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The effectiveness of workplace coaching: A meta-analysis of learning and performance outcomes from coaching

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Abstract

This study presents a meta-analysis synthesizing the existing research on the effectiveness of workplace coaching. We exclusively explore workplace coaching provided by internal or external coaches and therefore exclude cases of manager–subordinate and peer coaching. We propose a framework of potential outcomes from coaching in organizations, which we examine meta-analytically (k = 17). Our analyses indicated that coaching had positive effects on organizational outcomes overall (δ = 0.36), and on specific forms of outcome criteria (skill-based δ = 0.28; affective δ = 0.51; individual-level results δ = 1.24). We also examined moderation by a number of coaching practice factors (use of multisource feedback; type of coach; coaching format; longevity of coaching). Our analyses of practice moderators indicated a significant moderation of effect size for type of coach (with effects being stronger for internal coaches compared to external coaches) and use of multisource feedback (with the use of multisource feedback resulting in smaller positive effects). We found no moderation of effect size by coaching format (comparing face-to-face, with blended face-to-face and e-coaching) or duration of coaching (number of sessions or longevity of intervention). The effect sizes give support to the potential utility of coaching in organizations. Implications for coaching research and practice are discussed.Practitioner pointsOur meta-analysis supports the positive effects of workplace coaching as an approach to employee learning and development in organizations, with a variety of criteria.Our findings indicate that coaching was more effective when conducted by internal coaches and when multisource feedback was excluded.Workplace coaching was effective whether conducted face-to-face or using blended techniques (i.e., blending face-to-face with e-coaching).

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... In addition, the perceived usefulness of the training or the value that the learner attributes to his/her participation in the training would be relevant to the transfer of learning to the actual workplace [16]. Similarly, environmental elements, such as organizational culture [16] and the support of peers [29] or that provided by the immediate superior [30], are extremely important to impacting the transfer process [20]. ...
... Thus, from a theoretical perspective, the LTSI validation in Thailand represents the possibility of identifying a nomological network of the learning transfer system. Some findings on one hand supported the instrument's 16-factor structure [29,32,33], and other studies have reported a 12-factor model of the LTSI [38], calling for further studies to clarify the structure of the LTSI. There may be gendered differences in learning transfer yet to be assessed in the use of the LTSI, given the fact that in female-dominant fields such as education, gender difference has been shown to lead to difference perception in training transfer [39]. ...
... The LTSI was found to be a valid and reliable instrument with which to measure learning transfer from the training setting to the working environment. This result was in line with previous findings [29,37,55,56]. Accurate findings are enabled by proper measurements, which improve intervention efficacy. ...
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One of the most important ways to improve, update, and sustain teachers’ skills in an institution is via training. Nonetheless, despite the resources invested in training, learners’ mobilization of new learning after they return to work does not always reach expectations, in part because of a lack of learning transfer assessment tools. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the learning transfer inventory system (LTSI) in assessing the teachers’ transfer of COVID-19 prevention measures in Thai public school institutions. Participants were a sample of 700 in-service teachers (females = 54.8%; mean age = 36 years, SD = 15.41) who completed training on health code guidance for COVID-19 prevention in school. Results following confirmatory factor analysis, a test of the measurement invariance and measurement of the latent mean difference across gender, of the instrument yielded support for the hypothesized 16-factor structure. Empirical support for discriminant and convergent validity was strong. Additionally, we found a significant latent mean difference between male and female teachers related to the constructs peer support, supervisor sanction, and training design. The LTSI appears to yield valid and reliable scores for measuring the learning transfer of Thai teachers following in-service training.
... Examples of recent, well designed efficacy studies include Jones, Woods and Zhou (2021) who found that individual characteristics influence coaching efficacy, and Fontes and Dello Russo (2021) who found that coaching was associated with increases in psychological capital, job attitudes and aspects of job performance. In addition, there are a number of meta-studies that provide compelling evidence that coaching has positive outcomes for the individuals and their organisations (Athanasopoulou & Dopson, 2018;Blackman et al., 2016;De Haan, 2021;Grover & Furnham, 2016;Jones, Woods and Guillaume, 2016;Theeboom, Beersma and van Vianen, 2014). ...
... From these meta-studies, it is apparent that while coaching clearly has positive outcomes, there is little consensus in the literature regarding the most appropriate criteria for classifying and evaluating coaching outcomes (De Haan & Nilsson, in press;Grant, Passmore, Cavanagh and Parker, 2010;MacKie, 2007;Smither, 2011). To address this issue, Jones et al. (2016) proposed a three-component classification framework for coaching outcomes comprising of cognitive, skillsbased and affective categories. They stated that cognitive outcomes are typically guided by goalsetting and that many of the coaching outcomes are affective in nature, including development of self-efficacy, confidence, reduced stress, increase satisfaction and motivation. ...
... The choice of measurement constructs for the present study (goal attainment, psychological wellbeing, resilience, perceived stress) is therefore validated by the coaching outcomes framework of Jones et al. (2016) and the findings of Athanasopoulou and Dopson (2018). The constructs are also supported by other studies who found coaching to increase goal attainment (Diller, Muehlberger, Braumandl and Jonas, 2020;Grant, Curtayne and Burton, 2009;Spence & Grant, 2007), wellbeing (Duijts, Kant, van den Brandt and Swaen, 2007;Govindji & Linley, 2007;Grant et al., 2009;Spence & Grant, 2007;Theeboom et al., 2014), resilience (Grant et al., 2009;Green, Grant and Rynsaardt, 2020), and to reduce stress (Grant et al., 2009;Junker, Pömmer and Traut-Mattausch, 2020). ...
Article
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There is limited empirical efficacy evidence on the confluence of artificial intelligence (AI) and organisational and life coaching. Coaching "works" but is often unavailable or unaffordable. AI could scale coaching to reach a wider audience, however, we do not yet know how well AI coaching "works". This replication randomised controlled trial longitudinal study tested the efficacy of a chatbot AI coach called Vici. An experimental group (n=75) used Vici for six months. Eight measurements on goal attainment, resilience, psychological wellbeing, and perceived stress were collected from the experimental and control group (n=94). Data was collected at baseline, after each of the six chatbot usage months, and three-months later. The experimental group showed a statistically significant increase in goal attainment, while all other measures yielded non-significant results. Using AI, goal and control theories we interpret these results to indicate that AI coaching is effective in a narrow application, suggesting that AI could democratise coaching in a cost-effective, scalable manner.
... ot one pathway to thriving for all college students" because of varying identities, experiences, backgrounds, and personalities (Schreiner, 2013, p. 44). Coaching is commonly an individualized approach to support students in a holistic way. Several benefits related to thriving have been reported in the broader field of coaching (Grant et al., 2009;R. J. Jones, Woods, & Guillaume, 2016;Theeboom, Beersma, & van Vianen, 2014) and will be discussed in the next section. Coaching college students has also been linked to help students in goal setting and working towards those goals (Grant, 2003;LaRocca, 2015;Prevatt et al., 2017), helping students to understand and use their strengths (Gibbs & Larcus, 2015), mindset (Han, Fa ...
... Two meta-analyses have been conducted to examine the broader field of coaching specifically in the workplace. R. J. Jones et al. (2016) performed a meta-analysis that included research articles focused on workplace coaching and excluded articles with peers or management who served as coaches. R. J. Jones et al. (2016) found coaching had a positive effect on affective (attitudes and motivations), cognitive (specific knowledge), and skills-based (behaviors relating to leadership, technology, etc.) outcomes. ...
... R. J. Jones et al. (2016) performed a meta-analysis that included research articles focused on workplace coaching and excluded articles with peers or management who served as coaches. R. J. Jones et al. (2016) found coaching had a positive effect on affective (attitudes and motivations), cognitive (specific knowledge), and skills-based (behaviors relating to leadership, technology, etc.) outcomes. Theeboom et al. (2014) also conducted a meta-analysis focused on individual outcomes in organizations such as performance skills, well-being, coping, work attitudes, and goaldirected self-regulation. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to explore how trained, four-year success coaches perceive their coaching practice with students in higher education, particularly in the context of their meetings. While coaching programs have proliferated, little is known about coaching as a practice in higher education and it is difficult to generalize findings because professionals are ‘coaching’ in different ways. Some academic coaches in the field have stated they were given a title, but they are not ‘coaching’ (Sepulveda, 2017). Little is known about coaching as a practice, and this study will help to fill this gap. Taking a narrative approach, I used self-determination theory as a lens to explore the perceptions of trained, four-year success coaches to understand what they perceived they strategically do in their meetings with students. I interviewed 18 coaches in higher education across the United States and asked for stories in how they have helped students in each meeting, and throughout their meetings. In this narrative study, I explored how coaches approach their meetings and what skills they incorporate. Through semi-structured interviews I elicited stories of growth, development, and intentionality in their practices. Beliefs, skills, conversational framework, the progression over time, the training, growth, and development and the role make up coaching practices in higher education. It is the consistent combination of these that make the coaching practice a unique student support service. This study builds upon self-determination theory and I draw conclusions about what findings mean for coaching practices in higher education.
... They assert that coaching has become a management discipline that influences employee development and organizational performance. Reinforcing this assertion, Jones et al. (2016) conclude that organizations are moving away from authoritarian management and top-down command and control styles and are replacing them with managerial coaching that offers a framework for building trust and mutual support. Fatien and Otter (2015) assert that coaching by managers is rapidly increasing. ...
... In sum, the individual studies mentioned above and meta-analytic studies (Theeboom et al., 2014;Jones et al., 2016) have clearly demonstrated that coaching has a positive impact on outcome criteria. These include performance improvement, well-being, job satisfaction, skills enhancement, self-efficacy, goal-directed self-regulation and, importantly for this conceptual paper, employees' clear expression of commitment to both the job and the organization. ...
Article
Purpose The essay is practitioner-focused with manager-as-coach applying experiential learning to aid an employee's learning and improve performance as well as helping to build employee commitment to job and organization. Reciprocity is intended as the learning and commitment of both the employee and manager are enhanced. Design/methodology/approach As a conceptual, not empirical, paper, the present study aimed at guiding manager behavior the methodology aims to examine the areas of manager-as-coach, efficacy of coaching, theoretical grounding of employee commitment and experiential learning processes. Study and coordination of information in these areas provided support for a detailed action plan for practical application. Findings It is possible to create for manager use a research results driven practical guide/action plan. The guide incorporates manager skills and commitment theory (investment) along with an experiential learning approach aimed at improving employee growth and building commitment. Practical implications There is clear evidence in empirical research that finds employee commitment positively related to work performance, job engagement and job retention. This essay aims at application of investment theory to build commitment as it is based on actual inputs and efforts of the employee. Originality/value There is very little research currently available that directly addresses manager-as-coach deliberately working to increase or build employee commitment to job, organization or the manager her/himself. This essay aims directly at how commitment may be enhanced.
... Another very common one is professional coaching, which enables, inter alia, the development of an employee in a given professional role, as well as ongoing support in difficult and demanding situations. Most often it is offered to managers or leaders, constituting the basic method of their development in a professional role in some organisations (Jones et al., 2015;Grover and Furnham, 2016). Organisations also use team coaching, offered e.g., to members of management or project teams, i.e., formally or task-based teams (Carter and Hawkins, 2013;Huflejt-Łukasik et al., 2017;Zelga, 2017). ...
... Studies on coaching for organisations have confirmed its effectiveness. Jones et al. (2015) conducted a meta-analysis of 17 studies on coaching in the workplace. The use of coaching brought positive results in terms of affective changes, changes regarding skills, and changes regarding levels of productivity and achieving goals. ...
Article
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When introducing changes to an organisation, it is crucial to know how a given change will affect the company’s success. It is easy to forget or, more frequently, fail to appreciate the importance of the feelings and thoughts of the people who experience such changes. The distinction between objective change and subjective change is helpful in understanding the psychological consequences of changes and how they may affect the effectiveness of introducing changes in organisations. Results of studies on the psychological costs of changes for an individual indicate that there are differences in the way people experience objective and subjective changes, and that the way a change is perceived by an individual (i.e., subjective change) is crucial for the consequences of change. Studies have also identified factors which can buffer the negative consequences that changes may have on an individual. For changes in an organisation, coaching is one method to nurture these buffering factors in affected individuals, and, most of all, in those who are responsible for planning and introducing the changes, so that the employees of a company can experience the change in the most constructive way possible.
... Hence, among the well-known outcome variables of the managerial coaching, job performance is a significant variable, as the effectiveness of managerial coaching can be understood in a stint of employee's performance (Ellinger, Ellinger, & Keller, 2003). Moreover, concentrating on organizational change and learning at the place of work dynamics, it has been evident that organizations are assigning specific responsibilities, related explicitly to HRD roles to their supervisors and executives (Jones, Woods & Guillaume, 2016;Liu & Batt, 2010). The fluctuation of job duties is persistent in organizations as the managers attempt to accomplish the roles of recognizing and assigning the human capital in specific jobs, to attain business objectives (Muhlberger, & Traut-Mattausch, 2015;Ellinger et al., 2003). ...
... Managerial coaching is "a method of facilitator of learning which is provided by a supervisor or manager, enabling the employees to learn and enhance the performance" (Ellinger et al., 2010). It is considered a practical and development performance of subordinates (Jones et al., 2016). Coaching mulls over as being extricated from old-style management because it consists of self-directed, empowering, supportive and teamwork strategies as an alternative of a dependent on the steering, observing, and inflexible-where it is prepended an emergent collaboration in the workplace setting (Muhlberger & Traut-Mattausch, 2015;Boyatzis et al., 2006). ...
... Hudson's (1999) conclusion that executives could benefit from the services of highly trained "coaches" to develop their leadership potential and effectiveness was spot on. The evidence for coaching is strong, with three recent metaanalyses indicating positive effects on organizational and individual outcomes including goal attainment (Jones et al., 2016;Sonesh et al., 2015;Theeboom et al., 2014). Google conducted an internal study exploring the characteristics of effective managers, with coaching identified as the number one quality of their best managers (Bock, 2015;Garvin, 2013). ...
... Coaches may be external to the organization, although increasingly organizations are employing internal coaches (ICF, 2021c). While both internal and external coaching has been found to be effective at influencing organizational outcomes, a recent meta-analysis found a stronger effect for internal coaches, with their greater knowledge of the organizational climate and culture, compared to external coaches (Jones et al., 2016). Two types of coaching that may be particularly relevant to social work practice are executive and team coaching. ...
Article
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There is increasing recognition of the merits of coaching in social work, yet gaps in knowledge persist about the use and effectiveness of coaching in social work settings. This article bridges concepts and findings from the literature on coaching to provide readers with the information needed for decision-making about whether and how to integrate coaching into practice. Coaching is currently being used in a number of social work fields of practice to support the transfer of learning, practice implementation efforts, leadership development, and organizational processes. The evolution of coaching from the corporate world into service delivery settings is reviewed, with special attention to the commonalities and distinctions between coaching and social work practice. Knowing more about the background, purpose and value of coaching can equip the profession with further insights about the appropriate application of coaching in the world of social work. Moreover, the reader is invited to assess the potential of coaching as a method for enhancing workforce and leadership competencies and practice behaviors in service of improving client outcomes.
... B. durch Körpersprache oder Bewegungen im Raum. Die empirische Evidenz zeigt allerdings keinen signifikanten Unterschied zwischen Präsenz-und Blended Coaching, bei dem digital vermittelte Anteile per Text oder Video im Laufe des Coachingprozesses integriert sind (Jones et al. 2016). Hierbei kann argumentiert werden, dass Coach und Coachee zumindest in Teilen immer noch in Präsenz zusammengearbeitet haben, was erklärt, warum kein Unterschied gefunden wurde. ...
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Zusammenfassung Eine gelingende Arbeitsbeziehung zwischen Coach und Coachee ist einer der zentralen Erfolgsfaktoren im Coaching und kann erklären, warum manche Coachingprozesse erfolgreicher verlaufen als andere. Dieser Beitrag liefert einen Überblick über den Stand der Forschung zur Arbeitsbeziehung im Coaching. Er zeigt die Bedeutung der Arbeitsbeziehung zu verschiedenen Outcome-Ergebnissen für Coachees auf sowie Faktoren, die die Arbeitsbeziehung fördern oder auch nicht fördern können. Darüber hinaus wird die Rolle der Arbeitsbeziehung im digitalen Coaching-Setting näher beleuchtet. Der Beitrag benennt offene Fragen für die Coaching-Forschung und leitet Handlungsempfehlungen für die Coaching-Praxis ab.
... It is a fast-growing multi-billion dollar per year industry [6] and has grown substantially both in practice and research in the last decade a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 [7]. Numerous coaching meta-studies have made a clear case for its efficacy [8][9][10][11][12][13]. There is a strong link between successful coaching outcomes and the relationship and bond between the coach and client with convincing evidence that the coach-client relationship is the most significant factor in coaching success [14][15][16]. ...
Article
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The history of artificial intelligence (AI) is filled with hype and inflated expectations. Notwithstanding , AI is finding its way into numerous aspects of humanity including the fast-growing helping profession of coaching. Coaching has been shown to be efficacious in a variety of human development facets. The application of AI in a narrow, specific area of coaching has also been shown to work. What remains uncertain, is how the two compare. In this paper we compare two equivalent longitudinal randomised control trial studies that measured the increase in clients' goal attainment as a result of having received coaching over a 10-month period. The first study involved human coaches and the replication study used an AI chatbot coach. In both studies, human coaches and the AI coach were significantly more effective in helping clients reach their goals compared to the two control groups. Surprisingly however, the AI coach was as effective as human coaches at the end of the trials. We interpret this result using AI and goal theory and present three significant implications: AI coaching could be scaled to democratize coaching; AI coaching could grow the demand for human coaching ; and AI could replace human coaches who use simplistic, model-based coaching approaches. At present, AI's lack of empathy and emotional intelligence make human coaches irreplicable. However, understanding the efficacy of AI coaching relative to human coaching may promote the focused use of AI, to the significant benefit of society.
... Prä-Post-Studien oder Studien, die die Wirksamkeit von Coaching zu mehreren Zeitpunkten messen, sind seltener, werden aber dringend benötigt, um kausale Schlüsse zwischen verschiedenen Variablen zu ziehen (Boyatzis et al. 2022;Bozer und Jones 2018;Burt und Talati 2017). Der im vierten Punkt angesprochene Mangel an Kontrollgruppendesigns (experimentell oder quasi-experimentell) schmälert die interne Validität der durchgeführten Studien (Burt und Talati 2017;Jones et al. 2016;Kotte 2021). ...
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Zusammenfassung In einer Online-Umfrage befragten wir 252 Coaches und analysierten ihre Einstellung zur Coaching-Forschung, Faktoren, die ihre Einstellung beeinflussen, und wie sich ihre Haltung wiederum auf ihre Bereitschaft zur Teilnahme an Coaching-Forschung auswirkt. Die Faktorenanalyse ergab vier verschiedene Einstellungsfaktoren: (1) Mehrwert und (2) Schaden durch Coaching-Forschung, (3) Effektivitätszweifel, (4) Aufwand im Zusammenhang mit der Teilnahme an Coaching-Forschung. Die Erfahrung der Coaches (d. h. Novizen vs. Expert:innen; mit Coaching-Ausbildung vs. ohne) sagte die Einstellung zur Coaching-Forschung voraus, insbesondere für die Faktoren (2) und (3). Alle vier Faktoren sowie eine frühere Forschungsteilnahme sagten signifikant die Bereitschaft zur Teilnahme an Coaching-Forschung voraus.
... Workplace coaching research has grown in interest and has focused most on the effectiveness of coaching interventions (Grover & Furnham, 2016) and on fostering varying workplace coaching outcomes (Graßmann et al., 2020). Research has provided support for the positive effects of workplace coaching as an effective approach to employee learning and development in organizations using a variety of criteria (Jones et al., 2016). Graßmann and colleagues' recent meta-analysis (2020) indicates moderate and robust relationships among workplace coaching and coaching outcomes. ...
Chapter
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Entrepreneur coachability is the degree to which an entrepreneur seeks, carefully considers, and integrates feedback to improve a venture’s performance. There is increasing evidence that entrepreneur coachability is important for attracting the social and financial resources necessary for venture growth. Although entrepreneur coachability has emerged as an especially relevant construct for practitioners, start-up ecosystem leaders, and scholars alike, research on this entrepreneurial behavior is in its infancy. What appears to be a consistent finding across studies is that some entrepreneurs are more coachable than others, which affects downstream outcomes—particularly resource acquisition. However, there are sizable theoretical and empirical gaps that limit our understanding about the value of coachability to entrepreneurship research. As a body of literature develops, it is useful to take inventory of the work that has been accomplished thus far and to build from the lessons learned to identify insightful new directions. The topic of entrepreneur coachability has interdisciplinary appeal, and there is a surge of entrepreneur coaching taking place across start-up ecosystems. Research on coaching is diverse, and scholarship has developed across the academic domains of athletics, marketing, workplace coaching, and entrepreneurship. To identify progress to date, promising research gaps, and paths for future exploration, the literature on entrepreneur coachability is critically reviewed. To consider the future development of entrepreneur coachability scholarship, a research agenda is organized by the antecedents of entrepreneurship coachability, outcomes of entrepreneur coachability, and how entrepreneur– coach fit affects learning and development. Future scholarship is needed to more fully explore the antecedents, mechanisms, and/or consequences of entrepreneur coachability. The pursuit and development of this research stream represent fertile ground for meaningful contributions to entrepreneurship theory and practice.
... The use of animations has been helpful to make this theory more accessible to care home workers, empowering staff to create and deliver meaningful interventions independently and take charge of activity for their residents. When disseminating this to staff, a coaching approach may be beneficial, as coaching has been shown to improve outcomes for learning in the workplace (Jones, Woods & Guillaume, 2016). Whilst the animation may improve understanding of this theory among staff, coaching and supervision will support staff to implement this effectively in their day to day work. ...
Article
One aspect of the NHS Long Term Plan is to establish a more comprehensive community-based mental health crisis response. NHS trusts have therefore looked to new services to help alleviate in-patient bed pressures. Intensive Outpatient Programmes (IOPs) have been previously used to help support people living with substance-misuse or eating disorders. More recently IOPs have been utilised to support people living with depression and anxiety. The Acute Community Service (ACS) was established as an IOP to support older adults in crisis by providing psychological, nursing, occupational, and physiotherapy interventions. Initial findings are consistent with previous research showing significant improvements in mood, levels of anxiety, and quality of life, with some service users being suitable for discharge to primary care. The ACS looks to build on these promising findings by working towards understanding the impact of the service on the frequency and length of in-patient admissions. Additionally, we would aim to understand the longer term impact of the ACS on service users and re-referrals rates.
... Coaching for values is an ambiguous concept; academic research focus on this area, where an individual's values-based thinking is explored within coaching practice is relatively rare. Coaching has become a mainstream activity in organisations within the past decade, with an acceptance of internal coaches improving individual effectiveness and organisational development through a traditional goal-oriented coaching methodology (Grant, Cavanagh, Parker, & Passmore, 2010;Jones, Woods, & Guillaume, 2016;O'Connor & Cavanagh, 2013;Watson, 2020). Values-based coaching in organisations has a bearing as numerous organisations build internal value attributes to guide their organisational objectives as drivers for goal attainment within the organisation's social construct. ...
Article
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Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was applied to explore coaches’ experience using a values-based coaching framework within an international non-profit organisation. The ‘Coaching for Alignment’ model facilitated values-based coaching through semi-structured interviews; the subjective experience and phenomenological thinking of values were explored. The participants' experience provided emergent themes of thought provocation, empowerment, and discomfort through the coaching dialogue. Preliminary insight into how coaching for values can support the coaches’ development in realising values congruence, interpreted through a positive psychology coaching lens, is offered. Values-based coaching in non-profits organisations can encourage self-reflection and empowerment in coaches supporting organisational coaching programmes.
... With this uptake, coaching as a profession also continues to keep growing: The International Coach Federation, the most recognized governing body for coaches around the world, counts more than 40,000 members in 151 countries in 2021 (International Coach Federation, 2021), but this is a very conservative estimate of the number of people actually working as coaches. Research on the effects of coaching supports its popularity: studies have repeatedly demonstrated the positive effects of coaching on both well-being (e.g., reducing stress and burnout) and performance outcomes (e.g., goal attainment; Theeboom et al., 2014;Jones et al., 2016;McGonagle et al., 2020;Solms et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Coaching is a systematic and goal-oriented one-on-one intervention by a coach aimed to guide clients in their professional and personal development. Previous research on coaching has demonstrated effects on a number of positive outcomes, including well-being and performance, yet little is known about the processes that underlie these outcomes, such as the type of questions coaches use. Here, we focus on three different types of coaching questions, and aim to uncover their immediate and sustained effects for affect, self-efficacy, and goal-directed outcomes, using a between-subjects experiment. One hundred and eighty-three medical residents and PhD students from various medical centers and healthcare organizations in the Netherlands were recruited to participate in a self-coaching writing exercise, where they followed written instructions rather than interacting with a real coach. All participants were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: either one of two solution-focused coaching conditions (i.e., the success or miracle condition) or a problem-focused coaching condition. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure key outcomes of coaching, that is positive and negative affect, self-efficacy, goal orientation, action planning (i.e., quantity and quality) and goal attainment. Two follow-up measurements assessed if the effects of the self-coaching exercise led to problem-solving actions within an initial follow-up period of 14 days and a subsequent follow-up period of 10 days. Findings showed that participants experienced more positive affect, less negative affect, and higher approach goal orientation after the solution-focused coaching exercise compared to the problem-focused coaching exercise. In all conditions, goal attainment increased as a consequence of the self-coaching intervention. We discuss the implications of our findings for the science and practice of contemporary coaching.
... However, regarding the question of alterability, relative stability is indeed a theoretically and pragmatically decisive parameter of personality, but, at the same time, this relativity offers possibilities for further even intentional change [51][52][53][54]. Since coaching and/or personality development offers have been successfully taken up in several professional fields for many years [55][56][57], it seems reasonable to explore whether and to what extent there are corresponding action-oriented starting points within the framework of teacher education. ...
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Already in 2016, the German educational policy adopted the Education in the Digital World strategy, recommending that all teachers should become experts in using media. However, despite this initiative regarding the promotion of innovative forms of teaching using digital media, most teachers did not feel optimally prepared to successfully cope with the demands of implementing e-learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most empirical studies on potential barriers to innovation pertain to comparatively easy, changeable environmental factors, whereas only a few studies have focused on teachers as an individual factor so far. Since several organizational psychological studies on the relationships between innovativeness and personality traits in professional contexts identified the personality trait of openness to experience to be particularly influential on the innovative behaviors of employees', our study aimed to explore whether comparable results can also be found in the educational context. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 201) to analyze to what extent the Big Five personality traits are related to pre-service teachers' self-concept of professional knowledge and, in particular, its digitalization-related domains. The results of our canonical correlation analysis show that the two personality traits of openness to experience and conscientiousness appear to be significantly related to the overall professional knowledge of our sample. Furthermore, a dominant affinity for technology seems to be associable with the risk of lower values on personality traits that are regarded to be pedagogically relevant. However, we found that our canonical model could also get along with fewer variables since the actual digitali-zation-related teaching skills were not sufficiently reflected by the canonical solution but were rather caught up in the domain of pedagogical content knowledge. Interpretations of these findings as well as practical implications are discussed.
... les coachés peuvent être des individus, des équipes de travail ou de projets (Ayache & Dumez, 2021). De ce fait, la performance des employés et la pratique en (RH) de coaching devraient, de nos jours, être abordées simultanément de manière individuelle et collective (Brulhart et al., 2019;Jones et al., 2016;Rapp et al., 2016;Salas et al., 2015;Theeboom et al., 2014). À titre d'exemple, les organisations publiques, traditionnellement structurées pour réaliser des actes professionnels routiniers dans le but d'appliquer les lois en vigueur, intègrent peu à peu la gestion de projet pour améliorer la qualité des services à la population, contrôler les contraintes administratives liées à des questions budgétaires, d'échéances, de risques, et augmenter leur autonomie ainsi que leur imputabilité (Mazouz, 2017). ...
Article
Cet article explore les rôles du coaching en situation d’apprentissage auprès de membres d’équipes qui sont des employés permanents de deux organisations, et ce, selon une variété de situations et de pratiques favorables au développement des compétences professionnelles en gestion de projet des individus et des équipes. Ces rôles stimulent de nombreuses réflexions pour répondre aux besoins d’une entreprise, mais aussi aux besoins de développement professionnel individuels et collectifs. Des résultats d’une recherche réalisée au sein d’une organisation publique et d’une expérimentation relative au déploiement d’une pratique en ressources humaines (RH) de coaching collectif ont été intégrés à des réflexions managériales et andragogiques afin de proposer des recommandations ainsi que des pistes de réflexion. La contribution de cet article répond au besoin de comprendre comment la pratique de coaching s’intègre aux situations de gestion de projet et favorise le développement des compétences par des pratiques réflexives. Pour lecture : https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/enjeux/2022-v9-n2-enjeux07373/
... In health care, business and nonprofit sectors, organizations have used peer coaching in leadershipdevelopment programs to assist in class learning and to supply accountability (Parker, Kram & Hall, 2014;Van Oosten & Kram, 2014). Peer coaching has been revealed to have advantages in various environments from professional career and employee progress to psychosocial process (Huston & Weaver, 2008;Jones, Woods, & Guillaume, 2016;Parker, Wasserman, Kram & Hall, 2015). In learning organization which guides to teacher's development and the phenomenon of change and development, unlike classical approaches, peer coaching has been presented to support and to make it possible for teachers who are in self-development effort and lead constantly to self-renovation and practicing of changes. ...
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This research was conducted in order to discuss one of modern supervision approaches and its viewpoints and explain this: peer coaching. This article describes the background, components, process, characteristics, and benefits of peer coaching. In this process, it has been more important which types of supervision have been chosen: traditional or modern. Researches have showed that while traditional supervision approaches have affected teachers' negatively modern supervision approaches have encouraged teachers to work more. So, it has been an object of interest what peer coaching is, what differences and purposes have been and how it works. In this study, content analysis has been used on the nature of peer coaching and for this purpose, books and articles which are related to peer coaching have been scrutinized and the terms "peer coaching" have been tried to explain in all details. Definitions and other aspects of peer coaching have been discussed by literature related to peer coaching. According to literature, in this study, it can be said that peer coaching is a modern approach and teachers have asked for supervisor to use such modern approaches. Analyzing the literature, it can be said that peer coaching which is a modern supervision approach, has been thought more humane and more positive by teachers. It has overcome the bias of "supervision" and it has given a giant comfort not only organizations but also supervision mechanism and supervisor-teacher.
... Coaching, seen as a proactive relationship between teacher and student, responds to the natural human need for growth, development and evolution, and facilitates a range of processes carried out in school. According to Jones et al. (2016), coaching has positive effects at the cognitive level (knowledge), affective level (attitudes, motivations), but also in skill development; it also has multiple benefits on effective relationship building, resilience development, improves self-confidence and quality of life (Jarosz, 2020). Coaching activities help students getting know themselves better, becoming aware of their own strengths, but also discovering their vulnerabilities, setting goals and objectives for their own training and adopting a receptive and reflective attitude. ...
Article
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Education is a field that evolves constantly in relation to the changes in the society and the needs of its beneficiaries, taking over and adapting functional models from other fields. The quality of education of today’s generations has a direct impact on the future, as tomorrow's adults need to have strong key competences, but also transversal competences needed in a dynamic and competitive labour market. Thus, the knowledge society implies opening up the education system to other social sectors, exploiting the paradigm of student-centred education, harnessing technology and virtual environments to create authentic learning and training contexts. Within this framework, educational coaching can be a means through which the individual potential of the learner can be discovered and optimised, with multiple benefits in personal, academic and professional terms. In order to achieve academic success, students need to know themselves, set short-, medium- and long-term goals and objectives, develop skills and competences in autonomous learning, communication, self-motivation, creative and critical thinking, emotion management etc. Through coaching activities, students can benefit from academic support and help in the process of self-discovery and personal development, optimising personal potential, collaborating and creating educational communities that share common goals and values. Placing the teacher in the position of a coach, this can contribute to the development of a multifaceted perspective related to the role of the teacher in the contemporary school, as a student’s partner in the process of his or her education. The present paper aims to explore students’ perceptions concerning the need for coaching activities in their academic life and to identify the students’ main needs and directions for optimizing actions and interventions.
... The diversity of coaching topics results in a cross-disciplinary intervention mainly from adult learning, leadership, management, social sciences and psychology (Grant and Cavanagh, 2007). Several systematic reviews (e.g., Chatterjee et al., 2021;Jones et al. , 2016;Theeboom et al. , 2014) have confirmed the positive effects coaching contributing to individual level outcomes (e.g., self-efficacy, goal achievement and healthy lifestyle). For instance, psychologically informed coaching approach, like positive psychology has been substantially used to develop psychological capital to support change (Giraldez-Hayes, 2021). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate resistance to change and change management through a micro-level interpersonal perspective. Specifically, this paper addresses in what way external change experts, such as coaches, identify distinctive emotional and behavioural indicators of resistance and facilitate individuals to develop positive strengths and motivation to change. Design/methodology/approach The authors drew upon critical realism and abductive research methodology to understand connections between coaching intervention and individual change resistance through 21 in-depth interviews with independent coaches listed in coaching associations in Germany. Findings This study first re-evaluates the implications of resistance and extends its meaning from negative obstacles into natural emotional responses of individuals and constructive resources for change. In addition, the study results indicate resistance can be distinguished through both explicit behaviours, body language along with implicit emotional reactions, like being tired or making small jokes. Moreover, several micro-level interpersonal approaches for coaches to apply in dealing with resistance, including understanding coachees' cognitive status and working environment, adapting varied communication styles as well as drawing upon coachees' strengths. Practical implications The research results offer organisations (e.g. managers and human resource professionals) essential guidelines in micro-level change management strategy by considering external coaching as a valuable option to deal with varied individual, social and contextual factors (e.g. organisational power and politics). From the organisational investment perspective, indicators of resistance and approaches to facilitate coachees' emotional reactions can be served as a preliminary protocol for stakeholders to evaluate the effectiveness of their change management schemes. Moreover, the framework outlined in this research can be considered in the future coaching education and professional development programmes. Originality/value Overall, this study demonstrates that external coaching is one of the valuable approaches in responding to individual resistance in organisational change management. The research findings widen existing bipolar paradigms of resistance (either change obstacles or positive resource) into a neutral spectrum that holds an impartial view on emotional reactions to change. Furthermore, individual differences and contextual factors play essential roles in the change process, e.g. coachees' personality, personal experiences, knowledge, interpretations to change process and topics as well as organisational context (e.g. power, hierarchy and culture) need to be considered into change management strategy.
... what are strengths and what are weaknesses) may vary between individuals and conditions, yet there are commonalities in educational and occupational presentation, which lead some contemporary researchers to group them together for analysis and mapping of functional performance (Astle and Fletcher-Watson, 2020;Astle et al., 2019;Siugzdaite et al., 2020). Practitioner-based reports tend to concur, citing difficulties as those related to time management, organisational skills, memory/concentration, communication and managing well-being (Fung, 2021;LeFevre-vy et al., 2022;Pollack, 2009;Smith and Kirby, 2021); these are topics well known to coaching psychology research (Jones et al., 2016). These applied skills have a direct impact on career success. ...
Article
Purpose: An applied study using convenience data was conducted to compare the experiences of neurodivergent adults undergoing workplace coaching before and during the pandemic. Design/Methodology/Approach: The naturally occurring opportunity permitted a comparison of face-to-face and remote coaching in three cohorts, pre-pandemic (100% face-to-face), forced remote (100% remote) and choice (remote or face-to-face; 85% selected remote). A total of 409 participants self-reported performance before and 12 weeks after completing an average of 11 hours coaching. Findings: Significant differences between before and after scores for performance, with large effect sizes, were reported for all three cohorts across six dependent variables: memory, time management, organisational skills, stress management, understanding neurodiversity and concentration. There was no significant difference between the cohorts in terms of the magnitude of the effect. We found significant differences between the cohorts in terms of which topics were chosen as foci for the coaching, with executive functions related topics becoming less popular in the choice cohort. Implications: We abductively reasoned our results to suggest a positive relationship between personalized environments and cognitive demands for this client group. We call for further, theoretically grounded research exploring the role of coaching and environment in understanding the work performance of neurodivergent adults at work. Originality: The study contributes to the emerging knowledge on the different experiences of in-person and video-mediated coaching. Our focus on neurodivergent employees, which are heretofore less well researched within the workplace, provides essential data to support practitioners in maximizing opportunity for a marginalized group.
... Coaching was initially used in the private sector as a method of leadership development among managers [25]. In 2011, 93% of US-based global 100 companies used coaching as a leadership development method [26]. ...
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Background An increasing number of interventions have focused on leadership development for healthcare managers, among which coaching is a common strategy. The purpose of the present systematic review is to synthesize evidence on the effect of coaching in developing leadership of healthcare managers. Methods and analysis A literature search will be conducted in six English databases (MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane library, Nursing & Allied Health Premium, and Scopus) and four Chinese databases (Wanfang, CNKI, SinoMed, and VIP) from inception to April 1st, 2022. The titles, abstracts, and full texts of the studies will be screened by two independent researchers to determine their eligibility. The RoB 2, ROBINS-I, CASP, and MMAT will be applied to assess the quality of randomized trials, non-randomized studies, qualitative studies, and mixed-method studies, respectively. We will then extract the study characteristics, participant characteristics, and study outcomes of the reviewed papers. The Aims, Ingredients, Mechanism, and Delivery framework will be used to extract the components of coaching strategies. For quantitative data, a meta-analysis will be performed if sufficient data are available; otherwise, we will conduct a narrative synthesis. Thematic synthesis methods will be used for qualitative data analysis. Discussion By conducting this systematic review, we expect to synthesize evidence regarding the components of coaching for leadership development among healthcare managers; the influence of coaching on leadership development among managers at the individual, unit-wide, or organizational level; and how managers view coaching as a leadership development strategy. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020194290.
... Mentoring and coaching are traditionally more intimate and adaptable than large group training situations and can be conducted either in-person or electronically (Jones et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
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During the COVID-19 pandemic manufacturing companies found that to remain competitive increased automation and technological advancement was of increasing importance. Many organizations faced a lack of employees who had the necessary skills to be receptive to the needs of an increasingly automated work environment, leading to a gap between current staff and talent abilities. Instead of hiring new workers and adding time and financial expense, training current workers to have increased acceptance towards changing technology can be a viable option, if training can be strategized to address the needs of a specific workplace. This mixed methods study uses a modified unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) survey to quantitatively establish a baseline for technology acceptance and usage among a group of manufacturing workers in the United States, correlated to qualitative interviews with some staff to determine which training methods were found to be most effective. Overall attitudes towards new technology usage and behavioral intent were found to be positive at this facility. Through multiple regression analysis it was discovered that current usage behavior of new technology at the facility was most influenced by facilitating conditions and social influence, whereas behavioral intent was most influenced by effort expectancy and social influence. Recommendations for future training methods to specifically address areas of weakness are suggested through correlating UTAUT variables to principles found in the adult learning theory of andragogy, extrinsic and intrinsic motivators, and both synchronous and asynchronous training methods.
... It is only since the 1990s that the imbalance between market-driven pragmatism and a scientific foundation in coaching has been gradually eliminated. Since then, a growing number of empirical studies have shown that coaching works (Wasylyshyn, 2003;Green et al., 2005;Passmore & Gibbes, 2007;Smither, 2011;Jones et al., 2016). Overall, however, coaching research is still only in its beginnings-especially with regard to evidence-based and process-related research (Baron & Morin, 2009;Grant, 2005;Theeboom et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
This article describes the coaching process from different perspectives. On the one hand, it deals with process phases and procedures in coaching and on the other hand, it presents analyses of the direct interaction between coach and client. The question of how the coach can positively shape the relationship with the client and support a successful outcome is examined. The focus is on studies in which the significance of verbal and non-verbal messages for coaching success is analyzed using written coaching conversations or video recordings.
... . Or, ces gains se font-ils au détriment de l'e cacité des interventions? Des données préliminaires suggèrent que le télécoaching serait tout aussi e cace que le coaching traditionnel en face à face (Jones et al., 2016). La progression pourrait même y être plus rapide, l'environnement numérique incitant le client à être davantage centré sur la tâche et à se dévoiler plus rapidement (Ribbers et Waringa, 2012). ...
Article
In this theoretical paper, we propose a critical review of the implications of telepratice in the field of industrial-organizational psychology focusing on matters of effectiveness, working alliance and skills development.
... Specifically, working memory (WM, in particular, the capacity to hold and work with information in our attention at any one time [38]) and 'selfefficacy' (SE, our belief in our own ability to act; [39]) were highlighted as potential mediators of intervention success. Coaching interventions have been demonstrated to affect a range of cognitive, behavioural and emotional domains, they are flexible to individual need [40,41] and are in common use as a disability accommodation [42]. Therefore, a systematic narrative review of 24 coaching interventions was conducted, which revealed four potential domain mechanisms triggered and maintained through the coaching intervention. ...
Article
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The evaluation of applied psychological interventions in the workplace or elsewhere is challenging. Randomisation and matching are difficult to achieve and this often results in substantial heterogeneity within intervention and control groups. As a result, traditional comparison of group means using null hypothesis significance testing may mask effects experienced by some participants. Using longitudinal studies of coaching interventions designed to provide support for dyslexic employees, this study describes and evaluates a different approach using a Meta-Impact score. We offer a conceptual rationale for our method, illustrate how this score is calculated and analysed, and show how it highlights person-specific variations in how participants react and respond to interventions. We argue that Meta-Impact is an incremental supplement to traditional variable-centric group-wise comparisons and can more accurately demonstrate in practice the extent to which an intervention worked. Such methods are needed for applied research, where personalized intervention protocols may require impact analysis for policy, legal and ethical purposes, despite modest sample sizes.
... Peer coaching is a specific category and sub-type of coaching, just as team (or group) coaching, leadership coaching, manager coaching, and executive coaching are coaching categories also utilized within the workplace (Jones et al., 2016). Peer coaching can also be known as technical coaching, collegial coaching or challenge coaching in the education space or as action learning or (periodically) mentoring within healthcare and in other organizational contexts (Garmston, 1987). ...
Article
Peer coaching is a type of coaching under-represented and infrequently utilized within organizations, yet offers opportunity for organizations to improve employee wellness, build deeper connections between employees and develop stronger competencies in areas such as communication, collaboration and inclusion. This capstone seeks to reveal the myriad benefits and opportunities inherent to implementing a peer coaching program in the workplace, through a secondary research of available literature and proposal of a peer coaching framework that can be implemented with ease, at low cost and to maximum organizational benefit. Through the course of analysis of the literature, both the existing research as well as the gaps in the literature with regard to peer coaching are made visible, thus creating space for a conceptual peer coaching framework that focuses on trust and transparency along with key intersections of authenticity and psychological safety, suited for organizations of any size or type to implement.
... Coaching has been shown to be an effective modality to promote insight and change (Jones et al., 2016;Theeboom et al., 2014) with the idea that the change should be sustained over time (Koroleva, 2016;Nowack, 2009). Professional coaching organizations include such elements in their coaching competency models. ...
Chapter
The goal for coaching has frequently been described as sustained change for the client. It is time to move beyond this generalized goal and consider the need for adaptability in our rapidly changing environment and for sustainability in order to enhance our chances for long-term survival on our planet. Coaching is an effective modality to promote change and provides a space for reflective practice and models of change can be useful in facilitating client growth. Key principles of coaching for sustainability and six calls to action are described.
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The article analyzes the problem of coaching effectiveness in the framework of coaching psychology, which is the young developing discipline that focuses on the psychological mechanisms of coaching. Coaching as a helping practice has been actively developing during recent years, but its effectiveness is still under debate. The article analyzes various theoretical approaches to coaching and concludes that cognitive-behavioral coaching (CBC) has the most developed evidence-based methodology. The methods and approaches for assessing the coaching effectiveness both in organizations and in individual work are analyzed. A multilevel model for assessing the effectiveness of coaching “a clock tower model” is also described. It includes both objective and subjective methods of assessment, as well as “process oriented” and “result oriented” methodologies for assessing coaching. The conclusion about the need to increase the share of quantitative and objective methods for assessing the effectiveness of coaching is made.
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The practice of anesthesiology requires both clinical skills and the ability to navigate complex social situations. Leadership skills such as emotional intelligence, adaptability, conflict management, and negotiation are crucial for success but infrequently taught. Coaching is a thought-provoking process that enhances self-awareness and inspires the maximization of personal and professional potential. It has been used in the business world for personal and professional development for decades, and evidence now exists that coaching also provides benefits for physicians in both professional development and well-being.
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The aim of this paper is to examine the contribution that Outdoor Learning Development (LDO) makes to a university postgraduate programme in Human Resource Development for international students with work experience. It establishes the rationale for LDO inclusion based on notable research contributions and differentiates the role and format of this event from conventional outdoor management development programmes through a focus on self-organized learning. The progression from individual learning to intra-group learning over the three days of the event is based on the interplay of action, theoretical inputs and self-evaluation. An emphasis is placed on purposeful conversation for shared learning, systems thinking and personal responsibility for seeking collaboration – essential elements in the life of real organizations. Individual reflective capability and group conversational processes for enhanced learning skills are stimulated in follow-up discussion after LDO with video input on key incidents. The learning achieved is generally observed to be beyond what conventional classroom activities can offer and sets in motion new thinking to consolidate and apply academic knowledge across the whole programme, providing a stimulus to career development.
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Financial coaching is an emerging strategy to help people enhance financial capability and well-being. However, few studies of coaching practices have been completed. A survey of 273 coaches in the United States provides insight into current coaching practice. The average coach in the survey served 19 clients per month and saw each client about four times. The range of coaches varied widely; many coaches operated at a relatively small scale, often embedded in social service programs. Coaches generally reported coaching had positive impacts on clients, especially coaches with more training and those who served more clients. Overall, this study shows the financial coaching field includes an array of approaches but may benefit from capacity building and adoption of standards of practice.
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This paper investigates the notion of leadership through the theorization of three distinct leadership states: potency, power and function and their implications for HR-management (HRM). This theorization is grounded on the key philosophical difference between the notions of potency and power made by Deleuze. Much of the extant leadership literature views power and function as being interconnected in a purposeful manner in organizations, however, this potentially overlooks their underlying effects. An alternative cross-fertilization of leadership studies and HRM may better facilitate people development approaches. Of particular importance is a heightened examination of the consequences and complexities of power and leadership dynamics and the ambiguous effects they can produce on ‘followers’. Responding to these gaps, the paper develops a novel conceptualization of potency leadership for followers, leaders and for the organization, through HRM. Empirically, the paper employs an inductive methodology using semi-structuring rare access interviews with senior (elite) leaders across military, credit agency and banking contexts. The findings identify the emergence of three interconnected novel states of leadership: potency, power and function, dependent on the nature of the transformations experienced by followers. The results have implications for HRM in leadership assessment and development.
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Leadership coaching—a relational process by which a professional coach works with a leader to support their development—is a common component of learning and development portfolios in organizations. Despite broad agreement about the importance of the coaching relationship, relational processes remain undertheorized, failing to account for the growth and intertwining of coach‐leader self‐concepts as they engage in a generative and co‐creative coaching process. To address these shortcomings, we reconceptualize the relational process within coaching as one of relational self‐expansion and theorize that the communication channel and communication quality impact relational self‐expansion which, in turn, influences coaching effectiveness. Our hypotheses are tested in a field experiment featuring random assignment to experimental conditions (communication channels) in which a coaching intervention was deployed in five organizations. Using structural equation modeling, we demonstrated that communication quality and relational self‐expansion during the coaching process positively predicted coaching effectiveness. Contrary to expectations, communication quality did not differ by channel (phone, videoconference, face‐to‐face) nor did it predict relational self‐expansion.
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The study sought to analyze the impact of human resource training on employee performance in Habitat for Humanity Uganda. Specifically establishing the relationship between On-Job and off-the-job training and employee performance in Habitat for Humanity Uganda. The cross sectional study design was adopted which used both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The study population was 85 people but 70 respondents were selected for the study using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Data was collected using questionnaires survey method and interviews method in order to get more reliable and accurate information about the study. Data from the questionnaires was coded, entered, edited for consistency and easiness in and later analyzed quantitatively using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) where correlation was used to analyze the relationship between human resource training and employee performance. The study concluded that both On-the-job and off-the-job training significantly and positively affect employee performance at Habitat for Humanity Uganda. This therefore implies that if both training programs are improved, employee performance will consequently improve. Therefore there is need for improvement in human resource training to enhance employee performance. The study recommends the need for a well-planned, competency-based approach in carrying out some of the on-the-job training programs. Habitat for Humanity Uganda needs to dedicate more funds to human resource training since it was found out to be beneficial to the organization
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Orientation: Organisational coaches operate in an increasingly complex environment where they regularly face ethical dilemmas. Because of the confidential nature of coaching, coaches may find themselves isolated with limited means to deal with ethical challenges. Research purpose: This research investigated the typical ethical dilemmas that coaches bring to supervision and the role that supervision could play in helping coaches deal with ethical challenges. Motivation for the study: The role of coaching supervision in promoting ethical coaching practice is important but not well studied or understood. Research approach/design and method: In this qualitative study, 13 South African coaching supervisors were interviewed about the role of supervision in developing ethical organisational coaching practice. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Main findings: Coaches typically bring two types of ethical challenges to supervision: threeway relationship and confidentiality and coach–organisation contracting. Supervisors employ several strategies to assist coaches with ethical dilemmas: they analyse the ethical dilemma using frameworks, observe supervisor–coach boundaries, remind coaches of contracting and encourage coaches’ professional competence development. Practical/managerial implications: Coaching supervision offers a space for reflective practice for coaches to understand and deal with their ethical dilemmas. Coaches are encouraged to actively seek and engage in ongoing supervision to safeguard themselves, their clients and the organisations they serve against the potential harm of ethical dilemmas. Contribution/value-add: This study adds knowledge on the value and application of the important, growing phenomenon of coaching supervision.
Article
Introduction/Background The surgical residency model assumes that upon completion, a surgeon is ready to practice and grow independently. However, many surgeons fail to improve after reaching proficiency, which in certain instances has correlated with worse clinical outcomes. Coaching addresses this problem and furthers surgeons’ education post-residency. Currently, surgical coaching programs focus on medical students and residents, and have been shown to improve residents’ and medical students’ technical and non-technical abilities. Coaching programs also increase the accuracy of residents, fellows, and attendings in self-assessing their surgical ability. Despite the potential benefits, coaching remains underutilized and poorly studied. We developed an expert-led, face-to-face, video-based surgical coaching program at a tertiary medical center among specialized attending surgeons. Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of such a program, measure surgeons’ attitudes towards internal peer coaching, determine whether surgeons found the sessions valuable and educational, and to subjectively self-assess changes in operative technique. Methods/Materials Surgeons who perform robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomies were chosen and grouped by number of cases completed: junior (<100 cases), intermediate (100-500 cases), and senior (>500 cases). Surgeons were scheduled for 3 1-hour coaching sessions 1–2 months apart (February–October 2019), meeting individually with the coach (PS), an expert Urologic Oncologist with thousands of cases of experience performing radical prostatectomy. He received training on coaching methodology prior to beginning the coaching program. Before each session, surgeons selected 1 of their recent intraoperative videos to review. During sessions, the coach led discussion on topics chosen by the surgeon (i.e. neurovascular bundle dissection, apical dissection, bladder neck); together, they developed goals to achieve before the next session. Subsequent sessions included presentation and discussion of a case occurring subsequent to the prior session. Sessions were coded by discussion topics and analyzed based on level of experience. Surgeons completed a survey evaluating the experience. Results All 6 surgeons completed 3 sessions. Five surgeons completed the survey; most respondents evaluated themselves as having improved in desired areas and feeling more confident performing the discussed steps of the operation. Discussed surgical principles varied by experience group; when subjectively quantifying the difficulty of surgical steps, the more difficult steps were discussed by the higher experience groups compared to the junior surgeons. The senior surgeons also focused more on oncologic potency, continence outcomes, and more theory-driven questions while the junior surgeons tended to focus more on anatomic and technique-based questions such as tissue handling and the use of cautery and clips. Overall, the surgeons thought this program provoked critical discussion and subsequently modified their technique, and “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that they would seek further sessions. Conclusions Surgical coaching at a large medical center is not only feasible but was rated positively by surgeons across all levels of experience. Coaching led to subjective self-improvement and increased self-confidence among most surgeons. Surgeons also felt that this program offered a safe space to acquire new skills and think critically after finishing residency/fellowship. Themes discussed and takeaways from the sessions varied based on surgeon experience level. While further research is needed to more objectively quantify the impact coaching has on surgeon metrics and patient outcomes, the results of this study supports the initial “proof-of-concept” of peer-based surgical coaching and its potential benefits in accelerating the learning curve for surgeons’ post-residency.
Article
The present study examined people’s preference for an executive coach. A sample of 504 participants completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to rate eight potential coaches stratified by sex (male vs. female), age (under 40 vs. over 50 years), as a proxy for experience, and background experience (business vs. psychology). There was a significant main effect of gender, with female coaches being preferred over male coaches; effect of experience, with less experienced coaches being preferred over those with more experience; and background, with those from a business background being preferred over those with a psychology background. There were more important interaction effects, particularly around the sex of the coach. These results are discussed in relation to the extant literature on preferences for different types of professionals. Implications and limitations are noted.
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate resistance to change and change management through a micro-level interpersonal perspective. Specifically, this paper addresses in what way external change experts, such as coaches, identify distinctive emotional and behavioural indicators of resistance and facilitate individuals to develop positive strengths and motivation to change. Design/methodology/approach The authors drew upon critical realism and abductive research methodology to understand connections between coaching intervention and individual change resistance through 21 in-depth interviews with independent coaches listed in coaching associations in Germany. Findings This study first re-evaluates the implications of resistance and extends its meaning from negative obstacles into natural emotional responses of individuals and constructive resources for change. In addition, the study results indicate resistance can be distinguished through both explicit behaviours, body language along with implicit emotional reactions, like being tired or making small jokes. Moreover, several micro-level interpersonal approaches for coaches to apply in dealing with resistance, including understanding coachees' cognitive status and working environment, adapting varied communication styles as well as drawing upon coachees' strengths. Practical implications The research results offer organisations (e.g. managers and human resource professionals) essential guidelines in micro-level change management strategy by considering external coaching as a valuable option to deal with varied individual, social and contextual factors (e.g. organisational power and politics). From the organisational investment perspective, indicators of resistance and approaches to facilitate coachees' emotional reactions can be served as a preliminary protocol for stakeholders to evaluate the effectiveness of their change management schemes. Moreover, the framework outlined in this research can be considered in the future coaching education and professional development programmes. Originality/value Overall, this study demonstrates that external coaching is one of the valuable approaches in responding to individual resistance in organisational change management. The research findings widen existing bipolar paradigms of resistance (either change obstacles or positive resource) into a neutral spectrum that holds an impartial view on emotional reactions to change. Furthermore, individual differences and contextual factors play essential roles in the change process, e.g. coachees' personality, personal experiences, knowledge, interpretations to change process and topics as well as organisational context (e.g. power, hierarchy and culture) need to be considered into change management strategy.
Article
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The article ‘The effectiveness of workplace coaching: A meta-analysis of learning and performance outcomes from coaching’ 2016, by Jones, R., Woods, S. and Guillaume Y., is an informative and insightful article because the authors’ thesis about workplace coaching was clearly identified and supported with many concepts and also examined meta-analytically. This research will state own main ideas about the article, from the prospective of Human Resources Professionals and Senior Managers.
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How can work be accomplished while sustaining the human capital that enables it? To date, research on this question has been piecemeal and indirect with different literatures and paradigms offering important but not integrated insights. In this meta-synthesis, we reviewed 368 meta-analyses and review articles published this millennium, sampled from the vast body of research relevant to employee health and well-being. We organize our review using dynamic energy budget theory (DEB), a life-sciences framework that describes how nonhuman animals achieve biological sustainability by balancing maintenance, growth, and generativity. After identifying the ways this research fits within DEB, we develop restricted employee sustainability theory (REST), which describes the ways in which human sustainability goes beyond the fundamental biological necessities outlined in DEB and encompasses the functions (maintenance, growth, generativity) that enable humans to sustain their physical, psychological, and social health. Organization of this vast literature allows us to identify synergies and dynamic balances among the life functions; understand how humans recover after a dramatic crash in health; and articulate the distinctions among subsisting, surviving, and thriving at work. We conclude this meta-synthesis and theory development by offering a roadmap to advance research on human sustainability at work as a unified area of study, guided by our new framework—restricted employee sustainability theory (REST).
Thesis
Die vorliegende qualitative Forschungsarbeit leistet mittels zweier empirischer Untersu-chungen einen Beitrag im Forschungsfeld von betrieblichem Gesundheitsmanagement (BGM) vor dem Hintergrund eines verbesserten Schutzes vor gesundheitsbedingtem Aus-scheiden von Arbeitnehmern. Zielstellung ist zum einen die Entwicklung eines betrieblichen Frühaufklärungssystems, das wie ein wissensbasiertes lernendes System fortlaufend Informa-tionen und Trends zur Verbesserung des Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutzes (AUG), der Be-trieblichen Gesundheitsförderung (BGF) und des Betrieblichen Eingliederungsmanagements (BEM) durch interne und externe Beobachtungsbereiche erfasst, auswertet und Vorschläge für notwendige Anpassungen oder inkrementelle Innovationen bereitstellt. Zum anderen wird das „(integrative) Coaching“ in einer vergleichenden Fallstudie auf seine Wirkfaktoren hin analysiert; beim integrativen Coaching handelt es sich um ein Beratungsangebot, das auf Grundlage der regulären Beratung im Betrieblichen Eingliederungsmanagement entwickelt wurde.
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The popularity of coaching as a development activity in organizations has outpaced the research. To inspire research and strengthen our intellectual foundation, the Thought Leadership Institute of the International Coaching Federation invited 35 of the most recognized coaching scholars and 12 coaching leaders to three two-hour discussions. Each session began with three presenters briefly sharing observations about what we know and need to find out. The three sessions focused on: (1) the desired outcomes of coaching; (2) the process and mechanism of coaching; and (3) coaching for people from distinctive cultures, genders, and context. A fourth theme emerged as the major gap in the research about the competencies of effective coaches. This paper summarizes the discussions. Twenty-two specific research needs for the coming years are identified and presented, clustered within the four themes. This should provide guidance for graduate students, faculty and consultants considering research on coaching.
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Limited research attention has been paid to influences on executive coaching effectiveness. This study explores whether a relationship exists between the Five Factor Model of personality and coachee perceptions of effectiveness of executive coaching. Thirty coachees completed a cross sectional survey measuring personality using scales from the International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). There was a significant positive relationship between extraversion and perceived coaching effectiveness. The findings have implications for organisations when considering whether their employees are suited to the development interventions on offer and whether the intervention will subsequently provide a good return on investment. Our study also contributes to the emerging literature on antecedents of coaching effectiveness by examining core aspects of individual differences.
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This paper presents the main findings from Part I of a study investigating if workplace coaching can reduce stress. Thirty-one participants from a UK finance organisation took part in the quasi-experimental study. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured before and after coaching in a coaching and control group. Levels of anxiety and stress had decreased more in the coaching group compared to the control group, and were lower in the coaching group compared to the control group at the end of the study. However, levels of depression had decreased more in the control group compared to the coaching group. Mixed ANOVAS found no significant interactions between time and coaching for depression, anxiety or stress. Nevertheless, high levels of perceived coaching effectiveness were reported by the participants.
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This paper suggests how the 'grey literature', the diverse and heterogeneous body of material that is made public outside, and not subject to, traditional academic peer-review processes, can be used to increase the relevance and impact of management and organization studies (MOS). The authors clarify the possibilities by reviewing 140 systematic reviews published in academic and practitioner outlets to answer the following three questions: (i) Why is grey literature excluded from/included in systematic reviews in MOS? (ii) What types of grey material have been included in systematic reviews since guidelines for practice were first established in this discipline? (iii) How is the grey literature treated currently to advance management and organization scholarship and knowledge? This investigation updates previous guidelines for more inclusive systematic reviews that respond to criticisms of current review practices and the needs of evidence-based management. © 2016 British Academy of Management and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Although the use of executive coaching as a developmental intervention for managers has increased dramatically during the past decades, rigorous empirical research on executive coaching impact remains scarce. My research aims to address this shortage by investigating the impact of a specific coaching intervention with a rigorous experimental design. A longitudinal study was conducted in a large telecom company on 48 executives. They were randomly assigned to the intervention group and to the control group. All 48 participants underwent a 360-degree assessment (involving 541 peer-assessors) on management skills. The participants of the intervention group then received six individual coaching sessions, spread over a year. One year later, all participants passed again the same assessments (involving 499 peer-assessors). The coaching sessions were conducted by a single coach – the author of the study – in order to control the coaching methodology used with the various participants. Quantitative analyses indicate a positive and significant impact of coaching on management skills and goal attainment. These results provide rigorous support to the use of coaching as a developmental tool for the executives’ managerial competencies. Other practical and theoretical implications of these results are then discussed.
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This study investigates the impact of a one year executive coaching experiment on self-efficacy in reference to important leadership tasks. The results showed that executive coaching had significant positive effect on self-efficacy. The findings are discussed from the perspective of the effect of coadhing on the executives' self-consciousness and their abilities to analyse tasks to evaluate their own capacities regarding these tasks, to setting better goals for themselves, and being aware of and able to better use strategies regarding these tasks.
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Reviews of existing research evidence have the potential to inform both practice and scholarship. This opportunity is currently not being fully realized in management and organization studies due to the limitations of traditional methods of review, which fail to identify clearly what is known and not known about a given topic. For practitioners, systematic review can help address managerial problems by producing a reliable knowledge base through accumulating findings from a range of studies. For scholars, systematic review can enhance methodological rigor as well as highlight opportunities for further research. Systematic reviews are guided by a set of principles rather than a specific, inflexible, and restricted protocol. By revealing these principles, outlining a systematic review methodology, and offering examples, we hope that this chapter helps both practitioners and scholars to use systematic review to inform their practice.
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Although previous research has shown that teacher coaching can improve teaching practices and student achievement, little is known about specific features of effective coaching programs. We estimate the impact of MATCH Teacher Coaching (MTC) on a range of teacher practices using a blocked randomized trial and explore how changes in the coaching model across two cohorts are related to program effects. Findings indicate large positive effects in Cohort 1 but no effects in Cohort 2. After ruling out explanations related to the research design, a set of exploratory analyses suggest that differential treatment effects may be attributable to differences in coach effectiveness, coaching dosage, and the focus of coaching across cohorts.
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Although executive coaching has been shown to be effective, few research initiatives have attempted to understand the importance of the emergent relationship between a coach and coachee. This article explores the factors that influence coaching outcomes from both the coach and coachee's perspective and presents the results of the mediating effect that working alliance and information sharing have on coachee goal attainment and coachee insight outcomes. The authors explored these factors in both an academic coachee sample as well as an executive field sample. Results showed that coachee motivation was significantly positively related with coachee goal attainment and coachee insight in an academic sample but not in a field sample. Moreover, working alliance and information sharing partially mediated the relationship between a coach's psychological mindedness and coachee insight in an academic, but not field, sample. Another notable result was that the difficulty of the coaching goal did not impact how successful the coaching engagement was in terms of goal attainment. Implications of these findings for both research and practice are discussed.
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This action research is the first reported attempt to examine the effects of executive coaching in a public sector municipal agency. Thirty-one managers underwent a conventional managerial training program, which was followed by eight weeks of one-on-one executive coaching. Training increased productivity by 22.4 percent. The coaching, which included: goal setting, collaborative problem solving, practice, feedback, supervisory involvement, evaluation of end-results, and a public presentation, increased productivity by 88.0 percent, a significantly greater gain compared to training alone. Descriptions of procedures, explanations for the results obtained, and suggestions for future research and practice are offered.
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Examined the development of organizational commitment, academic self-efficacy, physical self-efficacy, and motivation in a socialization-type training context with data collected from 666 military trainees. The hypotheses were that (1) training fulfillment, or the extent to which training meets or fulfills a trainee's expectations and desires, (2) trainee reactions, and (3) training performance would be related to the development of posttraining attitudes. Support was obtained for each hypothesis. Training fulfillment was positively related to posttraining organizational commitment, physical self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, and training motivation, even after pretraining attitudes and a set of individual variables were controlled. Pretraining motivation, trainee reactions, and training performance were also related to the development of posttraining attitudes.
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Whereas coaching is very popular as a management tool, research on coaching effectiveness is lagging behind. Moreover, the studies on coaching that are currently available have focused on a large variety of processes and outcome measures and generally lack a firm theoretical foundation. With the meta-analysis presented in this article, we aim to shed light on the effectiveness of coaching within an organizational context. We address the question whether coaching has an effect on five both theoretically and practically relevant individual-level outcome categories: performance/skills, well-being, coping, work attitudes, and goal-directed self-regulation. The results show that coaching has significant positive effects on all outcomes with effect sizes ranging from g = 0.43 (coping) to g = 0.74 (goal-directed self-regulation). These findings indicate that coaching is, overall, an effective intervention in organizations.
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Emotional intelligence has been hailed as a hallmark of successful leaders since the term was popularized in the 1990s. Around the same period, executive coaching emerged as a beneficial resource for leadership development in organizations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of emotional competence and coaching on the effectiveness of leaders. Eighty-five senior executives at a North American financial services organization completed a leadership development experience which included training on emotional intelligence, multi-rater assessment, and executive coaching. Survey responses were collected and triangulated with job performance data and multi-rater feedback. Results indicated that both emotional competence and a quality coaching relationship lead to desired workplace outcomes. Findings revealed that emotional competence directly impacts job performance, work engagement and career satisfaction and that a quality coaching relationship amplifies leader work engagement, career satisfaction and expression of a personal vision. These results may be of particular benefit to scholars and practitioners interested in leadership development, leader effectiveness, emotional intelligence, coaching relationships in the workplace.
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Purpose – Team coaching (TC) is a popular new addition to the team learning and development toolkit. However, the conceptualization of TC and the distinction between TC, team training, team development and team building interventions remains unclear. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – The authors address this significant gap by abductively exploring how TC is conceptualised in practice (n¼410). The authors survey practitioners engaged in delivering TC to ask how they would define TC and distinguish it from other team interventions. Findings – A thematic analysis of the data reveals eight themes, which can be used to define TC and illustrate areas of overlap and distinctiveness with other team interventions. Research limitations/implications – The absence of a clearly defined construct is hindering the development of a rigorous theory of TC. The contribution of the paper is, therefore, a clear and comprehensive definition of TC, which can be used by researchers and practitioners alike when working within the domain of TC. Originality/value – The paper provides the first systematic exploration of a definition of TC in relation to alternative team interventions. By utilising an abductive approach in the research, the authors are able to capitalise on practitioner experience in this practice-led field.
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Purpose In order to address the need for greater understanding about the occupational and practice determinants of effective workplace coaching, the purpose of this paper is to examine the associations of two coaching practice factors (coaching format and external vs internal coaching provision), and coachees’ job complexity with perceived outcomes from coaching. Design/methodology/approach A survey of 161 individuals who had received workplace coaching was conducted. Participants provided data on two outcome criteria (self-reported work well-being and personal effectiveness at work). Findings Analysis indicated that external coaches and blended format coaching were most strongly associated with work well-being outcomes. The examination of interaction effects showed that coaching provided by external coaches was more strongly associated with outcomes for individuals working in the most complex job roles. Originality/value The original contribution of the authors’ findings is in terms of the implications for coaches, managers and HR practitioners by showing how coaching can be implemented differentially and most effectively based on desired outcome criteria and features of coachees’ job situations.
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This study examines some factors that influence the effectiveness of multisource feedback that has been facilitated by an executive coach. Participants were 89 senior managers from a globally operating investment bank. The study was a longitudinal in which the raters at Time 1 and Time 2 were matched. Results indicated that the quality of the relationship between executive coaches and their coachees had positive impact on individual change. The gender similarity of the coaching dyad (coach and coachee) was positively related to the improvement of senior manager's feedback ratings at Time 2. None of the Big-Five personality traits were related to positive individual change, but results indicate that this may require further investigation.
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Performance feedback is an important part of many organizational interventions. Managers typically assume that providing employees with feedback about their performance makes it more likely that performance on the job will be improved. Despite the prevalence of feedback mechanisms in management interventions, however, feedback is not always as effective as is typically assumed. In this article, we present specific conditions under which feedback might be less effective, or even harmful. We then discuss the implications of our results and model for designing of interventions aimed at improving performance, and focus more narrowly on 360-degree appraisal systems. After arguing that these systems typically have design characteristics that reduce effectiveness, we conclude with recommendations for improving their effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for systematic evaluations of feedback interventions.
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In this study, the authors explored the effects from an executive coaching program on need satisfaction at work. One hundred and twenty-seven executives and middle managers from a Fortune high-tech 500 company participated in the experiment over one year. Of these, 19 executives participated in an external executive coaching programme and 108 middle managers participated in a coaching-based leadership program. Findings indicate that external executive coaching affects need satisfaction at work, especially autonomy and relatedness. Coaching-based leadership also seems to impact need satisfaction at work, especially the needs of autonomy and competence. The findings show that the effects are greater among the executives receiving external coaching than for the middle managers who received coaching-based leadership.
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A 2008 Bureau of Labor Statistics report indicates that the youngest of the baby boom generation (i.e., individuals born between 1957 and 1964) held an average of 10.8 different jobs between the ages of 18 and 42. To remain viable, today's workforce must continually develop new knowledge, skills, and attitudes in order to adapt to changing technological and environmental demands. Training is the classic mechanism for such skill enhancement. This chapter provides an overview of training and other developmental activities from the organizational science perspective, including mentoring and coaching. Several classic models of training are reviewed, and an overarching organizational framework delineating the key variables of the training process is presented. Several suggestions for furthering our understanding of training and other forms of development are also offered.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a classified list of the factors that are most influential in the success of an executive coaching process, arranged in order of importance. Design/methodology/approach – Selection of factors from an exhaustive literature review, and development of a qualitative investigation, applying a Focus Group, a Nominal Group technique, and the Delphi method to a group of experts comprising coaches, coachees, and human resources managers, in order to complete and assess the factors selected. Findings – The most outstanding factors needed in executive coaching are confidentiality, trust, and empathy between coach and coachee; the coach’s ability to generate trust, and her/his competence in communication skills, vocation and commitment; the coachee’s need, motivation, responsibility for his/her own development and commitment to the process; and a guarantee from the organization of the confidentiality of that process. Practical implications – This research furnishes a quantitative criterion for the evaluation and ranking of the determining factors in coaching success, which facilitates a justified selection of factors, both for research and professional purposes. Social implications – This study makes it possible to better channel the allocation of resources and gearing of business decisions for the implementation of coaching programs. Originality/value – This paper provides a systematic review of the empirically based literature dealing with the main success factors in the effective application of executive coaching, and contributes new factors derived from the knowledge of professional experts, along with a classified and ranked list of those factors, assessed in terms of their relevance to the satisfactory outcome of a coaching process.
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The theory of general self-efficacy is still in the early stages of development. There are few scales designed to measure increments of general self-efficacy, and the research on these scales and general self-efficacy is only slowly increasing. The challenge of general self-efficacy theory is that the construct is global unlike Bandura's 1977 theory of specific self-efficacy. Self-efficacy began as a domain-rooted construct and was easily operationalized and studied. General self-efficacy is less developed and its potential has yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this article was to summarize the literature on self-efficacy, both in its specific form and in its general form. The definitions of specific and general self-efficacy are made clear as well as their conceptualized relationship.
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This paper reviews the literature on informal mentoring at work. Based on two basic premises of interpersonal relationships, it discusses four promising areas in current mentoring research that could be cultivated further by future research.The first premise that we hold is that relationships never exist in a vacuum. Traditionally, however, mentoring literature has often overlooked the context of mentoring. We propose that the developmental network approach can be further extended to gather more insight into the interplay between mentoring dyads and their context. Also, mentoring literature could pay more attention to temporal influences in mentoring studies. The second premise that is applied is that relationships are not only instrumental in nature. However, mentoring research to date has mostly applied a one-sided and transactional view to mentoring. Relational mentoring theory could be helpful in examining relational motivations of both members. Also, mentoring literature can achieve more explanatory power by examining the underlying mechanisms of mentoring, next to social exchange principles, that cause these developmental changes. In summary, in each of these four research areas, we identify and discuss fundamental questions and developments in research that can advance mentoring theory and practice.
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Purpose – In order to bridge the gap and provide organizations with practical assistance in dealing with the effectiveness of executive coaching. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between coaching relationship which constitutes of rapport, trust, commitment and match with coaching effectiveness in Malaysia using a quantitative research method. Design/methodology/approach – Based on the extensive review of the current literature, rapport, trust, commitment and coach-coachee match with coaching effectiveness are investigated through questionnaire. Objective-driven model which focuses on the extent to which coaching objectives have been met, is used to measure the effectiveness of executive coaching. Findings – The main results of the multiple regressions demonstrate that both rapport and commitment significantly influence coaching effectiveness. These findings provide a basis for developing a quality relationship to advance the executive coaching and HRM research literature. Practical implications – The practical implication of this study could be useful for HCM managers, who want to enhance leadership capabilities through executive coaching engagement that support their organizations performance. Originality/value – This Malaysian study will build upon the existing knowledge by investigating the factors contributing to quality coaching relationship from the coachee’s viewpoint.
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We examined the impact of surface-level (demographic) and deep-level (attitudinal) diversity on group social integration. As hypothesized, the length of time group members worked together weakened the effects of surface-level diversity and strengthened the effects of deep-level diversity as group members had the opportunity to engage in meaningful interactions.