumplir con los criterios establecidos. Nueve estudios mostraron una asociación entre la actividad física y las variables de aptitud física y el rendimiento académico. La aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, la velocidad-agilidad, la coordinación motora y la habilidad perceptivo-motora tuvieron la asociación más fuerte con la función ejecutiva, incluida la atención, la memoria, la inhibición y el cambio en 17 estudios. Los altos niveles de actividad física y aptitud física están asociados con un mayor rendimiento académico y función ejecutiva. Se necesitan más horas de Educación Física para desarrollar de manera más efectiva los aspectos cognitivos y la aptitud física de los niños en la escuela primaria.
... In addition, the school environment might also be adapted, for example by giving children more room in the third grade to move around. It has been shown that that physical activity can positively affect important brain areas, which might lead to increases in working memory, planning skills, and cognitive control in the short and long term (Davis et al., 2011;Hillman et al., 2009;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015). A recent intervention in third-grade children, including physically active academic lessons, showed an increase in mathematics and reading scores of children who participated in the intervention compared to children in a control group who received regular lessons (Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015). ...
... It has been shown that that physical activity can positively affect important brain areas, which might lead to increases in working memory, planning skills, and cognitive control in the short and long term (Davis et al., 2011;Hillman et al., 2009;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015). A recent intervention in third-grade children, including physically active academic lessons, showed an increase in mathematics and reading scores of children who participated in the intervention compared to children in a control group who received regular lessons (Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015). These physically active academic lessons might be especially effective for children scoring low on inhibitory control. ...
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In a previous study, we examined hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in children when first entering elementary school (at 4 years). In this follow-up study we examined their HCC when they entered third grade (at 6 years), where the more playful first grades proceed into a more formal learning setting. Participants were 30 six-year-old children (14 boys). Hair samples (≥ 5 cm) were collected two months after the summer holidays. Hair analysis was conducted using two 2-cm long segments, reflecting the first two months of school attendance in grade 3 (the scalp-near segment), and two months prior to the start in grade 3. Between these two sections, we left a gap of 1 cm to avoid overlap of periods (due to differences in hair growth rate). Children showed a significant increase in cortisol levels when they entered third grade. This increase was not associated with social fearfulness or academic achievement, but did show significant associations with inhibitory control: children with less inhibitory control had higher cortisol levels after entering third grade, and larger increases in cortisol than children with higher scores on inhibitory control. This suggests that the ability to inhibit or control impulsive responsivity is important for children’s stress regulation when making the transition to a more formal school environment.
... The present study provides unique evidence for the benefits of high-intensity activity for classroom engagement, as the majority of previous studies have utilised physical activity of moderate intensity (Bartholomew et al. 2018;Grieco et al. 2009;Mahar et al. 2006;Mavilidi et al. 2020;Mullender-Wijnsma et al. 2015;Riley et al. 2016;Stewart et al. 2019;Szabo-Reed et al. 2017). For example, teachers in the EASY intervention were provided with training and support to deliver physically active mathematics lessons of moderate intensity over a 6-week period (Riley et al 2016). ...
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Despite well-established benefits, the majority of young people around the globe are not sufficiently active. In many countries, including Australia, physical activity (i.e. physical education and school sport) is not mandatory in the final two years of high school (i.e. senior school years). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a time-efficient physical activity intervention on senior school students’ on-task behaviour and subjective vitality. This was a sub-study of the Burn 2 Learn (B2L) cluster randomised controlled trial, which included two cohorts. Participants for this sub-study (N = 221) were from 10 secondary schools (23 classes) located in New South Wales, Australia (Cohort 2). Teachers allocated to the B2L intervention group were provided with training, resources and support to facilitate the delivery of two high-intensity activity breaks per week during lesson time for five weeks. A wait-list control was used as comparison group. On-task behaviour was assessed at baseline and post-test, using a momentary time sampling procedure and expressed as a percentage of lesson time. At post-test, subjective vitality was assessed at the start and end of the lesson using a validated questionnaire. Significant group-by-time effects were observed for students’ on-task behaviour in favour of the B2L group [adjusted mean difference = 19.3% of lesson time (95% CI, 0.8 to 37.8), p = 0.042, d = 0.43]. At post-test, significant group-by-time effects were observed for students’ subjective vitality favouring the B2L group [adjusted mean difference = 0.67 units (95% CI, 0.3 to 1.0), p < 0.001, d = 0.36]. The B2L intervention was successful in improving senior school students’ on-task behaviour and their subjective vitality. These findings highlight the potential academic benefits of re-allocating curriculum time to physical activity during the senior school years.
... Research has shown that an intensive exercise program for overweight children has a positive effect on mathematics performance and planning skills and increases activity in the prefrontal cortex, which plays an important role in cognitive control [12]. Physically active academic lessons have been shown to improve the academic performance of third-grade children [45]. The educational benefits of physical activity can be derived from brain-based learning theory. ...
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Currently, there is great interest in the correlation between children’s physical activity and their academic performance. In this study, a pre-test/mid-test/post-test experimental strategy was used to avoid any disruption of educational activities, due to the random selection of children in each group. The experimental group was tested for eight months. We developed a methodology for innovative physical education classes and created a model of educational factors that encourage physical activity for children. The experimental group comprised 45 girls and 44 boys aged 6–7 years. The control group included 43 girls and 46 boys aged 6–7. Methods: Mathematical diagnostic progress tests were divided into two sections: tasks were allocated according to performance levels and the content as well as fields of activity and cognitive skills. The assessment of all areas of activity was based on student performance (unsatisfactory, satisfactory, basic, and advanced). Distribution of mathematical learning achievements by curriculum content: mathematical diagnosis was used to evaluate first-grade children’s mathematical knowledge and skills according to the five areas of the mathematics education curriculum: numbers and calculations; phenomena, equations, and inequalities; geometry, measures, and measurements; statistics and communication; and general problem-solving skills. The differences between the pre-test and mid-test results indicated that the number of children performing at a satisfactory level decreased (p = 0.035). The differences between the pre-test and post-test advanced (p = 0.038) and basic (p = 0.018) levels were found to be increased. Applying an innovative physical education program to first graders demonstrated a higher-level mathematics program in the areas of geometry, measures, and measurements; statistics; and communication and general problem-solving skills. Based on the interface between an innovative primary school physical education program and mathematics learning achievements, a research tool was developed that can be used in a quantitative research strategy.
... Most multicomponent interventions suffered in improving students' academic performance [13,[16][17][18][19], although studies that trained teachers to incorporate physical activity in their lessons (i.e., mathematics or language) showed encouraging effects on academic performance [30,31]. School-based interventions that both increased the time in the PE classes and enhanced PE classes by either training PE teachers or by specialised professionals showed conflicting results [10,[12][13][14]16]. ...
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Background: We investigated the effects of three different interventions on academic performance in students enrolled in the first year of high school. Methods: This was a cluster randomised controlled trial conducted with 1200 students enrolled in the first year of high school. Schools were randomly assigned to: 1. Doubling physical education (PE) classes (3:20 h of PE/week); 2. workshop with the PE teachers; 3. workshop with the PE teachers and doubling the PE classes; and 4. control group (1:40 h of PE/week). We assured that the schools within the groups were equal regarding: The structural condition of the sports court; number of PE teachers; number of school classes; and the average number of students per classroom. Results: Overall, the intervention was not effective in improving the students' academic performance. However, the subgroup analysis showed that the workshop intervention group increased the academic performance of students who had failed an academic year (from 16 years of age), compared to their peers in the doubling the PE classes (1.3 points on average) and the control groups (1.4 points on average). Conclusions: Enhancing the pedagogical skills of the teachers is a promising approach in improving the academic performance of students who failed an academic year.
... The final review included 42 studies (figure 2), reporting the results of 38 trials, where four studies reported findings from the 'Fit en Vaardig op school' trial [40][41][42][43] and two studies reported findings from the 'A+PAAC' trial. 39 44 online supplementary file 1 provides an overview of each study. ...
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Objective: This review provides the first meta-analysis of the effects of physically active lessons on lesson-time and overall physical activity (PA), as well as health, cognition and educational outcomes. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Six meta-analyses pooled effects on lesson-time PA, overall PA, in-class educational and overall educational outcomes, cognition and health outcomes. Meta-analyses were conducted using the metafor package in R. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool for risk of bias. Data sources: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC and Web of Science, grey literature and reference lists were searched in December 2017 and April 2019. Studies eligibility criteria: Physically active lessons compared to a control group in a randomised or non-randomised design, within single component interventions in general school populations. Results: 42 studies (39 in preschool or elementary school settings, 27 randomised controlled trials) were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review and 37 of them were included across the six meta-analyses (n=12,663). Physically active lessons were found to produce large, significant increases in lesson-time PA (d=2.33; 95%CI 1.42, 3.25: k=16) and small, significant effects on overall PA (d= 0.32, 95%CI 0.18, 0.46: k=8). A large, significant effect was shown on lesson-time educational outcomes (d=0.81; 95%CI 0.47, 1.14: k=7) and a small, significant effect on overall educational outcomes (d=0.36, 95%CI [0.09, 0.63], k=25). No effects were seen on cognitive (k=3) or health outcomes (k=3). 25/42 studies had high risk of bias in at least 2 domains. Conclusion: In elementary and preschool settings, when physically active lessons were added into the curriculum they had a positive impact on both physical activity and educational outcomes. These findings support policy initiatives encouraging the incorporation of physically active lessons into teaching in elementary and preschool settings.
... Based on a general agreement among researchers, the quality of life consists of objective factors (mental functions put more emphasis on life satisfaction, while objective factors focus on material needs and participation in interpersonal activities and relationships). Several factors such as age, culture, sex, education, class status, illness, social environment and, in general, behavioral factors, occupation, and resources of adjustment affect an individual's quality of life [16]. The degree of individuals' flexibility is among the factors affecting the quality of life. ...
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Introduction: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is one of the methods of improving the quality of life and enhancing psychosocial flexibility in students with learning disorders. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ACT on the quality of life and psychological flexibility of female junior high school students with learning disorders in Sari, Iran. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study used a Pre-test-Post-test design with a control group. The statistical population consisted of all female junior high school students in Sari. A total of 60 individuals were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The intervention was performed for the experimental group. The 36-item short form health survey and cognitive flexibility inventory were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance, using SPSS version 21. Results: The ACT had significant effects on the psychosocial flexibility and quality of life of female junior high school students with learning disorders (P
... An example of physical activity during the school day is incorporating short bouts of movement integration during normal classroom time in general education classrooms [4]. Benefits of movement integration are well documented: positive impact on childhood cognition and brain health [5], enhanced focus and time-on-task during classroom instruction [6][7][8][9], and improved test scores [10,11]. In Europe and Africa, there is evidence supporting the use of classroom-based physical activity to promote learning experiences, attitudes towards physical activity, and personal motivation in elementary-aged students from schools in Croatia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia, South Africa, and Turkey [12]. ...
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Considering the limited field experience offered for preservice teachers to competently prepare them to implement the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) in schools, the purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of preservice and in-service teachers participating in a CSPAP infusion curriculum within a physical education teacher education program. Fourteen preservice teachers enrolled in an elementary physical education course implemented four CSPAP projects in four elementary schools as part of coursework. At the end of the project, the preservice teachers participated in focus group discussions and submitted self-reflection papers, while four in-service teachers who partnered in the program participated in interviews. Guided by Self-Determination Theory, results indicated that the preservice teachers developed competency and experienced autonomy in CSPAP implementation during field experiences. Furthermore, they felt a sense of relatedness with the teachers, classmates, and children throughout the program. Support for future implementation is spurred through the school community. In view of the increasing need for preservice teachers to be equipped with the skills to implement CSPAPs, infusing a CSPAP curriculum within a physical education course is viable to facilitate intrinsic motivation among preservice teachers to implement physical activity programs in the future.
... Not the least of these are the findings that learners can change the way they think, feel and behave simply by changing posture and breathing (Claxton 2015), and arithmetic is easier if students use external aids, such as a pencil and paper, chalkboard, and, of course, a calculator (Sloman and Fernbach 2017). The mounting evidence of the beneficial effects of integrating movement and physical activity into otherwise sedentary classrooms subjects is also supportive of these ideas (Mullender-Wijnsma et al. 2015), although physiological and motivational effects on the brain undoubtedly contribute, too ). One study found that performance on intelligence tests significantly correlated with the depth of normal (un-self-conscious) breathing (Tan et al. 2003). ...
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It seems reasonable to suppose that educational practices should be informed by philosophical and scientific understandings of the character and operation of mental processes. Clark and Chambers’ 1998 ‘The Extended Mind’ is a seminal paper in the philosophy of mind, but has received limited attention by educational researchers. Their Extended Mind Theory (EMT) provocatively claims that the assumption the mind is restricted to the head is unjustified, and that objects in the environment can function as parts of the mind. Clark and Chamber wrote that the human organism can be “linked with an external entity in a two-way interaction, creating a coupled system that can be seen as a cognitive system in its own right”. So, EMT challenges the assumption that the demarcation of skin and skull determines the boundaries of cognition, and demands a radical rethink of the nature of learning. This paper introduces and critiques EMT, initially by way of a discussion of embodiment, an intermediate step in the argument towards extension. It highlights inconsistencies in Clark and Chambers’ account, but concludes that the concept of a mind that extends into and interacts with its body and environment is both plausible and helpful.
... Schools are not seeing the student gains sought by education reforms. Researchers and practitioners know that purposeful play is aligned with recent neuroeducation findings about the effects of poverty on developing minds and can reduce stress, build critical social-emotional skills, and better support our most fragile learners academically (i.e., Armin et al., 2017;Barros et al., 2009;Blom et al., 2011;Cremin et al., 2015;Fisher, 1992;Fisher et al., 2010;Hassinger-Das et al., 2016;James-Burdumy et al., 2013;Jarrett, 2002;Lillard et al., 2012;Massey et al., 2017;McArdle et al., 2013;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015;Nolan et al., 2014;Pellegrini, 2013;Ranz-Smith, 2007;Russo, 2013;Sandberg & Heden, 2011;White, 2013). Early childhood (EC) educators must demand a shift to purposeful play based on recent neuroscientific findings, the connections to poverty-linked deficits, and play's promise to boost school readiness and academic achievement. ...
Article
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The amount of intentional, instructional, purposeful play has decreased in primary grades, and didactic, test-driven instruction has increased. Emerging neuroscientific evidence is beginning to highlight the significant effects the toxic stress from poverty has on developing brains. Almost half of American children can be considered to come from low-income to high-poverty households. Purposeful play may be the best solution to help ensure an equal and equitable educational playing field. This reflection establishes a research-based rationale for a more play-based pedagogy in primary grades and posits how striking balance between purposeful play and rigorous educational expectations is key to better developmental outcomes.
... Physical activities like marching, jogging and hopping were integrated into classrooms and combined with academic work. The researchers measured significantly higher academic performance in the intervention group than in the control group (Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015). The pedagogical implications of formal Bildung are physical activities such as marching and jumping, which are disconnected from the usual educative practice in schools. ...
Article
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Movement integration (MI) has become a significant part of contemporary educational policy; it implies that teachers of any school subject are responsible for organizing movement activities that are of educative value. In this paper, we use Wolfgang Klafki’s Bildung theoretical analysis to examine contemporary approaches to MI and clarify dominant theoretical and didactic ways of working with MI. We aim to suggest a new understanding of MI by applying Klafki’s conception of categorial Bildung. We argue that it enables educators to emphasize the educative and existential potential of the embodied, social and emotional involvement with the academic content. Our analyses illustrates the thorough didactic consideration needed to transform an educational policy into real-world education.
... Indeed, students were more focused and on task in classroom instruction after participation in MI programs (Carlson et al., 2015;Goh, Hannon, Webster, Podlog, & Newton, 2016;Grieco, Jowers, & Bartholomew, 2009;Mahar et al., 2006). Academically, students' test scores improved upon engagement in MI programs (Donnelly & Lambourne, 2011;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015), as well as their conceptual learning and memorization skills (Gibson et al., 2008). Integrating PA with mathematics has also been shown to improve students' attitudes toward the subject (Riley, Lubans, Holmes, & Morgan, 2016). ...
Article
Purpose : Physical education teacher education programs prepare preservice teachers to lead Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Through the coordination of a university’s physical education teacher education program and an elementary school, the purpose of this study was to examine preservice and in-service teachers’ perspectives in implementing a 6-week movement integration program. Method : A total of 12 preservice teachers participated in a weekly online discussion forum as part of a community of practice. In addition, the preservice teachers and three in-service teachers participated in an interview. Data were analyzed for themes. Results : The themes were facilitating implementation through support, sharing ideas for common practice, and overcoming challenges in implementation. Support received by the preservice teachers facilitated the implementation of the program. They also shared strategies to overcome implementation challenges through the weekly online discussions. Discussion/Conclusion : Fostering communities of practice among preservice teachers prepares them for collaboration and movement integration implementation in the future.
... Esteban-Cornejo, Tejero-Gonzalez, Sallis, & Veiga, 2015;Rasberry et al., 2011). The positive correlation pertains both to the integration of additional weekly physical education classes (Ericsson & Karlsson, 2014;Ericsson & Karlsson, 2011), the integration of movement into subject teaching and learning (Mullender et al., 2015;Nielsen, 2016), and the implementation of exercise-breaks during teaching (Howie, Schatz, & Pate, 2015). Despite these findings, there are also studies that have not been able to show a positive correlation between PA and academic performance, and the results are therefore still considered ambiguous, although no studies show a negative correlation. ...
Thesis
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In Denmark, there has been a growing interest both publicly and politically in the benefits of physical activity on learning. In 2014, this interest was manifested in an act mandating schools to ensure an average of 45 minutes of exercise and movement per day. This includes being physically active outside of dedicated physical education classes, including in subjects like science. Most research concerning the benefits of movement for learning has conceptualized movement as physical activity and studied the effects of moving more in relation to measurable psychosocial and cognitive effects. Little is known about the pedagogical implications of the mandate, and how the integration of movement becomes meaningful within subjects that are not physical education. Few studies indicate that upper primary can be a segment of schooling particularly difficult to integrate movement into, identifying students’ experiences and feelings about being physical as a challenge. The main focus of this dissertation is thus the students’ subjective experiences about being physically active in upper primary science education. The dissertation is hereby also a contribution to a field that we have limited knowledge of. In this article-based dissertation, I explore what it means to integrate physical activity into a Year 8 physics class. I chose to focus on science education, as this has been identified as a school subject that has a history and culture of separating body and mind. An embodied science education pedagogy would require that learners and teachers consider new types of approaches to integrate and work with bodily experiences. French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty, American pragmatist Richard Shusterman, and Canadian sociologist Erving Goffman inspire the study’s theoretical framework. The aim is to explore how movement is conceptualized, how it can be made part of an embodied pedagogy, and how this kind of pedagogy is experienced. This research focus therefore foregrounds the voices of both teachers and students. The dissertation is a videographic study (ethnographic research utilizing video data) and followed, in particular, a science unit about light and sound and a double lesson on ions. In addition, teachers were interviewed. In my analysis, I have focused on two aspects: 1) how students experience an embodied pedagogy in science; and 2) how teachers can work with an embodied pedagogy in science education. In addition to the analysis of the empirical data, I also posed a methodological question, since the examination of embodiment in science education is a complex endeavor. As such, this study also examined: 3) how an embodied pedagogy in science education can be researched. The findings from the investigation show that teachers may plan for certain movement to afford particular embodied experiences, yet these intentions can be challenging to realize in the science classroom. First, students usually experience embodied learning as tacit content; that is, embodied knowledge that cannot be easily transformed into (scientific) language. As such, embodied pedagogy in science education can present difficulties in connecting embodied with verbalized ways of knowing. Second, utilizing an embodied pedagogy in science education also challenged students’ notions about how to learn in science. In some cases, this was a welcome break, but for others, embodied learning seemed irrelevant and disorganized. Third, anticipating or engaging in physical activities are emotional experiences where students have to decide how much risk is associated with being physically active in front of others. Fourth, the traditional context for being physically active at school – physical education or sport class – shapes students’ emotional expectations. These experiences carry ideals of performativity that are transferred into the context of the science activities, and thus influence how this engagement is interpreted. This study also revealed that science education holds many opportunities for including an embodied pedagogy, and that the body can be utilized in diverse ways to learn science ideas and provide embodied experiences of scientific phenomena. Utilizing an embodied pedagogy provides new ways of exploration and shifts perspectives on where and how science can be explored beyond the confines of the classroom. This study identified four aspects that stood out as central to how teachers can develop an embodied pedagogy in science education. First, by identifying an embodied pedagogy that is more than including movement into teaching and learning. It involves careful consideration about the embodied experiences that can be experienced and created. Second, an embodied pedagogy needs to consider that people experience the world through their body in different ways, and this makes it very difficult to plan for the same kind of embodied learning experiences. An embodied pedagogy approach will need to find opportunities to talk about these different experiences and what value they add. Third, an embodied pedagogy will require that teachers and students relearn how to learn through their whole body and what it adds to their experiences. Fourth, teachers need to integrate these aspects into their planning, so they are better prepared to implement this into their everyday teaching and are prepared to explain this to their students since this is not necessarily how students have been taught to learn in science. Finally, this study demonstrated how an embodied pedagogy can be researched through adopting a theoretical framework that sheds light on the inherently embodied and social condition of perception and action. Yet, while a theoretical framework allows close examination of embodied meaning-making, actually capturing such situations is not without difficulty. It is challenging because such deeply personalized and contextualized meanings can be hard to access, and potentially involve sensitive situations. The study found that video observations were an invaluable data since videos captured situated embodied processes. Video recordings had to be supplemented with the emic perspectives of the observed students to better interpret and, where needed, adjust researcher interpretations and validate findings. Overall, the findings suggest that the embodied identities of students should be given much more attention to identify how the integration of movement into teaching and learning can be achieved. Recognizing the integration of movement is about more than ‘just’ making students move. It involves considerations of the subjective experiences of those involved and understanding that this impacts on what is taught and learned. An embodied pedagogy in science education could help in devising more body-sensitive policies and teaching strategies that create opportunities for all students to enjoy the affordances of including the body into teaching and learning.
... Not the least of these are the findings that learners can change the way they think, feel and behave simply by changing posture and breathing (Claxton 2015), and arithmetic is easier if students use external aids, such as a pencil and paper, chalkboard, and, of course, a calculator (Sloman and Fernbach 2017). The mounting evidence of the beneficial effects of integrating movement and physical activity into otherwise sedentary classrooms subjects is also supportive of these ideas (Mullender-Wijnsma et al. 2015), although physiological and motivational effects on the brain undoubtedly contribute, too ). One study found that performance on intelligence tests significantly correlated with the depth of normal (un-self-conscious) breathing (Tan et al. 2003). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
It seems reasonable to suppose that educational practices should be informed by philosophical and scientific understandings of the character and operation of mental processes. Clark and Chambers' 1998 'The Extended Mind' is a seminal paper in the philosophy of mind, but has received limited attention by educational researchers. Their Extended Mind Theory (EMT) provocatively claims that the assumption the mind is restricted to the head is unjustified, and that objects in the environment can function as parts of the mind. Clark and Chamber wrote that the human organism can be "linked with an external entity in a two-way interaction, creating a coupled system that can be seen as a cognitive system in its own right". So, EMT challenges the assumption that the demarcation of skin and skull determines the boundaries of cognition, and demands a radical rethink of the nature of learning. This paper introduces and critiques EMT, initially by way of a discussion of embodiment, an intermediate step in the argument towards extension. It highlights inconsistencies in Clark and Chambers' account, but concludes that the concept of a mind that extends into and interacts with its body and environment is both plausible and helpful.
... The tests used in the present study are well known and widely used and all measures in our study were administered by specialized professionals in the eld of psychology, through computerized cognitive tests, adjusted for children of this age group. However, in this type of intervention, the teacher plays a fundamental role, because they are the ones who will impart the PAL in the classroom, and this is not common in the traditional culture of the school, where movement is generally not integrated into the curriculum components [24][25][26] . In this sense, it is essential to consider the more teachers are involved is the better the outcomes 27 . ...
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The study was evaluated the effect of physically active lessons (PAL) on cognitive performance (ED) during two years of follow-up in children. Four classes were divided into two intervention classes (IG: n = 34) and two control classes (CG: n = 27). Five evaluations were performed; before the intervention (M1), after three (M2) and nine (M3) months in the first year, and fourteen (M4) and eighteen (M5) months in the second year. The intervention was based on PAL integrated with the curricular components, which stimulated the children to stand or move in the classroom. ED was evaluated using three computerized test for response inhibition, selective attention and cognitive flexibility. The children in the IG presented improved ED in the execution of all task along the two years follow-up, in both correct answers and time reactions, with exception of correct answers of visual search. For IG, in most of the task, the mean differences confidence interval of 95% did not include the 0 on the two last moments of evaluation, and in all cases, the mean differences of the IG between M1 versus M5 were significant different with high values of effect size (cohen -d > 1). PAL promote modest improvements in diverse cognitive functions in children.
... O recente posicionamento do American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) sobre atividade física, aptidão, função cognitiva e conquista acadêmica em crianças (DONNELLY et al., 2016) identificou cinco estudos que avaliaram o efeito de lições acadêmicas fisicamente ativas sobre o DE em crianças do ensino fundamental. Três estudos relataram melhorias nos escores de matemática (DONNELLY et al., 2009;ERWIN;AHN et al., 2017;HOLLAR et al., 2010) sobre intervenções que vão desde 20 semanas a 3 anos; um estudo de quatro meses relatou nenhuma mudança na pontuação de matemática ou de linguagem, mas melhorias em estudos sociais (REED et al., 2010), e um estudo, com acompanhamento de um ano, relatou melhorias em matemática e pontuações de leitura para crianças inicialmente em terceiro, mas não segundo grau (MULLENDER-WIJNSMA et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
The promotion of health and health education has given special attention to the school environment. In this perspective, evidence on interventions to promote PA and health by identifying improvements in educational indicators may increase the interest of schools in the adoption of health programs. The objective of the study was to analyze the effect and possible mediators factors related to PA (teacher support, support from friends, perception of school environment for PA and practice of PA) of an intervention on academic performance 7th to 9th year of public schools of Integral Time of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. A randomized, clustercontrolled study at four full-time Fortaleza schools (two were randomly allocated for each condition - intervention and control). The intervention lasted four months and involved teacher training and action to discuss PA and health in the curriculum, PA (materials and games) and educational (including parents) opportunities. Data collection was done in July 2014 and, after the intervention, in December 2014. The academic performance was obtained through the notes of the portuguese and math subjects, converted into standard scores by school and class. The weekly AF time was estimated from the self-completion of a validated questionnaire, considering a list of PA. A validated instrument was used to measure interpersonal factors (support of friends and teachers for FA) and environmental (perception of neighborhood safety, neighborhood / school facilities and AF) associated with PA. Control variables were school, gender and economic class. Generalized linear models were used to identify the effect of intervention on academic performance, PA and factors associated with PA. Effect size was calculated. The procedures proposed by Hayes to analyze the product of the coefficients were used in the mediation analysis. The level of significance was 5%. A total of 733 students (361 in the intervention group), aged 11 to 18 years. There was a positive and significant effect (p <0.05) of the intervention in the weekly time in PA and in the perception of school facilities / equipment for PA. No effect was observed in academic performance (p = 0.06). Simple and serial mediation in portuguese and math were not confirmed. The analysis of serial mediation proposed in the present study takes into consideration seven paths, the confirmation of the mediation is strict. Positive results in the analysis of mediation in some ways were confirmed in both disciplines. In conclusion, the intervention caused an increase in PA and perception of the environment associated with PA, however, these changes were not enough to promote academic performance alteration. Future studies may test other strategies in interventions aimed at improving academic performance.
... These differences concur with conclusions from a systematic review suggesting that organised sports participation may increase children's numeracy performance by 8% (Bird et al., 2013). A recent 12-month intervention study of Grade 3 children in the Netherlands found that children in the physical activity intervention group achieved greater improvements in mathematics than children in the control group (Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015). Similarly, among Australian Grade 5 children, Maher et al. (2016) reported better numeracy and writing, but not grammar, reading or spelling performance among Australia children with high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. ...
Article
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Objective Sport may promote academic performance through physiological and psychosocial mechanisms. We aimed to examine the association between sports participation and academic performance in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Methods Participants were from four successive waves of Australia’s Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children ( n = 303, baseline age 5–6 y). Cumulative sports participation was regressed against academic performance from two standardised tests. Results Children participating in sport at all four waves performed significantly better than children participating in sport in 0, 2 or 3 waves in Progressive Achievement Test (PAT) Maths (110 vs. 103, 105 and 105, p = 0.007, 0.02 and 0.02, respectively), and better than children participating at two waves in National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) numeracy (438 vs. 409, p = 0.006). There were no significant differences in PAT reading or NAPLAN literacy. Conclusion Sports participation appears to be associated with subsequent better numeracy (2–7 months of learning) in a sample of Australian indigenous children. Fostering sports participation among indigenous children may be an avenue for reducing disadvantage.
... For non-resistance physical activity, training volume less than 500 METs-min/week improved explosive power, while more than 500 METs-min/week improved muscle strength. This may be because the proportion of high-intensity exercise in a general physical activity program is relatively small [72], so that the energy expenditure due to high-intensity exercise is less. Simultaneously, there may be less repetitive stimulation of the same muscle group in the general exercise program, and thus the improvement of muscle fitness is mainly reflected in explosive power. ...
Article
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Physical activity could improve the muscle fitness of youth, but the systematic analysis of physical activity elements and muscle fitness was limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to explore the influence of physical activity elements on muscle fitness in children and adolescents. We analyzed literature in Embase, EBSCO, Web of Science, and PubMed databases from January 2000 to September 2020. Only randomized controlled studies with an active control group, which examined at least 1 muscle fitness evaluation index in individuals aged 5–18 years were included. Articles were evaluated using the Jaded scale. Weighted-mean standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated using random-effects models. Twenty-one studies and 2267 subjects were included. Physical activity had moderate effects on improving muscle fitness (SMD: 0.58–0.96, p < 0.05). Physical activity element subgroup analysis showed that high-intensity (SMD 0.68–0.99, p < 0.05) physical activity < 3 times/week (SMD 0.68–0.99, p < 0.05), and < 60 min/session (SMD 0.66–0.76, p < 0.01) effectively improved muscle fitness. Resistance training of ≥ 3 sets/session (SMD 0.93–2.90, p < 0.01) and < 10 repetitions/set (SMD 0.93–1.29, p < 0.05) significantly improved muscle fitness. Low-frequency, high-intensity, and short-duration physical activity more effectively improves muscle fitness in children and adolescents. The major limitation of this meta-analysis was the low quality of included studies. The study was registered in PROSPERO with the registration number CRD42020206963 and was funded mainly by the Ministry of Education of Humanities and Social Science project, China.
... This explains why researchers pay more attention to mathematics when exploring the relationship between physical activity and academic performance . Although most studies have documented that physical activity has a positive effect on mathematics (Ericsson and Karlsson, 2014;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015;Riley et al., 2016), some results are contradictory (Sallis et al., 1999;Reed et al., 2010;Tarp et al., 2016), with null or small to medium effects (Barbosa et al., 2020). ...
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This study explored the association between out-of-school physical activity (PA) and mathematical achievement in relation to mathematical anxiety (MA), as well as the influence of parents’ support for their children’s physical activity on this association, to examine whether parental support for physical activity affects mental health and academic performance. Data were collected from the responses of 22,509 (52.9% boys) children in Grade 4 from six provinces across eastern, central, and western China who completed the mathematics component and the physical education and health component of the national-level education quality assessment. A moderated moderated-mediation model was tested using PROCESS v3.4 and SPSS v19.0, with socioeconomic status, school location, and body mass index as controlled variables. Out-of-school physical activity had a positive effect on children’s mathematical achievement, and math anxiety partially mediated this association. The indices of conditional moderated mediation through the parental support of both girls and boys were, respectively, significant, indicating that children can benefit from physical activity, and that increased perceived parental support for physical activity can alleviate their children’s math anxiety and improve their mathematics, regardless of gender. However, gender differences were observed in the influence of parental support for physical activity on anxiety: Although girls’ math anxiety levels were significantly higher, the anxiety levels of girls with high parental support were significantly lower than those of boys with low parental support.
... Similar results were found in their later Thinking while Moving in Maths -programme (Riley, Mavilidi, Kennedy, Morgan, & Lubans, 2021) and by Howie and colleagues in the US (Howie, Newman-Norlund, & Pate, 2014). Secondly, school-based interventions have been shown to increase students' levels of time-on-task (Goh, Hannon, Webster, Podlog, & Newton, 2016;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015) which can be seen as positive behavioural engagement. Thirdly, in Norwegian (Lerum et al., 2019) and British (Marchant et al., 2019) studies, teachers reported benefits of PAL on students' social engagement. ...
Article
The Moving Maths study was conducted to increase third grade pupils’ physical activity and support their learning in Finland. Altogether 397 children (mean age 9.3 years) and 22 teachers took part in an intervention with two types of physically active maths lessons for five months. One group carried out lessons in which PA was integrated into maths learning goals, while another group implemented PA as short breaks. A control group was also allocated. The aim of the current study was to qualitatively examine classroom teachers’ (n = 12) experiences and perceptions of student engagement during the intervention. The results indicated that pupils showed positive emotional and social engagement in both intervention groups. Positive cognitive engagement was indicated by concentration on seated work after the activities, but some teachers reported uncertainty about the learning results. It is concluded that in addition to reducing children’s harmful sedentary behaviour, physically active lessons can positively affect student engagement and may thus enhance learning.
... Other language and mathematics interventions consisted in the performance of a spell by jumping in place for every mentioned letter or to jump to solve multiplications. Similar academic tasks with different words or sums were exercised during one lesson (55,56). Other interventions consisted in building two-digit numbers by making and simultaneously verbalizing out loud different-sized steps (68). ...
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Physically active children have greater motor competence and a faster maturation compared with their sedentary peers. Recent research also suggests that physical activity during childhood may also promote cognitive development and therefore improve academic performance. The aim of this study was to understand if physically active academic lessons may improve academic achievement in primary schoolchildren. A systematic review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines was conducted. The search was performed on the following database: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), and PsycINFO (APA). Studies evaluating schoolchildren aged between 3 and 11 years taking part in educational contexts that include physical activity and natural environments evaluating physical fitness and/or educational outcomes were included. A total of 54 studies (for a total sample of 29,460 schoolchildren) were considered eligible and included in the qualitative synthesis. The Effective Public Health Practice Project risk-of-bias assessment revealed a moderate quality of the included studies with only two considered weeks. Despite differences in the retrieved protocols, physically active academic lessons improve the total time engaged in physical activity, motor skills, and/or academic performance. The results of this review suggest that learning through movement is an effective, low-cost, and enjoyable strategy for elementary schoolchildren.
... Within the PE curriculum, physical education contents are implemented and applied as an effective strategy for holistic learning (Popeska & Jovanova, 2016) and also improving classroom behaviour (Podnar, Novak & Radman, 2018) academic achievement (Donelly et al, 2016). Furthermore, many studies report on the positive effect of PA as extracurricular forms such as active break during the classes (Glapa et al, 2018;Popeska et al, 2018;Uzinoz et al, 2017), active recesses and other school-based forms having several benefits including cognitive function (Mullender et al, 2015) All previously mentioned aspects emphases the importance of physical education, indicating that complete, overall and holistic development of young people and it is vital to improving their physical, social and emotional health (Sport, Education and Child & Youth Development, 2009: 3) which can be achieved through well planned and organized physical education classes. ...
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The main goal of physical education is not only the development of movement qualities and motor abilities but is also related to overall development including socio-emotional, cognitive aspect, development of moral qualities as well as the positive impact on health and overall well-being. In this regard is very important to work and emphases the effects that PHE contents have on the development of personal characteristics using the contents of physical and health education. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the impact of PHE on developing student’s personality and building character through analyzing the goals (a main and specific one) determined in the Physical and Health Education curriculum for elementary education (1st – 5th grade). A theoretical analysis of PHE curricula has been used as a basic working method. Curricula for physical and health education for 1st to 5th grade in primary education were analyzed. The following category of goals related to personal development was identified: development of knowledge, skills and habits, development of positive attitudes, development of personal characteristics, development of emotional skills, development of social skills, aesthetic skills, predispositions and well-being. It can be concluded that contents in physical education can have a very important influence on developing a different aspect of student’s individuality and character. Especially, they can be very beneficial and give a good foundation for achieving some of the long-term academic, personal and social goals. Keywords: physical and health education curriculum, character building, personal development
... Despite the increasing occurrence of studies that demonstrate the positive effects of PA on the cognitive domain, results concerning the influence of PA on school achievement are variegated [39][40][41], although no study showed PA having detrimental effects, but at least no effects [42]. ...
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It is well known that curricular physical activity benefits children’s executive functions and academic performance. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether there is an influence of extracurricular sports on executive functions and academic performance. However, it is less known which specific types of the sport better enhance executive functions in children; to investigate this issue, this study compared the performance on executive functions tasks and academic performance in one hundred and two boys and girls with an average age of 11.84 years recruited from Italian schools and gyms (N = 102), who participated in martial arts or team sports or were sedentary children. Executive functions were measured with the tests: Attenzione e Concentrazione, Digit Span test, Tower of London, IOWA Gambling task BVN 5-11, and BVN 12-18. Results demonstrated that children practicing martial arts showed better executive functioning and higher school marks than those involved in team sports or not involved in any sports. Furthermore, participants aged 12 to 15 years old outperformed in cool and hot executive functions tasks and had a better academic performance. Thus, the present findings supported the view that regular practice of extracurricular sports enhances executive functions development and consequently influences academic performance.
... A játékos tananyag-elsajátítás szakít a merev tradíciókra építő tanóravezetéssel, az órai hangulatot oldottabbá teszi, támogatja az órák alatti kooperatív együttműködést, valamint segíti a tantárgyakhoz kapcsolódó szorongás feloldását. A rövid ideig tartó, közepesen intenzív fizikai aktivitások (= MVPA) kognitív funkciókra pozitív hatásait is egyre szélesebb körben kutatják (Buscemi és mtsai., 2014;Mullender, 2015). ...
Article
A cikk egy hazai szabadalomra épülő sporteszköz és a hozzá kapcsolódó oktatási lehetőségek bemutatására törekszik. Az alapötlet két sportszakember fejében született meg közel tíz éve. Közös gondolkodásuk gyümölcse a sportszer, majd az egyre bővülő felhasználási lehetőségek köre és ezek rendszerbe foglalása. Remélhetőleg az új innovatív rendszer megtalálja majd a helyét a mozgásfejlesztő módszerek széles palettáján (Livják, Szabó, 2017). A benne rejlő variációs lehetőségekkel pedig támogatja az intézményesített nevelés színtereit az óvodáskortól (Csányi, 2011; Porkolábné,1999) kezdődően, egészen a felsőoktatás intézményeivel bezárólag (Szakály és mtsai., 2016, 2019). A sport/rend/ szer a meglévő bejáratott módszerek eszközkészletét és gyakorlatait színesíteni hivatott, és közös gondolkodásra inspirál, melyhez kapcsolódási pontok lehetnek a Komplex Prevenciós Óvodai Program, a Mozgás Kotta, a TSMT-torna és a KAP.
... Experimental group showed that it steadily increased in these four scales. These results support that PA breaks significantly contributed to the holistic learning of children, and these results concur with the results from other similar studies [4,12,[46][47][48][49]. ...
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This study aimed to examine the effects of three-months of classroom-based Brain Breaks Physical Activity Solution (Brain Breaks®) on attitudes toward physical activity levels of primary school children in Henan Province, China. The participants were 704 children enrolled in grades 3–5 who were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The experimental group participated in Brain Breaks® video intervention for 3–5 min daily, at low-to-moderate intensity for three consecutive months. The control group resumed their normal routine. The children’s attitudes in both groups towards physical activity (PA) were evaluated using the self-reported Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale (APAS), before and after the intervention. The effects of the intervention on APAS scores were analyzed using mixed model analysis of variance with Time as within-subject, and Group as between-subject factors. The analysis revealed evidence in support of the positive effect of classroom video interventions such as Brain Break on children’s attitudes toward importance, fun, and trying to do their personal best in physical activity. Also revealed was the important role the teacher plays in this process.
... It is encouraging that many children in this population thrive, showing healthy growth, meet physical activity guidelines and show strong academic attainment. It is possible that the benefits of physical activity could mediate the potential negative outcomes of lived experiences of poverty [9,30,31,32,33,43,44]. Whilst it may not be possible to immediately remove existing socio-economic barriers during physical activity interventions, these barriers are likely to confound the findings of studies that have poor control. ...
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Abstract Aim: Previous research has shown that physical activity is positively associated with growth and academic attainment in primary school children. The aim of this study was to determine if this association is repeated and to identify differences in personal, social, and environmental factors that contribute to physical activity and academic attainment. Methods: Physical activity status was determined using the PAQ-C and measurements of mass and height were recorded and BMI calculated. Academic attainment was measured using nationally standardised end of year tests. Participants completed the Newcastle Food School Study questionnaire. Parents of participants provided information on their education, family income, profession and completed the ALPHA Environment Questionnaire. A Chi-square test of homogeneity and Independent Samples T Tests were used to determine if differences exist between children who were more or less active. Based upon these results, significant predictors were selected and included in a logistic regression model in to analyse their ability to predict educational attainment. Results: The mean of the mass children who were more active followed the growth expected trajectory, whereas those who were less active demonstrated a loss in mass at the January measurement. Children who were more active were 27.72 and 12.59 times more likely to achieve average or above performance in literacy and reading than less active children. In mathematics, children whose parents worked in professional occupations, were 28.38 times more likely to achieve average or above than those with manual occupations. There were no significant differences between children in personal, social and environmental factors. Conclusion: This study confirms previous findings which reported that there does appear to be an association between physical activity and body mass and academic performance in primary school children, with lower levels of reported physical activity being associated with negative effects.
... One of the main causes of attention deficit and attention loss is mental and physical fatigue (Esin, 2011). Recently studies on learning and academic achievement related to sports branches and activity levels on children have been conducted (Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015;Hillman et al., 2009;Bailey, 2017;Dinh-Van Phan et al., 2018;Karoyian and Dymova, 2018;Watson et al., 2019;Kartal et al., 2016;Weiyun et al., 2017;McPherson et al., 2018). This study examines the relationship between the level of physical activity and attention competence, which is one of the important stages of learning. ...
Article
The goal of this study is to investigate whether or not the attention level of middle school students’ changes depends on their physical activity. Fourty middle-school students who have been taking education in Yalova province joined the study as a volunteer. Fifty percent of the participants are male and the others are female. The experimental and the control groups have been formed and each of these groups consisted of 10 male and 10 female students. International physical activity questionnaire short form and Burdon concentration test were used as the information gathering instruments. To compare the experimental groups with the control groups, a T-test was used for independent groups. To compare one to another participant in each group, also T-test was used for dependent groups. Using the international physical activity questionnaire short form, preliminary and final tests were applied to each participant. According to the results of the questionnaire, weekly MET values of each participant were calculated. At the beginning of the study, the Burdon concentration test applied to each participant. Our study has finished in eight weeks. The physical activity levels of the control group were kept constant and no information was given. Twenty pieces of Xiaomi-mi-band-3 smart bracelets were supplied to the experimental group and they were informed about the features of these devices. At the end of 8 weeks period, the international physical activity questionnaire short form and Burdon concentration test were applied to each participant again. According to the physical activity levels of the control group, no significant difference has been found between the results of the Burdon concentration test (p > 0.05). But according to the physical activity levels of the experimental group, a significant difference has been found between the results of the Burdon concentration test (p < 0.05). As a result, it has been observed that an increase in levels of physical activity provides an increase in concentration. In conclusion, it is seen that many students and young people have low levels of physical activity due to both lifestyle and virtual world dependence. Although there are many factors, the decrease in physical activity causes low levels of attention. The better the attention levels of our students and young people, the more successful they will be in their lives. Our study and most of the mentioned studies reveal that attention is a developable skill and a situational factor that is open to influence. Therefore, attention development in children who are directed to recreational activities should be emphasized, especially during periods of rapid physical growth. If we want our students and young people to be more successful, they should be encouraged and supported more about physical activity.
... Though several studies have shown that academic lessons which contain MI increase PA levels and benefit learning and health outcomes (Donnelly et al., 2016;Martin & Murtagh, 2017b;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015;Riley et al., 2015), our study in Estonian schools confirmed that active lessons, breaks and other types of PA are not common, as the examples that students bring out are episodic and only come from lessons with a few specific teachers. However, the way students talk about PA indicates that they prefer to be more physically active during academic lessons and believe that PA could keep away tiredness. ...
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Engaging key stakeholders, including students into the process of school-based physical activity (PA) intervention planning is considered important. The present study was part of the preparatory phase of the Estonian Schools in Motion pilot programme and aimed to examine students’ perspective of PA opportunities in the classroom. Based on 17 focus group interviews with 92 Estonian children aged 8–15, the results demonstrate that although PA is not yet a natural part of academic lessons in Estonia, students are eager and motivated to practise more PA. Even though they do not associate PA and academic lessons in general, they can come up with a wide range of activities that could make learning process more physically active. Students could identify several activities from incidental and content-related movement to games and energy breaks which helps to broaden the scope of classroom PA.
... The results from the present study are consistent with the mixed findings regarding the effects of classroom-based PA programs on reading outcomes. For example, several experimental studies have reported improvements in reading performance following physically active lessons with children aged 5 years (Callcott et al., 2015) and 8-10 years (Donnelly et al., 2009;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2015). However, other studies have reported no significant differences between intervention and control groups following physically active lessons (Donnelly et al., 2017;Hollar et al., 2010;Mullender-Wijnsma et al., 2016;Reed et al., 2010;Resaland et al., 2016). ...
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This study explored whether Year 1 school children exposed to a 12-week classroom-based gross motor program progressed differently than Year 1 children undertaking their regular school program in motor proficiency, mathematics, and reading outcomes. Fifty-five Australian Year 1 school children (25 boys, 30 girls, mean age 6.77 ± 0.40 years) were exposed to either (i) their normal school program (Class N) or (ii) a 12-week program comprised of gross motor circuits and physically active: a) reading lessons (Class R) or b) mathematics lessons (Class M). Motor proficiency and academic performance in mathematics and reading were assessed using the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (2nd Edition) and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test—2nd Edition—Australian Standardised Edition, respectively. Differences in outcomes between classes following the 12-week program were assessed. Mean change scores for the mathematics composite were significantly greater for participants in Class R (9.61 ± 5.62, p = .001) and Class M (7.57 ± 5.79, p = .019) than for participants in Class N (0.76 ± 8.00). Mean change scores for reading (11.54 ± 7.51, p = .017) and total motor composites (6.12 ± 5.07, p = .034) were also significantly greater for participants in Class M than Class N (4.47 ± 3.50 and 0.82 ± 4.38 respectively). A 12-week classroom-based gross motor program may be beneficial for motor skill development and learning in Year 1 school children. This pilot evaluation may usefully inform future experimental studies to further investigate whether classroom-based motor skill programs have a beneficial effect on motor proficiency and academic outcomes in children in the early years of primary school.
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Active breaks (ABs) (periods of physical activity during lessons) have demonstrated very positive results on executive functions (EFs) and emotional intelligence (EI). Method: A sample of 166 Primary school students (83 students in the experimental group and 83 in the control) was involved in this study. The experimental group received 20 periods of weekly ABs (a period of 5-10 minutes, 3-5 times a day for 17 weeks), where physical activity (PA) was combined with curricular content (CC), cooperative work (CM) and EI. Results: The students the experimental group improved in all the EF variables and the EI mood, stress management and global indices. Conclusions: An AB program, along with CM and CC teaching, can be used to improve the primary school students’ cognitive functioning as well as to achieve beneficial results in EI. It is important to carry out short ABs regularly instead of sporadic longer ABs.
Article
Background: Physical activity among children and adolescents is associated with lower adiposity, improved cardio-metabolic health, and improved fitness. Worldwide, fewer than 30% of children and adolescents meet global physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. Schools may be ideal sites for interventions given that children and adolescents in most parts of the world spend a substantial amount of time in transit to and from school or attending school. Objectives: The purpose of this review update is to summarise the evidence on effectiveness of school-based interventions in increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity and improving fitness among children and adolescents 6 to 18 years of age. Specific objectives are: • to evaluate the effects of school-based interventions on increasing physical activity and improving fitness among children and adolescents; • to evaluate the effects of school-based interventions on improving body composition; and • to determine whether certain combinations or components (or both) of school-based interventions are more effective than others in promoting physical activity and fitness in this target population. Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, SPORTDiscus, and Sociological Abstracts to 1 June 2020, without language restrictions. We screened reference lists of included articles and relevant systematic reviews. We contacted primary authors of studies to ask for additional information. Selection criteria: Eligible interventions were relevant to public health practice (i.e. were not delivered by a clinician), were implemented in the school setting, and aimed to increase physical activity among all school-attending children and adolescents (aged 6 to 18) for at least 12 weeks. The review was limited to randomised controlled trials. For this update, we have added two new criteria: the primary aim of the study was to increase physical activity or fitness, and the study used an objective measure of physical activity or fitness. Primary outcomes included proportion of participants meeting physical activity guidelines and duration of moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time (new to this update). Secondary outcomes included measured body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, health-related quality of life (new to this update), and adverse events (new to this update). Television viewing time, blood cholesterol, and blood pressure have been removed from this update. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two independent review authors used standardised forms to assess each study for relevance, to extract data, and to assess risk of bias. When discrepancies existed, discussion occurred until consensus was reached. Certainty of evidence was assessed according to GRADE. A random-effects meta-analysis based on the inverse variance method was conducted with participants stratified by age (children versus adolescents) when sufficient data were reported. Subgroup analyses explored effects by intervention type. Main results: Based on the three new inclusion criteria, we excluded 16 of the 44 studies included in the previous version of this review. We screened an additional 9968 titles (search October 2011 to June 2020), of which 978 unique studies were potentially relevant and 61 met all criteria for this update. We included a total of 89 studies representing complete data for 66,752 study participants. Most studies included children only (n = 56), followed by adolescents only (n = 22), and both (n = 10); one study did not report student age. Multi-component interventions were most common (n = 40), followed by schooltime physical activity (n = 19), enhanced physical education (n = 15), and before and after school programmes (n = 14); one study explored both enhanced physical education and an after school programme. Lack of blinding of participants, personnel, and outcome assessors and loss to follow-up were the most common sources of bias. Results show that school-based physical activity interventions probably result in little to no increase in time engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (mean difference (MD) 0.73 minutes/d, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16 to 1.30; 33 studies; moderate-certainty evidence) and may lead to little to no decrease in sedentary time (MD -3.78 minutes/d, 95% CI -7.80 to 0.24; 16 studies; low-certainty evidence). School-based physical activity interventions may improve physical fitness reported as maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) (MD 1.19 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.82; 13 studies; low-certainty evidence). School-based physical activity interventions may result in a very small decrease in BMI z-scores (MD -0.06, 95% CI -0.09 to -0.02; 21 studies; low-certainty evidence) and may not impact BMI expressed as kg/m² (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.01; 50 studies; low-certainty evidence). We are very uncertain whether school-based physical activity interventions impact health-related quality of life or adverse events. Authors' conclusions: Given the variability of results and the overall small effects, school staff and public health professionals must give the matter considerable thought before implementing school-based physical activity interventions. Given the heterogeneity of effects, the risk of bias, and findings that the magnitude of effect is generally small, results should be interpreted cautiously.
Presentation
We are Sarah An and Katie Chan, nursing students at the University of Michigan. We partnered with Project Healthy Schools to work with the Detroit Public Schools Community District. Together, we are launching a pilot program at two schools based off the Take10! model, which incorporates 10 minute physical activity breaks during class time in order to improve focus and academic performance. We are looking to compare on-task behavior and lesson retention in two second grade classes, one that participated in the Take10! model and one that did not. Our plan is to use the second grade program at one school and adapt it for the 7th grade at the other school. We believe that presenting a case study assessing the impact of the Take10! model with supportive positive evidence to the staff at the end of the semester will help to encourage other teachers to participate in the program next semester.
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The purpose of present review is to present the links between physical education and physical activity of children and their impact on academic performance. Physical activity research findings are based on a systematic review of currently available literature , mainly collected from the following databases: PUBMED, SCOPUS and GOOGLE SCHOLAR. Quasi-experimental research data are implicating that increase in physical education up to one hour per week does not adversely affect students academic performance, moreover, a greater amount of additional physical activity increases students' academic performance. In most studies, increased physical activity was positively correlated with higher school grade. Cross-sectional studies are suggesting positive associations between increased physical education and increased academic performance of children. In addition, physical activity interventions have positive effect on concentration, memory, self-esteem and better classroom behavior. Izvleček Namen prispevka je predstaviti pove-zave med športno vzgojo in telesno dejavnostjo otrok ter njunim vplivom na povečanje učne uspešnosti. Izsledki raziskav s področja telesne dejavnosti temeljijo na sistematičnem pregledu trenutno razpoložljive literature, zbrane predvsem iz podatkovnih zbirk PUBMED, SCOPUS in GOOGLE SCHOLAR. Podatki kvazi-eksperimentalnih raziskav kažejo, da povečan obseg športne vzgoje do ene ure tedensko ne vpliva negativno na učno uspešnost učencev, večji obseg do-datne telesne dejavnosti pa dvigne učno uspešnost učencev; v večini raziskav je bila večja učna uspešnost dokazana z dvigom povprečne šolske ocene. Preseč-ne raziskave nakazujejo pozitivne pove-zave med povečanim obsegom športne vzgoje in dvigom učne uspešnosti otrok, predvsem pa ima dodatna telesna de-javnost pozitiven vpliv na koncentracijo, spomin, samopodobo in primernejše ob-našanje v razredu. Ključne besede: telesna dejavnost, športna vzgoja, učna uspešnost, eksperimentalne študije, presečne študije, pregledni članek. Vedrana Sember Vpliv telesne dejavnosti na učno uspešnost osnovnošolcev
Article
Background: Active breaks (ABs) (periods of physical activity during lessons) have demonstrated very positive results on executive functions (EFs) and emotional intelligence (EI). Method: A sample of 166 Primary school students (83 students in the experimental group and 83 in the control) was involved in this study. The experimental group received 20 periods of weekly ABs (a period of 5-10 minutes, 3-5 times a day for 17 weeks), where physical activity (PA) was combined with curricular content (CC), cooperative work (CM) and EI. Results: The students in the experimental group improved in all the EF variables and the EI mood, stress management and global indices. Conclusions: An AB program, along with CM and CC teaching, can be used to improve the primary school students' cognitive functioning as well as to achieve beneficial results in EI. It is important to carry out short ABs regularly instead of sporadic longer ABs.
Article
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Researching the relationship between physical activity and academic performance is becoming an important research topic due to increasing evidence about the positive effect of physical activity on cognitive functioning. The present systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration number: CDR132118) is a unique contribution to the recently published reviews since it only includes interventions longer than 6 weeks and acknowledges the influence of the qualifications of practitioners who deliver interventions. After identifying 14,245 records in five databases and selecting 247 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 44 interventions passed all eligibility criteria. This meta-analysis uses validity generalization in a random effects model, which shows that academic performance itself is not solely caused by increased physical activity. The weighted mean population effect of all included interventions was r w = 0.181. Most of the studies had serious limitations since they did not report physical activity intensity, which is an essential component to achieving positive exercise effects on cognition. In addition, the qualifications of the staff who administer the interventions were largely ignored in existing literature. It was found that 13 out of 20 physical activity interventions with significant positive effects on academic performance were performed by practitioners who held higher qualifications in the field of physical education and exercise science, who could mediate higher physical activity intensities of the given interventions. The population effect in studies where interventions were administered by practitioners with lower qualifications in the field (r w = 0.14) was lower compared to interventions performed by staff with higher qualifications (r w = 0.22). There was also a significant difference in academic performance with regard to staff qualification level (χ = 4.464; p = 0.035). In addition to activity duration, future physical activity intervention studies including those investigating academic performance should focus on the importance of physical activity intensity and include measures of physical fitness as objective indicators to enable more reliable analyses to establish physical activity influence on academic performance.
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El principal objetivo fue revisar la evidencia científica sobre los efectos de dos estrategias que integran movimiento en las clases de aula (clases académicas físicamente activas y descansos activos) en resultados académicos, cognitivos y de salud. Las clases físicamente activas refuerzan el contenido académico conectándolo directamente con determinadas actividades físicas, mientras que los descansos activos utilizan la AF como recuperación de la carga académica sin conectar necesariamente con contenidos curriculares. Se examinan las revisiones y meta-análisis publicadas en los últimos cinco años y se pone el foco en implicaciones docentes relevantes. Se concluye que integrar movimiento en las clases académicas tiene el potencial no solo de mejorar los niveles de actividad física modera y vigorosa de los estudiantes durante la jornada escolar, sino también de incrementar facilitadores del aprendizaje como la concentración, la cognición y el tiempo en la tarea, así como las funciones ejecutivas de organización, y el rendimiento académico.
Article
Background: Despite the positive impact of social and emotional learning (SEL) on the emotional well-being of children, literature on physical activity engagement and SEL among this population has been limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether school students' SEL would improve after participation in a before-school physical activity program. Methods: A total of 138 fourth and sixth grade students from 1 elementary school and 1 middle school participated in this study. Seventy-five students participated in the before-school physical activity program, while 63 students were in the control group. The physical education teachers implemented the program 3 days per week, for 3 weeks. The participants completed a 10-question adapted Devereux Student Strengths Assessment-Mini before and after the program. Repeated measures ANOVA was run to determine the effects of the program on SEL competence. Results: The fourth and sixth grade students who participated in the program reported a 7 and 10% improvement in pre- versus post-intervention SEL competence, respectively. Students in the control group reported no change in their SEL competence. Conclusion: Considering the benefits of a before-school physical activity program on students' SEL, stakeholders should consider including more physical activity programming within school policies.
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El rendimiento académico (RA) es condicionado por diversos factores, destacándose la autoestima y la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) como factores influyentes. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la asociación entre el estado nutricional, la condición física, la autoestima y la CVRS con el RA en adolescentes. En este estudio de corte transversal participaron hombres (n= 219, 15,82±1,37años) y mujeres (n=200, ± 15,23±0,85 años) de entre 14 y 17 años de edad. El índice de masa corporal (IMC) la circunferencia de cintura (CC), la razón cintura estatura (RCE), la condición física, la autoestima, CVRS y el RA fueron evaluados. En la comparación de los niveles de autoestima, CVRS y RA acorde al estado nutricional, los escolares con obesidad tienen menor puntaje CVRS (P=0,001), del mismo modo la autoestima fue menor en los escolares con sobrepeso y obesos en comparación con sus pares normopeso (P=0,013). En relación al RA no existieron diferencias según estado nutricional (P>0,05). El RA presentó relación positiva con la condición física, la autoestima y la CVRS (P<0,05). Los adolescentes con obesidad presentaron menor CVRS que sus pares con sobrepeso y normopeso, además el RA se ve relacionada con la condición física, la autoestima y la CVRS, por tal motivo es importante incorporar estrategias en los establecimientos educacionales que mejoren esta condición y aporten al desarrollo integral de los escolares. Academic performance (AP) is conditioned by several factors and the self-esteem and health related to quality of life (HRQoL) are influential factors. The objective of the research was to determine the association between the nutritional levels, physical fitness, self-esteem and HRQoL with AP in adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, men (n = 219, 15.82 ± 1.37 years) and women (n = 200, ± 15.23 ± 0.85 years) between 14 and 17 years of age participated. The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), height waist ratio (WtHR), physical fitness, self-esteem, HRQoL and AP were evaluated. In the comparison of the levels of self-esteem, HRQoL and AP according to the nutritional status, the schoolchildren with obesity have a lower HRQoL (P = 0.001), in the same way the self-esteem was lower in the overweight and obese schoolchildren in comparison with their normal weight peers (P = 0.013). In relation to AP, there were no differences according to nutritional status (P> 0.05). The AP presented a positive relationship with physical condition, self-esteem and HRQoL (P <0.05). The adolescents with obesity had lower HRQoL than their overweight and normal weight peers, in addition AP is related to physical condition, self-esteem and HRQoL, for this reason it is important to incorporate strategies in educational establishments that improve this condition and contribute to the integral development of school children.
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An increase in transdisciplinary research has led to a number of cognitive neuroscience studies describing positive relationships between exercise, physical activity, physical fitness, and cognitive development in children and adolescents, providing new insights into the educational value of physical activity and exercise. However, practical applications of these findings from cognitive neuroscience research to physical education remain limited. This article aimed to associate cognitive neuroscience research with teaching practices in physical education. First, a narrative review was conducted to evaluate the complex relationships across exercise, physical fitness, executive function, classroom behavior, and academic performance. Second, we discuss the value of physical education by applying knowledge gained in lab-based cognitive neuroscience research. A review of previous studies revealed that exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness are positively associated with improved cognitive function in children and adolescents. Although such benefits may extend to classroom behavior, the effects of improved physical fitness on academic performance remain unclear. Despite diverse pedagogy, applications of knowledge gained from cognitive neuroscience studies to the teaching of physical education have remained limited. Therefore, whether and how physical education improves cognitive learning and development in students remain unclear. Thus, this review also discusses the possible associations between current pedagogical approaches and cognitive gains. We also speculate on the potential underlying mechanisms responsible for the association between physical fitness and cognitive development based on current hypotheses and models (i.e., the cognitive transfer hypothesis and the adaptive capacity model). Finally, to bridge the gap between lab-based findings and field-based practice, two examples of theory-into-practice teaching plans for physical educators at all levels were developed. In summary, this article may provide a more thorough understanding of the practical benefits of empirical findings and improve their implementation in school settings. 隨著跨領域研究的發展趨勢,許多認知神經科學研究已證實了運動、身體活動或體適 能對孩童與青少年認知功能發展的重要性。然而,腦與認知科學的研究成果與知識於體 育課程教學與實務操作的應用仍相當有限。為了促成研究理論與體育教學應用雙邊連結 之目標,本文將綜整有關孩童與青少年之腦與認知科學的研究證據,議題聚焦於探討運 動、體適能、執行功能、教室學習行為與學業表現之間的複雜關係,並嘗試以腦與認知科 學理論為基礎提出體育教學之應用模式,以供未來運動教育學者與體育教育實務者應用 之參考。經文獻回顧發現,運動、身體活動或體適能對孩童與青少年的認知功能皆有正向 的影響。雖然該效益被證實會延展至教室學習行為,但似乎對學業表現的影響仍需要更 多研究才能有明確的結論。此外,雖然目前有許多新興體育教學模式,但這些課程的設計與評量方式尚未考量腦與認知科學的觀點,以致於我們對這些創新課程在學生認知功能發展之潛在效益瞭解有限。對此,本文也嘗試提 出融合認知科學原理的教案範例,期盼透過實徵研究的論述與實務引導來促成學術與實 務工作者的對話,以創造更多雙邊價值的機會。
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BACKGROUND Despite the emerging body of research on the potential of physical activity to improve learning and academic achievement, conclusive evidence regarding the effects of physical activity on academic achievement is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a physical activity intervention program on academic performance.METHODSA controlled cross-sectional design was used to investigate the hypothesis that the intervention program would increase the proportion of students in grade 5 who achieved the national learning goals in Swedish, mathematics, and English compared with 3 reference schools. Academic results from the years prior to and during the intervention program were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses assessed the odds of achieving the national learning goals when the intervention program was integrated into the elementary curricula.RESULTSHigher proportions of students in the intervention school achieved the national goals in all 3 subjects compared with the reference schools after initiation of the intervention program. The odds for achieving the national learning goals in the intervention school increased 2-fold (p < .05), whereas these odds either did not change or decreased in the reference schools.CONCLUSION Promoting physical activity in school by means of a curriculum-based intervention program may improve children's educational outcome.
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Research suggests that physical activity may foster improved academic performance, yet schools are receiving more pressure to achieve high academic standards. It is important for classroom teachers, administrators and school psychologists to understand the benefits of incorporating physical activity into the school day. This article serves as a quantitative review of classroom physical activity interventions in terms of their physical activity, health and learning outcomes for students, with implications of findings discussed for school personnel.
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ACSM Position Stand on The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 975-991, 1998. The combination of frequency, intensity, and duration of chronic exercise has been found to be effective for producing a training effect. The interaction of these factors provide the overload stimulus. In general, the lower the stimulus the lower the training effect, and the greater the stimulus the greater the effect. As a result of specificity of training and the need for maintaining muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility of the major muscle groups, a well-rounded training program including aerobic and resistance training, and flexibility exercises is recommended. Although age in itself is not a limiting factor to exercise training, a more gradual approach in applying the prescription at older ages seems prudent. It has also been shown that aerobic endurance training of fewer than 2 d·wk-1, at less than 40-50% of V˙O2R, and for less than 10 min-1 is generally not a sufficient stimulus for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. Even so, many health benefits from physical activity can be achieved at lower intensities of exercise if frequency and duration of training are increased appropriately. In this regard, physical activity can be accumulated through the day in shorter bouts of 10-min durations. In the interpretation of this position stand, it must be recognized that the recommendations should be used in the context of participant's needs, goals, and initial abilities. In this regard, a sliding scale as to the amount of time allotted and intensity of effort should be carefully gauged for the cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility components of the program. An appropriate warm-up and cool-down period, which would include flexibility exercises, is also recommended. The important factor is to design a program for the individual to provide the proper amount of physical activity to attain maximal benefit at the lowest risk. Emphasis should be placed on factors that result in permanent lifestyle change and encourage a lifetime of physical activity.
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This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% girls, 61% Black, M ± SD age = 9.3 ± 1.0 years, body mass index [BMI] = 26 ± 4.6 kg/m², BMI z-score = 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized to 13 ± 1.6 weeks of an exercise program (20 or 40 min/day), or a control condition. Blinded, standardized psychological evaluations (Cognitive Assessment System and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III) assessed cognition and academic achievement. Functional MRI measured brain activity during executive function tasks. Results: Intent to treat analysis revealed dose-response benefits of exercise on executive function and mathematics achievement. Preliminary evidence of increased bilateral prefrontal cortex activity and reduced bilateral posterior parietal cortex activity attributable to exercise was also observed. Consistent with results obtained in older adults, a specific improvement on executive function and brain activation changes attributable to exercise were observed. The cognitive and achievement results add evidence of dose-response and extend experimental evidence into childhood. This study provides information on an educational outcome. Besides its importance for maintaining weight and reducing health risks during a childhood obesity epidemic, physical activity may prove to be a simple, important method of enhancing aspects of children's mental functioning that are central to cognitive development. This information may persuade educators to implement vigorous physical activity.
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Although schools are an ideal location to conduct interventions that target children, the emphasis on standardized testing makes it difficult to implement interventions that do not directly support academic instruction. In response, physically active academic lessons have been developed as a strategy to increase physical activity while also addressing core educational goals. Texas I-CAN! is one incarnation of this approach. We will review the on-going research on the impact of these active lessons on: teacher implementation, child step count, child attention control, and academic performance. The collected studies support the impact of physically active academic lessons on each area of interest. If these data can be replicated, it suggests that teachers might find these lessons of benefit to their primary role as educators, which should ease dissemination of these and other physically active lessons in elementary schools.
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02671522 This academic review critically examines the theoretical and empirical bases of claims made for the educational benefits of physical education and school sport (PESS). An historical overview of the development of PESS points to the origins of claims made in four broad domains: physical, social, affective and cognitive. Analysis of the evidence suggests that PESS has the potential to make contributions to young people's development in each of these domains. Unsurprisingly, perhaps, there is suggestive evidence of a distinctive role for PESS in the acquisition and development of children's movement skills and physical competence. It can be argued that these are necessary, if not deterministic conditions of engagement in lifelong physical activity. In the social domain, there is sufficient evidence to support claims of positive benefits for young people. Importantly, benefits are mediated by environmental and contextual factors such as leadership, the involvement of young people in decision-making, an emphasis on social relationships, and an explicit focus on learning processes. In the affective domain, too, engagement in physical activity has been positively associated with numerous dimensions of psychological and emotional development, yet the mechanisms through which these benefits occur are less clear. Likewise, the mechanisms by which PESS might contribute to cognitive and academic developments are barely understood. There is, however, some persuasive evidence to suggest that physical activity can improve children's concentration and arousal, which might indirectly benefit academic performance. In can be concluded that many of the educational benefits claimed for PESS are highly dependent on contextual and pedagogic variables, which leads us to question any simple equations of participation and beneficial outcomes for young people. In the final section, therefore, the review raises questions about whether PESS should be held accountable for claims made for educational benefits, and about the implications of accountability. Keywords: physical education; sport; evaluation; benefits; review; physical activity Published Refereed
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The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indexes of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included 20 preadolescent participants (age=9.5+/-0.5 years; eight female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive testing followed by a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to determine aerobic fitness. The exercise session consisted of 20 min of walking on a motor-driven treadmill at 60% of estimated maximum heart rate followed by cognitive testing once heart rate returned to within 10% of pre-exercise levels. Results indicated an improvement in response accuracy, larger P3 amplitude, and better performance on the academic achievement test following aerobic exercise relative to the resting session. Collectively, these findings indicate that single, acute bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise (i.e. walking) may improve the cognitive control of attention in preadolescent children, and further support the use of moderate acute exercise as a contributing factor for increasing attention and academic performance. These data suggest that single bouts of exercise affect specific underlying processes that support cognitive health and may be necessary for effective functioning across the lifespan.
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It is not clear whether the global increase in weight problems in children is the result of excessive energy intake or decreasing energy expenditure. Methodological limitations have made it difficult to analyse. There is evidence that at least part of the problem may lie with increasing energy consumption, but it is important to examine the other side of the energy equation also. However, it is not possible to conclusively describe physical activity trends because of the absence of suitable baseline data. One solution is to summate all available evidence in as many areas of daily activities as possible and then draw tentative conclusions. This review summarises available trend data on direct representations of physical activity in a range of contexts, together with indirect measures such as sedentariness, fitness, and attitudes. The conclusions drawn are: physical activity in clearly defined contexts such as active transport, school physical education, and organised sports is declining in many countries; young people would like to be active but are often constrained by external factors such as school policy or curricula, parental rules in relation to safety and convenience, and physical environmental factors.
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This study evaluated the effects of a classroom-based physical activity program on children's in-school physical activity levels and on-task behavior during academic instruction. Physical activity of 243 students was assessed during school hours. Intervention-group students (N = 135) received a classroom-based program (i.e., Energizers). The control group (N = 108) did not receive Energizers. On-task behavior during academic instruction time was observed for 62 third-grade (N = 37) and fourth-grade students (N = 25) before and after Energizers activities. An independent groups t-test compared in-school physical activity levels between intervention and control classes. A multiple-baseline across-classrooms design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the Energizers on on-task behavior. Additionally, a two-way (time [pre- vs postobservation] x period [baseline vs intervention]) repeated-measures analysis of variance compared on-task behavior between observation periods. Magnitudes of mean differences were evaluated with Cohen's delta (ES). Students in the intervention group took significantly (P < 0.05) more in-school steps (5587 +/- 1633) than control-group students (4805 +/- 1543), and the size of this difference was moderate (ES = 0.49). The intervention was effective in improving on-task behavior; after the Energizers were systematically implemented, on-task behavior systematically improved. The improvement in on-task behavior of 8% between the pre-Energizers and post-Energizers observations was statistically significant (P < 0.017), and the difference was moderate (ES = 0.60). Likewise, the least on-task students improved on-task behavior by 20% after Energizers activities. This improvement was statistically significant (P < 0.001) and meaningful (ES = 2.20). A classroom-based physical activity program was effective for increasing daily in-school physical activity and improving on-task behavior during academic instruction.
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The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.
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Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI). It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control). We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control), which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Enjoyment ratings for classroom-based lessons were also higher for intervention students. Competing factors, which might influence program results, were not carried out at intervention or control schools or were judged to be minimal. In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity.
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The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of a recess break on classroom behavior, specifically working, fidgeting, and listlessness. A southern urban school district with a policy against recess granted permission for 2 Grade 4 classes to have recess once a week so that subsequent behavior on recess and nonrecess days could be compared. A multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures and subsequent analyses of variance indicated that the 43 children, who were used as their own controls, differed on recess and nonrecess days, becoming more on task and less fidgety when they had recess. Sixty percent of the children, including all 5 of those with attention deficit disorder, and a balance of boys and girls benefited considerably. They worked more or fidgeted less (or both) on recess days.
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More than 20 years since it was first suggested that there could be connections between brain function and educational practice, and in the face of all the evidence that has now accumulated to support this notion, BBE guru Eric Jensen urges educators to take full advantage of the relevant knowledge from a variety of scientific disciplines.
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It is the policy of the editors of the Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation to keep its readers up to date with new policy statements and position stands from other professional organizations that are relevant to its readers. In 1978 the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) published a position stand entitled "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Fitness in Healthy Adults'' which was later reprinted in JCR 1981;1;375-384. The revised position stand printed below was recently published by ACSM (Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990;22;265-274.) and replaces the 1978 statement. Although the statement is related to the healthy adult, its reference to the elderly, low fit, or obese person makes it relevant for wellness and cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programs. Of particular interest is the classification of intensity of exercise based on 20 to 60 minutes of endurance training (Table I). This classification system is valid and practical for use with patient populations as well as with elderly and low fit participants. An important addition to the present statement includes a resistance-training component to the training program. The importance of a well-rounded program is emphasized with the 8 to 10 exercises recommended to train the major muscle groups. The statement notes that such exercise is very specific. Thus, training the legs will have little or no effect on the arms, shoulders, or trunk. The editors believe that the new ACSM position stand is important to read because most health professions involved in rehabilitation treat a variety of patients, many of whom could benefit from this statement. (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
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Objectives. Obesity has become a global epidemic but our understanding of the problem in children is limited due to lack of comparable representative data from different countries, and varying criteria for defining obesity. This paper summarises the available information on recent trends in child overweight and obesity prevalence. Methods. PubMed was searched for data relating to trends over time, in papers published between January 1980 and October 2005. Additional studies identified by citations in retrieved papers and by consultation with experts were included. Data for trends over time were found for school-age populations in 25 countries and for pre-school populations in 42 countries. Using these reports, and data collected for the World Health Organization's Burden of Disease Program, we estimated the global prevalence of overweight and obesity among school-age children for 2006 and likely prevalence levels for 2010. Results. The prevalence of childhood overweight has increased in almost all countries for which data are available. Exceptions are found among school-age children in Russia and to some extent Poland during the 1990s. Exceptions are also found among infant and pre-school children in some lower-income countries. Obesity and overweight has increased more dramatically in economically developed countries and in urbanized populations. Conclusions. There is a growing global childhood obesity epidemic, with a large variation in secular trends across countries. Effective programs and policies are needed at global, regional and national levels to limit the problem among children.
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Background: Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) was a three-year cluster randomized controlled trial to promote physical activity and diminish increases in overweight and obesity in elementary school children. Methods: Twenty-four elementary schools were cluster randomized to the Physical Activity Across the Curriculum intervention or served as control. All children in grades two and three were followed to grades four and five. Physical Activity Across the Curriculum promoted 90 min/wk of moderate to vigorous intensity physically active academic lessons delivered by classroom teachers. Body Mass Index was the primary outcome, daily Physical activity and academic achievement were secondary outcomes. Results: The three-year change in Body Mass Index for Physical Activity Across the Curriculum was 2.0+/-1.9 and control 1.9+/-1.9, respectively (NS). However, change in Body Mass Index from baseline to 3 years was significantly influenced by exposure to Physical Activity Across the Curriculum. Schools with > or =75 min of Physical Activity Across the Curriculum/wk showed significantly less increase in Body Mass Index at 3 years compared to schools that had <75 min of Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (1.8+/-1.8 vs. 2.4+/-2.0, p=0.02). Physical Activity Across the Curriculum schools had significantly greater changes in daily Physical activity and academic achievement scores. Conclusions: The Physical Activity Across the Curriculum approach may promote daily Physical activity and academic achievement in elementary school children. Additionally, 75 min of Physical Activity Across the Curriculum activities may attenuate increases in Body Mass Index.
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Executive function refers to the cognitive processes necessary for goal-directed cognition and behavior, which develop across childhood and adolescence. Recent experimental research indicates that both acute and chronic aerobic exercise promote children's executive function. Furthermore, there is tentative evidence that not all forms of aerobic exercise benefit executive function equally: Cognitively-engaging exercise appears to have a stronger effect than non-engaging exercise on children's executive function. This review discusses this evidence as well as the mechanisms that may underlie the association between exercise and executive function. Research from a variety of disciplines is covered, including developmental psychology, kinesiology, cognitive neuroscience, and biopsychology. Finally, these experimental findings are placed within the larger context of known links between action and cognition in infancy and early childhood, and the clinical and practical implications of this research are discussed.
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Current literature supports the link between physical activity (PA) or fitness and a child's ability to achieve academically; however, little structured activity time is incorporated into elementary school classrooms. This paper explores the impact of a classroom-based PA program, TAKE 10!, and health-academic integration through existing state and federal policy and programming. Evidence from journal articles, published abstracts, and reports were examined to summarize the impact of TAKE 10! on student health and other outcomes. This paper reviews 10 years of TAKE 10! studies and makes recommendations for future research. Teachers are willing and able to implement classroom-based PA integrated with grade-specific lessons (4.2 days/wk). Children participating in the TAKE 10! program experience higher PA levels (13%>), reduced time-off-task (20.5%), and improved reading, math, spelling and composite scores (p<0.01). Furthermore, students achieved moderate energy expenditure levels (6.16 to 6.42 METs) and studies suggest that BMI may be positively impacted (decreases in BMI z score over 2 years [P<0.01]). TAKE 10! demonstrates that integrating movement with academics in elementary school classrooms is feasible, helps students focus on learning, and enables them to realize improved PA levels while also helping schools achieve wellness policies.
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Physically active classroom lessons have been found to increase on-task behavior in children. Given that physical activity has been associated with an increased time on task (TOT) and that overweight children take fewer steps than normal weight children do, it was expected that benefits of the physical activity would differentially impact those children of higher weight status. To examine the effects of a physically active classroom lesson and body mass index (BMI) category on TOT in a sample of elementary-aged children (N = 97). Behavior was assessed through direct observations before and after a physically active classroom lesson and before and after a traditional inactive classroom lesson. TOT was calculated through momentary time sampling for each student by dividing the number of on-task observations by the total number of observations per student (interrater reliability = 94%). TOT decreased significantly from before to after the lesson for all BMI categories in the inactive control condition, with no change for the active condition. Post hoc analyses found a significant linear effect for the reduction in TOT with each level of BMI in the inactive condition, with the greatest magnitude of effect for the overweight group. Physically active classroom lessons provide a buffer to prevent the steep reduction in TOT experienced after a period of inactivity in all children, especially those who are overweight.
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Characterizing developmental changes in children's dual-task performance has been problematic because differences in divided attention abilities are easily confounded with differences in overall capacity. Two experiments showed that after individual differences in children's capacity for single-task performance were controlled for, age differences between second- (M = 8.1 years) and fifth-grade (M = 11.1 years) children did not exist in dual-task performance when tasks were of equal priority. However, when tasks had different priorities, only fifth-grade children could differentially allocate attention in the dual task. Results are discussed within the coordination hypothesis framework (see A. F. Kramer & J. L. Larish, 1996), which suggests that changes in dual-task performance with aging are due to changes in the ability to coordinate and control the allocation of attention. It is argued that linking the investigations of children's attention with research on attention and aging provides both methodological and theoretical benefits.
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To define and describe the essential terminology associated with dose-response issues in physical activity and health. Recent consensus documents, position stands, and reports were used to provide reference definitions and methods of classifying physical activity and exercise. The two principal categories of physical activity are occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). OPA is usually referenced to an 8-h d, whereas the duration of LTPA is quite variable. LTPA includes all forms of aerobic activities, structured endurance exercise programs, resistance-training programs, and sports. Energy expenditure associated with aerobic activity can be expressed in absolute terms (kJ x min(-1)), referenced to body mass (METs), or relative to some maximal physiological response (i.e., maximal heart rate (HR) or aerobic power (VO(2max))). The net cost of physical activity should be used to express energy expenditure relative to dose-response issues. The intensity of resistance training is presented in terms relative to the greatest weight that can be lifted one time in good form (1RM). The intensity of OPA followed the guidance of a previous consensus conference. The intensity of most LTPA can be categorized using the standard aerobic exercise classifications; however, for long-duration (2+ hours) LTPA, the classifications for OPA may be more appropriate. Physical activities should be classified in a consistent and standardized manner in terms of both energy expenditure and the relative effort required.