Chapter

Effect of Olive Oil on the Skin

Chapter

Effect of Olive Oil on the Skin

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Abstract

The popularity of cosmetics derived from natural sources is increasing. Such products are ecologically "ethical" and are effective and safe to use. Vitamin E is the main lipophilic antioxidant that inhibits peroxidation, especially if associated with "natural" moisturizers such as the lipids in olive oil and olive extract. Vegetable oils containing EFAs have proven to be of great use in the production of cosmetics as either active incipient or raw materials for the synthesis of novel compounds. EFAs are easily integrated into the skin's hydro-lipid film and are nourishing, moisturizing, and protective. Some of these substances have been used for centuries yet can still meet the needs of today's consumers. Apart from their moisturizing and soothing effects, and anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory function, these products reduce aging of the skin with their antioxidant, stabilizing action on the cellular membranes. Treatment with olive oil has no side effects. Olive oil does not burn or traumatize the skin. Several synthetic compounds have been used in the development of cosmetics to adulterate the many essential oils derived from natural sources; however, lessons must be learned from the previous failures of organic chemistry. Environmentally polluting chemicals approved by the Department of Transportation (DOT) were initially claimed to be safe. Several pharmaceutical drugs have been licensed only to be subsequently withdrawn due to their serious side effects. These failures demonstrate that although chemical principles may be useful in the development of synthetic cosmetics, the potential for serious side effects must be considered. Please note that an updated version of this publication is available. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/348902479_Effect_of_olive_oil_on_the_skin?_sg%5B0%5D=MAPKSyc5f-WHDkZ0WC_LVUAPJtoEloYAUzE1wpK6YcgEFOEXImO-GOxr7-PNOh2d3W3EtCCOOGv2k2w2TdDLMYZyhX9bJwNWwHHTcuga._PbOavnjw1FYVx4cgGOM-ELXV9-bo7odENU1VBn_-RZI76foDN1tprbt_sQaMc2snhkJBAbgAGX6CjWBRH9vhw

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... Ada beberapa metode untuk menghasilkan minyak zaitun, dengan cara proses mekanis tanpa menggunakan panas berlebih memberikan minyak zaitun berkualitas tinggi yang diklasifikasikan sebagai minyak zaitun murni (virgin olive oil). Minyak zaitun telah banyak digunakan pada produk kosmetik, seperti formulasi perawatan kulit dan rambut (Badiu, Luque, & Rajendram, 2010;Chaiyana, Leelapornpisid, Phongpradist, & Kiattisin, 2016;Shu, Zou, & Yang, 2014). Ekstrak minyak zaitun murni mengandung 98% hingga 99% trigliserida, dan 1% hingga 2% komponen minor. ...
... Senyawa yang penting dalam buah zaitun termasuk asam fenolik, fenolik alkohol, flavonoid, dan secoiridoid dengan alkohol fenolik zaitun berupa hydroxytyrosol dan tirosol. (Badiu et al., 2010;Slim Smaoui, 2012). Penelitian dari Harman menjelaskan bahwa setelah 30 menit paparan UV, tingkat α-tokoferol di kulit berkurang sebesar 50% hingga 60%. ...
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... Ada beberapa metode untuk menghasilkan minyak zaitun, dengan cara proses mekanis tanpa menggunakan panas berlebih memberikan minyak zaitun berkualitas tinggi yang diklasifikasikan sebagai minyak zaitun murni (virgin olive oil). Minyak zaitun telah banyak digunakan pada produk kosmetik, seperti formulasi perawatan kulit dan rambut (Badiu, Luque, & Rajendram, 2010;Chaiyana, Leelapornpisid, Phongpradist, & Kiattisin, 2016;Shu, Zou, & Yang, 2014). Ekstrak minyak zaitun murni mengandung 98% hingga 99% trigliserida, dan 1% hingga 2% komponen minor. ...
... Senyawa yang penting dalam buah zaitun termasuk asam fenolik, fenolik alkohol, flavonoid, dan secoiridoid dengan alkohol fenolik zaitun berupa hydroxytyrosol dan tirosol. (Badiu et al., 2010;Slim Smaoui, 2012). Penelitian dari Harman menjelaskan bahwa setelah 30 menit paparan UV, tingkat α-tokoferol di kulit berkurang sebesar 50% hingga 60%. ...
Conference Paper
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... Senyawa yang penting dalam buah zaitun termasuk asam fenolik, fenolik alkohol, flavonoid, dan secoiridoid dengan alkohol fenolik zaitun berupa hydroxytyrosol dan tirosol. (Badiu et al., 2010;Slim Smaoui, 2012). Penelitian dari Harman menjelaskan bahwa setelah 30 menit paparan UV, tingkat α-tokoferol di kulit berkurang sebesar 50% hingga 60%. ...
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Tulisan ini membahas perubahan epigenetic pada molekul mRNA yang disebut N6 metiladenosin dan kaitannya untuk penyembuhan kanker otak. Penyakit kanker otak atau glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) merupakan jenis kanker yang termasuk sulit untuk diobati. Selain jenisnya beraneka macam, efek pengobatan sangat rendah. Harapan hidup penderita sangat rendah dan kemungkinan kekambuhan sangat besar. N6metiladenosin atau m6A adalah suatu proses epigenetik yang terjadi di RNA. Terjadinya m6A dikatalisis oleh tiga kelompok protein yang dapat bersifat metilase, misalnya METTL3 dan METTL4. Ada juga keompok protein sebagai katalis m6A yang bersifat demitilase seperti FTO dan ALKBH5. Adapun kelompok protein ketiga adalah protein pengikat m6A, yang juga mengatur keseimbangan cis dan trans, misalnya IGF2BP. Sejumlah penelitian menunjukkan bahwa m6A berkaitan dengan penyebab terjadinya GBM. Walaupun demikian, masalah dalam penerapan m6A adalah belum dipastikannya sifat m6A sebagai onkogen atau gen supresor tumor. Maka pemberian inhibitor bagi katalis m6A, misalnya MV1035 yang merupakan inhibitor bagi ALKBH5, diharapkan dapat membantu penyembuhan GBM (Malacrida dkk, 2019). Hasil sebaliknya justru dilaporkan oleh Visnawathan dkk (2017) yang mengamati bahwa knock down pada METTL3 dan METTl4 justru menghentikan pertumbuhan tumor dan meningkatkan apoptosis. Karena itu, makalah ini akan membahas peran protein katalis yang mempengaruhi terjadinya metilasi m6A, misalnya kaitan antara katalis FTO dan PRRC2 yang mempengaruhi pembentukan protein OLIG2 yang merupakan master factor bagi pemrograman sel GBM, ketahanan genotoksik, dan plastisitas fenotiope tumor. Makalah ini juga akan membahas lebih dalam mekanisme OLIG2 sebagai katalis bagi m6A pada sel GBM. Kata kunci: gliobstoma multiforme, N6 metiladenosin, epigenetik, terapi
... Minyak zaitun telah banyak digunakan pada produk kosmetik, seperti formulasi perawatan kulit dan rambut. (Badiu, Luque, & Rajendram, 2010;Chaiyana, Leelapornpisid, Phongpradist, & Kiattisin, 2016;Shu, Zou, & Yang, 2014) Ekstrak minyak zaitun murni mengandung 98% hingga 99% trigliserida dan 1% hingga 2% komponen minor. Didalam trigliserida, asam lemak utama diwakili oleh asam lemak tak jenuh tunggal (oleat), dengan sedikit asam lemak jenuh (palmitic, stearic) dan adanya asam lemak jenuh rantai panjang (linoleat dan α-linolenat) disertai komponen minornya berupa α-tokoferol, senyawa fenol, karotenoid (β-karoten dan lutein), squalene dan fitosterol, yang semuanya memiliki sifat efek melindungi kulit. ...
... Senyawa yang penting dalam buah zaitun termasuk asam fenolik, fenolik alkohol, flavonoid, dan secoiridoid dengan alkohol fenolik zaitun berupa hydroxytyrosol dan tirosol. (Badiu et al., 2010;Slim Smaoui, 2012). Penelitian dari Harman menjelaskan bahwa setelah 30 menit paparan UV, tingkat αtokoferol di kulit berkurang sebesar 50% hingga 60%. ...
Article
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The Population Reference Bureau (PRB) estimates that Indonesia will experience a population surge to 365.3 million by 2030, which will further affect the surge in the elderly population and increase health problems occurring in the elderly. One of the elderly health problems that often occur on the skin is skin hydration. The purpose of this study is to look for an increase in the hydration level of elderly skin after intervention studies in the form of Klentiq oil. This research is a quasi-experimental study, with a total sampling method in the form of sampling. The study was conducted at the STW RIA Pembangunan Cibubur in September 2019, using the statistical test Repeated Measurement results a significant increase in hydration (p-value <0.001) between measurements after giving intervention in the form of Klentiq Oil. The highest increase of hydration level is between the measurement of week zero and week three which is 2,637 (0,300)%. It is advisable to continuously (routinely) use Klentiq oil for at least 3 weeks in order to improve the hydration level and skin hydration status, and doesn’t have to worry about being used in the long term usage.ABSTRAK Population Reference Bureau (PRB) memperkirakan bahwa Indonesia akan mengalami lonjakan populasi menjadi 365,3 juta jiwa pada tahun 2030 yang selanjutnya akan berdampak terhadap lonjakan populasi lanjut usia serta peningkatan permasalahan kesehatan yang terjadi pada lansia. Salah satu permasalahan kesehatan lansia yang sering terjadi pada kulit adalah masalah hidrasi kulit. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mencari peningkatan kadar hidrasi kulit lansia setelah penelitian intervensi berupa minyak Klentiq. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian quasi eksperimental, dengan metode pengambilan sampel berupa total sampling. Penelitian dilakukan di Panti STW RIA Pembangunan Cibubur pada periode September 2019. Variabel bebas dalam penelitian ini adalah penggunaan Minyak Klentiq selama 21 hari dan variabel tergantung dalam penelitian ini adalah perubahan kadar hidrasi kulit lengan kanan bawah. Hubungan antar variabel di uji dengan Repeated Measurement. Terdapat 51 responden yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan mengikuti penelitian hingga akhir. Uji statistik Repeated Measurement didapatkan hasil kenaikan hidrasi kulit pada lengan kanan bawah yang bermakna (p-value < 0,001) antar pengukuran setelah pemberian intervensi berupa Minyak Klentiq. Peningkatan kadar hidrasi lengan kanan bawah paling tinggi adalah antara pengukuran minggu ke nol dengan minggu ke tiga yaitu sebesar 2,637 (0,300)%. Sebagai kesimpulan, Minyak Klentiq terbukti meningkatkan kadar hidrasi kulit pada lansia (p-value < 0,001) dengan pemakaian selama 21 hari.
... Natural in- gredients, phytonutrients, microbial metabolites, dairy derived actives, minerals, and animal protein components are believed to benefit healthy skin ageing (Prakash and Majeed, 2009). Olive oil has been used on the skin for thousands of years but most of the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects remain unclear ( Badiu et al., 2010). According to Badiu et al. (2010) olive oil has antioxidant properties and contains several essential fatty acids required for the production of phospholipids, being the case of alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. ...
... Olive oil has been used on the skin for thousands of years but most of the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects remain unclear ( Badiu et al., 2010). According to Badiu et al. (2010) olive oil has antioxidant properties and contains several essential fatty acids required for the production of phospholipids, being the case of alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. However, few studies reported the possible uses of agroindustrial wastes on cosmetic industry ( Martinez-Saez et al., 2014;Mussatto et al., 2012). ...
Chapter
Life-expectancy has increased in developed countries, raising new concerns in skin appearance. Particularly, face wrinkles are one of the major features of aging leading to new researches for cosmetic active ingredients. A new tendency in cosmetic formulations is the use of raw materials from agroindustry by-products that normally are discarded as waste. Olive mill waste (OMW) is an olive oil by-product that represents a major environmental issue. Some studies have been carried out on this residue regarding phytochemicals identification and biological evaluation. The bioactive compounds present are mainly antioxidants (especially oleuropein), fatty acids (particularly monounsaturated fatty acids), and minerals. Indeed, taking into account its composition and sustainability issues, the recovery target compounds from these disposal residues is advisable. Particularly, cosmetic field may benefit from these materials. In this chapter, the challenging applications of OMW derived bioactive compounds as active ingredients for skin care products are reviewed and discussed.
... Natural ingredients, phytonutrients , microbial metabolites, dairy derived actives, minerals and animal protein components have long been believed to benefit healthy skin aging (Prakash and Majeed, 2009). Olive oil has been used on the skin for thousands of years but most of the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects remain unclear (Badiu et al., 2010). According to Badiu et al. (2010) olive oil has antioxidant properties and contains several essential fatty acids required for the production of phospholipids, being the case of alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. ...
... Olive oil has been used on the skin for thousands of years but most of the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects remain unclear (Badiu et al., 2010). According to Badiu et al. (2010) olive oil has antioxidant properties and contains several essential fatty acids required for the production of phospholipids, being the case of alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. For olive by-products, different studies have been carried out regarding their composition, but any review evaluated their possible application as active ingredients in the cosmetic field. ...
... When cosmetics, enriched with antioxidant are applied into the skin, they enter to the outermost layer of skin, i.e., epidermis, which is mostly composed of keratinocytes. In cosmetic industry, olive oil is largely used due to their antioxidant, nourishing and moisturizing properties [62]. Antioxidant protects the keratinocytes from oxidative damage, and nourish cells and tissues [63]. ...
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Olive oil has been received a great importance around the globe because it provides unique functional value. Olive oil prevents the risks of several chronic and acute metabolic disorders because it is enriched with monounsaturated fatty acids, antioxidant phenolic compounds, vitamin E and vitamin K. Unfortunately, oxidative deterioration of fatty acids in olive oil provides short shelf life and reduces biological activities. It is responsible for undesirable organoleptic properties. It may belief that one of the solutions to preserve the quality of olive oil is microencapsulation. In this review, comprehensive information about techniques to prepare olive oil microcapsule is represented. To prepare olive oil microcapsule, emulsification of olive oil with different wall materials (matrixes) has been adopted as a primary step. Subsequently, dehydration of emulsion by spray drying or freeze drying or coacervation process has been adopted to prepare olive oil microcapsule. Moreover, microcapsule of olive oil has been prepared by extrusion technology. Biopolymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides have been used as wall material for encapsulation of olive oil. As stable emulsification is one of important issue to produce microcapsule, several emulsifiers, such as lecithin, tween 20 have been used during emulsion preparation. Different characteristics of the microcapsule of olive oil are summarized because it is influenced by several factors during preparation of microcapsule. In later exercise, several applications of encapsulated olive oil in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries are represented in comprehensive way. It may expect that this review article will receive attention in industries and academic sectors.
... Risperidone is the only precipitating factor for various causes of xerosis. Based on tracing medical records, it was found that the patient did not have diabetes, which was a risk factor for xerosis, the patient also did not take diuretics, and there was no history of psoriasis [11,12]. Tracing drug interactions also did not reveal the possibility of xerosis. ...
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Background: Risperidone is one of the atypical antipsychotics usually used in schizophrenia therapy. Like most antipsychotics, risperidone has several side effects. Xerosis and tachicardy are rare side effects of Risperidone with incidence <1%. However unfortunately, the numbers of case reports about risperidone's side effects are very limited, especially in Indonesia. The case report aims to inform the health professionals about the side effect of risperidone in Schizophrenia patienst in Indonesia. Case presentation: A 54-year-old woman was hospitalized with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The patient received risperidone 2mg, clozapine 25mg, 1/2 ampule haloperidol injection, cetirizine 10mg, methylprednisolone 4mg, amlodipine 5mg. On the following day, the patient experienced itching, hardening of the facial skin and tachycardia (pulse 124). The Naranjo score for riperidone was 6 (probably). After the incident, the physicians stopped the risperidone. The patient was then prescribed a facial lotion to treat her dry and peeling facial skin. After discontinuing the risperidone, the patient's facial skin condition improved, and the pulse was normal. Conclusion: Risperidone is known to have side effects of xerosis and tachycardia in these patients, so healthcare professionals should monitor the use of risperidone and other antipsychotics to anticipate potential side effects.
... It is well described that EFAs are easily integrated into the hydro-lipid layer structures of the skin and they provide nourishing, moisturizing, and protective properties. Apart from their moisturizing, smoothing, and anti-inflammatory effects, these products reduce skin aging with their antioxidant and stabilizing action on the cellular membranes [10]. The human skin is an important target for drug delivery due to the inherent advantages of the transdermal route in the treatment of some pathologies. ...
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A chitosan-based hydrophilic system containing an olive leaf extract was designed and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated. Encapsulation of olive leaf extract in chitosan microspheres was carried out by a spray-drying process. The particles obtained with this technique were found to be spherical and had a positive surface charge, which is an indicator of mucoadhesiveness. FTIR and X-ray diffraction results showed that there are not specific interactions of polyphenolic compounds in olive leaf extract with the chitosan matrix. Stability and release studies of chitosan microspheres loaded with olive leaf extract before and after the incorporation into a moisturizer base were performed. The resulting data showed that the developed formulations were stable up to three months. The encapsulation efficiency was around 44% and the release properties of polyphenols from the microspheres were found to be pH dependent. At pH 7.4, polyphenols release was complete after 6 h; whereas the amount of polyphenols released was 40% after the same time at pH 5.5.
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Diabetes is a chronic disease that is widely spread in this time. Diabetic foot is one of the most common symptoms, it starts when the dryness emerge after that the cracks appear on the back or outcrops of the foot. The primary treatment for these symptoms is considered the best choice to prevent diabetic foot diseases. The aim of this study is using treated fabric with Tancho® (based on olive oil) to give the cracked or pre-ulcer foot the sufficient hydration for skin cells during the rest periods to heal. The study was based on using 100% cotton woven fabrics with three structures that are treated with Tancho® petroleum jelly as emulsion using two techniques; Pad/Batch and Pad/Dry/Cure methods, to compare between them in the improvement of fabric for healing. Weight and thickness were conducted to evaluate the fabric functional performance before and after treatment with Tancho®. The antimicrobial activity was done for samples to determine the biological property. Roughness, SEM and TEM were done to study the morphological surface of samples produced. Finally, the best samples performances as a result from radar chart analysis were applied in vivo for rats, to determine the efficiency of the treated samples through clinical observation and histopathological changes. The results of the produced samples that weaved by three different structures and treated with Pad/Batch method were increased of the stimulation of skin cells to heal after surgical either in case of use for surface skin scratches or as scaffold for skin layers.
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In this study, wet wipes were produced for body applications with nonwoven fabrics consisting of polyester and cellulose (viscose and Tencel). Fabrics were wetted by natural-based wetting solutions (rose water, olive oil) which were functionalized by sodium alginate and natural antibacterial agents (cinnamaldehyde and geraniol) without preservatives. Besides physical characteristics (weight, thickness, porosity, fiber orientation), bending rigidity, Handle-O-Meter measurements, and moisture management test parameters of the nonwoven fabrics were determined. Subjective hand and wiping performances of produced wipes were determined by subjective evaluations carried out on 10 female subjects. According to the results, 100% Tencel and its blend with viscose have good absorption and moderate transfer characteristics. Polyester content up to 60% is acceptable for wet wipes for the body according to their liquid absorption, transfer, and subjective evaluation results if fabric weight is sufficient. Among the functionalized wetting solutions, antibacterial performance of the solution including olive oil, sodium alginate and cinnamaldehyde was the maximum and it has acceptable hand values according to objective Handle-O-Meter results and subjective evaluation results.
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Factors implicated in the development of atherosclerosis include metabolic alterations of the endothelium induced by certain lipids and inflammatory cytokines. To study the hypothesis that the combined presence of unsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory cytokines may cross-amplify their individual injurious effects, cultured endothelial cells were treated with 90 mu M of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) and/or 20 ng/ml (100 U/ml) of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) for up to 24 h. Disturbances in endothelial cell metabolism were determined by measuring cellular oxidative stress, oxidative stress-inducible nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) and NF-kappa B-related transcription, intracellular calcium levels, and endothelial barrier function reflected by transendothelial albumin movement. Both 18:2 and TNF increased cellular oxidation, intracellular calcium, and endothelial barrier permeability. These changes were cross-amplified in cells treated both with 18:2 and TNF, compared with 18:2 or TNF alone. In contrast, a combined exposure to 18:2 and TNF did not potentiate effects mediated by 18:2 or TNF alone on NF-kappa B activation or NF-kappa B-related transcription. Pretreatment with 25 mu M vitamin E attenuated 18:2 and/or TNF-mediated endothelial cell dysfunction. These results suggest that certain unsaturated fatty acids can potentiate TNF-mediated endothelial cell dysfunction and that oxidative stress may be partially responsible for these metabolic events. These findings have implications for understanding lipid-mediated inflammatory responses in atherosclerosis.
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Clearly there is much evidence to show that under well-controlled laboratory and dietary conditions fatty acid intake can have profound effects on animal models of autoimmune disease. Studies in human autoimmune disease have been less dramatic; however, human trials have been subject to uncontrolled dietary and genetic backgrounds, infection and other environmental influences, and basic trial designs have been inadequate. The impact of dietary fatty acids on animal autoimmune disease models appears to depend on the animal model and the type and amount of fatty acids fed. Diets low in fat, essential fatty acid-deficient, or high in n-3 fatty acids from fish oils increase the survival and reduce disease severity in spontaneous autoantibody-mediated disease, whilst linoleic acid-rich diets appear to increase disease severity. In experimentally-induced T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, essential fatty acid-deficient diets or diets supplemented with n-3 fatty acids appear to augment disease, whereas n-6 fatty acids prevent or reduce the severity. In contrast, in both T-cell and antibody-mediated auto-immune disease the desaturated and elongated metabolites of linoleic acid are protective. Suppression of autoantibody and T lymphocyte proliferation, apoptosis of autoreactive lymphocytes, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by high-dose fish oils are all likely mechanisms by which n-3 fatty acids ameliorate autoimmune disease. However, these could be undesirable long-term effects of high-dose fish oil which may compromise host immunity. The protective mechanism(s) of n-6 fatty acids in T-cell- mediated autoimmune disease are less clear, but may include dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid- and arachidonic acid-sensitive immunoregulatory circuits such as Th1 responses, TGF beta 1-mediated effects and Th3-like responses. It is often claimed that n-6 fatty acids promote autoimmune and inflammatory disease based on results obtained with linoleic acid only. It should be appreciated that linoleic acid does not reflect the functions of dihomo-gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acid, and that the endogenous rate of conversion of linoleic to arachidonic acid is slow (Hassam et al. 1975, 1977; Phylactos et al. 1994; Harbige et al. 1995). In addition to effects of dietary fatty acids on immunoregulation, inflammation as a consequence of immune activation in autoimmune disease may also be an important mechanism of action whereby dietary fatty acids modulate disease activity. In conclusion, regulation of gene expression, signal transduction pathways, production of eicosanoids and cytokines, and the action of antioxidant enzymes are all mechanisms by which dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids may exert effects on the immune system and autoimmune disease. Probably the most significant of these mechanisms in relation to our current understanding of immunoregulation and inflammation would appear to be via fatty acid effects on cytokines. The amount, type and balance of dietary fatty acids and associated antioxidant nutrients appear to impact on the immune system to produce immune-deviation or immunosuppressive effects, and to reduce immune-mediated inflammation which will in turn affect the susceptibility to, or severity of, autoimmune disease.
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T HE METABOLIC SYNDROME CON-sists of a constellation of fac-tors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent estimates indicate that the metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in the United States, with an estimated 24% of the adult population affected. 1 Its clinical identification is based on measures of abdominal obe-sity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, el-evated blood pressure, and glucose intolerance. 2 The etiology of this syn-drome is largely unknown but presum-ably represents a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic, and envi-ronmental factors including diet. 3,4 Sev-eral recent studies also suggest that a proinflammatory state is one compo-nent of the metabolic syndrome. 5-8 Moreover, evidence has accumulated indicating that low-grade inflamma-tion is associated with endothelial dys-function. 9,10 Context The metabolic syndrome has been identified as a target for dietary thera-pies to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease; however, the role of diet in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome is poorly understood. Objective To assess the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial func-tion and vascular inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Design, Setting, and Patients Randomized, single-blind trial conducted from June 2001 to January 2004 at a university hospital in Italy among 180 patients (99 men and 81 women) with the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Adult Treat-ment Panel III. Interventions Patients in the intervention group (n=90) were instructed to follow a Mediterranean-style diet and received detailed advice about how to increase daily consumption of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and olive oil; patients in the con-trol group (n=90) followed a prudent diet (carbohydrates, 50%-60%; proteins, 15%-20%; total fat, 30%). Main Outcome Measures Nutrient intake; endothelial function score as a mea-sure of blood pressure and platelet aggregation response to L-arginine; lipid and glu-cose parameters; insulin sensitivity; and circulating levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukins 6 (IL-6), 7 (IL-7), and 18 (IL-18).
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The polar fraction of virgin olive oil was separated into two main parts (A and B) using solid phase extraction. Analysis of individual components by RP-HPLC indicated that the part (A) contained only simple phenols and phenolic acids. Part (B) had a complex nature. The two parts tested for their antioxidant activity showed relatively high protection factors in safflower oil stored at 80°C. Part B was found to contribute more than part A to the stability of the oil. The antioxidant activity of both fractions was related to their content of total polyphenols and o-diphenols. Acidic and alkaline hydrolysis showed significant quantitative changes in the HPLC profiles indicating the presence of ether and ester bonds while high-performance anion exchange chromatography of sugars after hydrolysis gave evidence for the presence of only traces of glycosides. A first attempt to identify a characteristic chromatographic peak of part B by HPLC fractionation and mass spectrometry showed the presence of an ester of tyrosol most probably with a dicarboxylic acid. © 1997 SCI.
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Background In previous work we reported on the efficacy of cosmetic body lotions enriched with skin-identical lipids to reduce the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) of ageing and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-damaged skin. The observations made depended on the experimental design and clearly raised the question of the importance of the galenic formulation of skin ceramide-containing products.Objectives The aim of the present work was to study the different galenic forms in which ceramide 3B (0.2% w/v) can be incorporated into common o/w emulsions. In addition, we investigated whether supplementation of skin care products with ceramide 3B enriched with penetration enhancers and coemulsifiers could exert a beneficial effect on barrier function, done by measuring their effects on the TEWL of SLS-induced scaly skin.ResultsWe found that the technique of incorporating ceramide 3B into the o/w emulsions was important for their final stability. However, no additional positive effect on the TEWL values of SLS-damaged skin could be observed when the efficacy of the ceramide-containing emulsions was compared with that of proper controls.Conclusions Although suitable galenic formulas were developed, no positive effect on TEWL could be observed when ceramide 3B was added in a final concentration of 0.2% (w/v) to different o/w emulsions and applied to SLS-damaged skin.
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Ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin is due, in part, to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) functions as a biological co-factor and antioxidant due to its reducing properties. Topical application of vitamin C has been shown to elevate significantly cutaneous levels of this vitamin in pigs, and this correlates with protection of the skin from UVB damage as measured by erythema and sunburn cell formation. This protection is biological and due to the reducing properties of the molecule. Further, we provide evidence that the vitamin C levels of the skin can be severely depleted after UV irradiation, which would lower this organ's innate protective mechanism as well as leaving it at risk of impaired healing after photoinduced damage. In addition, vitamin C protects porcine skin from UVA-mediated phototoxic reactions (PUVA) and therefore shows promise as a broad-spectrum photoprotectant.
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The biological activity of PGE3 with regard to oedema formation in mice was examined. Paw swelling was measured 30 minutes after injection of 10 microliters PGE2 or PGE3 into the plantar region of the hind paw. Doses investigated ranged from 1 ng-10 micrograms. Both PGE2 and PGE3 had substantial oedemogenic activity in this system.
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This paper describes attempts to isolate and characterize glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding molecules on the surface of lymphocytes and lymphoma cell lines and relate their expression to splenic and lymph node homing capacity. Initial binding studies with radiolabelled GAG and rosetting studies with GAG-coupled erythrocytes revealed that there are receptors on lymphocytes for the major classes of GAG (i.e. hyaluronic acid, chrondroitin sulfates, heparin), but lymphocytes bind heparin much more avidly than other GAG species. Analysis of the binding of solubilized radiolabelled cell-surface molecules to immobilized GAG revealed cell-type specific expression of GAG-binding molecules. Thus, each of four lymphoma cell lines tested gave a characteristic pattern of GAG-binding molecules, some molecules being unique to a particular cell line and others being shared by some of the lines. Similarly, splenocytes expressed at least 10 distinct GAG-binding molecules with molecular weights (MW) ranging from 10,000 to 100,000, whereas thymocytes expressed additional GAG-binding proteins of 190,000 and 250,000 MW. Furthermore, splenocytes differed from thymocytes by possessing a unique family of cell-surface molecules which reacted with each GAG. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the GAG-binding molecules on splenocytes did not correspond to any of the cell-surface antigens tested, notably the cell adhesion molecules MEL-14, CD11/CD18 and CD44, although CD8 bound weakly to heparin. Four lymphoma cell lines with well-characterized migration properties were examined for GAG-binding molecules which may control lymphocyte migration. It was found that no one GAG-binding protein could be correlated with the entry of cells into a particular lymphoid organ. Nevertheless, the role of GAG-binding molecules in the subsequent positioning of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs requires further investigation.
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Although low-fat high-carbohydrate diets are recommended for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in an effort to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the results of short-term studies have shown that these diets can lead to changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism associated with an increased risk of CAD. This study has extended these earlier observations by determining the metabolic effects of such diets over a longer period in these patients. The comparison diets contained either 40 or 60% of the total calories as carbohydrates, with reciprocal changes in fat content from 40 to 20% consumed in random order for 6 wk in a crossover experimental design. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat and the total cholesterol intake were held constant in the two diets. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly (P less than .001) elevated throughout the day when patients consumed the 60% carbohydrate diet, and 24-h urinary glucose excretion more than doubled (0.8 vs. 1.8 mol/24 h). Fasting plasma total and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG) concentrations increased by 30% (P less than .001) after 1 wk on the 60% carbohydrate diet, and the magnitude of carbohydrate-induced hypertriglyceridemia persisted unchanged throughout the 6-wk study period. Total plasma cholesterol concentrations were similar after both diets. However, VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-chol) was significantly increased, whereas both low-density lipoprotein (LDL-) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-) chol concentrations were significantly decreased after consumption of the 60% carbohydrate diet. Consequently, neither total-chol-to-HDL-chol nor LDL-chol-to-HDL-chol ratios changed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The rate constant of quenching of singlet oxygen (kQ) by squalene (SQ) is found to be much larger than those of the lipids in human skin surface. SQ is the first target lipid in human skin surface by oxidative stresses such as sun light exposure. kQ of SQ is similar to that of 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT). The large kQ of SQ is due to the small ionization potential. SQ consists of six 2-methyl-2-pentene units and kQ of SQ is about 6-times as large as that of 2-methyl-2-pentene. The electron donating property of methyl groups bonded to quaternary carbons of SQ is essential to the large kQ. SQ is not very susceptible to peroxidation and is stable for attacks by peroxide radicals. The chain reaction of lipid peroxidation is unlikely to be propagated with SQ in human skin surface. It is concluded that SQ functions as an efficient quencher of singlet oxygen and prevents the corresponding part of lipid peroxidation in human skin surface.
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The studies described herein characterize animal behavioral models for conjunctival and cutaneous itch. Histamine was used as the reference stimulus for model development because it is firmly established as a pruritogen in both conjunctiva and skin. Itching evokes the desire to scratch in human subjects, so hind limb scratching at the afflicted area was used to identify pruritogenic stimuli. Under optimized environmental conditions, hind limb scratching behavior yielded substantial and highly reproducible responses. The conjunctival itch-scratch response was delineated from pain and foreign body sensations by using appropriate stimuli. Examination of a large and diverse variety of autocoids revealed that only histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and arachidonic acid and its cyclooxygenase metabolite prostaglandin E2 possessed meaningful pruritogenic activity. PAF-induced ocular pruritus did not involve histamine release, according to studies with appropriate antagonists. Thus PAF-induced ocular pruritus was unaffected by the histamine H1-receptor antagonist pyrilamine but was substantially attenuated by the PAF antagonists WEB 2086 and CV-6209 and was virtually abolished by E-6123. Similar itch-scratch behaviors were quantified in hairless guinea pig skin following the application of cowhage or the iontophoretic administration of histamine and PAF. Findings from these newly developed itching models suggest that PAF could be an important mediator of the pruritic sensation by activating a population of nerve endings responsible for encoding the itch sensation.
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Dry skin is frequently observed in uraemic patients and a link with the common complaint of pruritus has been suggested. Objective data on skin dryness in haemodialysed patients is sparse and equivocal. No such information exists for the many patients now receiving peritoneal dialysis. We assessed the prevalence and severity of both pruritus and skin dryness in a uraemic population receiving maintenance dialysis. Forty-eight haemodialysis and 24 peritoneal dialysis patients were examined and skin dryness assessed by clinical grading and measurement of stratum corneum hydration using a corneometer. Forty age- and sex-matched controls were also assessed. Several biochemical parameters with possible relevance to pruritus were measured. Regular emollient therapy was prescribed to pruritic dialysis patients and efficacy assessed. Dialysis patients overall had clinically drier skin than controls, especially the peritoneal dialysis group. Stratum corneum hydration levels were significantly reduced in the peritoneal dialysis (P < 0.004), but not the haemodialysis, population. Twenty-seven per cent of haemodialysed and 54% of peritoneal dialysis patients complained of pruritus. Pruritic patients in each dialysis group had significantly lower hydration than non-pruritic patients (P < 0.05). Regular emollient use in pruritic patients produced a marked reduction in severity of pruritus, abolishing the symptom in nine of 21 patients treated. Reduced stratum corneum hydration correlates with pruritus in patients on maintenance haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, and may be alleviated by simple emollient therapy.
Article
Stratum corneum lipids play a predominant role in maintaining the water barrier of the skin. In order to understand the biological variation in the levels and composition of ceramides, ceramide 1 subtypes, cholesterol and fatty acids, stratum corneum lipids collected from tape strippings from three body sites (face, hand, leg) of female Caucasians of different age groups were analysed. In addition, we studied the influence of seasonal variation on the lipid composition of stratum corneum from the same body sites. The main lipid species were quantified using high-performance thin-layer chromatography and individual fatty acids using gas chromatography. Our findings demonstrated significantly decreased levels of all major lipid species, in particular ceramides, with increasing age. Similarly, the stratum corneum lipid levels of all the body sites examined were dramatically depleted in winter compared with spring and summer. The relative levels of ceramide 1 linoleate were also depleted in winter and in aged skin whereas ceramide 1 oleate levels increased. The other fatty acid levels remained fairly constant with both season and age, apart from lignoceric and heptadecanoic acid which showed a decrease in winter compared with summer. The decrease in the mass levels of intercellular lipids and the altered ratios of fatty acids esterified to ceramide 1, are likely to contribute to the increased susceptibility of aged skin to perturbation of barrier function and xerosis, particularly during the winter months.
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Dietary supplementation with fish oil, which contains high amounts of long chain omega 3 ((n-3)) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has recently been shown to have protective and ameliorative effects on diseases characterized by chronic inflammatory reactions. Interactions between vascular endothelium, mononuclear cells, and cytokines are crucial steps in the course of inflammatory processes such as chronic graft rejection. We therefore studied the effects of DHA and EPA on both the adhesion of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to human endothelial cells (EC) in culture and the expression of EC-adhesion molecules and their counterreceptors on PBL. The addition of DHA or EPA to the adhesion assay significantly decreased the adhesion of PBL to untreated EC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha)-, interleukin (IL) 4-, and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated EC. When EC were pretreated with (n-3) PUFAs for 18 hr, washed, and then stimulated by TNF alpha, IL-4, or lipopolysaccharide, PBL adhesion was also significantly reduced compared with controls. We also showed that PBL preincubated with DHA or EPA, and then washed and chromium radiolabeled, still exhibited an adhesion inhibition to TNF alpha- and IL-4-treated EC as well as untreated EC. Cytofluorometry and immunoenzymatic analyses indicated that pretreatment of EC with (n-3) PUFAs before their activation significantly reduced the EC-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, whereas the level of expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin was not modified. Furthermore, we showed that incubation of PBL with DHA or EPA moderately reduced the level of cell surface expression of L-selectin and leukocyte function-associated antigen 1, but not of very late antigen 4. In all cases, the inhibitory effect of (n-3) PUFAs was specific and dose dependent. In addition, DHA seems to be a more potent inhibitor than EPA, but the two compounds in association had an additive effect. Regardless of the mode of action, this inhibitory effect may explain the protective and ameliorative effects of (n-3) PUFAs on diseases involving chronic inflammatory reaction.
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The skin is a tissue containing a large number of collagen types. Several collagens are restricted at the dermo-epidermal junction, contrarily to others present throughout the dermis. However, the distribution of the dermal collagen varies during embryonic development. In this contribution, we have been interested in the collagen types associated with the major collagenous components of the dermis, which are the collagen types I and III. Type V collagen, which is mixed with collagen types I and III to form heterotypic fibrils, has been studied during mouse embryo development. Transcripts of the alpha 1 (V) gene have been localized by in situ hybridization, on flattened cells of the stratum germinativum first, and then only on dermal cells. The expression of the gene decreases at birth, while the expression of the alpha 1(I) gene remains constant, with, however, a ring of high intensity around hair follicles. Other collagen types (VI, and the fibril-associated collagens XII and XIV) have been studied during calf embryonic development by immunofluorescence and ultrastructural immunogold detection. Type VI collagen appears homogeneously distributed throughout the dermis. Type XII collagen is first widely distributed and becomes restricted in the upper, papillary dermis after 6 months of gestation. Type XIV collagen, on the contrary, is first located as a delicate framework around hair follicles (at 19 weeks of gestation), and progressively invades the whole dermis where it appears abundant just before birth. The different functions of all these collagens are discussed in terms of dermis architecture, mechanical properties and physiology.
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Hypertriglyceridemia may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis by increasing expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Although the cellular expression of CAMs is difficult to assess clinically, soluble forms of CAMs (sCAMs) are present in the circulation and may serve as markers for CAMs. In this study, we examined the association between sCAMs and other risk factors occurring with hypertriglyceridemia, the effect of triglyceride reduction on sCAM levels, and the role of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in monocyte adhesion in vitro. Compared with normal control subjects (n=20), patients with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL (n=39) had significantly increased levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) (316+/-28.8 versus 225+/-16.6 ng/mL), sVCAM-1 (743+/-52.2 versus 522+/-43.6 ng/mL), and soluble E-selectin (83+/-5.9 versus 49+/-3.6 ng/mL). ANCOVA showed that the higher sCAM levels in patients occurred independently of diabetes mellitus and other risk factors. In 27 patients who received purified n-3 fatty acid (Omacor) 4 g/d for > or =7 months, triglyceride level was reduced by 47+/-4.6%, sICAM-1 level was reduced by 9+/-3.4% (P=.02), and soluble E-selectin level was reduced by 16+/-3.2% (P<.0001), with the greatest reduction in diabetic patients. These results support previous in vitro data showing that disorders in triglyceride and HDL metabolism influence CAM expression and treatment with fish oils may alter vascular cell activation. In a parallel-plate flow chamber, recombinant sVCAM-1 at the concentration seen in patients significantly inhibited adhesion of monocytes to interleukin-1-stimulated cultured endothelial cells under conditions of flow by 27.5+/-7.2%. Thus, elevated sCAMs may negatively regulate monocyte adhesion.
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Increased expression of cell adhesion molecules and increased procoagulant activity of the vascular endothelium have been postulated to characterize dysfunctional endothelium. The cellular effects of n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs) and antioxidants are still not clarified. In a randomized, factorial two-by-two design study, we have investigated 41 male smokers with hyperlipidaemia before and after 6 weeks of supplementation with either n-3 FAs (4.8 g daily) or placebo with the addition of antioxidants (150 mg of vitamin C, 75 mg of vitamin E and 15 mg of beta-carotene daily) or placebo with regard to the effects on some endothelial cell markers: thrombomodulin (sTM), von Willebrand factor (vWF), tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPAag) and soluble forms of the cell adhesion molecules E-selectin, P-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). In the n-3 FA group, significant reductions in the plasma levels of vWF (P = 0.034) and sTM (P < 0.001) were demonstrated compared with placebo, whereas increased levels were found for E-selectin (P = 0.001) and VCAM-1 (P = 0.010). In the antioxidant group, no differences in changes were noted for any of the variables. The reduction in the levels of sTM and vWF with n-3 FA supplementation could indicate an improvement with regard to the haemostatic markers of endothelial dysfunction, whereas the simultaneous increase in the soluble forms of E-selectin and VCAM-1 may suggest an adverse effect on the inflammatory system. The antioxidants seem to be neutral in their effect on these endothelial cell markers in our study population of smokers. The interpretation of the soluble forms of these molecules are, however, still debatable.
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Although the prevention of skin aging is a holy grail of the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, this venture may be misplaced. The predominant clin ical and biochemical features of aged skin are mostly attributable to photoaging rather than chronology. For instance chronic sun exposure is the major determi nant of age spots (actinic lentigines) and wrinkles. Surgical approaches to the treatment of photoaging include face-lift, derm-abrasion, chemical peeling, collagen and botulinum toxin injections, and laser re-surfacing. These approaches all have benefit and improve the clinical features of facial photoaging. Drug or pharmaceutical prevention and treatment of photoaged skin is still in its infancy. The main pharmaceutical approach to prevention of photoaging lies in the assiduous use of sunscreens. Recent evidence points to the importance of ultra violet A (UVA) radiation as well as ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in the aetiology of photoaging and thus the need for sunscreens that block both UVB and UVA. Drug treatment of photoaged skin can be categorised as antioxidants, α-hydroxy acids and topical retinoids. Of these 3 approaches only topical retinoids, particularly tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid), have a well documented ability to repair photoaged skin at the clinical, histological and molecular level. Further more, the use of topical retinoids may actually prevent photoaging. The current interest in pharmaceutical modulation of the photoaging process has attracted considerable research into the mechanisms of photoaging and cutaneous aging. It is likely that treatment for, or prevention of, the chronological aging process may result from such research.
Article
During her lifetime, a woman faces the possibility of seeking dermatological assistance for a myriad of conditions, including acne, rosacea, striae, photodamage, and skin cancers. It is important for clinicians and patients to be aware of the symptoms of these conditions as well as the most beneficial approaches for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and management. The life expectancy of women has increased and predictions for the year 2050 estimate the average age at 81 years. This will place women at greater risk for dermatological problems, especially photodamage and skin cancer. In addition, various ethnic groups may manifest these conditions differently. Although acne is most prevalent among teenaged males, most can expect clearing by age 25. Females may continue to experience acne into the adult years, sometimes beyond the age of 40. Although it is not a life-threatening disease, acne may have psychosocial and quality-of-life consequences. Treatments for acne can be topical or systemic, and include retinoids, antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid, and hormonal therapy. Rosacea is more common in women (especially during menopause) than in men. It is a chronic condition that can cause complications, including telangiectasia, conjunctivitis, and blepharitis. Although there is no cure, rosacea can be managed and controlled with medication. Topical antibiotics, such as metronidazole, and systemic antibiotics, such as tetracycline, clarithromycin, and doxycycline, are used to manage rosacea. Striae, or stretch marks, occur most frequently in pregnant women, adolescents experiencing growth spurts, weight lifters, and the obese. Although not a health threat, they can be psychologically distressing. There are not many treatment options for striae, but topical tretinoin and the pulsed dye laser offer promising results. Intrinsic, or normal, aging of the skin results from the process of chronological aging. Photodamage is skin damage caused by chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. It is the leading cause of extrinsic aging, or alterations of the skin due to environmental exposure. Estimates indicate that almost half of a person's UV exposure occurs by age 18. Photoaging causes numerous histologic, physiologic, and clinical changes; it also increases the risk for skin cancer. Photodamage can be prevented through the use of sun screens, protective clothing, and avoidance of the sun during peak intensity time. The only product approved by the FDA for the treatment of photodamage (fine wrinkles, mottled hyperpigmentation, and skin roughness), topical tretinoin emollient cream, may help prevent additional photoaging when it is used to treat existing photoaging. Other management options for photodamaged skin include alpha-hydroxy acids, antioxidants, antiandrogens, moisturizers, and exfoliants. In patients with excessive manifestations of photodamage, surgical management may be needed, including dermabrasion, chemical peels, soft tissue augmentation, laser resurfacing, botulism toxin, and Gortex threads. Clinicians must educate their patients about the most appropriate skin care regimen as well as approaches for preventing and treating common afflictions. In this way, women will have the best opportunity for having and maintaining healthy skin.
Article
During progression of atherosclerosis the overlying endothelial cells alter their expression of some surface molecules. Circulating levels of such molecules may be quantified. We investigated the effect of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) on the levels of tissue plasminogen activator antigen, von Willebrand factor, and the soluble forms of thrombomodulin, P-selectin, E-selectin, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in 54 patients with coronary heart disease. Twenty-three of the patients had taken 5.1 g/d n-3 FA for 6 months (group I) and 31 were given corn oil as placebo (group II). For another 4 weeks ("the study period") they all got 5.1 g/d of n-3 FA. Compliance was confirmed by demonstration of changes in relevant fatty acids in serum phospholipids. At baseline, significant differences between the groups were found with lower median values of von Willebrand factor (128% versus 147%) and soluble thrombomodulin (24.9 versus 32.5 ng/mL) and higher median values of soluble E-selectin (41.4 versus 35.5 ng/mL) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (573 versus 473 ng/mL) in group I. During the study period differences in changes between the groups were found; tissue plasminogen activator antigen and soluble thrombomodulin decreased (P for difference between the groups 0.001 and 0.015, respectively), whereas soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 increased (P for difference between the groups <0.01 for both) in group II relative to group I. Our results indicate that n-3 FA supplementation decreases hemostatic markers of atherosclerosis, whereas markers of inflammation may be increased. The latter may be the result of lipid peroxidation as a simultaneous decrease of vitamin E and increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were observed.
Article
The increase in the prevalence of atopic diseases has recently been linked to altered consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). As typical Western diets contain almost 10 times more linoleic acid (18:2 omega-6) than alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-3), it is the metabolism of the former that predominates. Subsequently produced arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids alter the balance of T-helper cells type 1 and type 2 thus favouring the production of immunoglobulin (Ig)E. In atopic subjects, the impact of this excessive eicosanoid production may be further strengthened as a result of changes in cyclic nucleotide metabolism exacerbated by substrate availability. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids can have marked influence on both specific and nonspecific immune responses in modifying eicosanoid production and replacing omega-6 fatty acids in cell membranes. Therefore, it is concluded that careful manipulation of dietary PUFAs may play a key role in the successful management of inflammation associated with atopic diseases.
Article
Total protein kinase C (PKC) activity in human skin fibroblasts increases during in vivo aging as a function of the donor's age. During in vitro aging protein kinase C activity is also increased, as a function of cell passage number. Using PKC isoform specific antibodies, we demonstrate that the increase in total PKC activity is mainly due to the PKC a isoform. PKC alpha protein expression increased up to 8 fold during in vivo aging. Collagenase (MMP-1) gene transcription and protein expression also increased with age, concomitant with the increase in protein kinase C alpha. Furthermore, alpha-tocopherol, which inhibits protein kinase C activity, is able to diminish collagenase gene transcription without altering the level of its natural inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase, TIMP-1. We propose that an aging program leads to increased protein kinase C alpha expression and activity. This event would induce collagenase overexpression followed by increased collagen degradation. Our in vitro experiments with skin fibroblasts suggest that alpha-tocopherol may protect against skin aging by decreasing the level of collagenase expression, which is induced by environmental insults and by aging.
Article
There is mounting evidence that inflammation plays a role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Observations have been made linking the presence of infections in the vessel wall with atherosclerosis, and epidemiological data also implicate infection in remote sites in the aetiology of CHD. In this article we propose a key role for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in several mechanisms that contribute to the development of CHD. IL-6 is a powerful inducer of the hepatic acute phase response. Elevated concentrations of acute phase reactants, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), are found in patients with acute coronary syndromes, and predict future risk in apparently healthy subjects. The acute phase reaction is associated with elevated levels of fibrinogen, a strong risk factor for CHD, with autocrine and paracrine activation of monocytes by IL-6 in the vessel wall contributing to the deposition of fibrinogen. The acute phase response is associated with increased blood viscosity, platelet number and activity. Furthermore, raised serum amyloid A lowers HDL-cholesterol levels. IL-6 decreases lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and monomeric LPL levels in plasma, which increases macrophage uptake of lipids. In fatty streaks and in the atheromatous 'cap' and 'shoulder' regions, macrophage foam cells and smooth muscle cells (SMC) express IL-6, suggesting a role for this cytokine along with interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in the progression of atherosclerosis. Both these cytokines induce the release of IL-6 from several cell types, including SMC. During vascular injury SMC are exposed to platelets or their products, and cytokine production by SMC further contributes to vascular damage. Furthermore, circulating IL-6 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, activation of which is associated with central obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance. Thus we propose a role for IL-6 in the pathogenesis of CHD through a combination of autocrine, paracrine and endocrine mechanisms. This hypothesis lends itself to testing using interventions to influence IL-6 secretion and actions.
Article
To clarify the behavioral and pathological features of spontaneous scratching of NC mice with mite-induced chronic dermatitis, we investigated the spontaneous and pruritogen-evoked scratching of NC mice. Although the frequency of scratching of NC mouse did not increase under specific pathogen-free environment, it gradually and markedly increased from 3 to 6 weeks after transfer to conventional environment. The onset of increase in spontaneous scratching was similar to that of dermatitis development and the elevation of plasma concentration of immunoglobulin E. At chronic stage (16 weeks after environment change), the frequency of spontaneous scratching was roughly parallel to the degree of dermatitis, but not to the plasma concentration of immunoglobulin E. The spontaneous scratching of NC mice with dermatitis was inhibited by distraction and the opioid antagonist naltrexone, suggesting that the scratching is itch-associated response. An intradermal injection of serotonin, but not histamine and substance P, elicited scratching of the injected site. Methysergide and cyproheptadine inhibited the serotonin-induced scratching but not spontaneous scratching. The results suggest that marked elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E is not always the cause of spontaneous itch-associated response of NC mice with dermatitis. Serotonin, histamine and substance P may not play an important role in spontaneous itch-scratch response at a chronic stage.
Article
Type I and type III procollagen are reduced in photodamaged human skin. This reduction could result from increased degradation by metalloproteinases and/or from reduced procollagen synthesis. In the present study, we investigated type I procollagen production in photodamaged and sun-protected human skin. Skin samples from severely sun-damaged forearm skin and matched sun-protected hip skin from the same individuals were assessed for type I procollagen gene expression by in situ hybridization and for type I procollagen protein by immunostaining. Both mRNA and protein were reduced ( approximately 65 and 57%, respectively) in photodamaged forearm skin compared to sun-protected hip skin. We next investigated whether reduced type I procollagen production was because of inherently reduced capacity of skin fibroblasts in severely photodamaged forearm skin to synthesize procollagen, or whether contextual influences within photodamaged skin act to down-regulate type I procollagen synthesis. For these studies, fibroblasts from photodamaged skin and matched sun-protected skin were established in culture. Equivalent numbers of fibroblasts were isolated from the two skin sites. Fibroblasts from the two sites had similar growth capacities and produced virtually identical amounts of type I procollagen protein. These findings indicate that the lack of type I procollagen synthesis in sun-damaged skin is not because of irreversible damage to fibroblast collagen-synthetic capacity. It follows, therefore, that factors within the severely photodamaged skin may act in some manner to inhibit procollagen production by cells that are inherently capable of doing so. Interactions between fibroblasts and the collagenous extracellular matrix regulate type I procollagen synthesis. In sun-protected skin, collagen fibrils exist as a highly organized matrix. Fibroblasts are found within the matrix, in close apposition with collagen fibers. In photodamaged skin, collagen fibrils are shortened, thinned, and disorganized. The level of partially degraded collagen is approximately 3.6-fold greater in photodamaged skin than in sun-protected skin, and some fibroblasts are surrounded by debris. To model this situation, skin fibroblasts were cultured in vitro on intact collagen or on collagen that had been partially degraded by exposure to collagenolytic enzymes. Collagen that had been partially degraded by exposure to collagenolytic enzymes from either bacteria or human skin underwent contraction in the presence of dermal fibroblasts, whereas intact collagen did not. Fibroblasts cultured on collagen that had been exposed to either source of collagenolytic enzyme demonstrated reduced proliferative capacity (22 and 17% reduction on collagen degraded by bacterial collagenase or human skin collagenase, respectively) and synthesized less type I procollagen (36 and 88% reduction, respectively, on a per cell basis). Taken together, these findings indicate that 1) fibroblasts from photoaged and sun-protected skin are similar in their capacities for growth and type I procollagen production; and 2) the accumulation of partially degraded collagen observed in photodamaged skin may inhibit, by an as yet unidentified mechanism, type I procollagen synthesis.
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Article
Previous studies have documented that the ability to heal wounds declines with age. Although many factors contribute to this age-associated deficit, one variable that has not been carefully examined is leukocyte recruitment and function in wounds. This investigation compares the inflammatory response in excisional wounds of young (age 8 wk) and aged (age 22 mo) mice. In the early inflammatory response, neutrophil content of wounds was similar for both aged and young mice. In contrast, macrophage levels were 56% higher in aged versus young mice (81 +/- 20 vs 52 +/- 13 cells per mm2). In the later inflammatory response, wounds of aged mice exhibited a delay in T cell infiltration, with maximum T cell levels at day 10 in aged mice versus day 7 in young mice. Despite this delay, the eventual peak concentration of T cells was 23% higher in the wounds of aged mice (152 +/- 11 cells per mm2 vs 124 +/- 21cells per mm2). The observed alterations in inflammatory cell content suggested that chemokine production might be altered with age. An elevation of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) levels was observed in wounds of aged mice. RNase protection studies, however, revealed that the production of most chemokines, including MIP-2, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and eotaxin, tended to decline with age. Because optimal wound healing requires both appropriate macrophage infiltration and phagocytic activity, phagocytosis was examined. Compared to young mice, wound macrophages from aged mice exhibited a 37%-43% reduction in phagocytic capacity. Taken together, the data demonstrate age-related shifts in both macrophage and T cell infiltration into wounds, alterations in chemokine content, and a concurrent decline in wound macrophage phagocytic function. These alterations may contribute to the delayed repair response of aging.
Article
Vitamin E (VE) is a potent antioxidant that can improve the immune macrophage-mediated response, decrease the production and/or release of prostaglandins in humans, and decrease the serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in atopic subjects. To compare the effects of placebo (PL) and VE intake (400 IU/day) on subjective symptoms and serum IgE levels in 96 subjects with atopic dermatitis. A single-blind clinical analysis was performed on 96 subjects randomly divided into two groups. Fifty subjects were given orally 400 IU (268 mg) of VE of natural origin, once a day for 8 months, and 46 took PL for the same period. Complete blood count, serum IgE levels, radioallergosorbent test (RAST) score, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and biochemical analysis were obtained at the time of enrollment and every 15 days during the 8 months of the study. To evaluate VE therapy, a questionnaire was sent to each subject for completion at the end of the study. The results were as follows: (A) four subjects treated with VE worsened, compared to 36 in the PL group; (B) six subjects in the VE group and five in the PL group showed no change; (C) slight improvement was observed in 10 subjects in the VE group and four in the PL group; (D) 23 of the 50 subjects treated with VE showed great improvement, compared to only one in the PL group; and (E) there was almost complete remission of atopic dermatitis in seven of the 50 subjects in the VE group, but none in the PL group. Females showed less progression of atopic dermatitis than males in both groups and a higher percentage of almost complete remission (five females and two males). The range of serum IgE levels varied markedly from 1005 to 490 IU/mL in the VE group and from 1239 to 812 IU/mL in the PL group over 8 months. Subjects with great improvement and near remission of atopic dermatitis in the VE group demonstrated a decrease of 62% in serum IgE levels based on initial conditions, while, in subjects taking PL, the difference was approximately 34.4%. No complications were observed in either group. A remarkable improvement in facial erythema, lichenification, and the presence of apparently normal skin was reported. Eczematous lesions healed mostly as a result of decreased pruritus. The correlation between VE intake, IgE levels, and the clinical manifestations of atopy indicates that VE could be an excellent therapeutic tool for atopic dermatitis.
Article
Several sources of information suggest that human beings evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFA) of approximately 1 whereas in Western diets the ratio is 15/1-16.7/1. Western diets are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and have excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids compared with the diet on which human beings evolved and their genetic patterns were established. Excessive amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a very high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promote the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whereas increased levels of omega-3 PUFA (a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio) exert suppressive effects. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a ratio of 4/1 was associated with a 70% decrease in total mortality. A ratio of 2.5/1 reduced rectal cell proliferation in patients with colorectal cancer, whereas a ratio of 4/1 with the same amount of omega-3 PUFA had no effect. The lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio in women with breast cancer was associated with decreased risk. A ratio of 2-3/1 suppressed inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and a ratio of 5/1 had a beneficial effect on patients with asthma, whereas a ratio of 10/1 had adverse consequences. These studies indicate that the optimal ratio may vary with the disease under consideration. This is consistent with the fact that chronic diseases are multigenic and multifactorial. Therefore, it is quite possible that the therapeutic dose of omega-3 fatty acids will depend on the degree of severity of disease resulting from the genetic predisposition. A lower ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is more desirable in reducing the risk of many of the chronic diseases of high prevalence in Western societies, as well as in the developing countries, that are being exported to the rest of the world.
Article
In recent years, a more detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of several inflammatory skin diseases, combined with the developments within biotechnology, has made it possible to design more selective response modifiers. Biological response modifiers hold the potential for greater effectiveness and fewer side-effects than the current systemic therapies now used for severe psoriasis, contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. In the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases, the immune system plays a pivotal role, and this is where biological response modifiers such as monoclonal antibodies, recombinant cytokines, or fusion proteins may be effective. Several biological response modifiers have already shown positive results in phase II/III clinical trials in skin diseases, and many new biological response modifiers are in progress.
Article
For many persons who wish to obtain the health benefits provided by dietary n-3 fatty acids, daily ingestion of fish or fish oil is not a sustainable long-term approach. To increase the number of sustainable dietary options, a land-based source of n-3 fatty acids that is effective in increasing tissue concentrations of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is required. The objective of the study was to examine the ability of dietary stearidonic acid (SDA) to increase tissue concentrations of EPA and DHA in healthy human subjects and to compare the effectiveness of SDA with that of the n-3 fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and EPA. Encapsulated SDA, ALA, or EPA was ingested daily in doses of 0.75 g and then 1.5 g for periods of 3 wk each by healthy male and postmenopausal female subjects (n = 15/group) in a double-blind, parallel-group design. Dietary SDA increased EPA and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations but not DHA concentrations in erythrocyte and in plasma phospholipids. The relative effectiveness of the tested dietary fatty acids in increasing tissue EPA was 1:0.3:0.07 for EPA:SDA:ALA. Vegetable oils containing SDA could be a dietary source of n-3 fatty acids that would be more effective in increasing tissue EPA concentrations than are current ALA-containing vegetable oils. The use of SDA-containing oils in food manufacture could provide a wide range of dietary alternatives for increasing tissue EPA concentrations.
Article
The successive phases that make up both the local and systemic posttraumatic acute inflammatory response could represent the expression of three concatenated pathological or "primitive" functional systems with trophic properties: the nervous, immune, and endocrine ones. The nervous functional system would play an important role in the phenomenon of ischemia-reperfusion, which would be represented by nutrition by diffusion that is either anaerobic (ischemia) or with defective use of oxygen (reperfusion) and, thus, with a limited energy requirement. The immune functional system would be represented by the infiltration of the tissues by inflammatory cells and bacteria, which would become mediators in providing nutrition to the injured tissues. Although the use of oxygen would still be defective, hypermetabolism and fever would occur. In these inflammatory response phases, the lymphatic is the most important circulation. The endocrine functional system would be the most specialized and would have high energy requirements because it would be represented by the blood capillary-mediated nutrition. Highly specialized epithelial cells would already possess a perfected oxidative metabolism. The successive expression of these three functional systems during embryonic development and also during the evolutionary development of our species could explain why the inflammatory response is a ubiquitous mechanism that is common to multiple diseases, because it is an integrator of the ontogeny and phylogeny.
Article
Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease. Recent studies have pointed out the possibility that virgin olive oil (VOO) may lower blood pressure in hypertensive (HT) subjects. However, until the date there is scarce information regarding elderly people. The present study was designed to assess the effect of dietary VOO on blood pressure in medically treated hypertensive elderly patients. 31 medically treated HT elderly patients and 31 normotensive (NT) elderly volunteers participated in a randomized sequential dietary intervention. Subjects consumed diets enriched in sunflower oil (SO) or VOO for 4 weeks each with a 4-week washout period between them. VOO reduced total and LDL-cholesterol in NT but not in HT (P < 0.01) and the concentrations were lower than in the group consuming SO. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the levels of tocopherols among the groups studied. Iron-induced oxidation of LDL resulted in a complete loss of monoacylglycerols (MG) and diacylglycerols (DG) and a reduction in triacylglycerols (TG) (60-80%), which was found to be greater in HT (P < 0.01) with no effect of diet. VOO consumption normalized systolic pressure in the HT group (136 +/- 10 mmHg) compared to SO (150 +/- 8 mmHg). Dietary VOO proved to be helpful in reducing the systolic pressure of treated HT elderly subjects. However, a greater resistance to the lowering effect of VOO of total and LDL-cholesterol and a greater susceptibility to TG oxidation was detected in these patients.
Article
The metabolic syndrome has been identified as a target for dietary therapies to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease; however, the role of diet in the etiology of the metabolic syndrome is poorly understood. To assess the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial function and vascular inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Randomized, single-blind trial conducted from June 2001 to January 2004 at a university hospital in Italy among 180 patients (99 men and 81 women) with the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III. Patients in the intervention group (n = 90) were instructed to follow a Mediterranean-style diet and received detailed advice about how to increase daily consumption of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and olive oil; patients in the control group (n = 90) followed a prudent diet (carbohydrates, 50%-60%; proteins, 15%-20%; total fat, <30%). Nutrient intake; endothelial function score as a measure of blood pressure and platelet aggregation response to l-arginine; lipid and glucose parameters; insulin sensitivity; and circulating levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukins 6 (IL-6), 7 (IL-7), and 18 (IL-18). After 2 years, patients following the Mediterranean-style diet consumed more foods rich in monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and fiber and had a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids. Total fruit, vegetable, and nuts intake (274 g/d), whole grain intake (103 g/d), and olive oil consumption (8 g/d) were also significantly higher in the intervention group (P<.001). The level of physical activity increased in both groups by approximately 60%, without difference between groups (P =.22). Mean (SD) body weight decreased more in patients in the intervention group (-4.0 [1.1] kg) than in those in the control group (-1.2 [0.6] kg) (P<.001). Compared with patients consuming the control diet, patients consuming the intervention diet had significantly reduced serum concentrations of hs-CRP (P =.01), IL-6 (P =.04), IL-7 (P = 0.4), and IL-18 (P = 0.3), as well as decreased insulin resistance (P<.001). Endothelial function score improved in the intervention group (mean [SD] change, +1.9 [0.6]; P<.001) but remained stable in the control group (+0.2 [0.2]; P =.33). At 2 years of follow-up, 40 patients in the intervention group still had features of the metabolic syndrome, compared with 78 patients in the control group (P<.001). A Mediterranean-style diet might be effective in reducing the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiovascular risk.
Article
Lipoproteins such as LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and oxidized LDL have potentially adverse effects on endothelial cells due to their ability to activate pro-inflammatory pathways regulated via the transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB). Triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (the chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein and their respective remnant particles) have also been implicated in the induction of a pro-inflammatory phenotype and up-regulation of adhesion molecule expression. Although early studies supported the proposal that LPL (lipoprotein lipase)-mediated hydrolysis of TRLs (triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) at the endothelium could activate the NFkappaB pathway, more recent studies provide evidence of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses when cells are exposed to fatty acids or TRL particles. A large number of genes are up- and down-regulated when cells are exposed to TRL, with the net effect reflecting receptor- and nonreceptor-mediated pathways that are activated or inhibited depending on fatty acid type, the lipid and apolipoprotein composition of the TRL and the presence or absence of LPL. Early concepts of TRL particles as essentially pro-inflammatory stimuli to the endothelium provide an overly simplistic view of their impact on the vascular compartment.
Article
Background/purpose: The aging process has been studied with fervor recently, given our shifting demographics. As age's effects are so manifest in the skin's appearance, structure, mechanics, and barrier function, it is not surprising that much effort has been made in research to better understand them. Quantitative measurements permitted by bioengineering have allowed us to objectively and precisely study aging skin. These overviews piece together the immense amounts of information that have emerged from recent technological advances in dermatological research in order to develop a unified understanding of the quantitative effects of age on skin.
Article
Cutaneous tissue repair aims at restoring the barrier function of the skin. To achieve this, defects need to be replaced by granulation tissue to form new connective tissue, and epithelial wound closure is required to restore the physical barrier. Different wound-healing phases are recognized, starting with an inflammation-dominated early phase giving way to granulation tissue build-up and scar remodeling after epithelial wound closure has been achieved. In the granulation tissue, mesenchymal cells are maximally activated, cells proliferate, and synthesize huge amounts of extracellular matrix. Epithelial cells also proliferate and migrate over the provisional matrix of the underlying granulation tissue, eventually closing the defect. This review focuses on the role of keratinocyte-fibroblast interactions in the wound-healing process. There is ample evidence that keratinocytes stimulate fibroblasts to synthesize growth factors, which in turn will stimulate keratinocyte proliferation in a double paracrine manner. Moreover, fibroblasts can acquire a myofibroblast phenotype under the control of keratinocytes. This depends on a finely tuned balance between a proinflammatory or a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-dominated environment. As the phenotype of fibroblasts from different tissues or body sites becomes better defined, we may understand their individual contribution in wound healing in more detail and possibly explain different clinical outcomes.