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Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L) is a medical and aromatic plant intensively used in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Our investigations carried out in 2010-2011 were focused on effect of harvest time on yield and herb quality of two thyme cultivars (‘Słoneczko’ and ‘Deutscher Winter’). Plants were harvested in the first year of cultivation in three periods: 140, 160, and 180 days after sowing (i.e. in the third decade of August, second decade of September and first decade of October). The study showed that harvesting time had a significant effect on the yield and quality of thyme. The delayed harvesting resulted in increased plant height and their mass but decreased quality of herb (lesser quantity of essential oil and thymol). The optimal time of harvest appeared to be 160 days after sowing (i.e. in the second decade of September. Harvest in this time ensured fairly good yield of herb and high its quality. The weather conditions prevailing during the vegetation period had a substantial effect on the yield and quality of herb. The ‘Deutscher Winter’ cultivar produced higher yields in favourable weather conditions, whereas the ‘Słoneczko’ cultivar exhibited a more stable yield in adverse atmospheric conditions
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78
Turkish Journal of
Field Crops
2015, 20(1), 78-84
YIELD AND HERB QUALITY OF THYME (Thymus vulgaris L.)
DEPENDING ON HARVEST TIME
Beata KRÓL *1, Anna KIEŁTYKA-DADASIEWICZ2
1University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Department of Industrial and Medicinal Plants, POLAND,
2State Higher Vocational School in Krosno, POLAND
*Corresponding author: beata.krol@up.lublin.pl
Received: 02.04.2014
ABSTRACT
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L) is a medical and aromatic plant intensively used in pharmaceutical, food, and
cosmetic industries. Our investigations carried out in 2010-2011 were focused on effect of harvest time on yield
and herb quality of two thyme cultivars (‘Słoneczko’ and ‘Deutscher Winter’). Plants were harvested in the
first year of cultivation in three periods: 140, 160, and 180 days after sowing (i.e. in the third decade of August,
second decade of September and first decade of October). The study showed that harvesting time had a
significant effect on the yield and quality of thyme. The delayed harvesting resulted in increased plant height
and their mass but decreased quality of herb (lesser quantity of essential oil and thymol). The optimal time of
harvest appeared to be 160 days after sowing (i.e. in the second decade of September. Harvest in this time
ensured fairly good yield of herb and high its quality. The weather conditions prevailing during the vegetation
period had a substantial effect on the yield and quality of herb. The ‘Deutscher Winter’ cultivar produced
higher yields in favourable weather conditions, whereas the ‘Słoneczko’ cultivar exhibited a more stable yield
in adverse atmospheric conditions.
Key words: cultivar, essential oil content, thymol, Thymus vulgaris
INTRODUCTION
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a perennial plant
belonging to the Lamiaceae family. It is native to Europe
and the Mediterranean basin and adaptable to a wide range
of environmental conditions (Stahl-Biskup and Sáez,
2002). Thyme is an aromatic medicinal plant of increasing
economic importance in Europe, Asia, North Africa and
North America. Essential oil of thyme has been reported
to be one of top 10 of essential oils (Maghdi and Maki,
2003)
The pharmacological properties of the plant and of its
different extracts, in particular the essential oils, has been
thoroughly studied and afforded the many industrial
mainly as food and cosmetic additive (Sacchetti et al.,
2005) and medical applications (Maghdi and Maki, 2003).
The oil was reported to have antimicrobial (bacteria and
fungi) (Cetin et al., 2011), expectorant (Büechi et al.,
2005) activities, most of which are mediated by thymol
and carvacrol. Antispasmodic (Begrow et al., 2010) as
well as antioxidant (Haraguchi et al., 1996) activities were
also reported for the alcoholic extract of the plant.
Thyme is cultivated in many regions of world and is
one of the most important medicinal plant in Europe.
Thyme plantations usually survive 2 or 3 year, but in some
regions, the plants may freeze during cold winters.
Therefore in countries, where the winters are severe
(Scandinavian countries, Eastern Europe and Canada)
thyme is treated as a one year culture (Dambrauskiene et
al., 1999; Letchamo et al., 1999; Galambosi et al., 2002).
The yield of herb of thyme can be influenced by
environmental factors, as well as by agricultural practice
(Stahl-Biskup and Sáez, 2002). Harvesting time is one of
the important factors determining the quantitative and
qualitative characteristics of thyme (Badi et al., 2004)
The essential oil content and its chemical composition
are the most important characteristics of aromatic herbs.
Content of essential oil in dry herb of thyme ranges from
0.3 % (Ozguven and Tansi, 1998) to 4.0 % (Carlen et al.,
2010). The content of the essential oil depends from
several factors, the most important being genetic
characteristics, stage of development (Christensen and
Grevsen, 2006; Mewes at al., 2008) environmental
conditions (Raal et al., 2005; Alizadeh et al., 2011).
Agronomic factors (Kołodziej, 2009; Król, 2009) as well
as drying and storage conditions (Calin-Sanchez et al.,
2013) exerts an influence on the essential oils content too.
There are however scarce information on the effect time
of harvest on the chemical composition of essential oil.
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of
time of the harvest on the yield and quality of herb two
cultivars of thyme utilized as a one year plantation
79
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study was carried out at the Experimental Farm of
the University of Life Sciences in Lublin (51° 14′ 53″ N,
22° 34′ 13″ E), Poland, during the 2010 and 2011 growing
seasons. The experiment was conducted on brown
podzolic soil of loess origin, neutral in reaction (pHKCl -
7.1), characterized by high content of phosphorus (85
mg∙P kg-1) and average potassium (166 mg K∙kg-1) and
magnesium (65 mg Mg∙kg-1) contents.
The study comprised two cultivars of thyme
('Słoneczko' and 'Deutscher Winter') and consisted of
three harvest times: H1 - 140 days after sowing (DAS) -
i.e. in the third decade of August; H2 - 160 DAS - i.e. in
the second decade of September; and H3 - 180 DAS - i.e.
in the first decade of October. The 'Słoneczko' cultivar
seeds were supplied by the Institute of Natural Fibres and
Medicinal Plants, Poland and the ‘Deutscher Winter’
cultivar by Bingenheimer Saatgut AG, Germany. The
study was conducted in a randomized block design with
four replications. Each experimental plot was 4 m long
and 2.5 m wide (10 m2). Seeds were sown directly into the
ground in the first decade of April in rows spaced 30 cm
(sowing rate 5 kg seeds ha-1). Mineral fertilizers were
applied in the amount of N - 60; P - 22; K - 100 kg per ha-
1 (phosphorus and potassium were applied as triple
superphosphate and potassium chloride before sowing the
seeds). Nitrogen fertilization was applied (in two doses -
half before sowing and half after plant emergence) as
ammonium nitrate. Manual weed control and soil
loosening in interrow spaces was performed during the
growth of plants.
Before harvest, plant height was determined (20 plants
measured from each object). After harvest, the herb was
weighed and dried (in a drying house at 35°C) and air-dry
mass was determined. Next, the herb was rubbed on sieves
(mesh diameter 5mm) and thus dry leaves yield was
obtained.
The essential oil was extracted from air-dried leaves
(30 g) in a glass Clevenger-type distillation apparatus
following European Pharmacopoeia (2004) and subjecting
the material to hydrodistillation for 3 h. The assays were
conducted in triplicate. The extracted essential oil was
stored in a dark glass container at a temperature of 10°C
until the time of chromatographic separation. The
quantitative and qualitative determination of the essential
oil components was made using a gas chromatograph
(Varian 4000 GC/MS/MS) equipped with a FID detector
and fused silica capillary column (25 m x 0.2 mm). The
carrier gas was helium with the splitting ratio of 1:1000
and capillary flow rate of 0.5 ml min-1. A temperature of
50°C was applied for 1 min, and then the temperature was
incremented to 250°C at a rate of 4°C min1; 250°C was
applied for 10 min. The qualitative analysis was carried
out on the basis of MS spectra, which were compared with
the spectra in the NIST Mass Spectral Library (NIST
2002) and with data available in the literature (Joulain and
König, 1998; Adams 2001). The identity of the
compounds was confirmed by their retention indices,
taken from the literature (Joulain and König, 1998; Adams
2001).
The predicted production yields of thyme oils, in litres
per hectare, were calculated from the dry leaves yield and
the oil content. The numerical results of the experiment
were statistically elaborated by the analysis of variance
(ANOVA) for three factors - harvest time H (3), cultivars
C (2) and years Y (2). The least significant difference test
was used to compare differences in means among
treatments at the 0.05 probability level.
The basic climatic factors during thyme vegetation are
presented in Table 1. In order to determine the variability
of meteorological factors and assess their effect on the
yield and quality of the plant, the Sielianinov
hydrothermal coefficient (k) was calculated based on the
equation: k = P/0.1∑ t
P total rainfall in the given period (mm)
Σ t total of average daily air temperatures from that
period (ºC) (Skowera and Puła, 2004).
According to the classification presented by Skowera
and Puła (2004), there are distinguished the following
conditions: extremely dry (k 0.4), very dry (k 0.7), dry
(k ≤ 1.0), rather dry (k ≤ 1.3), optimal (k ≤ 1.6), rather wet
(k 2.0), wet (k 2.5), very wet (k ≤ 3.0), and extremely
wet (k >3.0).
Thermal conditions in both years of the field
experiment were favourable for thyme; the average air
temperature in the vegetation season was markedly higher
if compared with that in the long-term period. Moisture
conditions were also more favourable than in the long-
term period. In terms of precipitation, 2010 was more
advantageous, not only because of greater amounts but
also more uniform distribution of rainfall. In 2011,
symptoms of drought (in May) and severe drought (in
August and September) occurred as a result of irregular
rainfall.
80
Table 1. Rainfall, air temperature and hydrothermal coefficient during vegetation of thyme in 2010 and 2011 in comparison with
multi-year period (1980-2009)
Year
Month
April
May
June
July
August
September
Mean or
Total
Average temperature of air (oC)
2010
9.4
14.0
17.8
21.2
19.5
12.3
14.2
2011
10.8
14.3
18.5
18.1
19.0
15.5
14.8
mean for
long term
8.4
14.1
16.8
18.5
18.1
13.5
13.9
Monthly of rainfall (mm)
2010
34.1
108.4
44.8
125.7
106.1
88.9
517.2
2011
44.9
30.7
55.5
282.9
17.8
5.9
461.5
mean for
long term
41.3
63.2
70.6
83.1
68.4
53.5
404.2
Sielianinov’s hydrothermal coefficient
2010
1.21
2.58
0.83
1.91
1.75
2.41
1.60
2011
1.38
0.69
1.00
5.04
0.30
0.13
1.35
mean for
long term
1.64
1.45
1.40
1.44
1.22
1.32
1.34
Source: Laboratory of Agrometeorology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The height of plants oscillated between 23.4 and 32.8
cm and markedly depended on both: harvesting time and
weather conditions during vegetation (Table 2). The plants
were higher in 2010, when the rainfall was greater and
more uniformly distributed than in 2011. (Table 1, 2). At
the consecutive harvests the height of plants increased (the
significant differences however were only between the
first and third harvest). The height of thyme plants varies
to a great extent and depends on the genotype (Mewes at
al., 2008), environmental conditions (Galambosi et al.,
2002) and cultivation practice (Badi et al., 2004) and
oscillates between 10 and 50 cm.
Table 2. The influence of harvest time on height of plants of thyme (cm)
Cultivar
Year
Harvest time
Mean
H1*
H2
H3
‘Słoneczko’
2010
27.8
30.9
31.4
30.0
2011
23.4
25.1
26.2
24.9
Mean
25.6
28.0
28.8
27.5
‘Deutscher Winter’
2010
28.2
31.4
32.8
30.8
2011
25.6
26.4
27.2
26.4
Mean
26.9
28.9
30.0
28.6
Mean for harvest time
26.3
28.5
29.4
28.1
LSD0.05 harvest time (H) - 2.53; cultivar (C) - ns.; years (Y) - 4.25; H x C ns.; C x Y - 3.71; H x Y - 3.34
ns. - no significant differences
*H1 140 days after sowing
H2 160 days after sowing
H3 180 days after sowing
The herb yield depended significantly on the factors
studied (Table 3). In both cultivars, the highest yields of
fresh and air-dry herb were achieved from plants
harvested in the first decade of October (i.e. 180 DAS),
while the lowest during the first harvest (140 DAS). No
significant differences were found in the fresh and air dry
herb yields between the cultivars, however, the
‘Słoneczko’ yields were more stable in adverse weather
conditions in 2011 year when there were symptoms of
drought (Table 3). Chauhan et al. (2011) in diverse
climatical conditions the highest yields of fresh and dry
mass of herb obtained when thyme was harvested 115
days after sowing. The latest harvesting (180 DAS) caused
decreased fresh and dry herb weight, which resulted from
stem drying and defoliation. Rey (1991) considers harvest
time of thyme as an important factor affecting yields and
their quality. He asserts, that optimal time may differ
markedly between particular regions.
81
Table 3. The influence of harvest time of thyme on yield of fresh and air dry herb and ratio fresh to air dry herb
Cultivar
Year
Yield of fresh herb
(t ha-1)
Mean
Yield of air dry herb
(t ha-1)
Mean
Ratio fresh/
air dry herb
Mean
Harvest time
Harvest time
Harvest time
H1*
H2
H3
H1*
H2
H3
H1*
H2
H3
‘Słoneczko’
2010
20.9
24.7
25.8
23.8
5.95
7.81
8.74
7.50
3.51
3.16
2.95
3.21
2011
17.9
18.9
19.5
18.8
5.44
7.71
8.16
7.10
3.29
2.45
2.39
2.71
Mean
19.4
21.8
22.7
21.3
5.69
7.76
8.45
7.30
3.40
2.81
2.67
2.96
‘Deutscher Winter’
2010
21.7
25.0
25.9
24.2
7.35
8.33
9.25
8.31
3.40
3.00
2.80
3.07
2011
17.5
18.0
18.9
18.1
5.50
7.11
7.59
6.73
3.18
2.53
2.49
2.73
Mean
19.6
21.5
22.4
21.2
6.43
7.72
8.42
7.52
3,29
2.77
2.65
2.90
Mean for harvest time
19.5
21.7
22.6
21.3
6.06
7.74
8.44
7.41
3.35
2.79
2.66
2.93
LSD0.05
harvest time (H)
2.04
1.15
cultivar (C)
ns.
ns.
year (Y)
4.15
0.92
H x C
2.62
1.10
C x Y
4.26
1.20
H x Y
2.13
1.53
ns. - no significant differences
*See table 2
The ratio of the fresh to dry herb weight in our
experiment ranged from 2.39 to 3.51 (Table 3). A high
value of this trait is disadvantageous, as this involves
higher costs of drying. The delay in harvesting thyme
decreased water content in the herb, which resulted in a
decline in the proportion between the fresh and air-dry
weight of the herb (Table 3). According to literature data,
the ratio of fresh to dry herb weight in thyme grown in
Poland is 2.4 - 3.5 (Kołodziej 2009; Król, 2009). Similar
value of this feature (2.6 3.7) was reported in
experiments conducted in diverse climatic conditions
(Badi et al., 2004).
In our experiment, the dry leaves yields ranged
between 2.23 and 4.08 t∙ha-1, and corresponded with
results obtained by other authors in Poland (Table 4)
(Kołodziej, 2009; Król, 2009). Similar results were
obtained in Finland whereas in Canada thyme yields were
lower and did not exceed 1.5 t∙ha-1 (Letchamo et al.,
1999). Stahl-Biskup and Sáez (2002) report that yields of
thyme in the first year of vegetation amount from 2 to 2.5
t∙ha-1, of dry plant material. Investigations conducted by
Dudaš and Böhme (2004) showed that the ‘Deutscher
Winter’ gave higher yield than the ‘Słoneczko’, which in
turn was characterised by a better proportion of leaves. In
our experiment, there were no differences in the mean
yields of dry leaves between these cultivars, but an
interaction between the cultivars and years was reported.
‘Deutscher Winter’ produced higher yields in favourable
weather conditions (2010), whereas in unfavourable
weather (2011), yields were significantly reduced (by
32%). Also Galambosi et al. (2002) reported strong
susceptibility of this cultivar to adverse atmospheric
conditions (decrease of yields by 15-35 %).
Table 4. Yield of dry leaves and contribution of leaves in herb of thyme
Cultivar
Year
Yield of dry leaves
(t ha-1)
Mean
Contribution of leaves
(%)
Mean
Harvest time
Harvest time
H1*
H2
H3
H1*
H2
H3
‘Słoneczko’
2010
2.71
3.57
3.83
3.37
47.0
46.5
44.6
46.0
2011
2.54
3.02
3.27
2.94
41.5
40.7
38.9
40.4
Mean
2.63
3.29
3.45
3.12
44.3
43.6
41.8
43.2
‘Deutscher
Winter’
2010
3.42
3.83
4.08
3.78
45.2
44.7
42.8
44.2
2011
2.23
2.73
2.79
2.58
39.1
37.2
35.5
37.3
Mean
2.83
3.28
3.43
3.18
42.2
40.9
39.2
40.8
Mean for harvest time
2.73
3.29
3.44
3.15
43.2
42.3
40.5
41.9
LSD0.05
harvest time (H) - 0.41; cultivar (C) - n.s; year (Y) - 0.73
H x C - 0.70; C x Y - 0.84; H x Y - 0.65
* See table 2
82
Both cultivars produced the lowest yield of dry leaves
in the objects with the earliest harvest (140 DAS),
delaying harvest resulted in significant increase of yield
(Table 4).
An important indication of the quality herb of thyme is
the percentage of leaves, as the essential oil is
accumulated in oil glandules present in these organs but
scarce in the stems (they are discarded in the final stage
of raw material preparation) (Sharafzadeh et al., 2010).
Słoneczko’ cultivar is characterised by the highest
amounts of leaves among the European varieties of thyme
(Dudaš and Böhme, 2004). Similarly, in our research the
‘Słoneczko’ cultivar contained greater amounts of leaves
(43.2% versus 40.8% in the ‘Deutscher Winter’ cultivar)
(Table 4). The share of leaves in air-dry weight was also
related to weather conditions and time of harvest. In both
cultivars, the highest share of leaves was noted in herb
from the first harvest (140 DAS) and the lowest - at the
last harvest (180 DAS- Table 4). This was probably
caused by defoliation and lignification of stems. However
in experiment of Rey (1991) in different climatical
conditions the delay in harvesting thyme increased share
of leaves.
In our study, the content of essential oil in the dry
leaves ranged from 2.23 to 3.61% (Table 5) and was
comparable with results of Galambosi et al. (2002),
Zawiślak (2007), Marzec et al. (2010) but higher than
stated by Badi et al. (2004), Alizadeh et al. (2011) and
Christensen and Grevsen (2006). The content of essential
oil in thyme plants can be markedly affected by
environmental conditions, time of harvest and other
agronomical factors (Stahl-Biskup and Sáez, 2002; Raal et
al., 2005). In our study, the content of essential oil in the
dry leaves of both cultivars was largely determined by the
harvest date and weather conditions during the vegetation
season (both cultivars responded similarly - Table 5). The
herb was harvested at the first date contained the greatest
quantity of essential oil (mean 3.44%) whereas the
smallest - at the third date (2.67%). The differences
between the first and second harvest were negligible while
between second and third considerable. Decreasing
content of essential oil accompanying delayed thyme
harvest was reported by Badi et al. (2004) and Rey (1991).
Also Christensen and Grevsen (2006), obtained more
essential oil in thyme herb harvested in September than in
October. Galambosi et al. (2002) however report that
shorter growing season affects first at all biomass
production, and has only slight influence on essential oil
content and composition.
Table 5. The effect of harvest time of thyme on the content and yield of essential oil; percent of thymol in oil
Cultivar
Year
Essential oil content
(%)
Mean
Yield of essential oil
(kg∙ha-1)
Mean
Thymol
(%)
Mean
Harvest time
Harvest time
Harvest time
H1*
H2
H3
H1*
H2
H3
H1*
H2
H3
‘Słoneczko’
2010
3.48
3.35
2.87
3.23
94
120
110
108
59.2
57.5
55.1
57.3
2011
3.32
3.05
2.59
2.99
74
92
80
82
55.8
54.3
52.7
54.3
Mean
3.40
3.20
2.73
3.11
84
105
95
95
57.5
55.9
53.9
55.8
‘Deutscher
Winter’
2010
3.61
3.43
2.98
3.34
123
131
122
125
54.1
52.7
50.3
52.4
2011
3.35
2.64
2.23
2.74
75
72
62
70
53.2
52.1
49.9
51.7
Mean
3.48
3.04
2.61
3.06
99
101
92
98
53.7
52.4
50.1
51.9
Mean for harvest time
3.44
3.12
2.67
3.08
92
103
94
96
55.6
54.2
52.0
53.9
LSD0.05
harvest time (H)
4.42
8.2
3.1
cultivar (C)
ns.
n.s
3.7
year (Y)
4.12
25.7
ns.
H x C
3.92
13.1
3.5
C x Y
4.65
28.3
ns.
H x Y
3.73
15.5
3.9
* See table 2
ns - no significant differences
In our experiment the mean content of essential oil in
both cultivars did not differ markedly (Table 5). In study
carried out by Dudaš and Böhme (2004) where there were
compared several European cultivars, herb of ‘Deutscher
Winter’ contained more essential oil in comparison with
'Słoneczko’. Seidler-Łożykowska (2007) reported that
atmospheric conditions prevailing during the growing
season were an important factor determining essential oil
content in thyme. In our study, both the herb yield and oil
content were higher in 2010, which was characterised by
higher precipitation rates and lower temperatures during
the growing season, than those in 2011 (Table 4, 5).
Berbeć and Kołodziej (2007) found that appropriate water
supply ensured high yields but also contributed to
reduction of the quantity of active compounds in herb, in
our experiment however this opinion was not confirmed.
In our experiment, the oil yield (a resultant of dry leaf
yield and essential oil content) was the highest
(irrespective of the cultivar) in objects where the plants
were harvested 160 days after seed sowing (Table 5). The
83
mean essential oil yields (regardless of the years and
harvesting periods) in both cultivars did not differ
significantly. Comparison of the essential oil yields in
relation to the year of study revealed greater variation in
the ‘Deutscher Winter’ cultivar, which strongly reacted to
the water deficiency in August and September 2011 by a
substantial decline in the essential oil yield. In turn, at the
favourable precipitation distribution in 2010, this cultivar
gave higher yields of essential oil than the ‘Słoneczko’
cultivar (Table 5).
Content of thymol in essential oil is considered to be
one of important factors of thyme quality (Stahl-Biskup
and Sáez, 2002). In our study this content ranged from
49.9% to 59.2% and was comparable with that determined
by Zawiślak (2007), Galambosi et al. 2002, and Marzec et
al. (2010). Asllani and Toska (2003) found it at the lower
level (23.1%-50.1%) in Albanian thyme, Horváth et al.
(2006) in herbs from Hungary (40,5%) and Badi et al.
(2004) in essential oil from thyme grown in Iran (36% -
45%). The chemical composition of thyme’s essential oil
depends upon several factors, such as environment of
growing (Galambosi et al. 2002), development stage
(Hudaib et al., 2002) and chemotypes (Thompson et al.,
2003). In our study, the content of thymol in the essential
oil was dependent on the harvest date and cultivars (Table
5). The highest level of thymol was recorded in herb
harvested in the third decade of August, (i.e. 140 days
after sowing), and succeeding harvests brought about
decrease its content. The similar dependence observed
Chauhan et al. (2011), and Hudaib et al. (2002). Senatore
(1996) who investigated the essential oil of a wild Italian
thyme, Thymus pulegioides L., the highest content of
thymol found in herb gathered in May (39.1%) and much
smaller in September (20.8%). This does not correspond
however with the experiment of Christensen and Grevsen
(2006) who found more thymol in herb cultivated thyme
harvested in October in comparison with that harvested in
September. In our experiment markedly more thymol
conatined herb of ‘Słoneczko’ cultivar in comparison with
Deuscher Winter’ (Table 5). Also Dudaš and Böhme
(2004), reported that ‘Słoneczko’ characterized the highest
amounts of thymol in essential oil among compared
cultivars.
CONCLUSIONS
Examined in the experiment harvest dates of the thyme
(140, 160, and 180 days after sowing) had a significant
effect on the herb yield and its quality. Along with
delaying harvest, yield increased while quality of herb
decreased. The highest yield of herb was recorded at latest
date of harvest (180 days after sowing), the herb however
characterized low quality, contained smaller quantity of
essential oil and lesser amount of valuable thymol. The
optimal harvest time of both cultivars compared
(‘Słoneczko’ and Deutscher Winter) proved to be 160
days after sowing (mid of September), when fairly good
yields were accompanied by reasonable quality of herb.
The weather conditions during the vegetation period had a
significant effect on the herb yield and a minor impact on
the its quality. Higher yields of herb was recorded in 2010
year which characterized abound and uniformly
distributed rainfall.
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... In Iran, thyme plants, depending on the sowing date and planting density, by the time of the first harvest, developed from 13.3 to 26.1 branches and reached the height of 14.4 to 27.4 cm by the time of the first harvest [Moaveni et al. 2011]. Under Polish conditions (Lublin region), thyme sown directly onto the field by Król and Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz [2015] in early April and harvested in late August was 23.4-28.2 cm heigh, depending on the weather conditions. ...
... In an experiment carried out by Kołodziej [2009] thyme plants sown at the end of April and harvested in the first 10 days of August produced shoots 10.6 cm long and the dry herb yield of 1.44 t•ha -1 , while the oil content of the herb was 2.0%. In the studies by Król and Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz [2015], the yields of fresh and dry herb Borowy, A., Dzida, K. (2022). Comparison of the effectiveness of flaming and spraying with glufosinate-ammonium in controlling weeds in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) sowing. ...
... According to Moaveni et al. [2011], even with large differences in planting density, the yield of thyme herb may differ insignificantly because at lower density individual plants produce more biomass. Taking into account the fact that dry herb constitutes approximately 30% of fresh herb [Król and Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz 2015], the yields obtained in this experiment are generally consistent with the data relating to the first harvest of thyme grown from direct sowing provided by Zawiślak [2018], much higher than the yields harvested by Moaveni et al. [2011] and slightly lower than those collected by Kwiatkowski and Kołodziej [2005] and Kołodziej [2009]. However, they were much lower than the yields obtained by Kołodziej [2009], Dzida et al. [2015] and Król and Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz [2015] in the same natural conditions but from seedling planting. ...
Article
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The purpose of this four-year study was to compare the effectiveness of flame weeding applied on two dates to that of spraying with glufosinate ammonium in controlling weeds in common thyme grown from sowing directly into the field. Flaming (90 kg propane•ha-1) was applied immediately before thyme emergence or 6 days later, and glufosinate-ammonium (450 g•ha-1) was applied on the same date as the first flaming. Emergence of thyme began 15-18 days after sowing, was very uneven and in some years it was extended up to 4 weeks. Thyme seedlings were very fine and their initial growth was very slow, which made them highly sensitive to the competition of weeds. The growth rate of thyme increased over time, reaching its greatest value in the last ten days prior to harvest, when the plants gained their average height, depending on the year, from 18.3 to 22.4 cm and developed from 17 to 21 first and second order branches. Weeds started to emerge 8-11 days after thyme was sown and about 3 weeks later their number in the control plots varied depending on the year from 175 to 541 pcs.•m-2. All methods were very effective in controlling weeds immediately after treatment, but had no soil residual activity and soon new weeds emerged. Four weeks later, the most effective method was spraying with glufosinate-ammonium, which, depending on the year, reduced both the number and fresh weight of weeds by 43 to 85%. Flaming applied at the first or second dates controlled 33-59% and 37-68% of weeds, respectively. After first weeding, the differences between compared treatments disappeared. Essential oil content in the grated herb obtained from the control plants ranged from 2.5 to 3.4%. In the oil, a total of 39 compounds were identified, with the number ranging from 33 to 36 in individual years. More than half of the essential oil was thymol and two other important compounds were γ-terpinene and p-cymene
... Some recommend harvesting at beginning bloom (Moisa et al., 2019;Naghdi Badi et al., 2004;Salehi et al., 2014), full bloom (Özgüven and Tansi, 1998;Zantar et al., 2015), and even after bloom (Özgüven and Tansi, 1998;McGimpsey et al., 1994), depending on the type, quality, and quantity of essential oil desired. Other factors affecting essential oil content include the age of the plant (Hudaib et al., 2002;Król & Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz, 2015), spacing in cultivation (Naghdi Badi et al., 2004), and climatic conditions such as rainfall, humidity, and temperature (Özgüven and Tansi, 1998). ...
... Phloem feeding Families such as Aphididae and Cicadellidae do not use nectar or pollen, so their populations were not directly affected by bloom status, but the flowering stage of T. vulgaris can have an influence on the proportions of essential oils found in the leaves. Studies have shown younger plants have higher levels of thymol while older plants have higher levels of carvacrol and camphor, chemicals which may deter feeding(Hudaib et al., 2002;Król & Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz, 2015). Aphididae populations dropped sharply after the plants had finished blooming, suggesting as the plants matured the quality of the phloem they were feeding on may have changed, stimulating them to disperse. ...
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Current agroecosystem management practices have a negative effect on natural enemies and their ability to control insect pests. Conservation biological control through the addition of flowering resources can manage food resources for natural enemies. These floral resources can also provide multiple ecosystem services. Study goals were to determine if perennial Thymus vulgaris L. was attractive to natural enemies and if so, could it be a dual use resource encouraging pest management and providing harvestable product. In 2018 plots in three locations were used to examine the effect of habitat throughout the growing season on the attractiveness of T. vulgaris. Large numbers of Thysanoptera and Hemiptera were collected in all locations, represented by phytophagous Aphididae and Thripidae, and predatory Anthocoridae. Location influenced other families to varying degrees. Seasonal specimen counts were influenced by vegetation density, floral phenology, and predator/prey relationships. In 2019 replicated plots of three treatments were used to examine if harvesting plant material affected the attractiveness of T. vulgaris to natural enemies. Total specimens in 2019 were not significantly different among treatments, indicating removal of blooms did not significantly affect the attractiveness of T. vulgaris. Significant numbers of Thysanoptera and Hemiptera were again collected in all treatments, represented by phytophagous Aphididae and Thripidae. Greater numbers of Diptera and Hymenoptera were also collected. Significant numbers of Thripidae, Aphididae, Mymaridae, and Platygastridae were found in the Family level analyses. Results from both years indicate T. vulgaris was attractive to natural enemy and phytophagous Families. Data from 2018 suggest natural enemy families were attracted to alternative prey and hosts utilizing the foliage rather than flowers but the use of nectar and pollen cannot be ruled out. Data from 2019 suggest the presence of flowers played an important role in the attractiveness of T. vulgaris to micro-hymenopteran parasitoids, Syrphidae, and native Apidae. In conclusion, Thymus vulgaris has the potential to be a dual use floral resource that benefits growers through supporting native enemy populations and pollination services, as well as provide income from the harvest of foliage. It could also be used as a beneficial, harvestable floral resource in urban gardens to encourage pollinator conservation and natural pest control.
... Now it is cultivated as herbal medicine worldwide in various parts. Essential oils & polyphenols of shrub that plays key role in therapeutic industries (Beata & Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz, 2015). The height of the shrub is about forty centimetres. ...
Chapter
Medicinal plants are achieving favour and have shown exponential growth throughout the globe due to fewer side effects in comparison to allopathic medications and innate pharmacological effects and being present naturally. Humans show intimate association with nature and always utilize the components of their surroundings to get medicines and foodstuffs. Around 50% of medications utilized by humans emanated from plant parts. For preliminary healthcare in developing countries, more than 80% of humans rely on herbal drugs. Worldwide, India has been the most extensive developer for herbs that have medicinal importance. So, there is a necessity to review this priceless herbal knowledge. This chapter will assist in furnishing the advantageous usage of herbs in various infections. It is a big challenge to conserve biodiversity because of the involvement of political difficulties and social demurs. There is a requirement to conserve these plant species and nurture their farming.
... Thymus sp. grows in grassy field shores, forest edges, meadows and rocky, and mountainous areas where high soil temperature (Beata et al., 2015). The Thymus sp. has carminative, antioxidant, pharmacological, and very wide biological properties (Stahl-Biskup et al., 2002). ...
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Aim of Study: It was aimed to determine the chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the Thymus praecox which distributed in the Kastamonu region. Material and methods: Spectroscopic and chromotographic analysis were applied in the determination of the chemical composition. Thyme extracts were prepared using five different solvents. In Thymus praecox, the presence of flavonoids using HPLC and the chemical content of essential oil using GC-MS were investigated. The analyses of the mineral were determined in leaf and stem of thyme by ICP-OES. Antioxidant capacity was determined using two methods such as DPPH free radical scavenging and H2O2 scavenging. Antibacterial activity on ten bacteria, Gram (+) and Gram (-) was tested using the disc diffusion method. Main results: Experimental results showed that thyme extracts have antibacterial activities against some bacteria. As a result, it was found that the most affected bacteria was S. aureus. Inhibition zone diameter was determined to be between 8-12 mm. The effect of solvent on antibacterial activity, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid amounts were observed. Highlights: These results showed that T. praecox has the potential to be used as a natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent, and can be used as a natural supportive treatment.
... The results illustrated in Table-2 demonstrate a certain variability in the yields obtained in the various studies conducted [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]; indeed, these differences could be explained by several factors such as environmental factors as demonstrated by Krol and Kieltyka-Dadasiewicz [34] who emphasized that the weather conditions and harvested time have a significant effect on the herb yield, in the same context, Jordan et al. [35] gave a relationship between the production of volatile oils and the climate by stating that EO production is favored in areas with a low thermicity index. Other studies examining the influence of plant maturity on their EO yield have shown that higher yields have been recorded on advanced mature plants [27]. ...
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Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate, in vitro, a possible antibacterial activity of Algerian essential oils (EOs) of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and that of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) against multidrug-resistant avian Escherichia coli strains and this in a perspective of their future use as a substitute for antibiotics (ATBs). Materials and Methods: In addition to the reference strain of E. coli ATCC 25922, 40 strains of avian E. coli have been isolated (24 strains of broilers and 16 of turkeys), their antimicrobial resistance profile was determined by antibiogram tests against 21 ATBs whereupon they were subjected to the action of two Algerian EOs; the EO of Thyme (T. vulgaris L.) and that of Coriander (C. sativum L.), which oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and this for the determination of their chemical composition. The antibacterial activity, resulting in zones of inhibition, was evaluated by carrying out, in triplicate, aromatograms for both pure EO and that which has been diluted to 15% in Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), while the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the two EOs were highlighted by the method of liquid macrodilution. Results: Antibiogram performance demonstrated an alarming state of antimicrobial resistance, the multidrug resistance rate was estimated at 100% for the broilers chicken strains and at 81.25% for strains isolated from turkeys, hydrodistillation allowed to obtained EOs with yields estimated at 1.22±0.26% for Thyme EO and 0.23±0.15% for the essence of Coriander, the GC-MS analysis identified 19 main compounds and showed that the majority chemical components were Carvacrol (73.03%) for Thyme volatile oil and Linalool (60.91%) for Coriander EO, aromatograms and the determination of MIC concluded that the EO of Thyme showed a greater antibacterial activity with an average of the zones of inhibition estimated at 26.75±0.426 mm and MIC ranging from 0.07 to 0.93 mg/ml against an average of the inhibition zones evaluated at 17.05±0.383 mm and MICs evaluated between 0.6 and 10 mg/ml for the EO of Coriander. Conclusion: In aviculture, these results seem to be very promising in the case where we think about the replacement of ATBs by EOs, in vivo studies would be very interesting to confirm or invalidate this hypothesis.
... This indicates mutual modifications between agronomic and environmental factors which contribute to changes in the direction of individual types of variation. Yield of herbal raw material and its chemical composition are largely dependent on growing conditions [Nurzyńska-Wierdak 2009, Zawiślak and Dzida 2010, Król and Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz 2015, which sometimes causes divergent results in individual years and study areas. The results of a study conducted by Abbaszadeh et al. [2014] reveal that the . ...
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Similarly to other species of the genus Satureja (Lamiaceae), winter savory is valued in traditional medicine in many countries of the world. Most studies on winter savory are primarily focused on the chemical composition and biological activity of its raw material, but few studies concern proper growing conditions. The aim of the present study, conducted on one-year-old plants, was to determine relationships of plant density and number of harvests with selected parameters of raw material yield of winter savory grown in field under temperate climate conditions. The herb of winter savory grown under temperate climate conditions was shown to have an average essential oil content of 1.69%. Yield of herb without stems, the percentage of this herb in dry herb and essential oil content in the herb increase as plant density decreases. On the other hand, essential oil content and yield, do not depend on number of harvests and harvest date.
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Environmental factors such as mineral nutrition as well as plant ontogeny are the major determinants of the quantity and quality of essential oil (EO) in medicinal and herbal plants. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of nitrogen and plant development phases on the yield of fresh mass and the yield of essential oil, content and chemical composition of essential oil from summer savory cv. Saturn cultivated for industrial use. The two-factor experiment was carried out in a random-block design with five replications. The nitrogen dose (0; 4; 8; 12; 16 g N m ⁻² ) and the plant development phase (the beginning of flowering and full flowering) were the experimental factors. There was a significant effect of the nitrogen dose and plant development phase on the essential oil content of the summer savory. The content of essential oil in the summer savory herb was in the range of 2.52–5.89%. The essential oil was shown to contain four dominant components, i.e. carvacrol, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpinene, and para-cymene. The highest carvacrol content was noted for the lowest nitrogen dose in the phase of full flowering of plants. Additionally, the highest parameters of the summer savory essential oil were obtained from plants harvested in the initial flowering stage.
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Drug yield and volatile oil content and its components of Thymus vulgaris were investigated during the different growing periods under both lowland and mountainous conditions. The highest drug yields were obtained from lowland conditions during the post flowering stage. Also, it has been determined that environmental conditions have significantly influenced the harvest dates. The 17 components were identified in the essential oil of Thyme. Essential oil content and its components were significantly affected by both climatic and ecological conditions and various harvest dates.
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Cultivars of six leaf herb species were grown during 1999-2000 at South Finland (Piikkiö, 60° N, 23 É) and North Finland (Ruukki, 64° N, 41 E). The plants were propagated by seedlings, grown in black plastic mulch, fertilized by 20 t/ha compost. Growth, fresh and dry leaf yield, essential oil content, and composition were studied. The yields obtained from the southern growing site were generally higher by 10-40 % than those from the site 500 km further North. The shorter growing season affected the biomass production, but did not strongly influence the essential oil content and composition which were similar to other European results. The yield differences were very high in the case of Greek oregano and marjoram, but savory and dragonhead showed a better tolerance to the cooler climatic conditions and the yield differences were much smaller. Sage and thyme can be only grown in Finland as annuals and their yields were almost identical from both sites. Using bred cultivars, sufficient quantities of high quality raw material can be produced under Nordic conditions.
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Adams, R. P. 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, 4th Edition. Allured Publ., Carol Stream, IL Is out of print, but you can obtain a free pdf of it at www.juniperus.org
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The aim of this study is to investigate in-vitro antimicrobial effects of the essential oils from oregano (Origanum acutidens and Origanum rotundifolium) and thyme (Thymus sipyleus subsp. sipyleus var. rosulans). The chemical composition and antimicrobial attributes of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of the plants, of which there were 3 Lamiaceae species, have been studied. A total of 43 microorganisms, including 26 bacteria, 14 fungi, and 3 yeasts species, have been studied by using disc-diffusion (DD) and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) methods. Mean inhibition zones and MIC values of bacterial strains varied from 8 and 72 mm to 7.8 and 500 μg mL-1, respectively. The maximal inhibition zones and MIC values of the yeast and fungi species sensitive to the essential oils were 8-74 mm and 7.8-500 μg mL-1, respectively. The susceptibility of the tested microorganisms varied depending on the essential oil composition. In general, the essential oils showed higher DD values than tested antibiotics. The essential oils of oregano and thyme may be considered a potential source of a natural antimicrobial for the food industry after testing the toxic and irritating effects on humans.
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In order to optimise quality and yield performance of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) a breeding programme was carried out and 56 new hybrids were obtained by crossing male sterile and male fertile clones. These hybrids were tested from 2000 to 2002 by evaluating homogeneity, yield in dry weight and essential oil, winter frost tolerance, as well as seed production potential of the parents. The most promising hybrid was named 'Varico 3' and was then compared to five established cultivars from Germany, Switzerland and France in mountain regions of Switzerland (920 m a.s.l.) in 2007 and 2008. The trial was harvested once in 2007 and twice in 2008. The two thymol-chemotype cultivars 'Varico 3' and 'Varico 2' showed the highest dry weight yields. 'Deutscher Winter', also a thymol-chemotype, had the lowest essential oil content with less than 3%. 'Varico 3' and 'Varico 2' contents were much higher with 4.9% and 3.5%, respectively. The highest essential oil contents were obtained with the three French cultivars, but with lower dry matter production. In general, the hybrid cultivars showed a higher homogeneity than the population cultivar 'Deutscher Winter'. In conclusion, the new hybrid cultivar 'Varico 3' can be recommended for the producers in Switzerland and middle Europe and for the industries looking for thymol-chemotype thyme.
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Th e aim of this study is to investigate in-vitro antimicrobial eff ects of the essential oils from oregano (Origa-num acutidens and Origanum rotundifolium) and thyme (Th ymus sipyleus subsp. sipyleus var. rosulans). Th e chemical composition and antimicrobial attributes of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of the plants, of which there were 3 Lamiaceae species, have been studied. A total of 43 microorganisms, including 26 bacteria, 14 fungi, and 3 yeasts species, have been studied by using disc-diff usion (DD) and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) methods. Mean inhibition zones and MIC values of bacterial strains varied from 8 and 72 mm to 7.8 and 500 μg mL -1 , respectively. Th e maximal inhibition zones and MIC values of the yeast and fungi species sensitive to the essential oils were 8-74 mm and 7.8-500 μg mL -1 , respectively. Th e susceptibility of the tested microorganisms varied depending on the essential oil composition. In general, the essential oils showed higher DD values than tested antibiotics. Th e essential oils of oregano and thyme may be considered a potential source of a natural antimicrobial for the food industry aft er testing the toxic and irritating eff ects on humans. Th yme ve oregano uçucu yağlarının antimikrobiyal etkilerinin araştırılması Özet: Bu araştırmada, oregano (Origanum acutidens, Origanum rotundifolium) ve thyme (Th ymus sipyleus subsp. sipyleus var. rosulans) uçucu yağlarının in-vitro şartlarda antimikrobiyal etkileri araştırılmıştır. Üç Lamiaceae türünün toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen uçucu yağların kimyasal kompozisyonu ve antimikrobiyal etkileri çalışılmıştır. Toplam 43 mikroorganizma -26 bakteri, 14 küf ve 3 maya-türüne karşı etkileri, disk difüzyon (DD) ve "en düşük engelleme konsantrasyonu" yöntemleri ile belirlenmiş; bakteri türlerinin ortalama engelleme zonları ve en düşük engelleme konsantrasyonu değerleri sırasıyla 8 ve 72 mm ile 7.8 ve 500 μg mL –1 arasında değişirken maya ve küfl erin en yüksek inhibisyon zonu ve en düşük engelleme konsantrasyonu değerlerinin 8–74 mm ile 7.8–500 μg mL -1 arasında değiştiği görülmüştür. Test edilen mikroorganizmaların uçucu yağ kompozisyonuna duyarlılığının farklı olduğu ve genellikle uçucu yağların test edilen antibiyotiklerden daha büyük DD değerine sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Th yme ve oregano uçucu yağları -insan için toksik ve tahriş edici etkileri test edildikten sonra-gıda endüstrisi için doğal antimikrobiyal kaynak olarak önerilebilir.
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The most valued compound of thyme raw material is essential oil, widely used in pharmacy, medicine, perfumery-cosmetic and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate essential oil content, its chemical composition and price comparison of the commercially available thyme. Raw material has been bought from local retail market, offering both: traditional and ecological products. Essential oil content evaluation was conducted using hydrodistillation with Dering apparatus, according to Polish Pharmacopoeia VIII [2008] and, afterwards, with GC-MS method. As far as essential oil content is concerned the results obtained were differentiated. A large majority of tested samples belongs to the thymol chemotype, with high content of thymol. In the most cases, hypothesis regarding the lack of correlation between price and oil content turned out to be true. It was the most apparent regarding certified ecological products.