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Analysis of paint degradation by fungal and bacterial species

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Paint is a liquor blend, used as a decorative or protective coating. Paints are the main source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), very harmful for the environment and human beings. In the present study, fungal and bacterial growth on paint flakes sandwiched between the mineral salt medium agar layers were subjected to various analysis. Dry cell mass quantification was carried out by shake flask experiment with fungal inoculum. The maximum growth of 0.7g observed on 28th day. Further evidence of paint film biodegradation was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. The loss in intensity of the bands at a wavelength of 1115.7 cm-1 and 1065.67 cm-1 for ester linkages indicated degradation of the paints through the breaking of the ester group. A loss in intensity of bands at a wavelength of 3286.87 cm-1 (corresponding alcoholic peak) due to breakage of alcoholic linkages. Scanning electron micrographs clearly showed the adherence and fungal growth on paint flakes and the distorted / ruptured surface was also observed in three months treated paint samples. The current research study represents the significant trends of paint biodegradation by isolated microorganism.
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Pak. J. Bot., 47(2): 753-760, 2015.
ANALYSIS OF PAINT DEGRADATION BY FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL SPECIES
SHUMAILA ISHFAQ
1
, NAEEM ALI
1
, ISFAHAN TAUSEEF
2
, MUHAMMAD NASIR KHAN KHATTAK
3
,
ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI
4,5
AND MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ ALI
1*
1
Microbiology Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Quaid-i-Azam University,
Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan
2
Department of Microbiology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan
3
Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan
4
Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan
5
Pakistan Academy of Sciences, Islamabad-Pakistan
*Corresponding author e-mail: ishi_ali@hotmail.com Phone: +925190643196; Fax: +925190643156
Abstract
Paint is a liquor blend, used as a decorative or protective coating. Paints are the main source of volatile organic
compounds (VOCs), very harmful for the environment and human beings. In the present study, fungal and bacterial growth
on paint flakes sandwiched between the mineral salt medium agar layers were subjected to various analysis. Dry cell mass
quantification was carried out by shake flask experiment with fungal inoculum. The maximum growth of 0.7g observed on
28th day. Further evidence of paint film biodegradation was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. The loss in intensity of the bands at a wavelength of 1115.7 cm
-1
and
1065.67 cm
-1
for ester linkages indicated degradation of the paints through the breaking of the ester group. A loss in
intensity of bands at a wavelength of 3286.87 cm
-1
(corresponding alcoholic peak) due to breakage of alcoholic linkages.
Scanning electron micrographs clearly showed the adherence and fungal growth on paint flakes and the distorted / ruptured
surface was also observed in three months treated paint samples. The current research study represents the significant trends
of paint biodegradation by isolated microorganism.
Key words: Biodegradation, Dry cell mass, Alcoholic linkage, Fungal adherence.
Introduction
Paint is a synthetic substance commonly used to
provide texture to infrastructure, furniture and utensil of
everyday life (Bently & Turner, 1997). Primarily, it is
composed of pigments, binder, solvents and certain
additives. Paints are found either in the form of Emulsion
or Oil based formulations (Talbert & Rodger, 2007).
Organic chemicals such as volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) are used in paints as solvents (Goldstein &
Galbally, 2007). These solvents may cause short and long-
term environmental impacts (Spurgeon, 2006), and may
lead to respiratory, allergic, or immunogenic defects in
humans (Mendell, 2007). Frequently, paints also contain a
high level of mercury or lead and their ingestion may lead
to serious health problems such as nerve and kidney
damage. In addition, other metals such as chromium and
cadmium are also reported to provide many health risks.
Further, some paints also contain antifouling compounds
like Tributyline (TBT) which has proven to be highly toxic
to marine life (Omae, 2002).
Paint’s deterioration on surfaces or in the
environment causes its components to be mineralized.
This corrosion on the surface is not only an economic
loss, but also results in the release of harmful
degradation products into the environment causing an
alarming situation. Although there are certain chemical
approaches available for removal of degraded products,
these methods have some disadvantages.
Microorganisms are renowned for their potential to
degrade synthetic compounds, various microbial
species reported for paint degradation (Vanderberg-
Twary et al., 1997; Cifferi, 1999; Ahmad et al., 2011).
Major groups of microbes, involved in paints
degradation, are bacteria and fungi. Various fungi, e.g.,
species of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium,
Chaetomium, and Alternaria are reported to play a vital
role in such degradative processes (Altenburger et al.,
1996; Cifferri, 1999; Ravikumar et al., 2012). However,
few bacterial species belonging to genera of
Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Streptomyces have also
been reported (Altenburger et al., 1996). The present
study was carried out in order to evaluate the
biodegradation of paint when it is released as waste in the
environment. This involved isolation and screening of
different bacterial and fungal strains to testify their
biodegradation abilities of paint.
Materials and Methods
Screening of microbial isolates by agar plate assay:
Mineral salt medium containing the paint as the only
carbon source used to monitor the growth of microbial
isolates. Paint flakes (Berger paint) were kept between
two layers of mineral salt agar in petri plates. The mineral
salt medium (MSM) (K
2
HPO
4
: 1.0g, KH
2
PO
4
:0.2g, NaCl:
1.0g, Boric acid: 0.005g, CaCl
2
. 2H
2
O: 0.002g,
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
:1.0g, MgSO
4
. 7H
2
O:0.5g, CuSO
4
:0.001g,)
Agar 2%was used for determining the deteriogenic
properties of the isolates. Fungal strains were maintained
on slant of Sabouraud’s agar. Media was sterilized by
autoclaving at 121
o
C and 15 Ibs pressure for 20 minutes.
The pH of the media was adjusted prior to sterilization
with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid.
The plates were inoculated with 1ml of fungal spore
suspension and kept in incubator at 35°C for 7 days in the
incubator for further analysis.
SHUMAILA ISHFAQ ET AL.,
754
Biomass quantification experiment: It represents the
ability of selected microorganism to grow and utilize
component of the paint blend as sole carbon source. The
quantification was done for the screening of isolates from
degradation experiments by examining the growth of
microorganisms on the paint flakes. The fungal isolates
were cultured in 50 ml flask containing mineral salt
medium with paint sample as a sole carbon source. Fungal
biomass was quantified on a weekly basis in shaking
incubator at 155 rpm at 30
o
C. The whole contents of flask
containing the fungal culture were filtered through pre
weight Whitman filter paper # 1. Biomass on filter paper
was dried in oven at 50°C to constant weight. The filter
paper was re-weighed overnight to get the dry biomass.
Shake flask experiment with fungal inoculum: Shake
flask experiment with 100 ml mineral salt medium, 1 ml
fungal spore suspension and oil paint flakes was carried in
a shaker at 35°C. Samples of paint flakes were collected
after intervals of 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. Flakes surface
was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
(FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Shake flask experiment with bacterial inoculum: Shake
flask experiment with bacterial inoculum (1 ml) with 1ml
paint emulsion was carried out in100 ml mineral salt
medium, at 37°C for 14 days. The optical density of bacterial
inoculum at 600nm wavelength of spectrophotometer was
recorded to check the bacterial growth.
Analysis by fourier transform infra red (FTIR)
spectroscopy: Analysis of chemical changes in the paint
flakes biodegradation during shake flask experiments was
performed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
(FTIR) was used to analyze the changes in the functional
groups and the structure of the paint. The pieces of paint
flakes were fixed to the FTIR sample plate. Spectra were
taken at 400 to 4000 wave-numbers cm
-1
.
Analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM): The
surface morphology of the paint flakes was analyzed
through scanning electron microscopy after shake flask
experiment. Samples were coated for 30 seconds in
sputter coater SP1-Module TM. Then the images were
withdrawn by using JEOL JSM-5910 scanning electron
microscope. The images of control and test samples were
observed and recorded.
Results and Discussion
Visual observation results: Visual observation of fungal
treated paint samples compared with control indicates that
paint color was faded and surface became ruptured and
fungal growth was also observed (Fig. 1). The
Fungal strains were screened out for the biodegradation
of the paint on the basis of the fungal adherence on the MSM
medium with paint as the only carbon source. Plate assay
results showed the fungal growth of Aspergillus,
Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Rhizopus on the MSM
agar plate containing paint as shown in Fig. 2. Fungal hyphae
were observed on the plates (Arquiaga et al., 1995; Obidi et
al., 2005). The fungal species Aspergillus niger,
Cladosporium sp. growth is reported common on painted
wall (Adeleye & adeleye, 2000; Gaylarde & Gaylarde, 2005;
Shirakawa et al., 2010;).
Fig. 1. Visual observation of paint samples (a) Control (b)
Fungal treated.
Dry cell mass experiment was carried out for paint
degradation with three fungal strains and dry cell mass
was calculated after 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. The data
obtained depicted that fungal dry cell mass was increased
from 0.1 to 0.7g between 7 to 28 days and then decreased
(Fig. 3). This increase in dry cell mass of fungal strains
could be due to the fact that fungal strains used the paint
as the sole carbon source in minimal salt media and with
passage of time, they adjusted themselves on this carbon
source resulting in a significant increase in growth (Kim,
2003; Aina et al., 201; Ravikumar and Karigar, 2012).
Optical density with bacterial cultures showed an
increase in Bacillus sp. growth from 0 to 8
th
day (Fig. 4).
However, on 10
th
day, an inconsistency in growth was
observed when it decreased to an ~ 25% lower level. The
growth level resumed and increased again after 10
th
day
of analysis. Maximum growth of Bacillus culture in
emulsion paint was detected on 6th and 8th day.
Microorganism under stress condition utilizes synthetic
organic matter as a energy source ( Prescott et al.,
2002;Gaylarde and Gaylarde, 2005).
An increase in growth of Pseudomonas sp., was
observed up to 4
th
day (Fig. 4). However, initially a
decrease in growth was observed for Bacillus sp., up to 6
th
day (Fig. 4) followed by an increase till 10
th
day (Fig. 4).
The slow growth rate was observed with Bacillus subtilus
leading to a slow biodegradation rate.
FTIR analysis of the treated paint films with three
fungal strains showed few changes in sample spectra, as
compared to control spectrum (Fig. 5, Fig. 6a, b & c). In
control, the peak at wavelength 3286.87 cm-1
(alcoholic) decreased in treated samples of paint after 7,
14 and 21 days (Fig. 6 and Fig. 7). An increase in the
peak length at wavelength 2923.8cm-1 (CH
3
) was
observed in treated samples of 14 and 21 days, but there
is no significant change in 7 days treated sample. The
peak at wavelength 1722.92cm-1 (aldehydes)
conjugation with ketonic group, increased in treated
samples of 7, 14 and 21 days as compared to control.
FTIR analysis can be used for the characterization of
biodeterioration of paint (Cappitelli et al., 2005).
a
b
ANALYSIS OF PAINT DEGRADATION BY FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL SPECIES
755
Fig. 2. Fungal adherence and growth on agar plates (A) Aspergillus niger, (B) Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Fig. 3. Dry cell mass of emulsion sample with Aspergillus niger,
Rhizopus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Fig. 4. Growth changes of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in
paint emulsion.
Fig. 5. FTIR spectra of paint sample as a control.
A B
SHUMAILA ISHFAQ ET AL.,
756
Fig. 6. FTIR spectra of 14 days treated paint sample of (a) Rhizopus sp. (b) Phanerochaete chrysosporium (c) Aspergillus niger.
(a)
(b)
(c)
ANALYSIS OF PAINT DEGRADATION BY FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL SPECIES
757
Fig. 7. FTIR spectra of 21 days treated paint sample of (a) Rhizopus sp. (b) Phanerochaete chrysosporium (c) Aspergillus niger.
(a)
(b)
(c)
SHUMAILA ISHFAQ ET AL.,
758
The peak at wavelength 1635 cm-1 indicates the
primary amine completely disappeared in treated
samples. Carboxylic acid peak at wavelength 1251 cm-1
is increased in 7, 14 and 21 days samples as compared to
control. The decrease in alcoholic peak was not much
greater in 7 days treated paint samples but it was more
prominent decrease in 14 and 21 days treated paint
samples. The peaks wavelength 115.7 cm-1 and 1065.67
cm-1 indicates the ester stretching and these peaks were
decreased in 21days treated paint samples. The peak at
wavelength 1541.16 cm-1 indicates alkane group was
present in control paint sample, but was completely
disappeared in treated paint samples. The Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis of the
fungal treated paint films showed few changes in sample
spectra as compared to control spectrum in our studies.
Our results were consistent with the previous studies
suggesting that Phthalic acid is converted to
protocatechuic acid, which degrades to ß-carboxy-cis,
cis-muconate via the ortho-cleavage pathway and is
immediately transformed into γ-carboxy muconolactone
leading to the TCA cycle. The gradual diminution in
intensity of ester bands after attack of microorganism in
our studies could be due to change in polymeric
structure by rupturing the ester linkages. Similar results
were also observed in paint films biodegradation by
Dutta (Dutta et al., 2005).
Samples of paint flakes were collected after intervals
of 21 days and 3 months and biodegradation was analyzed
by Scanning electron microscopy. The analysis indicates
the surface changes in paint treated samples of 14 days
and three months compared with the control (Figs. 8, 9,
10 & 11). The SEM photographs showed that surface
roughness increased in treated samples due to degradation
as compared to control. Even some holes were observed
in biodegraded samples of paint after three months. A
similar pattern of biodeterioration of paint observed
earlier (Aecio et al., 2011).
The rough and wrinkled texture, increased in treated
samples as compared to control. Surface roughness was
less in 14 days treated samples, but it was more prominent
in three months treated samples of paint. Evidence of
hyphal penetration and disruption of the paint was
observed and it was found that changes in the surface
roughness increased over the duration of the microbial
exposure. SEM analysis has shown that interactions
between the fungal hyphal of A. pullans and the paint
flakes are such that the hyphae may initiate the
breakdown of the paint film (English et al., 2003).
Fig. 8. SEM photograph of paint sample with Aspergillus niger arrows indicating the holes (21, 90 days).
Fig. 9. SEM photograph of paint sample with Rhizopus sp. Arrows indicating the cracks (21, 90 days).
ANALYSIS OF PAINT DEGRADATION BY FUNGAL AND BACTERIAL SPECIES
759
Fig. 10. SEM photograph of paint sample with Phanerochaete chrysosporium arrows indicating the holes and pits (21, 90 days).
Fig. 11. SEM photograph of control.
In conclusion selected fungal and bacterial strains
have shown the ability to adhere and degrade the paint
flakes under stress conditions. Fungal strains showed
more promising results for paint degradation in term of
surface changes and surface and chemical structure
change when evaluated by SEM and FTIR respectively.
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(Received for publication 15 October 2013)
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... All the flasks were agitated at 200 rpm at 27ºC for a period of 28-30 days and the content of each test including the control were harvested (Thenmozhi et al., 2013). Before harvesting visual observation of fungal treated UEO samples were compared with control to visualize oil over the surface of medium contents and fungal growth (Ishfaq et al., 2015). During harvesting, contents inside the flasks were filtered with the help of Whatman No.1 S124 Eco. ...
... Even some holes were observed in biodegraded samples of oil after 30 days. A similar pattern of biodeterioration of paint was observed earlier by Breitbach et al. (2011) and Ishfaq et al. (2015) while studying the surface changes of fungal treated Fig. 2(b). Showing left flask as negative control without fungus and right flask MP 5 containing BH broth, fungal isolate and 2% (v/v) used engine oil after biodegradation. ...
... Their existence in paints makes them readily used for food and energy by microbes, together with the combined effects of temperature, oxygen supply, pH changes and other environmental factors [8]. Very many paint products reportedly contain high levels of mercury, chromium, cadmium, and lead (to mention a few) which can lead to serious health problems when ingested, taken in or absorbed into the [9]. Toxic level of heavy metal in water bodies can cause modification of immunological response of aquatic animals resulting in physiological changes in them. ...
... Key: + = Positive AG = Acid and Gas production; -= Negative ND = Not done; A = Acid production G = Gas production The potency of microbes as agents for degradation of several compounds thus indicates that biological treatment can be a promising alternative to attenuate environmental impact caused by pollutants [25]. The most prominent bacterial isolates Pseudomonas spp and Escherichia coli isolated in this study was similar to the findings by Odokuma et al., (2013) [25] [8,9,26,27,28], who mostly isolated the Pseudomonas spp, and Streptomyces spp from paint polluted samples. ...
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The potential of microorganisms isolated from paint industry effluent-polluted soils to degrade the constituentsof the effluents and contaminant removal efficiency after the remediation period were evaluated. Samples werecollected from six different paint industries in Aba. Samples from the various paint industries reveals sample Fshowed the highest bacterial plate counts of 6.21±0.20 x 104cfu/g while samples B and D had the least bacterialcounts of 1.30±0.20 x 104cfu/g and 1.30±0.31 x 104cfu/g respectively. The fungal counts of the polluted soilsindicates sample D as having the highest count of 2.30±0.24 x 104cfu/g while sample A had the least count of1.00±0.30 x104cfu/g. Total Paint Utilizing Fungal (TPUF) counts ranges from 1.23±0.02 x 104cfu/g to3.45±0.10 x 104cfu/g and showed a significant difference between sample C and the control (p<0.05). Thebacterial isolates from the contaminated soil include Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp.,Klebsiella spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp., Providencia rettgeri, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus spp.,Streptococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. while the fungal isolates include Saccharomyces cerevisiae,Rhodotorula species, Rhizopus species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillum notatum. Thecounts of actual paint utilizing fungi were relatively lower than the heterotrophic groups. The paint degradingmicroorganisms isolated from the paint industry effluent polluted soils include paint effluent bacterial degraders:Pseudomonas spp. (33.3%), Escherichia coli(33.3%),, Citrobacter spp. (25%), Klebsiella spp.(25%), Proteusspp.(25%), Enterobacter spp.(12.5%). and Providencia rettgeri(12.5%), While the fungal paint effluentdegraders include Geotrichum candidum(33.3%), Pichia kudriavzevii(33.3%), Fusarium sp.(25%), Aspergillusniger(25%), Penicillium funiculosum(25%) and Mucor sp.(12.5%). Geotrichum candidum strain GAD1(MN63874.1) and Pichia kudriavzevii strain (MK811096.1) showed highest degrees of growth indicated by highturbidities during the screening test. This study showed that majority of the Indigenous organisms has the abilityto utilize paints as their sole carbon source hence are the major bioremediating agents in the sampling areas.
... The fungi isolated from the unpolluted soil samples include in this research especially the Aspergillus spp and the Fusarium spp, were also obtained in the works of [28][29][30][31], where the Rhizopus spp, which was absent in this work, was the predominant species. The bacterial isolates from the unpolluted soil and the polluted soil matched those obtained by [28][29][30][31][32], who mostly isolated the Pseudomonas spp, and Streptomyces spp from paint polluted samples. ...
... The fungi isolated from the unpolluted soil samples include in this research especially the Aspergillus spp and the Fusarium spp, were also obtained in the works of [28][29][30][31], where the Rhizopus spp, which was absent in this work, was the predominant species. The bacterial isolates from the unpolluted soil and the polluted soil matched those obtained by [28][29][30][31][32], who mostly isolated the Pseudomonas spp, and Streptomyces spp from paint polluted samples. [11,8,9]. ...
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The remediation potentials of wheat bran and wood chips as Bulking-agents on paint effluent-Polluted Soils was evaluated. Different concentrations of bulking agents (10%, 30%, and 50%) were introduced into soils polluted with effluents and the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the soils were monitored for a period of 24 weeks. The Mean Heterotrophic Count (THC) of the Bacterial and fungal Isolates from the Paint effluents indicates that the effluents from sample F showed the highest bacterial count of 6.66±2.51 x 10 4 cfu/ml, while sample B exhibited the least bacterial counts of 1.7±2.00x10 4 cfu/ml. Sample B showed the highest fungal count of 7.5±0.21 x10 4 cfu/ml while sample E showed the least count of 5.7±12.10x10 4 cfu/ml. The microorganisms isolated from the paint industry effluents include species of Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Mucor, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium funiculosum and Geotrichum. Bacterial and fungal counts shows wood chips contain of 3.20x10 4 cfu/g and 1.58x10 4 cfu/g respectively while Wheat bran contains 3.47x10 4 cfu/g and 1.77x10 4 cfu/grespectively. Fungal isolates from the bulking agents include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula species, Rhizopus species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillum notatum. The Bacterial and fungal counts of the paint-effluent polluted soil mixed with bulking agents over a 6-month remediation period increased progressively from the 1 st week to the week 8, after which there was a decline from week 9 down. The polluted soil without amendment presented a slight increase in microbial growth. Higher microbial growth rates were manifested by the 50% amended option, followed by 30%, 10% and then the control. The Total Heterotrophic Bacteria isolated from the polluted soil amended with bulking agents include Pseudomonas putida, Serratia spp., Flavobacterium spp., Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Arthrobacter spp. The Mean Physicochemical properties of the paint-effluent polluted soil mixed with bulking agents over the 24 weeks remediation reveals the pH ranges from 6.60±0.10 to 7.54±0.09 for the paint effluent polluted soil amended with a combination of the bulking agents. The concentrations of zinc, total nitrogen, total organic carbon and electrical conductivity levels had significant statistical difference across the samples through the period of remediation at p< 0.05. Germination test reveals growth of the bean seeds (Vicia faba) after 6 days of planting but significantly in the 50% treatment samples. The study however, demonstrates that paint effluent polluted soils treated with combination of bulking agents mainly at 50% amendment concentration reduces the toxicity of pollutants and increase the percentage of germination.
... Most studies by previous researcher focused on isolation of bacteria from paint wastewater, with little emphasis on fungi. However, studies have shown that fungi can also play key roles in biodegradation and deterioration of paints and coated surfaces (Ravikumar et al., 2012;Okunye et al., 2013;Rahim and Dawar, 2015). Some fungi such as Mucor, Aspergillus, and Penicillium species have been found to possess the enzymatic machinery for the biodegradation of both soluble and insoluble organic compounds in waste water (Faryal and Hameed, 2005). ...
... The level of heterotrophic fungi recorded in this study for the paint contaminated soils is in agreement with previous reports (Ishfaq et al., 2015) and the relatively reduced populations of the fungal paint utilizers could be attributed to the toxic effect of certain components of paint at relatively high concentrations (Rahim et al., 2015;Phulpoto et al., 2016). The possible reason for the rise in paint degradation could be attributed to the increase in cell number during the degradation process demonstrating the ability of utilizing these paints as potentil the energy source for the fungi. ...
... The bacterial biodeteriorative enzymatic repertoire was occasionally examined [16,17,24]. However, fungal mechanisms remain elusive, as few studies attempted to characterise their enzymes involved in canvas paintings biodeterioration [21,[38][39][40]. ...
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... Estes ambientes são cenários propícios ao desenvolvimento de fungos uma vez que apresentam certa umidade epoeira, promovendo o acúmulo de nutrientes essenciais para o desenvolvimento das colônias (Khan e Karuppayil, 2012). O crescimento fúngico em paredes não é meramente uma questão estética, uma vez que estes microrganismos estão implicados nos processos de deterioração de superfícies de concreto (Ishfaq et al., 2015). O desenvolvimento de fungos em paredes também representa risco à saúde, visto que esporos e fragmentos de hifas são facilmente dispersos no ar, podendo ocasionar micoses respiratórias, bem como episódios alérgicos, em pessoas susceptíveis e vulneráveis (Grbić et al., 2012). ...
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