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As the threat of climate change becomes more acute, so does the need for adequate measures of impact(s), management and mitigation. Although carbon footprints are increasingly being used by organizations in the public and private sectors, a number of challenges and questions need to be addressed; among them, what does the term 'carbon footprint' actually mean? The term needs a universally accepted definition before a consistent, accurate, comparable and transferable methodology can be developed. This article investigates the range of current definitions proposed for a carbon footprint in the context of inventoried emissions, applications, boundaries and limitations. We argue that to only account for CO2 emissions would result in the omission of almost a third of GHGs and a significant gap in their global management, whilst inclusion of all GHGs is very time-consuming and expensive, and should be considered only in system-specific life cycle-based assessments; this requires a separate definition, name and methodology. We suggest that as data collection for CO2 and CH4 emissions is relatively straightforward, these two carbon-based gases should be used in the determination of a carbon footprint. This should allow the carbon footprint to become a cost-effective, practical and repeatable metric that can be adopted by all types of organizations across the globe as a 'baseline' indicator. However, it is likely that a more comprehensive metric will be required in some circumstances and by some organizations, so we also propose further GHG inclusion for full life cycle assessment-based assessments; where complete data is obtainable it can be used to provide a 'climate footprint'. This name reflects the addition of noncarbon-based gases and encompasses the full range of gases used in the global political community's response in managing climate change. We conclude by considering lessons learnt with the proposal of sound and pragmatic definitions.

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... Moreover, a carbon footprint can be stated as; "it is the overall form of GHG emissions due to industry, human, product or an event." Also, the current statement suggested that it is an estimation of the overall amount of CO 2 emissions and methane (CH 4 ) of a limited population, doings or system, taking each resource, storage, and sink inside the geographical and physical population limit, interest, and related movement (Wright et al., 2011). ...
... Our concern is that the cooking process causes CO 2 emissions, while the carbon footprint is generally added to the household's carbon footprint. It is important to note that the carrying of foods plays an imperative role in goods transportation; thus, the carbon footprint of the food's transportation is commonly measured for transport sectors' carbon footprint (Wright et al., 2011;Soofi et al., 2022). According to Pimentel (2006), the food supply chain uses almost 19% of the overall non-renewable energy burned in the United States (US), of which 7% comes from agriculture production, 7% from processing, and 5% from delivery and food preparation by users. ...
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Fossil fuel energy consumption in the agriculture sector of Pakistan has created serious climate change issues, adding extremely to CO2 emissions, economic growth, and food production. The current research has investigated the most carbon-emitting agriculture factors based on human activities, such as transportation, land, multiple crops, distribution, and consumption under various crops. The study objective is to provide a roadmap for decarbonizing the food supply chain and its current framework toward food policy. The different machines and frameworks applied in agricultural farming can mitigate the CO2 emissions of the agriculture sector if renewable energy technologies (RETs) and renewable energy sources are organized with proper agrarian loads. The major concerns of this paper show a roadmap among a) CO2 emissions in the food supply chain and per capita CO2 emissions, b) food chain activities in the agriculture farming process, c) the agriculture output units and energy consumption, and d) the decarbonization of traditional agriculture and sustainable development in the agriculture sector. The analysis shows that the RETs and mitigation frameworks can lessen the CO2 emissions of farming depending on the type of farm and energy utilization. Finally, the present research highlights possibilities and opportunities for gaining CO2 emissions in crop production linked to Pakistan’s good management practices. In respect to agriculture efficiency and productivity, the government should increase the water, energy, and modern machinery for huge productivity and sustainability. Further policies are provided below.
... Uhlíková stopa je ve většině případů vyjádřena v jednotkách hmotnosti CO 2 ekvivalentu vycházejících z potenciálu globálního oteplování (GWP) (IPCC, 2007). Jedním z hlavních problémů je ale neshoda na tom, které skleníkové plyny (GHG) by se měly v rámci CF počítat (Wright et al., 2011). Někteří autoři zahrnují pouze fosilní CO 2 , jiní i nefosilní, někteří zahrnují všechny hlavní uhlíkaté GHG (CO 2 , CH 4 , CO), šest GHG zahrnutých v Kyotském protokolu (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, HFC, PFC, SF 6 ) (UNFCCC, 2008), anebo dokonce i další skleníkové plyny (v takových případech je někdy používán i název "GHG stopa" nebo "Klimatická stopa" (Čuček et al., 2015)). ...
... Každopádně, výsledky těchto odlišných přístupů jsou vzájemně neporovnatelné. Ačkoliv proběhly nějaké snahy o unifikaci a vytvoření univerzální definice CF (Wright et al., 2011), nezdají se být příliš úspěšné. ...
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Se vzrůstající závažností současných environmentálních problémů roste poptávka po nástrojích, jak měřit a zobrazovat faktory, které tyto problémy způsobují. Často využívaným způsobem prezentace vlivu člověka na životní prostředí jsou indikátory environmentální stopy. Ačkoliv se slovo „stopa“ běžně využívá i v každodenním diskursu v populárních médiích, málokdy je zcela jasné, co za tímto pojmem stojí. Od devadesátých let minulého století bylo představeno mnoho studií environmentálních stop vyznačujících se často velmi odlišnými metodami a cíli. Rozdílné definice stopy jako indikátoru a různé přístupy k jejich kvantifikaci a využívání vedou ke stavu, kdy se pod stejným jménem prezentují velmi odlišné indikátory a často protichůdné závěry a doporučení. Nepochopení základních principů a metod na nichž jsou tyto studie postaveny může vést na jedné straně k nekritickému přijímání všech výsledků, na straně druhé k naprostému odmítání celého konceptu. Cílem tohoto článku je představit vývoj a základní principy u nejvýznamnějších environmentálních stop – ekologické stopy, uhlíkové stopy, vodní stopy, stopy na krajinu, materiálové stopy a dalších), a uvést základní body sporů a debat ohledně charakteru environmentálních stop a nastínit tak možnosti jejich budoucího vývoje.
... To study the GHG emissions from crop production, it is necessary to evaluate the carbon footprint of crop production first (Wright et al., 2011). The carbon footprint is one of the common international indicators for evaluating GHG emission management (Ma et al., 2012;Xu et al., 2013;Xu and Lan, 2016), and calculating GHG emissions and the carbon footprint of agricultural production activities at different scales has received increasing attention from researchers (Wright et al., 2011;Yang et al., 2014;Cheng et al., 2015;Yan et al., 2015). ...
... To study the GHG emissions from crop production, it is necessary to evaluate the carbon footprint of crop production first (Wright et al., 2011). The carbon footprint is one of the common international indicators for evaluating GHG emission management (Ma et al., 2012;Xu et al., 2013;Xu and Lan, 2016), and calculating GHG emissions and the carbon footprint of agricultural production activities at different scales has received increasing attention from researchers (Wright et al., 2011;Yang et al., 2014;Cheng et al., 2015;Yan et al., 2015). These studies have focused on the calculation of agricultural GHG emissions (Johnson, 2007), the differences in agricultural GHG emissions in different regions Wu et al., 2014), the links between crop GHG emissions and economic development (Zaman et al., 2012;Su et al., 2014), the analysis of the driving factors of GHG emissions for different crops (Yang, 2013;Tian et al., 2014), the analysis of GHG emissions such as N 2 O and CH 4 Fang et al., 2021), and emission reduction strategies and policies in agriculture (Peters et al., 2001;Kragt et al., 2012). ...
Article
Analyzing the carbon footprint of crop production and proposing low-carbon emission reduction production strategies can help China develop sustainable agriculture under the goal of ‘carbon peak and carbon neutrality’. Cotton is an economically important crop in China, but few reports have systematically quantified the carbon footprint of China's cotton production and analyzed its spatiotemporal changes and driving factors. This study used a life cycle approach to analyze the spatiotemporal changes and identify the main components and driving factors of the carbon footprint of cotton production in China between 2004 and 2018 based on statistical data. The results showed that the carbon footprint per unit area of cotton in Northwest China, the Yellow River Basin and the Yangtze River Basin reached 6220.13 kg CO2eq·ha⁻¹, 3528.14 kg CO2eq·ha⁻¹ and 2958.56 kg CO2eq·ha⁻¹, respectively. From 2004 to 2018, the CFa in the Yellow River Basin and Northwest China increased annually, with average increases of 59.87 kg CO2eq·ha⁻¹ and 260.70 kg CO2eq·ha⁻¹, respectively, while the CFa in the Yangtze River Basin decreased by an average of 21.53 kg CO2eq·ha⁻¹ per year. The ridge regression and Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) model showed that fertilizer, irrigation electricity and agricultural film were the main influences on carbon emission growth at the micro level and that the economic factor was the key factor at the macro level. Improving the efficiency of cotton fertilization and electricity use and ensuring the high-quality development of the cotton industry are effective strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of cotton cultivation in the future. This study comprehensively uses statistical data and mathematical modeling to provide theoretical support for accounting and in-depth analysis of cotton carbon emissions. The results are valuable for policy making related to sustainable development and the low-carbon development of the Chinese cotton industry.
... Currently, a significant amount of literature describes ways to reduce costs by optimising space crafts themselves, including mission duration, flying orbits, instruments, and other parameters (Sandau 2006;Larson 1996, 1999;Williams 2016). The techniques and methods, however, apply to scientific missions and try to change their actual parameters. ...
... Further on, the models are typically not complete and lack certain elements, like power consumption and energy efficiency (Mell 2003;Schäppi et al. 2009). As identified by (Wright, Kemp, and Williams 2011), the other currently most important factors to be considered are of an environmental nature. We can expect energy to be the main contributor to this measure. ...
Article
The lifetime and complexity of some IT scenarios significantly exceed the typical lifetime and complexity of a technological system. This is a source of significant economic efficiency improvement. In this paper, we propose an approach that enables us to leverage costs, reduce the space floor requirements, and lower CO2 emissions incurred by the infrastructure. By re-investing a significantly smaller financial amount compared to the initial investment an IT infrastructure with the same or better performance and with significantly higher energy efficiency can be purchased. By using a mathematical model, we can quantify the benefits of the approach based on technological advancement, electrical energy prices, and prices of data centre construction. We compare two strategies: the frozen strategy relying on a fixed IT infrastructure during the entire IT system lifecycle and the migration strategy leveraging technological advancement.
... Carbon emissions from various human activities are listed as one of the major factors causing global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most remarkable greenhouse gas emerging from anthropogenic activities that needs to be diminished in order to counteract global warming and subsequently climate change at large. 1 Methane (CH 4 ) is said to be 34 times more potent in increasing the atmospheric temperature when compared to CO 2 . 2 Emissions Gap Report 2018 reported that, the year 2018 is found to be the fourth warmest year since 1880, hence the past 5 years, recorded the warmest weather years ever since 1880. 3 Estimation of carbon emission on atmosphere or total amount of CO 2 and CH 4 emissions of a particular community or organization, involves consideration of all related sources, sinks, and storage within the geographical and temporal boundary of the population, system, or activity of interest. ...
... 3 Estimation of carbon emission on atmosphere or total amount of CO 2 and CH 4 emissions of a particular community or organization, involves consideration of all related sources, sinks, and storage within the geographical and temporal boundary of the population, system, or activity of interest. 4 Considering annual increase in carbon emissions, United Nations (UN) as an authority organization take an action by introducing United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) to balance greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would avoid dangerous effects to the climate system. 5 As a result, a legal declaration on Kyoto Protocol 1997 obligates state parties to reduced CO 2 and other greenhouse gases emission into the atmosphere. ...
... Carbon emissions from various human activities are listed as one of the major factors causing global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most remarkable greenhouse gas emerging from anthropogenic activities that needs to be diminished in order to counteract global warming and subsequently climate change at large. 1 Methane (CH 4 ) is said to be 34 times more potent in increasing the atmospheric temperature when compared to CO 2 . 2 Emissions Gap Report 2018 reported that, the year 2018 is found to be the fourth warmest year since 1880, hence the past 5 years, recorded the warmest weather years ever since 1880. 3 Estimation of carbon emission on atmosphere or total amount of CO 2 and CH 4 emissions of a particular community or organization, involves consideration of all related sources, sinks, and storage within the geographical and temporal boundary of the population, system, or activity of interest. ...
... 3 Estimation of carbon emission on atmosphere or total amount of CO 2 and CH 4 emissions of a particular community or organization, involves consideration of all related sources, sinks, and storage within the geographical and temporal boundary of the population, system, or activity of interest. 4 Considering annual increase in carbon emissions, United Nations (UN) as an authority organization take an action by introducing United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) to balance greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would avoid dangerous effects to the climate system. 5 As a result, a legal declaration on Kyoto Protocol 1997 obligates state parties to reduced CO 2 and other greenhouse gases emission into the atmosphere. ...
Article
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Dry reforming of methane (DRM) over Ni‐based catalyst has become very popular way used for the generation of hydrogen rich syngas. In this study, synergetic effect between NiO and high basicity support of dolomite was investigated to determine their activity and stability in DRM process. In this regard, series of monometallic catalyst samples (NiO/Dolomite) at different metal loadings of 5 to 15 wt% of NiO over dolomite support were prepared via wet impregnation method. The catalyst performance evaluation on the production of H2 rich syngas was performed and the obtained results showed that 10 wt% NiO/dolomite catalyst sample recorded the maximum conversion of CH4 and CO2 to H2 at 850°C temperature, 9000 hours⁻¹ g·cat⁻¹ gas hourly space velocity and 0.2 g catalyst loading without in‐situ reduction of 5% H2 gas. 10% NiO/dolomite shows better performance on H2 selectivity recording up to 75% and H2/CO ratio of 1:1. The reaction maintained 98% of CH4 and CO2 conversion for up to 10 hours reaction time, with very low coke formation. Non‐isothermal reaction of catalyst under CH4:N2 (1:9) proves self‐reduced properties of catalyst on dry reforming environment (CH4:CO2) started at 300°C. The prepared catalyst samples were successfully characterized using X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature‐programmed oxidation, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis to study their physiochemical properties, which could give clue on their activity toward DRM. Kinetic and mechanistic studies prove that DRM reaction of NiO/dolomite catalyst follow dual site associative adsorption of both CH4 and CO2 with bimolecular surface reaction.
... Bien qu'il existe peu d'études qui traitent l'impact de la mutualisation sur l'environnement, cette dernière permet d'atteindre des résultats encourageants généralement par la réduction des émissions de GES dues au transport de marchandises. Ces émissions se composent principalement de CO2, CH4, NO2, etc. Wright et al. (2011) ont proposé d'évaluer les émissions de CO2 et de CH4, puisque le secteur de transport routier est dominé par ces deux types d'émissions qui proviennent des combustibles fossiles. Les émissions de CO2 sont directement liées à la quantité de carburant consommée par le véhicule, qui dépend à son tour de divers paramètres liés aux véhicules, à l'environnement et à la circulation, tels que la vitesse, la charge et l'accélération du véhicule. ...
Thesis
Les préoccupations liées au développement durable influencent de plus en plus le comportement des clients ainsi que les stratégies des entreprises. Ainsi, l'optimisation des réseaux de distribution par la collaboration horizontale devient une nécessité. Après une analyse exhaustive de la littérature, nous avons constaté que la plupart des travaux proposant des approches quantitatives abordent le niveau de décision opérationnelle par le biais de l'optimisation de la planification du transport. Par conséquent, nous traitons dans cette thèse les deux niveaux de décision : stratégique et tactique. Le premier niveau est étudié à travers le problème de conception des réseaux de distribution collaboratifs, tandis que le deuxième niveau s'intéresse au problème de répartition des coûts et des émissions de CO2. En outre, nous pensons que réduire tous les aspects de la durabilité en un seul objectif n'est pas recommandé. Dans ce contexte, nous abordons les deux problèmes en tenant compte de la durabilité économique, environnementale et sociale. Nous proposons des modèles mathématiques pour concevoir des réseaux de distribution à deux et à trois échelons. Par ailleurs, l'implication des indicateurs de durabilité lors du partage des bénéfices permet de récompenser les partenaires qui participent au mieux à la durabilité. Dans ce contexte, nous avons développé deux approches qui utilisent les niveaux de durabilité et de flexibilité de chaque partenaire dans le but de répartir d'une manière équitable les bénéfices de la collaboration. D'autre part, plusieurs scénarios sont comparés sur la base des indicateurs proposés. Au niveau de la résolution des modèles mathématiques, l'optimisation mono-objectif est effectuée d'une façon exacte et en utilisant l'algorithme génétique et le recuit simulé, tandis que l'optimisation multi-objectif est réalisée par la méthode ε-contrainte et le NSGA-II. Les résultats et les analyses obtenus montrent que la collaboration offre toujours une meilleure performance par rapport à la non-collaboration sur tous les niveaux de durabilité. Plusieurs décisions managériales sont présentées pour appliquer correctement la collaboration horizontale et améliorer davantage sa performance en termes de durabilité
... Compared with industrial carbon emissions, ACESs are more diverse and measured using a variety of methods, including the IPCC emission factor method, model method and life cycle method, which have been used by scholars to measure agricultural carbon emissions. This research includes the assessment of agricultural carbon emission performance [9], the agricultural carbon footprint [10,11], agricultural carbon emission intensity [12] and agricultural carbon compensation [13]. In summary, the existing studies on ACESs mainly focus on the national, regional and micro-levels. ...
Article
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The accurate measurement of agricultural carbon emissions and the analysis of the key influential factors and spatial effects are the premise of the rational formulation of agricultural emission reduction policies and the promotion of the regional coordinated governance of reductions in agricultural carbon emissions. In this paper, a spatial autocorrelation model and spatial Dubin model are used to explore the spatiotemporal characteristics, influential factors and spatial effects of agricultural carbon emissions (ACEs). The results show that (1) From 2014 to 2019, the overall carbon emissions of Zhejiang Province showed a downward trend, while the agricultural carbon emission density showed an upward trend. ACEs are mainly caused by rice planting and land management, accounting for 59.08% and 26.17% of the total agricultural carbon emissions, respectively. (2) The ACEs in Zhejiang Province have an obvious spatial autocorrelation. The spatial clustering characteristics of the ACEs are enhanced, and the “H-H” cluster is mainly concentrated in the northeast of Zhejiang, while the “L-L” cluster is concentrated in the southwest. (3) The results of the Dubin model analysis across the whole sample area show that the ACEs exhibit a significant spatial spillover effect. The disposable income per capita in the rural areas of the county significantly promotes the increase in the ACEs in the neighboring counties, and the adjustment of the industrial structure of the county has a positive effect on the agricultural carbon emission reductions in neighboring counties. (4) The grouping results show that there is heterogeneity between 26 counties in the mountainous areas and non-mountainous areas. In the 26 mountainous counties, the urbanization rate, rural population, mechanization level and industrial structure have significant negative spatial spillover effects on the carbon emissions. In the non-mountainous counties, the agricultural economic development level and disposable income per capita of the rural residents have significant spatial spillover effects on the agricultural carbon emissions. These research results can provide a theoretical basis for the promotion of the development of low-carbon agriculture in Zhejiang according to the region and category.
... Maritime transport, in particular, carries approximately 80 % of the volume of global goods representing the sea routes and highways for international maritime trade [1]. Reducing CO 2 emissions from maritime transport has become one of the environmental challenges associated with climate change [2][3][4]. Previous ship measures that have dealt with pollution that have focused on SO x and NO x -with much less research on CO 2 emission levels. The fact that oceans and seas are important for sustainable development is undeniable [5]. ...
Article
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For decades, the shipping sector has been incorporated into the global decarbonization process. At present, global shipping – as a whole – aims to reduce its emission levels by 40 % by 2030 in relation to the 2008 level. In reducing greenhouse gas emissions, regulations such as the MARPOL 73/78 Convention and Energy Efficiency Design Index as well as other monitoring and managing schemes already in operation (e.g., Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator) play a crucial role in measuring fuel consumption and ship engine emission output. Energy Efficiency Existing Ship Index (EEXI) is another measure, projected to be ratified in 2023, in-line with decarbonization targets in which the International Maritime Organization has planned a 70 % reduction in emissions level by 2050 using the same 2008 baseline. For this to happen, ship speed may need to be reduced, a decrease of fleet capacity may also need to be considered, and new ships may need to replace older ones already in service. The costs of implementing these types of reforms are obviously significant to the sector. Such change will augment the overall shipping overhead, effecting subsequent transportation and consumer costs. This paper aims to specify the scale of the expected costs of implementing EEXI globally. The current maritime fleet has been analyzed in terms of energy demand, deadweight tonnage, and expected CO2 emission reduction marginal abatement costs (MAC). Two pathways to achieve the desired EEXI values are presented, including the most common and available technologies to reduce demand. These technologies are subjected to MAC valuation and presented quantitatively for the world fleet. The research also investigates alternative fuel options in regard to lessening the CO2 impact, developing wind support systems, and avoiding conventional advancements to ships (e.g., upgrading the propeller or the propulsion system). At length, the target of the work is to elucidate a realistic CO2 reduction potential in 2030 with the long view of 2050.
... gives the ecological footprint (Wright, Simon & Lan, 2011;Monfreda, Wackernagel & Deumling, 2004). Ecological footprint studies have become very important in terms of being aware of the consequences of human actions, especially in recent years for people who are faced with increasing environmental problems due to the deterioration of the ecological balance. ...
Article
Araştırmada ekolojik kimliğin belirleyicileri ile ekolojik ayak izi farkındalığının belirleyicilerini saptamak ve ekolojik kimlik ile ekolojik ayak izi farkındalığının ilişkisini araştırmak amaçlanmıştır. Tanımlayıcı tipteki bu araştırma Türkiye’de yaşayan 18 yaş ve üzeri gönüllü 630 yetişkin ile Nisan - Mayıs 2022 tarihleri arasında sosyal medya üzerinden çevrimiçi olarak yürütülmüştür. Veriler; Tanımlayıcı Form, Ekolojik Kimlik Ölçeği (EKÖ) ve Ekolojik Ayak İzi Farkındalık Ölçeği (EAİFÖ) ile toplanmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre; katılımcıların %63,5’i kadın, %39,7’si 25 yaşın altında, %68,6’sı üniversite ve üzeri eğitimlidir. Çok Değişkenli Lineer Regresyon analizinde yaşa ve cinsiyete göre düzeltilen modellerde Merkezilik ekolojik kimliği arttıkça gıda ayak izi ve enerji ayak izi farkındalığının arttığı, farklılaşma ekolojik kimliği artıkça enerji ayak izi farkındalığının azaldığı belirlenmiştir. Özdeşlik ve merkezilik ekolojik kimliği arttıkça ulaşım ve barınma, atıklar ve su tüketimi ayak izi farkındalıklarının arttığı ancak farklılaşma ekolojik kimliği azaldıkça ulaşım ve barınma, atıklar ve su tüketimi ayak izi farkındalıklarının arttığı tespit edilmiştir.
... Environmental impacts can be measured solely in terms of carbon dioxide (CO2), however, to do so omits almost a third of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (Wright et al., 2011). A GHG is any kind of gas in the atmosphere which absorbs and then re-emits heat, thereby warming the atmosphere to a higher temperature than it would otherwise have been (Brander and Davis, 2012). ...
Thesis
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The environmental impacts of the UK's domestic sector must be lowered if they are to meet UK government greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) reduction targets. However, government initiatives to lower domestic GHGs have had little success, and progress has been too slow. Given this lack of top-down impetus, it is worth investigating alternative housing solutions. Previous research has shown that shared living - in which residents share spaces, resources, and social time - tends to have lower environmental impacts than the average household. However, this issue has not yet been explored within the UK. There is also research which shows that social networks can be effective in encouraging practice transitions and maintenance. This has not yet been thoroughly investigated within the context of shared living and environmental sustainability. This research aimed to explore the practices and infrastructures which enable pro-environmental outcomes within shared living. This aim was achieved through in-depth research in six shared living case studies. The research mainly adopted an ethnographic approach, complemented by quantitative measurement of GHGs. This research shows that the shared living case studies have significantly lower GHGs than the average UK household. This builds upon previous quantitative environmental evaluations of shared living. In studying practices, infrastructures and social networks within shared living, this research identifies four types of sharing that are significant to pro-environmental outcomes: shared ideals, shared governance, shared materials and spaces, and shared endeavour. For each type of sharing, the findings describe and analyse how processes of negotiation enable and constrain pro-environmental practices and outcomes. By exploring these processes, this research generates new knowledge on how and why shared living can produce lower-than-average domestic environmental impacts. Thus, the research demonstrates the potential and the mechanisms by which shared living may offer environmentally sustainable housing solutions for the UK.
... The concept of 'Carbon Footprint' was introduced somewhere around 1999-2000 but the exact definition of carbon footprint was not clear. The carbon 'footprint' doesn't refer to an area of land, but it refers to the value that represents emissions of carbon dioxide or the group of GHGs (Wright et al. 2011). Wackernagel and Rees in 1998 have coined carbon footprints as a subgroup of ecological footprint and Manfred Lenzen and Shauna A. Murray in 2001 proposed modified ecological footprints (Bazan 1997;Lenzen and Murray 2001). ...
Chapter
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Construction industry together with fossil fuel consumption accounts for more than 75% increase in atmospheric CO2. Study of carbon emissions is essential so that greenhouse gas emissions can be monitored and controlled. In a country like India, still old traditional construction techniques and conventional building materials are used commonly. This research work aims at identifying the carbon emissions of those materials which are frequently used in India and to compare their emissions with the eco-friendly materials. A physical model affordable house has been constructed to study the carbon emissions of various materials. The conventional bricks have been replaced by burnt clay fly ash bricks and the cement plaster with the non-erodible mud plaster. Additionally, mud phuska has been used as an insulating medium in place of bitumen. The primary energy or embodied energy used up in construction of model house was found to be 230.7 GJ. The carbon footprint for model house was found out to be 17.5 tonnes of CO2. When compared with carbon footprint generated using alternative materials, a reduction of around 44% in carbon footprint is observed. Therefore these alternative materials can be utilized for the construction of affordable housings with reduced carbon footprint.
... Other activities such as deforestation for urbanization, production of food grains, goods, materials, wood, and roads for transportation are also responsible for the escalation levels of carbon footprints [209]. Due to complex interactions between several GHG contributing processes and natural processes, the total carbon footprint cannot be quantified exactly [210]. Carbon footprint can be minimized using alternative sources of energy for instance, solar, and/ or wind energy [211]. ...
Article
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Carbon dioxide levels in the earth atmosphere have been rising to alarming levels over the past few decades by human activity and thus caused global climate change due to the “greenhouse effect,” which in turn brought about adverse effects on the planet. Major sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions include fossil fuel combustion, land-use change, industrial processing, respiration of various life forms, and decomposition of biomass. However, over the past 20 years, there has been a continuous research effort on the reducing carbon dioxide levels, by converting into the syngas, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, epoxides, polymers, and fine chemicals through chemical catalytic or biotransformation routes. Biological conversion including microbial and/or enzymatic conversion holds high potential as an alternative to the energy-intensive chemical conversion of CO2. Besides being the low energy process, bio-conversion of CO2 offers several unique advantages such as an easy and improved production at a high scale with a better conversion rate, the possibility of a diverse product range, and hyper-production by genetic modifications with zero competition for land with food crops. To this end, products that use CO2 biotransformation by the global biotech and chemical industry are only about 11.5 million tons annually, and it is a very small fraction of the approximately 24 billion tons of annual CO2 emission. Hence, there is an enormous scope for generation of high end biorefineries through CO2 bioconversion systems. Here, we review the various production sources of CO2, the metabolic and enzymatic CO2 conversion pathways, and the commercialization potentiality of various green chemicals from CO2.
... Principles concerning the implementation of these plans were adopted in subsequent years (e.g. during the COP 24 in Katowice, 2018). The carbon emission objectives generate new challenges and needs regarding measures for carbon management within sectors and organizations (Wright et al., 2011). Because business organizations represent 40% of the world's largest economic entities, with greenhouse gas emissions dwarfing many national economies (Heede, 2014), the measures can act as facilitators for reducing carbon emissions. ...
... Carbon footprint refers to the estimate of the total greenhouse gases (GHGs), expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e), released into the atmosphere directly and indirectly by individual human activities [1]- [3]. As the GHGs due to human activities in the atmosphere accumulate, carbon footprint multiplies leading to increasing climate change effects. ...
Conference Paper
Energy generation and its consequent environmental impact due to the resulting carbon footprint is in the forefront of global researches. The power poverty in Nigeria has immensely enabled Universities to embark on diesel-powered generators to provide the energy requirement for teaching, researches and community services. Hence, the campuses are becoming hotspots for emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, thereby contributing to global warming and environmental degradation. This study developed a management regime for carbon footprint in Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti (ABUAD), Nigeria. It audited the various activities and units that directly or indirectly promote green gases on the campus environment over a period of twelve months. The carbon footprint over the period was estimated to be 15,335,017.41 kgCO2e, with the bulk of the emissions (15,272,803.68 kgCO2e) coming from electricity generation and use. The data was modelled and analysed to arrive at veritable mitigation strategies
... This approach of allocating emissions focuses only on one single economic actor: producers (Pichler et al., 2017) by which emissions are estimated within the city's boundaries and it is called Territorial approach . The inventory of territorial approaches might be less effective in cutting urban GHG emissions (Wright et al., 2011) as nowadays cities became economically open systems that rely on national and international markets for materials and energy. However, many scientists insist on the importance of upstream emissions inventories (Scope 3) and declare that embodied emissions are at the same order of magnitude as direct emissions (Pichler et al., 2017) and for others Lenzen and Peters, 2010) embodied emissions often exceed those geographically emitted from a city. ...
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The Paris agreement nominates cities as a core element to set climate mitigation actions so humanity does not exceed the global climate budget fixed at 1170 (Gt) and eventually remains on track with the 2 °C guard rail. Current carbon footprint literature provides a deep analysis of cities belonging to high-income countries, but it is extremely limited when it comes to cities belonging to middle-income and low-income countries regardless of their global significance. This research bridges this gap through the computation of the carbon footprints of 252 cities located in middle-income countries. Results show that the average carbon footprint across all the urban areas of upper middle-income countries is estimated to 5.31 t CO2 and 3.41 t CO2 in the rural areas. Our research highlights that embodied carbon emissions are important in developing cities as in developed cities and that local authorities must take into account upstream emissions at city scale to move forward their second-generation environmental challenges within their climate-friendly portfolio.
... Several studies have identified strategies for improving introduction 5 5 The CO 2 footprint, or carbon footprint, is a measure of the total amount of CO 2 and other greenhouse gas emissions "of a defined population, system or activity, considering all relevant sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system or activity of interest. It is calculated as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 -eq) using the relevant 100-year global warming potential (GWP100)" (Wright et al., 2011). the CO 2 footprint of cement. 5 These strategies are typically based on detailed technical knowledge about cement production. ...
... It is inevitable that different methods for calculating CO 2 (i.e., calculating concentration units versus volume units) yield different results. Bottom-up IPCC guidelines calculate the total volume of CO 2 emissions by quantifying CO 2 per unit of a particular activity (an emission factor) and multiplying the numbers of emissions-generating activity occurring within the country boundaries [42,43]. Consequently, the emission factors and numbers of emissions activity within boundaries are crucial in determining the range of CO 2 emissions and variations. ...
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Submitting national inventory reports (NIRs) on emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is obligatory for parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The NIR forms the basis for monitoring individual countries’ progress on mitigating climate change. Countries prepare NIRs using the default bottom–up methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as approved by the Kyoto protocol. We provide tangible evidence of the discrepancy between official bottom–up NIR reporting (unit: tons) versus top–down XCO2 reporting (unit: ppm) within the European continent, as measured by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Bottom–up NIR (annual growth rate of CO2 emission from 2010 to 2016: −1.55%) does not show meaningful correlation (geographically weighted regression coefficient = −0.001, R2 = 0.024) to top–down GOSAT XCO2 (annual growth rate: 0.59%) in the European countries. The top five countries within the European continent on carbon emissions in NIR do not match the top five countries on GOSAT XCO2 concentrations. NIR exhibits anthropogenic carbon-generating activity within country boundaries, whereas satellite signals reveal the trans-boundary movement of natural and anthropogenic carbon. Although bottom–up NIR reporting has already gained worldwide recognition as a method to track national follow-up for treaty obligations, the single approach based on bottom–up did not present background atmospheric CO2 density derived from the air mass movement between the countries. In conclusion, we suggest an integrated measuring, reporting, and verification (MRV) approach using top–down observation in combination with bottom–up NIR that can provide sufficient countrywide objective evidence for national follow-up activities.
... On the other hand, the carbon footprint was also calculated, understood as the GHG emissions caused, in this case, by food throughout the entire food chain, expressed in common units [47]. For the calculation of the carbon footprint, direct data previously extracted for food consumption of the HBS was used and equivalence coefficients from the literature (Table S5) in terms of units of equivalent CO2 (kg CO2-eq) (carbon footprint) per kilogramme of food consumed, according to the following equation (Equation (2)): ...
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Dealing with an increasing population is challenging the global food system not only in productive terms, but also through the associated environmental pressures. A growing diagnostic effort is being made by global and national agencies. Innovative approaches are needed to support effective policy efforts. This study aims to illustrate the potentialities of the household metabolism approach in the diagnosis of the environmental pressures derived from household food consumption, using the Spanish regions and the effects of the 2008 crisis as case studies. The direct information concerning food consumption in physical terms provided by the Spanish household budget survey is used to estimate some relevant environmental pressures (food losses and waste along the food chain, as well as water and carbon footprint) for the Spanish food system at a sub-national level. These data are directly translated into differences in environmental pressures and compared with other dietary profiles. Furthermore, the physical information of environmental pressures is related to household socio-economic status, showing the potentialities of the association with household socio-economic information. Finally, our data illustrate with some examples how the economic crisis has acted as a driver of change in food consumption, promoting a better environmental performance at the cost of poorer diets.
... The carbon footprint (CF) has been recognized as a valuable indicator of GHG emission management Xu et al., 2013;Xu and Lan, 2016), and CF calculations at different scales have become increasingly popular for agricultural production (Wright et al., 2011;Yang et al., 2014;Cheng et al., 2015;Yan et al., 2015). In fact, cropping systems are both CO 2 emission sources and CO 2 sink pools (Flessa et al., 2002;Henry et al., 2009). ...
Article
Agriculture affects climate change and contributes directly and indirectly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, no reports have fully quantified the GHG emissions from different crop systems in China. In this study, the carbon emission and carbon sequestration inventories and the carbon footprint (CF) of 16 major crop systems in China from 2001 to 2018 were analyzed with a cradle-to-farm gate life cycle analysis approach for the first time. The results showed that the largest farm CF and product CF were vegetables (11.9 t CO2 eq ha−1) and tea (4.6 t CO2 eq t−1), respectively. From the perspective of crop emissions and processes, the main crop systems influencing the national total net carbon emissions (NTCE) from crop production are rice, maize, wheat, fruits and vegetables, accounting for 87.3–90.4%; the key emission processes for NTCE are fertilization and irrigation, accounting for 73.7–76.8%. The NTCE has increased by 410.4 Mt CO2 eq from 2001 to 2018, of which maize, fruits and vegetables were the main crops that explained 99.0%, while fertilization and irrigation were the key factors and explained 91.9% of these increases. Scenario analysis indicated that increasing the straw return rate and partially replacing chemical fertilizers with manure have a minimal impact on NTCE. In contrast, reducing the loss of reactive nitrogen is the most effective single strategy to alleviate agricultural GHG emissions in the future. Our results will provide a fresh perspective for the development of more effective GHG emission reduction strategies for agricultural green development.
... The carbon footprint (CF) has been recognized as a valuable indicator of GHG emission management Xu et al., 2013;Xu and Lan, 2016), and CF calculations at different scales have become increasingly popular for agricultural production (Wright et al., 2011;Yang et al., 2014;Cheng et al., 2015;Yan et al., 2015). In fact, cropping systems are both CO 2 emission sources and CO 2 sink pools (Flessa et al., 2002;Henry et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture affects climate change and contributes directly and indirectly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, no reports have fully quantified the GHG emissions from different crop systems in China. In this study, the carbon emission and carbon sequestration inventories and the carbon footprint (CF) of 16 major crop systems in China from 2001 to 2018 were analyzed with a cradle-to-farm gate life cycle analysis approach for the first time. The results showed that the largest farm CF and product CF were vegetables (11.9 t CO 2 eq ha − 1) and tea (4.6 t CO 2 eq t − 1), respectively. From the perspective of crop emissions and processes, the main crop systems influencing the national total net carbon emissions (NTCE) from crop production are rice, maize, wheat, fruits and vegetables, accounting for 87.3-90.4%; the key emission processes for NTCE are fertilization and irrigation, accounting for 73.7-76.8%. The NTCE has increased by 410.4 Mt CO 2 eq from 2001 to 2018, of which maize, fruits and vegetables were the main crops that explained 99.0%, while fertilization and irrigation were the key factors and explained 91.9% of these increases. Scenario analysis indicated that increasing the straw return rate and partially replacing chemical fertilizers with manure have a minimal impact on NTCE. In contrast, reducing the loss of reactive nitrogen is the most effective single strategy to alleviate agricultural GHG emissions in the future. Our results will provide a fresh perspective for the development of more effective GHG emission reduction strategies for agricultural green development.
... It is an indicator of pressure, similar to the volumetric water footprint. From the LCA perspective, the carbon footprint represents the effect of pollution by any number of GHGs in a consistent manner of CO 2 equivalence on global warming potential (Wright et al., 2011). Under this approach, emissions of any GHGs are converted into CO 2 equivalents by means of a conversion factor. ...
Article
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In recent years, water footprint, carbon footprint and ecological footprint have become popular tools for environmental assessment. These footprint methodologies are part of the environmental footprint family but describe different types of environmental assessment. Water footprint methodology is, in most cases, analogous to ecological footprint methodology but deviates at some points. These two indicators are focused on the depletion of natural resources. The carbon footprint is focused on the impacts linked to GHGs emissions. The case study of the Triangle of Central China (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.107448) uses all of these methodologies but the term “water footprint” is incorrectly used. This Letter to Editors would like to call attention to some important inaccuracies and ambiguities in the article.
Chapter
Sustainability is becoming a keyword within tourism as well. This term is more frequently used in the sense of human sustainability on Earth, and eco-sustainability is the most common definition of sustainability. This definition is just a part of the wider concept of sustainable development, which means the development of human activity, including industrial and economic activity that meets the needs of both the present and future generations.
Chapter
Organizations are considered as key contributors to environmental deterioration caused by resource consumption, waste, and carbon emissions. In an aim to reduce their carbon footprints, organizations are increasingly starting to account for their environmental impact and are seeking new ways to improve their operations. Previous research indicates that only through changing their processes, companies can become more sustainable. This, however, requires a sound understanding of how unsustainable processes are and to what extent a change can facilitate more sustainable ways to operate. For this purpose, this paper examines how process mining can support carbon accounting in terms of decision support for carbon reduction. Based on a review of related literature and interviews with process mining experts, requirements and potentials of process mining to support carbon accounting are identified. The findings indicate that with process mining, it becomes possible to create the much-needed process transparency by incorporating carbon data into the process model. This allows to measure the carbon footprint per process step and along the execution of processes. Thereby, practitioners are not only able to evaluate the carbon performance on granular process levels but in fact are empowered to establish carbon reduction measures without neglecting the process design and process workflow.
Article
At the turn of the millennium, scientific publications began to wonder about the greenhouse gases emitted by research activities, through the category of “carbon footprint”. Since the end of the 2010s, this quantification has intensified and diversified. However, several distinct layers of temporalities must be identified in order to unfold the singularity of the term carbon footprint. The first refers to the terminological filiation between the “ecological footprint” and the carbon footprint. The second situates the process of carbon quantification between the late 1990s and the early 2000s, which is itself part of the long history of quantification. The third layer is the use of this category in many scientific publications: the carbon footprint of research is part of a larger body of work. A space of scientific commensurability then emerges in the form of the carbon dioxide equivalent: activities, or segments of activities, are made comparable by this common metric. The fieldwork conducted as part of a political science dissertation allows us to hear the diverse motivations of research staff in France who are undertaking this carbon footprint estimation. If this process of quantification questions scientific practices or perceptions, what is quantified is not only a "cost" of research but also the different forms of time on scientific activity.
Article
Rapid urbanization accelerates the rate of carbon emissions (CE), resulting in unfavorable fluctuating in climatic conditions of urban settings. One of the prominent reasons behind these climatic anomalies is the direct result of CO 2 emission and heat-trapping gasses from industries and urban built-up areas. This study addresses the ongoing CE issues in Khulna City by analyzing CE from residential, commercial, and industrial land use. Moreover, the study explores diverse sources of CE from intense energy consumption using electricity, gas, fuel, and wood. Consequently, the carbon footprint (CF) has been estimated using specific CE coefficients for each landuse category. Specific concentration of CE for each landuse category is demonstrated on maps using geospatial and kernel density applications. Results suggested Khulna City's monthly CE have been estimated 55,536,435 kg from residential, 14,612,942 kg from commercial and 2,606,823 kg from industrial land use. From residential landuse, each household has an average CF of 355.51 kg CO 2 /month. The restaurants and roadside hotels have the highest contribution from commercial landuse, average CF of 1231.64 kg and 4150.82 kg CO 2 /month, respectively. Meanwhile, the jute and food industries are responsible for 38,016 kg and 14,036 kg CO 2 /month, respectively. Compared to the sources of CE, industrial and residential landuse have a consumption pattern of 99% and 83% of electricity, respectively, rather than other sources. This study's results may help policymakers understand CE patterns from each sector to generate future urban growth and planning decisions.
Chapter
Agricultural practices including those of organic agriculture (OA) affect the fluxes of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) between the land surface and the atmosphere. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of GHGs result in increases of Earth’s temperate through radiative forcing (RF). The CO2 emissions in OA occur primarily from fossil fuel combustion (i.e., farm machinery use), and by soil and land-use management practices. While fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions may be smaller for OA, soil CO2 emissions may be higher compared to those under nonorganic management based on a limited number of studies. Similarly, differences in soil CH4 emissions between both systems may be small. Specifically, while upland soils under OA can be stronger sinks for CH4 (0.09 kg CH4-C ha−1 year−1 higher soil uptake in temperate regions compared to nonorganic management), paddy soils under OA may be stronger CH4 sources compared to nonorganically managed soils but data are scanty. Differences in livestock CH4 emissions between conventional and OA systems appear to be small. However, soil N2O emissions under OA management may be smaller than those under conventional management due to lower inputs of reactive nitrogen (Nr) into OA soils. Otherwise, the more widespread use of leguminous cover crops, manure and slurry, poultry litter, and higher soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in topsoil can also contribute to increased N2O emissions at OA farms. Overall, soils under OA may emit 1.05 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1 less than those under nonorganic management with the difference being 0.3 kg N2O-N ha−1 year−1 for studies in temperate regions. In conclusion, while there is some evidence that OA contributes less to the increases in atmospheric levels of GHGs, the database on farm emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O must be improved for more credible comparisons between conventional and OA systems. Therefore, the objectives of this chapter are to describe in detail what processes, and what livestock, soil and land-use management practices contribute to GHG emissions from OA systems, and how those emissions may be reduced.KeywordsAgriculture greenhouse gas emissionsFood system greenhouse gas emissionsRadiative forcingGlobal warming potentialCarbon footprintClimate-smart agricultureClimate-resilient agricultureSoil and land-use managementFossil fuel combustionSoil tillageLivestock production system emissionsSocial cost of greenhouse gasesLife cycle analysis
Article
The Belt and Road Initiative was proposed by China in 2013 to promote the interconnected development and prosperity of all participating countries. In the context of global response to climate change, understanding the embodied carbon transfer change along economic trade before and after the Belt and Road Initiative is essential to reduce carbon overall emission. In this paper, we used a multi-regional input-output model to study the embodied carbon transfer in trade between the Belt and Road countries that have signed cooperation documents with China from 2004 to 2017. The results showed that from 2004 to 2017, the growth rate that China's carbon emissions imported from other Belt and Road Initiative countries was about 1.9 times that of its exports. From 2004 to 2017, the proportion of China's carbon imports from other Belt and Road countries in China's total carbon imports increased from 3.41% to 3.73%, and exports decreased from 6.52% to 6.03%. In both 2004 and 2017, Electricity, Gas and Water sector, Heavy Industry sector, Transport sector were the three largest carbon transfer sectors in China's multilateral trade. In 2017, the embodied carbon transfer by multilateral trade among other Belt and Road countries except China increased by 15.53% compared with 2004. By comparing the characteristics of carbon transfer between China and the Belt and Road countries from 2004 to 2017, this study will provide insights for carbon emission reduction policy setting of Belt and Road Initiative countries.
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Higher education institutions (HEIs) can be considered role models of small cities that contribute to the fight against climate change. Therefore, assessing their own carbon footprints (CFs) and drawing conclusions gives significance to this study. In this study, 77 CFs from 14 HEIs were obtained through a tool developed by the Spanish Government. They were analyzed along with different variables and recalculated using the same standardized activity ratios. As a result, a general mapping of the environmental performance in climate change mitigation of Spanish universities has been obtained. Although there is an overall decrease in total CF (72.7%), direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Scope 1) remain stable, while the decrease is due to the reduction of emissions caused by electricity consumption (Scope 2) through the use electricity suppliers that guarantee the energy provided is generated from renewable sources. A lack of consensus in the definition of “student” and “employee”, used for the activity ratios, causes large variations in the relative CF values. For worldwide benchmarking of HEIs’ climate change performance, CF can be a valid indicator only if they: (1) include standardized Scope 1 and 2 emission sources, (2) use the same emission factors, and (3) calculate activity ratios from standardized functional units.
Article
By making it possible to maintain terrestrial temperature at habitable levels, greenhouse gases (GHG) have reached levels of concentration never seen before. Although carbon dioxide (CO2 ) emissions from the decomposition of organic matter are considered neutral, sewage treatment by means of anaerobic process stands out for producing methane (CH4 ), an important GHG included in the carbon footprint concept. Thus, the proper management of gaseous emissions, whether through control and treatment, or through the use of biogas energy, consists of an important mechanism to mitigate, compensate or avoid GHG emissions. To make it easier to estimate the carbon footprint and the recovery energy potential, this technical note (TN) presents an electronic tool that includes the gaseous emissions control techniques addressed in this collection of TN. In view of these arguments, this TN aimed at discussing several topics of interest inherent to GHG and compensations under the context of anaerobic sewage treatment.
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The selection of appropriate technology combination (TC) is one of the most important aspects of autonomous micro-grid (AMG) planning. To address this issue, this paper puts forward a Quad-level framework. The first level involves uncertainty modelling of generators and storage in probabilistic framework. In the second level, determination of optimal component size for each TC is accomplished using butterfly particle swarm optimization. Thereafter, third level deals with the sustainability evaluation of each TC based on four main criteria and eleven sub-criteria. At the fourth level, the implementation of multi-criteria decision making approach is carried out using a combination of analytical hierarchy process and TOPSIS. In this paper, nine different TCs comprising of five different technologies viz. Solar photovoltaic (SPV), Wind turbine generators (WTG), Biomass, diesel generator technology and Battery storage technology (BST) have been investigated. The ranking of TCs is obtained for 25 different priority orders. Further, to aggregate ranking and narrow down to an amicable planning solution, a rank aggregation method called as Borda count has been used. The final ranking obtained through Borda count suggests that the combination of SPV, WTG and BST provides the best sustainable solution for AMG.
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Climate change due to the “carbon footprint”, representing the totality of all greenhouse gas emissions produced directly or indirectly by humans, animals, organizations, products and all human life processes. The carbon footprint is calculated as the carbon dioxide equivalent emitted from all sources. There is still no single methodology for accounting for the carbon footprint of forest fires. According to the information available in the literature, the carbon footprint from fires is taken into account only in the USA, while in Brazil, Indonesia, and Russia there is no such accounting. The assessment of the carbon footprint has a large error, since burning occurs in vast areas with different rock composition. The aim of this work was to develop a methodology for assessing the carbon footprint on the territory of Russia by taking into account the mass of burned forest materials and calculating gross emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and soot.
Article
There is now a consensus that global temperatures are rising and that the world is in a climate emergency. Science has proven unequivocally that there is a relationship between anthropogenic carbon emissions and global warming. Reducing anthropogenic carbon emissions to net zero by 2050 is now one of the highest priorities for many governments around the world. Network Rail (NR), as the GB mainline railway infrastructure manager, have a need to align themselves with the legal requirement to meet net zero by 2050. At present the quantities of carbon in railway geotechnical assets, in particular embankments and cuttings, are not well understood or recorded as separate entities. The research described in this paper aims to fill this gap through the accurate measurement of carbon emissions associated with railway embankments and cuttings in a business as usual (BAU) scenario. This data can then be interrogated to identify potential areas of savings. Carbon sequestration measures such as afforestation and enhanced weathering may also be deployed as part of this effort to balance the carbon in a project to net zero. This paper outlines a proposed framework to measure the lifetime carbon associated with earthworks assets and identify areas of carbon intensity (‘hot spots’). It then discusses potential solutions to reduce carbon and thus assist NR in meeting its science-based targets via a move from a linear to a resource cycle analysis, taking into account circularity principles.
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The existence of Solar Power Plant is very much needed in supplying clean, cheap and sustainable electricity. New renewable energy power plants are very important to replace power plants that use fossil fuels. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of Solar Power Plant that is how much the operational costs and how much CO2 emissions can be reduced. This study describes an investment feasibility assessment or economic analysis using the calculation of NPV (Net Present Value), PI (Probability Index) and DPP (Discount Payback Period) and environmental analysis, that is knowing the amount of CO2 emission reduction from the use of Solar Power Plant analysed using criteria according to IPCC standards (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). The research location of Solar Power Plant on Grid 35 KWP Office of the Energi and Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM), Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. The results of this study indicate that the NPV of this PV mini-grid > 0 is Rp. 3,331,537.-PI, 1.0039, DPP 24 years 6 months and Payback Period 8.74 years, which means this investment is feasible to continue. Meanwhile, the CO2 emission that can be reduced is 44.718.42 kgCO2/year. These results indicate that Solar Power Plant on Grid 35 KWP the ESDM office location in Central Java is feasible and profitable from an economic and environmental criterion.
Article
Electrification is a promising approach to most carbon-emitting sectors of economic sectors of human activities such as transportation and industry sectors. Electrifying the machinery and different systems used in a farm can mitigate the carbon footprint of the agriculture sector if renewable energy sources are coordinated with the agricultural loads appropriately. This paper presents a road-map that: 1) presents greenhouse gases emitting activities in the food supply chain, 2) the potential impact of vertical farming on the agriculture sector, 3) discuss the carbon footprint of different activities in the food supply chain, and 4) presents a road-map to decarbonize greenhouse gas emitting activities in farms. This paper estimates that electrification of farms in an appropriate process with renewable energy resources can decrease the carbon footprint of farming 44–70% depends on the type of the farm.
Article
The research issues presented in the article focuses on the State Plant Health and Seed Inspection Service and its tasks. Its role of phytosanitary inspection is particularly emphasized. This institution is responsible for the control of plant products that are moving across borders and the issuing of phytosanitary certificates. In the deliberations, an attempt is made to verify the thesis that with the current material resources, the method of financing this institution and its complex organizational structure, it will be important to take actions aimed at increasing the effectiveness of its operation. In the context of the export of agricultural products, this can be done by simplifying the procedures for issuing phytosanitary certificates. Global forecasts speak of the growing role of trade in plant products, but also of the difficulties that may be imposed on it. Poland is a significant exporter of such products. To maintain this status, good cooperation between PIORiN – farmers, agricultural producers and exporters is essential. It may require the development of common procedures, the fulfillment of which by manufacturers would pay off with a simplified certification procedure, and PIORIN would allow focusing efforts on other tasks required by the regulations.
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Noise is continuously treated as an annoyance to humans and indeed commotion contamination shows up within the environment, causing inconvenience. This is likewise interesting to the engineering tactic that inclines to develop this noise proliferation. The basics of the soundretaining proliferation, sound-absorbing properties, and its variables were rarely considered by previous researchers. Thus, the acoustic performance and sound insulation of constructions have gained significance over the last five decades due to the trend for accommodating inner-city flat and multi-story residential building condominiums. Due to this dilemma, the proliferation of high-driven entertaining schemes has engaged extraordinary demands on building for its acoustic performance. Yet, construction industries worldwide have started to mainly use sound-absorbing concrete to reduce the frequency of sounds in opened-and-closed areas and increase sound insulation. As reported, the concrete acoustic properties generally rely on its density, exhibiting that the lighter ones, such as cellular concrete, will absorb more sound than high-density concretes. However, this paper has an objective to afford a wide-ranging review of sound-absorbing acoustic concretes, including the measurement techniques and insulation characteristics of building materials and the sound absorption properties of construction materials. It is also intended to extensively review to provide insights into the possible use of a typical sound-absorbing acoustic concrete in today’s building industry to enhance housing occupants’ efficiency, comfort, well-being, and safety.
Article
In the context of the formation of an answer to the big challenges in the field of transition to environmentally friendly and resource-saving energy, the scientific community is faced with the problem of reducing the level of the carbon footprint. The purpose of this article is to monitor the publication activity of scientists from all countries who publish the results of their research on the carbon footprint problem in the international scientific citation indexes Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus. The methodology for conducting this monitoring is based on the use of tools for the extended search of the international scientific citation systems Web of Science and Scopus using the authors' keywords. For the analyzed period, the period 2016-2020 was adopted. The results of the study showed that scientists from five leading countries are mainly engaged in this problem: China, Spain, USA, Great Britain and Italy, as well as the fact that Russian scientists came out with the results of their research into the world scientific space only starting from 2017.
Thesis
Mining is environmentally disruptive which requires tons of earth materials to be removed and causes modification in original land cover while having environmental burdens e.g., carbon emission, water pollution, among others. The processing of minerals also produces waste materials known as tailings which has the potential to create huge impact both on the environment and society if the tailings stored in the dam failed. Since mining is the starting point of the supply-chain for minerals, reducing the environmental and social impact of it could also reduce the impact on the downstream industries that are dependent on it. The objective of this dissertation is to account the environmental-social footprints in the mining sector utilizing geospatial and operational data for the sake of the environmental and social risk management of global supply chains. First, the carbon footprint (CF) of mining of a case study site is estimated incorporating life cycle assessment (LCA) with satellite image analysis. Secondly, the water footprint (WF) of mining of the same site is accounted which provides a better understanding regarding the choice of renewable energy. According to the findings, the CF is lower than the average value for typical open-pit mine which is due to use of hydroelectricity as a renewable source of energy. However, satellite image analysis also shows the intensity of land use change along with the carbon emission from lost vegetation from the site. Though the CF of the mining site is lower due to hydroelectricity, it increases the WF significantly. Therefore, the right choice of renewables is crucial which is also found from the ecological footprint (EF) accounting, performed as the third approach in this study on a global scale for 295 mines using LCA and satellite image analysis. Depending on the mining methods employed there could be variation in the footprint which is important to reduce the impact. Evidently, open cut/pit mines have higher EF of built-up land where the values are greater which practices riverine tailings disposal - the most environmentally disruptive mine waste management mechanism. On the other hand, underground mines have greater EF of carbon absorption land. Reduction of carbon absorption land could be achieved if carbon sequestration by plants either on-site or off-site is put into practice. Fourthly, this study also performed a global scale impact analysis of mine tailings dam failures for the past hundred years of 366 cases. The updated database is then used to map the risk of existing tailings failures as an implication of the findings. Finally, the application of environmental footprint as a whole package, is performed for clay fired brick production. The findings of this dissertation are expected to contribute to reducing the environmental-social footprints of the mining sector. There is a tradeoff between CF and WF which suggests conducting both the accounts simultaneously to get the overall picture of the environmental impacts. Ecological footprint accounting of the mines could be used as the benchmark by which respective mining company could plan to reduce its carbon footprint. On the other hand, the existing tailings dam risk mapping could be useful to reduce the impact on society and the people.
Article
The continuous increase in beverage consumption worldwide results in enormous energy consumption and carbon emission along the life cycle of beverage products. A novel input-process-output product carbon footprint (PCF) model is developed as a generic framework for products and services with complex operations along the supply chain. A PCF of a carbonated drink product is evaluated at each of the major stages in the product's life cycle with results compared to using GHG Protocol methodology. Results from cradle-to-grave analysis indicate retail and distribution has the largest emissions impact along the product life cycle. Retail distribution routing optimisation model is developed and retail vending equipment are analysed to explore opportunities for reducing energy consumption and carbon footprint. Future sustainable development studies on the PCF of same beverage merchandises produced in various countries and mitigation measures using dynamic routing distribution could be carried out.
Article
Responding to global climate change requires better accounting of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) to develop targeted strategies for reducing carbon footprints. Energy demand is a major contributor to operational GHG emissions in the water sector; however, the United States struggles to track GHG emissions in this sector largely due to the absence of a centralized and routinely updated water database, which includes operational information. Previously, research focused on estimating operational GHG emissions generated from energy used on site and GHG emissions generated from off-site electricity production, but consumed by the facility. Largely these studies have been conducted at single utilities or cities and rarely at a regional or country scale. In this study, we assess the carbon footprints of operational energy use for 76 wastewater utilities and 64 water utilities across the United States. Additionally, we investigate water-related GHG emissions at a sub-annual scale through three case cities to understand how GHG emissions vary at the monthly scale. Per unit of water, indirect energy in the form of grid electricity is found to be the largest contributor of operational GHG emissions. We estimate the total drinking water and wastewater emissions associated with electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil consumption across the United States to be 26.5 × 10⁹ and 16.2 × 10⁹ kg CO2e, respectively. We find the average carbon footprint per volume of drinking water and wastewater emissions to be 0.46 kg CO2e/ m3 and 0.38 kg CO2e/ m3, respectively—equivalent to 2.1% of total emissions from the U.S. electricity sector each year. The research provides insights into operational GHG emissions of the water sector and advances the understanding of temporal variations in the life-cycle of energy use. Through the research we suggest the need for further analyses of environmental impacts at the sub-annual scale and support continued accounting of the water sector.
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The Commissions for Interethnic Relations have been introduced as one of the mechanisms of Consocial Democracy for management of interethnic relations on local level. The author is taking the existing competences and the expected outcomes from the work of the Commissions, as points of departure for the analysis of their performances. The results reveal shortcomings in the work of the Commissions. The author is issuing recommendations for sustainable development of Commissions for Interethnic Relations, calling for precise defining of Commissions' competences, provision of their financial sustainability, getting the necessary support from the respective municipalities, and diminishing the influence of the political parties in the work of the Commissions for Interethnic Relations.
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Fair definition of system boundary is essential for obtaining reliable results in life cycle assessment (LCA), especially in comparative LCA studies. However, it doesn't seem that a consensus has been reached on an appropriate method for selecting system boundary. This study addresses the development of a consistent method for definition of system boundary using an economic input-output table, which describes all the flows of goods and services between sectors of an economy. The method proposed within this paper 1) is quantitative, 2) is objective 3) is reproducible, 4) is available without detail process-LCI, 5) requires little time and cost, and 6) doesn't overlook any process that significantly influences LCA results. This method is demonstrated on complicated production system of a passenger car in terms of CO2 emissions.
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International attention to carbon dioxide emissions is turning to an individual's contribution, or “carbon footprint.” Calculators that estimate an individual's CO2 emissions have become more prevalent on the internet. Even with similar inputs, however, these calculators can generate varying results, often by as much as several metric tons per annum per individual activity. This paper examines the similarities and differences among ten US-based calculators. Overall, the calculators lack consistency, especially for estimates of CO2 emissions from household electricity consumption. In addition, most calculators lack information about their methods and estimates, which impedes comparison and validation. Although carbon calculators can promote public awareness of carbon emissions from individual behavior, this paper reveals the need for improved consistency and transparency in the calculators.
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A carbon footprint (CF) analysis is the sum of the estimated carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with a particular activity or industry. Without a standardized protocol for developing a CF of water production, US utilities must draw on the experiences of other nations and adapt approaches used in other industries. In the United Kingdom, mandatory regulation of emissions for large industry has spurred collaborative development of CF methods for the water industry. British and Australian utilities are conducting CF analyses and using this information to better understand the environmental impact of their water production. First, various utility activities are defined, information about power and potential GHG emissions is gathered, and the GHGs are converted to carbon dioxide equivalents to create a CF assessment. The utility can then use this baseline CF as a management tool to guide decisions about sustainable operations and construction projects as well as future resources and treatment and transmission facilities.
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This article provides an overview of how generalised multi-regional input-output models can be used for carbon footprint applications. We focus on the relevance and suitability of such evidence to inform decision making. Such an overview is currently missing. Drawing on UK results, we cover carbon footprint applications in seven areas: national emissions inventories and trade, emission drivers, economic sectors, supply chains, organisations, household consumption and lifestyles as well as sub-national emission inventories. The article highlights the multiple uses of generalised multi-regional input-output models for carbon footprinting and concludes by highlighting important avenues for future research.
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Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1). Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery.
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One of the challenges faced by local governments in the work with municipal climate action plans concerns accounting for the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions—what emissions should be targeted, development of emissions over time, and how to effectively measure the success of local climate action. In this paper, we present challenges in developing a GHG emissions inventory related to the provision of municipal services. We argue that a consumption-based perspective, illustrated through the use of the carbon footprint (CF), rather than more conventional production-based inventory, provides a more useful and less misleading indicator. We present an analysis of the CF of municipal services provided by the city of Trondheim. The use of data directly from the city's accounting system ensures a reliable calculation of indirect emissions, and, with some minor modifications, also accurate data on direct emissions. Our analysis shows that approximately 93 percent of the total CF of municipal services is indirect
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Carbon footprints and embodied carbon have a strong methodological foundation and provide valuable input into policy formation. The widespread use of carbon footprints using existing knowledge needs to be encouraged and even regulated. At the product level, carbon footprints can empower consumers to shape their own climate friendly behaviour and help governments design policies that do not give the wrong incentives. Companies can use carbon footprints to reduce exposure to carbon prices or highlight the positive actions they have taken. Cities and regions can use carbon footprints to implement local policies that help meet overarching national objectives. National carbon footprints can help design equitable and efficient climate agreements that avoid shifting problems to other administrative territories. Further advances can provide strong interdisciplinary links between the physical carbon-cycle, emission drivers, and policy at a variety of scales.
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This editorial is the introduction to a special issue of Economic Systems Research on the topic of carbon footprint and input-output analysis. It provides a brief historical context of the involvement of input-output analysis with applications in environmental research and makes the link to carbon footprint theory and practice. The six papers in this issue are briefly introduced. The aim of the special issue is to bring together the academic world of rigorous economic modelling and the practice of greenhouse gas accounting at various levels.
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Background, aim, and scopeThe assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arising from products (goods and services) is emerging as a high profile application of life cycle assessment (LCA), with an increasing desire from retailers and other supply chain organizations to better understand, and in some cases communicate, the carbon footprint of products. Publicly Available Specification 2050:2008, Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services, addresses the single-impact category of global warming to provide a standardized and simplified implementation of process LCA methods for assessing GHG emissions from products. This paper briefly reviews the development process followed for PAS 2050, before examining the treatment of GHG-specific contribution of PAS 2050 to product carbon footprinting. Materials and methodsPAS 2050 was jointly sponsored by the Carbon Trust and the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and was published by the British Standards Institution on 29 October 2008. An independent steering group oversaw the development of the specification, including the establishment of an expert workgroup program, comprehensive international consultation, and expert input on the requirements of the specification. ResultsThe development process for PAS 2050 resulted in a specification that includes specific requirements that limit the interpretation of the underlying LCA approach to product carbon footprinting. These requirements, including goal setting and life cycle inventory assessment, aspects of system boundary identification and temporal aspects of GHG emissions, clarify the approach to be taken by organizations implementing product carbon footprinting, and simplify the application of LCA procedures in relation to product carbon footprinting. DiscussionAssessment of the emissions arising from the life cycle of products has a clear international component, and delivering consistent results across the supply chain requires the application of consistent methods. There is an emerging recognition that further standardization of methods for product carbon footprinting is needed, and the specific requirements resulting from the PAS 2050 development process make a valuable contribution across a range of GHG assessment issues. ConclusionsThe widespread interest in PAS 2050 from individuals and organizations, together with the development of similar guidance by other organizations, confirmed that there is a need for clarification, certainty, and requirements in the field of product carbon footprint analysis. The use of PAS 2050 to refine, clarify, and simplify existing LCA methods and standards has resulted in specific approaches to key GHG assessment issues being developed; it is important that future standards development work considers the impact of these approaches and their further refinement. Recommendations and perspectivesIt is the consumption of goods and services by individuals around the world that drives global GHG emission, and PAS 2050 is a first attempt to provide integrated, consistent approaches that directly address the role of consumption at the product level in contributing to GHG emissions. Climate science and GHG assessment techniques are both evolving areas and it will be necessary to review the approach taken by PAS 2050 in the future: a formal review process for PAS 2050 will commence towards the end of 2009 and practitioners are encouraged to participate in this review process.
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The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subjected to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here, two new metrics are proposed, which are based on a simple analytical climate model. The first metric is called the Global Temperature Change Potential and represents the temperature change at a given time due to a pulse emission of a gas (GTPP); the second is similar but represents the effect of a sustained emission change (hence GTPS). Both GTPP and GTPS are presented as relative to the temperature change due to a similar emission change of a reference gas, here taken to be carbon dioxide. Both metrics are compared against an upwelling-diffusion energy balance model that resolves land and ocean and the hemispheres. The GTPP does not perform well, compared to the energy balance model, except for long-lived gases. By contrast, the GTPS is shown to perform well relative to the energy balance model, for gases with a wide variety of lifetimes. It is also shown that for time horizons in excess of about 100 years, the GTPS and GWP produce very similar results, indicating an alternative interpretation for the GWP. The GTPS retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency, and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance, as it is further down the cause–effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions and has an unambiguous interpretation. It appears to be robust to key uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP.
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Carbon footprint models are increasingly being used to manage personal and household carbon dioxide emissions. Six models were compared for their suitability for use in Ireland using typical data for a household of three people. The annual household energy and transportation emissions ranged from 10,540 to 17,361 kg CO2 yr− 1 (mean 12,886; sd 2135) rising to a total footprint of 12,053 to 27, 218 kg CO2 yr− 1 (mean 18,117; sd 5106) when aviation emissions were included. This represents a potential range for individual CO2 emissions of between 4018 and 9073 kg CO2/person/annum, a variation of over 5 tonnes/person. The information provided by these models proved to be inconsistent and often contradictory. The high variability between models was due to a number of anomalies. When these were corrected mean household energy and transportation emissions fell to 12,130 kg CO2 yr− 1 (sd 805), with a total household footprint of 16,552 kg CO2 yr− 1 (sd 1101). Models vary in their complexity in terms of what is included in the overall estimation of emissions making a full analysis of the primary carbon footprint very difficult. When compared to current Irish conversion factors the corrected models either underestimated or overestimated CO2 emissions by approximately 10%. Current carbon footprint models excluded emissions from CH4 and N2O underestimating CO2 emissions for the household by 1.8%.
Article
This paper reviews quantitative assessments of uncertainty in level and trend in national greenhouse gas inventories. The reported uncertainty in the total emissions of high-quality greenhouse gas inventories ranges from ±5–20% in studies of five industrialised countries. The differences in uncertainty are, in particular, due to different subjective assessment of the uncertainty in emissions of nitrous oxide from agricultural soils. The fraction of CO2 in the inventory has little effect on the uncertainty. The uncertainties in trends are about ±4–5 percentage points for those countries that have made estimates. High uncertainties of emission levels indicate potential for improvements and, consequently, recalculations. Recalculations will reduce uncertainty, but might also cause practical problems. A high uncertainty in the emission level for large emission sources may be an obstacle for assessing cost-effective reduction strategies as well as for designing effective systems of emission trading. This could imply that the more uncertain emission sources should be excluded from emission trading. Alternatively, subjective uncertainty estimates may be expressed in terms of an economic risk of recalculation. The latter system may allow a market-based encouragement to reduce emission uncertainty. Reductions in uncertainties are anticipated in the future. However, it will be extremely difficult to reduce the trend uncertainty. Trend uncertainties may consequently remain high compared with the emission reduction targets in the Kyoto protocol.
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Local governments can have a large effect on carbon emissions through land use zoning, building codes, transport infrastructure investments, and support for transportation alternatives. This paper proposes a climate policy instrument - city carbon budgets - that provides a durable framework for local governments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Local governments would be assigned an emissions "budget", and would be required to keep annual local transport and buildings emissions within this budget. This policy framework could be implemented and managed by a higher-level government, or might be used in awarding funds to developing country cities from international climate funds. The state of California has enacted a version of this policy. In this paper, we identify and evaluate options for creating an effective and acceptable institutional structure, allocating emission targets to localities, measuring emissions, providing flexibility and incentives to local governments, and assuring compliance. We also discuss the likely costs of such a policy.
Article
Processes causing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefit humans by providing consumer goods and services. This benefit, and hence the responsibility for emissions, varies by purpose or consumption category and is unevenly distributed across and within countries. We quantify greenhouse gas emissions associated with the final consumption of goods and services for 73 nations and 14 aggregate world regions. We analyze the contribution of 8 categories: construction, shelter, food, clothing, mobility, manufactured products, services, and trade. National average per capita footprints vary from 1 tCO2e/y in African countries to approximately 30/y in Luxembourg and the United States. The expenditure elasticity is 0.57. The cross-national expenditure elasticity for just CO2, 0.81, corresponds remarkably well to the cross-sectional elasticities found within nations, suggesting a global relationship between expenditure and emissions that holds across several orders of magnitude difference. On the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emissions are related to household consumption, 10% to government consumption, and 18% to investments. Food accounts for 20% of GHG emissions, operation and maintenance of residences is 19%, and mobility is 17%. Food and services are more important in developing countries, while mobility and manufactured goods rise fast with income and dominate in rich countries. The importance of public services and manufactured goods has not yet been sufficiently appreciated in policy. Policy priorities hence depend on development status and country-level characteristics.
Article
Because of increasing concern about global climate change and carbon emissions as a causal factor, many companies and organizations are pursuing "carbon footprint" projects to estimate their own contributions to global climate change. Protocol definitions from carbon registries help organizations analyze their footprints. The scope of these protocols varies but generally suggests estimating only direct emissions and emissions from purchased energy, with less focus on supply chain emissions. In contrast approaches based on comprehensive environmental life-cycle assessment methods are available to track total emissions across the entire supply chain, and experience suggests that following narrowly defined estimation protocols will generally lead to large underestimates of carbon emissions for providing products and services. Direct emissions from an industry are, on average, only 14% of the total supply chain carbon emissions (often called Tier 1 emissions), and direct emissions plus industry energy inputs are, on average, only 26% of the total supply chain emissions (often called Tier 1 and 2 emissions). Without a full knowledge of their footprints, firms will be unable to pursue the most cost-effective carbon mitigation strategies. We suggest that firms use the screening-level analysis described here to set the bounds of their footprinting strategy to ensure that they do not ignore large sources of environmental effects across their supply chains. Such information can help firms pursue carbon and environmental emission mitigation projects not only within their own plants but also across their supply chain.
Article
Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a method for evaluating the environmental impacts of products holistically, including direct and supply chain impacts. The current LCA methodologies and the standards by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) impose practical difficulties for drawing system boundaries; decisions on inclusion or exclusion of processes in an analysis (the cutoff criteria) are typically not made on a scientific basis. In particular, the requirement of deciding which processes could be excluded from the inventory can be rather difficult to meet because many excluded processes have often never been assessed by the practitioner, and therefore, their negligibility cannot be guaranteed. LCA studies utilizing economic input-output analysis have shown that, in practice, excluded processes can contribute as much to the product system under study as included processes; thus, the subjective determination of the system boundary may lead to invalid results. System boundaries in LCA are discussed herein with particular attention to outlining hybrid approaches as methods for resolving the boundary selection problem in LCA. An input-output model can be used to describe at least a part of a product system, and an ISO-compatible system boundary selection procedure can be designed by applying hybrid input-output-assisted approaches. There are several hybrid input-output analysis-based LCA methods that can be implemented in practice for broadening system boundary and also for ISO compliance.
Article
Carbon footprint is an increasingly popular concept: for labelling, marketing, finance and regulation. In individual cases, carbon footprints can also be contentious, for example in the case of LPG and electric forklifts. Therefore, the fuel carbon footprints of the two were investigated to see if a fair, robust comparison could be made. This investigation yielded two conclusions: (1) definitions will continue to complicate footprint comparisons and (2) fuel carbon footprints of electric and (liquefied petroleum gas) LPG forklifts are, in principle, about equal, while in actual practice, LPG's footprint is smaller than that of electricity. The paper concludes that carbon footprint definitions should be sensible and transparent, but not prescribed.
Article
Over the past decade, an increasing number of authors have been examining the nexus of producer versus consumer responsibility, often dealing with the question of how to assign responsibility for internationally traded greenhouse gas emissions. Recently, a similar problem has appeared in drafting the standards for the Ecological Footprint: While the method traditionally assumes a full life-cycle perspective with full consumer responsibility, a large number of producers (businesses and industry sectors) have started to calculate their own footprints (see www.isa.org.usyd.edu.au). Adding any producer's footprint to other producers' footprints, or to population footprints, which all already cover the full upstream supply chain of their operating inputs, leads to double-counting: The sum of footprints of producers and consumers is larger than the total national footprint. The committee in charge of the Footprint standardisation process was hence faced with the decades-old non-additivity problem, posing the following dilemma for the accounting of footprints, or any other production factor: if one disallows double-counting, but wishes to be able to account for producers and consumers, then one cannot impose the requirement of full life-cycle coverage; the supply chains of actors have to be curtailed somehow in order to avoid double-counting. This work demonstrates and discusses a non-arbitrary method of consistently delineating these supply chains, into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive portions of responsibility to be shared by all actors in an economy.
  • H Bauman
  • A Tilman