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Abstract

Resources that protect against the development of psychiatric disturbances are reported to be a significant force behind healthy adjustment to life stresses, rather than the absence of risk factors. In this paper a new scale for measuring the presence of protective resources that promote adult resilience is validated. The preliminary version of the scale consisted of 45 items covering five dimensions: personal competence, social competence, family coherence, social support and personal structure. The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), the Sense of Coherence scale (SOC) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) were given to 59 patients once, and to 276 normal controls twice, separated by four months. The factor structure was replicated. The respective dimensions had Cronbach's alphas of 0.90, 0.83, 0.87, 0.83 and 0.67, and four-month test-retest correlations of 0.79, 0.84, 0.77, 0.69 and 0.74. Construct validity was supported by positive correlations with SOC and negative correlations with HSCL. The RSA differentiated between patients and healthy control subjects. Discriminant validity was indicated by differential positive correlations between RSA subscales and SOC. The RSA-scale might be used as a valid and reliable measurement in health and clinical psychology to assess the presence of protective factors important to regain and maintain mental health. Copyright

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... All three coping studies reported a significant and positive association between age and adequate coping [36,37,47]. Three of the five resilience studies reported similar results, namely that individuals of older age groups had higher resilience scores compared to their younger counterparts [48,49,52]. Two resilience studies did not find a significant association [54,55]. ...
... In contrast, three other coping studies reported the opposite [33,34,36], one study did not find a significant association [47], and the results of two studies were inconclusive [38,39]. Three of the five resilience studies reported higher resilience scores for men [49,50,55], one study reported no apparent differences between men and women [52], and one study did not find a significant association [54]. ...
... One of the two resilience studies reported higher levels of resilience for individuals with a higher educational level [55]. The other study did not find a significant association [52]. Income was included as a determinant of coping (n = 2) or resilience (n = 2) in four studies. ...
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Background The health of an (unborn) child is largely determined by the health and social determinants of its parents. The extent to which social determinants of parents or prospective parents affect their own health depends partly on their coping or resilience abilities. Inadequate abilities allow negative effects of unfavourable social determinants to prevail, rendering them vulnerable to adverse health outcomes. Addressing these determinants in the reproductive-aged population is therefore a key approach in improving the health of the future generation. This systematic review aims to synthesise evidence on social determinants of vulnerability, i.e., inadequate coping or low resilience, in the general population of reproductive age. Methods The databases EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, were systematically searched from database inception to December 2th 2021. Observational studies examining social determinants and demographics in relation to vulnerability among the general population of reproductive age (men and women aged 18-40 years), conducted in a high-income country in Europe or North America, Australia or New Zealand were eligible for inclusion. Relevant data was extracted from each included article and findings were presented in a narrative and tabulated manner. Results We identified 40,028 unique articles, of which 78 were full text reviewed. Twenty-five studies were included, of which 21 had a cross-sectional study design (84%). Coping was the most frequently assessed outcome measure (n = 17, 68%). Thirty social determinants were identified. Overall, a younger age, lower socioeconomic attainment, lack of connection with the social environment, and adverse life events were associated with inadequate coping or low resilience. Conclusions This review shows that certain social determinants are associated with vulnerability in reproductive-aged individuals. Knowing which factors make people more or less vulnerable carries health-related implications. More high-quality research is needed to obtain substantial evidence on the strength of the effect of these social conditions in this stage of life.
... Depression and affective disorders are seen as a common complication of advanced cancer (Draeger et Gender differences can influence health and reactions in presence of a stressful event like a cancer diagnosis (Friborg et al., 2003). Knowledge about psychological processes and effects of gender differences among cancer patients is lacking (Hinz et al., 2019;Koyama et al., 2016;Northouse et al., 1998). ...
... In this paper we consider resilience, sense of mastery and sense of coherence as resources able to protect against the development or onset of psychopathology. Those resources are reported to be a significant force behind healthy adjustment to life stresses, rather than the absence of risk factors (Friborg et al., 2003). Resilience is the ability to resist or recover from adversity, the ability to "rebound or spring-back" (Oxford English dictionary, 1971). ...
... The main finding of the present study is that for patients suffering from lymphoma, resilience and psychopathology have a different pathway based on gender as before discussed by other authors (Friborg et al., 2003). Our results confirm psychological resilience to be a relevant process for patients affected by lymphoma (Jacelon, 1997). ...
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Objective: Evaluating gender differences in resilience, depression, and anxiety levels in patients suffering from lymphoma and exploring possible association between constructs. Method: The study enrolled a consecutive series of 110 patients suffering from lymphoma compared with 140 controls matched for age, gender, and education. Several validated instruments were used: to measure resilience, anxious and depressive symptoms. Comparisons between groups were performed using a one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Pearson Correlation’s was used to investigate the associations between constructs. Results: Significant gender differences between female and male patients with lymphoma were found for all the explored dimensions. Psychological constructs seemed to be more compromised in the patients’ group than in the control group and specifically more in women than in men. This finding underlines higher sensitiveness for women affected by lymphoma. Resilience (i.e., SOC and SOM scores) and level of depression and anxiety are more strongly associated among female patients than among male patients. Conclusion: The main finding of the present study is that for patients suffering from lymphoma, resilience and psychopathology have a different pathway based on gender. These gender differences can be considered to prompt appropriate tailored psychological treatments for depressive and anxious symptoms in onco- hematology. Women with lymphomas displayed lower mean in resilience score (SOC and SOM), and greater level of depression and anxiety than women in the control group. The comparisons between men with lymphomas and men in the control group point out significant differences only for the level of depression and anxiety which was higher in male patients than in male controls. On the other hand, women with lymphoma displayed poorer level of Resilience (SOC and SOM) and higher level of depression and anxiety than men affected by Lymphoma.
... In general, many resilience measures have been conceptualized and developed on samples that are predominately White and the findings are then generalized to other cultural groups in LMICs without rigorous responsive evaluation of their applicability. These include, and not limited to, the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS; Wagnild & Young, 1993) Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC; Connor & Davidson, 2003), Baruth Protective Factor Inventory (Baruth & Caroll, 2002), Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA; Friborg et al., 2003), and Brief Resilience Coping Scale (BRCS; Sinclair & Wallston, 2004). Many of these measures have been translated to different languages (e.g., Callegari et al., 2016;Jowkar et al., 2010) and their psychometric properties examined in different sociocultural contexts (e.g., Ali-Abadi et al., 2020;Levey et al., 2019). ...
... Factor 5, self-efficacy, was comprised of two items that related to an ability to make decisions and solve problems. Similar to perseverance, self-efficacy appears to be a common aspect of resilience found in other measures (e.g., Friborg et al., 2003). Factor 6, optimism, included two items about future thinking. ...
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We sought to evaluate the psychometric properties of two resilience scales; the Resilience Inventory (IRES) and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) among Peruvian postpartum adolescent mothers. This cross-sectional study included 785 adolescent mothers who delivered at a maternity hospital in Lima, Peru. The Spanish versions of IRES and RS-14 were used to evaluate the properties of the measures. We examined reliability using Cronbach’s alpha. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to assess the construct validity and factor structures of the two scales. Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.7). Correlation between IRES and RS-14 scores was fair (r = 0.53). The EFA results of both scales yielded a three-factor structure. EFA including all items from IRES and RS-14 yielded a six-factor structure. CFA results corroborated the original seven-factor structure for IRES and yielded measures indicating a good level of goodness of fit (comparative fit index of 0.93) and accuracy (root mean square error of approximation of 0.07). Overall, Spanish language versions of both the IRES and the RS-14 are reliable and valid scales for assessing resilience among Peruvian postpartum adolescent mothers. Additional research is needed to integrate culturally-specific traits into resilience measures.
... Psychological measures of resilience are further divided by instruments that measure trait (e.g., Connor-Davidson resilience scale), process (e.g., academic resilience scale), and outcomes perspective (e.g., brief resilience scale). The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (Connor & Davidson, 2003), resilience scale (Wagnild & Young, 1993), and resilience scale for adults (Friborg et al., 2003) are considered to have the best psychometric properties (Windle et al., 2011). However, for certain measures such as the resilience factor inventory (Reivich and Shatté, 2002), more work is required to ascertain the instrument's validity. ...
... Connor & Davidson, 2003). Other scales included Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30) (Cassidy, 2016), Ego Resiliency Scale (ER-89) (Block & Kremen, 1996), Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) (Friborg et al., 2003), Resilience questionnaire (RQ) (Hayatini & Dimyati, 2020), Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-29) (Park & Kim, 2009), Thai Resilience Quotient Screening (20 items) (Thai RQ-20) (Jatchavala, 2020), Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents (RSCA) (Hu & Gan, 2008), and Resilience Factor Inventory (RFI-60) (Reivich & Shatté, 2002). Each study had a definition of low resilience based on the standard or commonly used cut-off for the respective tools, as shown in Table 1. ...
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Low resilient students are vulnerable to adversities that hinder academic success and wellbeing. However, little is known about the extent of low resilience among higher education students. We searched 11 electronic education and health-science related databases. We targeted higher education journals and relevant reference lists for published and unpublished articles in English and Chinese up to January 1, 2021. The Newcastle–Ottawa Scale and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system were used to assess individual and overall evidence. Meta-analysis was conducted for 41 cross-sectional studies using the Stata software. The pooled prevalence of low resilience was 36% among 13,931 students across 18 countries. Subgroup analysis revealed that resilience measures affected resilience prevalence significantly. A higher prevalence of low resilience was found among dance or nursing students in Europe than those in their counterparts. Univariate meta-regression random-effects analyses did not find any significant covariate effects on prevalence estimates. Quality assessment showed that majority (78.05%) of individual studies was high quality, but the overall evidence was rated low. This study provides the prevalence of low resilience in higher education, identifying vulnerable student groups for targeted intervention. Well-designed observational research with standard resilience measures is recommended for future studies.
... Many researchers have posited that resilience should not be considered solely in the context of facing trauma and that it is highly significant in daily life, without trauma but not free of adversity, which is related to the sense of coherence [23]. Resilience displays positive correlations with protective mechanisms, e.g., personal and dispositional attribution (e.g., personal strength/self-perception and future perception), cohesion or family and social support [24], emotional stability, and social skills but not with cognitive intelligence [25]. Many studies have confirmed associations between resilience and such personality traits as openness to experience, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness and a negative link with neuroticism [26]. ...
... Resilient individuals find MIL more easily, especially in difficult times [5,20]. Previous research has examined relationships between resilience and other psychological constructs [24,28], yet definitely fewer researchers have investigated the relationship between time perspective and other constructs [44,62]. Additionally, our aim was to verify whether time perspective can moderate the relationship between resilience and MIL. ...
Article
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Resilience and meaning in life are significant indicators of psychological well-being and health, which are particularly important in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, they have been explored by a growing number of scientists. There has been a research gap, however, that fails to show that time perspectives also have a significant impact on the perception and building of different life aspects. The current study investigated the associations between resilience, time perspectives and meaning in life and examined the moderating role of time perspective in the relationship between resilience and meaning in life. Methods: Participants of this cross-sectional study were 363 adults aged 18-70. Resilience Measurement Scale (SPP-25), the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), and the Purpose in Life Questionnaire (PIL) were used. Results: The findings confirmed a positive relationship between resilience, meaning in life, and positive time perspectives (Present Hedonistic and Future) and a negative link with Past Negative and Present Fatalistic perspectives. The linear regression analyses showed that Past Negative and Past Positive perspectives significantly moderated the relationship between resilience and meaning in life. The moderating effect was also confirmed in the case of past time perspectives only. Conclusions: The findings indicate the relevance of positive resources, such as resilience and positive perception of the past, in keeping the meaning in life. Understanding the effect of psychological strengths in the context of the pandemic time can be a key to providing intervention and therapeutic services fostering mental health and well-being.
... Each item is rated on a 4-points scale (from 0 to 3). Total scores identify different levels of anxiety: minimum (0-21); moderate (22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35); high (> 36). BAI internal consistency as measured by Cronbach Alpha is 0.94. ...
... There are no cut-offs; the higher the total score, the greater are resilience levels. Internal consistency evaluated by Cronbach's alpha is 0.86 (32,33). ...
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Background Mental health-related symptoms can persist over time beyond the most common respiratory clinical features of COVID-19. A recent meta-analysis underlined that mental health sequalae may be relevant for COVID-19 survivors and reported the following prevalence rates: 20% for post-traumatic stress disorder, 22% for anxiety, 36% for psychological distress, and 21% for depression. In the context of a multi-disciplinary follow-up project, we already investigated the mid-term (4 months) psychiatric outcomes in a sample of COVID-19 survivors. Patients were re-assessed after 1-year since hospital discharge.Methods Follow-up conducted after 1 year involved 196 individuals recovered from COVID-19. Patients were assessed with a multi-disciplinary approach; including both a clinical interview performed by an experienced psychiatrist, trained in the use of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess the presence of anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms and the following self-administered questionnaires: Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Resilience Scale for Adults, Impact of Event Scale, and COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI).ResultsAnxiety (p < 0.0001) and depressive (p < 0.0003) symptoms registered at the clinical interview showed a significant improvement from the 4 to 12-months follow-up. Logistic regression model showed that female gender (p = 0.006), arterial hypertension (p = 0.01), obesity (0.04), anxiety (p < 0.0001), and depressive (p = 0.02) symptoms at 4-months follow-up were associated with persistence of anxiety symptoms at 12 months. At logistic regression analysis female gender (p = 0.02) and depressive symptoms at 4-months follow-up (p = 0.01) were associated with depressive symptoms after 12 months.Conclusion Severity of the disease in the acute phase, in this study, was not a determining factor in identifying subjects at risk of developing clinically relevant anxiety and depression as a consequence of COVID-19 disease. Findings from the logistic regressions suggest that the factors most affecting depression and anxiety in COVID survivors after 12 months were female gender, the presence of anxiety and depression after 4 months and some physical symptoms, not necessarily COVID-related. Impact of infection and consequent hospitalization for COVID-19 did no longer represent a relevant issue for depressive symptoms, compared to other general factors.
... Resilience. The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA 71,76 ) measures six resilience protective factors, of which four are intrapersonal factors (personal strength, planned future, social competence, and structured style) and two are interpersonal factors (family cohesion and social resources). This scale comprises 33 items, scored along a 7-point semantic differential scale. ...
... From a psychometric perspective, the internal consistency of the subscales of the RSA was satisfactory, ranging from 0.67 to 0.90. The test-retest correlations were all satisfactory for the subscales of RSA, ranging from 0.69 to 0.84 (p < 0.01) 76 . ...
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Mindfulness interventions were shown to be effective in improving well-being and reducing perceived stress in several conditions. These effects were also found in online mindfulness-based training, especially in employees in organizational environments. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online mindfulness intervention on healthy employees, especially after the first Italian Covid-19 lockdown. Participants in the intervention group underwent an 8-week mindfulness online training program based on the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) protocol compared to a control (no-intervention) group. All participants filled in weekly surveys for the whole intervention duration via online questionnaires to measure their habits, mindfulness (FFMQ-15), emotion regulation (ERQ), positive and negative affect (PANAS), depression, anxiety and stress (DASS-21), resilience (RSA) and insomnia (ISI). 69 participants in the intervention group and 63 in the no-treatment control group were considered in the longitudinal analyses. We found significant differences between the intervention and control groups over time in the measures of mindfulness (in particular the nonreactivity subscale), positive affect, depression, and insomnia. Moreover, we found that the frequency of practice and ease perceived in practicing were positively correlated to several indices of well-being (mindfulness, positive affect, cognitive reappraisal) and negatively correlated to several indices of stress (negative affect, depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia, expressive suppression). These results show the importance and effectiveness of online mindfulness training programs to cope with stress among employees, especially after the Covid-19 lockdown.
... The study measured coping skills using the Brief Cope Inventory [60]. Brief Cope Inventory is a self-administered questionnaire with 28 items and 14 subscales. ...
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Background Most caretakers of children with disabilities (CWDs) have adverse health outcomes. Approximately 31% of the caretakers have clinical depression in the world. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 42% of them face severe psychological distress. Caretakers in Africa face additional cultural challenges that undermine their coping skills, access to social support, and resilience. Methods This study used sequential explanatory mixed methods to examine the relationships of social support, coping skills and resilience among caretakers of CWDs in Uganda. A total of 621 caretakers were surveyed, and 43 of them participated in interviews. Hierarchical cluster analysis and binary logistic regression were conducted to determine coping patterns and predict caretakers’ likelihood of using them. Hierarchical linear regression and thematic analyses then explored the relationships and perceptions of coping skills and resilience related to social support. A joint display was used to integrate results and show the convergence and expansion of quantitative and qualitative results. Results Quantitative and qualitative findings converged that caretakers who received social support used adaptive coping skills and had higher resilience. Qualitative results expanded the finding that caretakers who received formal social support perceived it as a safer mode of care than informal social support. Conclusions The study expanded the scope of social support, coping skills, and resilience. Caretakers perceived formal social support from schools as a safe mode of care that enabled them to use adaptive coping skills and have high resilience. Therefore, enrolling children with disabilities in schools at an early age is beneficial for building the resilience of their caretakers.
... The RSA is another self-report scale for adults [36]. It is recommended for use in the fields of health promotion and clinical psychology. ...
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(1) Background: The push towards population health management and the need for new approaches in health services delivery focusing on the prevention and management of chronic diseases has helped in advocating for more person-centred care, and thus for integration of physical and mental health. Resilience plays a key role in supporting sustainable lifestyle changes and promoting health and wellbeing, but most assessment tools available today are too long for widespread use. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of a new diagnostic tool to capture a person’s resilience and resources. (2) Methods: This paper outlines the interrelatedness of different theories of salutogenesis, social determinants of health and health promotion with resilience and establishes resilience as a key enabler to promote health and wellbeing. (3) Results: A new, short questionnaire is proposed based on the triade of evidence-based medicine, which should be easy to use and give a good assessment of a person’s resilience. (4) Conclusions: There are many reasons why the call for a short and easy-to-use assessment tool for resilience is warranted. In view of the international transition towards integrated, person-centred health systems, such a tool would find many usages. It would also support the strategies to tackle multi-morbidity, complex conditions and the social determinants of health in its focus on strengthening an individual’s ability to cope with adverse events, and actively engage in health promotion and community involvement programmes. The next step is to test the tool in practice and validate it.
...  ‫قام‬ ‫وقد‬ (Salisu & Hashim, 2017, p ‫مواقف‬ ‫من‬ ‫العودة‬ ‫عىل‬ ‫القدرة‬ ‫احلظ‬ ‫وسوء‬ ‫والضغوط‬ ‫اإلحباط‬ (Ledesma, 2014) ‫يزال‬ ‫وال‬ ‫حلياتك‬ ‫وضعته‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫للنظام‬ ‫الدمار‬ ‫حجم‬ (Limnios, Mazzarol, & Ghadouani,2014) ‫االزمة‬ ‫فرتات‬ ‫من‬ ‫والتعايف‬ ‫التوازن‬ ‫استعادة‬ ‫عىل‬ ‫االجتامعي‬ ‫النظام‬ ‫قدرة‬ ‫املخاطر‬ ‫مواجهة‬ ‫من‬ ‫الفرد‬ ‫متكن‬ ‫التي‬ ‫الشخصية‬ ‫الكفايات‬ (Wagnild & Young, 1993;Wagnild, 2009 (Wagnild, 2009a,b) ‫اعداد‬ (Hjemdal, Friborg, Stiles, & Martinussen, 2006) (London, n.d.) . ‫اعداد‬ (Schutte N. , et al., 1998) (Salisu & Hashim, 2017, p. 30 ‫اعداد‬ (Friborg, Hjemdal, Martinussen, & Rosenvinge, 2003) (Schutte N. , et al., 1989) ‫أليضا‬ ‫ويعرف‬ ، ...
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Abstract: This investigation aimed at examining emotional agility, resilience, and emotional intelligence among university students. Also, it aimed at identifying the relationships between the variables, examining the contribution of resilience and emotional intelligence to predict emotional agility among university students. The study aimed also at testing a model structure of the emotional agility, resilience and emotional intelligence among university students. Sample was 322 of university students (59 males and 263 females) with mean age 25.12 and standard deviation 7.37. The study modified tools into Arabic of emotional agility by (David S. , 2016), RSA by (Friborg, Hjemdal, Martinussen, & Rosenvinge, 2003) and emotional intelligence by (Schutte N. , et al., 1989). Results showed that university students have good levels of emotional agility, resilience and emotional intelligence. No statistically significant relationships were found between the three variables, while resilience and emotional intelligence failed to predict the emotional agility. Therefore, the structure model wasn’t tested. Key words: emotional agility, resilience, emotional intelligence
... As mentioned previously, resilience has been defined and operationalized variously-as a trait, a process and an outcome. Although majority of the early measures (e.g., Resilience Skills and Ability Scale; Jew et al., 1999;Adolescents Resilience Scale;Oshio et al., 2003) treated resilience as an individual trait or included only specific environmental aspects (Friborg et al., 2003), the more recent ones assess and highlight its multidimensional nature (Ungar, 2014) and operationalize resilience as a dynamic process. The Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ; Gartland et al., 2011) is one such measure that was developed specifically for the 11-to 19-year age group. ...
Article
India is home to the largest proportion of adolescent population in the world. However, there is a dearth of psychometrically and conceptually robust instruments to measure their resilience. Hence, the present study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties and factor structure of the original English and the translated Hindi version of the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQhttps://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-134) in a sample of Indian adolescents. It also examined the role of select socio-demographic variables (age, sex, place of residence and type of schooling) on their resilience levels. Data were collected from 1290 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years studying in public and private schools in urban and rural areas of Northern India. A brief 35-item (English and Hindi) version of the ARQ having five domains (individual, family, peer, school and community) with a single-factor structure each, was found to be an adequate fit in the Indian context. It is a reliable instrument with good convergent validity, and no floor and ceiling effects. Additionally, the multivariate results revealed a significant main effect for all the socio-demographic factors. The effect sizes, however, were small.
... Moreover, research on resilience has led the development of the Resilience Scale for Adult (RSA) assessing resilience factors among adults. The scale was developed based on empirical evidence that existed at the time, it is assumed to be applicable regardless of culture (46,47). According to the RSA, resilience consists of six factors; perception of self, planned future, social competence, structural style, family cohesion, and social resources (48). ...
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Saturation divers work and live under high physiological and social demands for weeks on end. Even though physiological research has contributed insights to the work conditions of saturation divers, research on the qualities of the divers’ psychosocial work environment is lacking. This study aimed to explore which job demands and resources are viewed as characteristic among saturation divers working within an isolated and confined environment. Based on data from 6 in-depth semi-structured interviews, template analysis was applied to map unique characteristics. By using the theoretical framework of the job demands-resources model, we found that the work environment in saturation diving was characterized by shifting demands and big contrasts, requiring adaptability in each individual diver. One major demand described by the informants was an unpredictable future, somewhat due to the changes in the oil and gas industry. Another important demand was the conflict between family and work/leisure when committing to work for extended periods in isolated environments. The monotony that characterizes the work environment is a challenge that must be managed. High wages, periods of leisure, and a prestigious job provide external motivation, while personal resources such as mental endurance and flexibility, a willingness to learn, and keeping up small personal routines, may benefit the divers’ mental health. This is also affected by the quality of team climate – with features such as being sociable and considerate, having a dark sense of humor and having trust in one another.
... The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) (Friborg et al., 2003), is again a self-report scale for adults. It measures personal competence, social competence, family coherence, social support, personal structure which are intrapersonal and interpersonal factors that help with adaptation to adverse life experiences. ...
Chapter
Resilience is broadly conceptualized as an individual's positive adaptation to adversity which includes not only functioning well under adversity and overcoming difficulties but also becoming stronger after that. Resilience has been theorized under three broad approaches, 1) as an outcome, 2) as a trait and 3) as a developmental process. Accordingly, the first set of research looks at outcomes after an adverse event (presence or absence of symptoms/distress and/or functioning, the second approach considers factors contributing to resilience and vulnerability, whereas the third approach looks at the process of developing and enhancing resilience. Blending of all these approaches is seen while formulating interventions for enhancing resilience. Mental health, happiness/ positive emotions, well-being/life satisfaction are considered as indicators of resilience. Mediating role of resilience in mental health and well-being has been established in the literature. Defining resilience for the purpose of research, assessment and formulation of intervention continues to be plagued with lack of clarity. However, the resilience-based interventions largely aim at prevention of mental health problems and promotion of well-being. Resilience-based interventions are carried out in individual and group formats with face-to-face and online modes. In addition, resilience interventions are used across age groups, settings and formats. These intervention programs are found to be helpful in increasing resilience, well-being, positive emotions, and coping across a number of groups such as students, working professionals, health service staff, individuals with medical and mental health conditions and those who work in emergency situations. Though resilience has been examined extensively, there is not enough clarity with respect to conceptualization, assessment, models of intervention and outcomes specific to resilience. Long-term studies for mental health outcomes are sparse. The chapter attempts to critically evaluate resilience with respect to the above-mentioned domains. Key words: Resilience, positive emotions, well-being, interventions, mental health
... During the adaptation session, subjects completed a questionnaire on general personal information (sex, age, education status, handedness, native language), the Pittsburg Sleep Questionnaire Inventory (Buysse et al. 1989), the Morningness-Eveningness-Questionnaire (Griefahn et al. 2001), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (Tellegen and Atkinson 1974), the Resilience Scale for Adults (Friborg et al. 2003), the rumination subscale of the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (Trapnell and Campbell 1999) and the trait-anxiety subscale of the State-trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger 1970). At the beginning of all three sessions, subjects were asked about their sleep the previous night, anticipation of an important or stressful task, general stress level within the past week and consumption of alcohol, caffeine and drugs. ...
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The anticipation of a future stressor can increase worry and cognitive arousal and has a detrimental effect on sleep. Similarly, experiencing a stressful event directly before sleep increases physiological and cognitive arousal and impairs subsequent sleep. However, the effects of post- vs. pre-sleep stress on sleep and their temporal dynamics have never been directly compared. Here, we examined the effect of an anticipated psychosocial stressor on sleep and arousal in a 90-min daytime nap, in 33 healthy female participants compared to an anticipated within-subject relaxation task. We compared the results to an additional group (n = 34) performing the same tasks directly before sleep. Anticipating stress after sleep reduced slow-wave activity/beta power ratio, slow-wave sleep, sleep spindles, and slow-wave parameters, in particular during late sleep, without a concomitant increase in physiological arousal. In contrast, pre-sleep psychosocial stress deteriorated the same parameters during early sleep with a concomitant increase in physiological arousal. Our results show that presleep cognitions directly affect sleep in temporal proximity to the stressor. While physiological arousal mediates the effects of presleep stress on early sleep, we suggest that effects during late sleep originate from a repeated reactivation of mental concepts associated with the stressful event during sleep.
... Pek çok çalışmada tutarlı olan bir bulgu, psikolojik dayanıklılığın işle ilgili stres, kaygı ve anksiyete düzeyini azalttığı ve genel iyi oluş halini pozitif olarak etkilediğidir (Asensio-Martinez vd., 2019;Fletcher & Sarkar, 2013;Friborg, Hjemdal, Rosenvinge, & Martinussen, 2003;Yörük & Güler, 2021). Bu çerçevede, psikolojik dayanıklılığın önemli çıktılarından biri bireyin psikolojik iyi oluşu üzerinedir. ...
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This study focuses on the relationship between psychological resilience and psychological well-being. The purpose of the study is to determine how the psychological resilience levels of psychologists working in penitentiary institutions affect their psychological well-being. The data used within the scope of the research were obtained through a questionnaire from 228 psychologists working in different Penitentiary Institutions in Turkey. After the validity and reliability analyzes, multiple linear regression analysis was used in hypothesis testing. As a result of the study, it was determined that all psychological resilience dimensions had a positive and significant effect on psychological well-being. In this context, perception of self, perception of future, structured style, social competence, family cohesion and social resources dimensions of psychological resilience positively and significantly affect the psychological well-being of psychologists. Within the scope of difference analysis, it was determined that the psychological well-being of the psychologists differed according to gender, marital status, age and tenure, but did not differ according to educational level. This research provides evidence that psychological resilience can be an important factor in increasing the psychological well-being of psychologists working under difficult conditions in penitentiary institutions in Turkey.
... As such, we looked to the broader resilience literature and identified the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA). 29 This validated scale has been used in a range of settings and found to be responsive to users' experiences of resilience in crisis environments. 30,31 The RSA has five constructs, which include the perception of self, social competence, structured style, family cohesion and social resources (Table 1). ...
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Introduction: COVID-19 changed the way we lived with uncertainty from the outset as the pandemic impacted every aspect of our lives from well-being, socializing to accessing healthcare. For people in vulnerable populations, such as those with genetic, undiagnosed and rare disorders, the experience was heightened. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify how the rapidly changing COVID-19 environment impacted the lives of the Genetic, Undiagnosed and Rare Disease community. Methods: From June 2020 to May 2021, we collected monthly open-ended journals from people living in Australia with genetic, undiagnosed and rare disorders. Data analysis was deductive, using the Resilience Scale for Adults, and inductive using thematic analysis. Results: We recruited 29 people (average of n = 9.7 submissions each month). Responses changed over the year, with initial journals focusing on the importance of developing new structures for day-to-day lives, while later journals started to focus on mental well-being. Throughout the project, participants reported challenges in accessing health and social care that was compounded by fear and concern over being exposed to the virus. Later journals highlight inconsistent messaging for vaccinations for this vulnerable community. Discussion/conclusion: In parallel with the waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, there need to be waves of targeted support for vulnerable communities. The first support wave needs to focus on facilitating the identification of new frameworks to structure day-to-day lives. A later second wave needs to focus on mental well-being and coping with isolation, while consistent communication relating to health and social care throughout was essential. Patient/public contribution: This study was co-designed, co-led and analysed with a patient support network.
... Uma revisão sistemática realizada por Windle et al. (2011) sobre os principais instrumentos utilizados na literatura internacional apontam para 19 diferentes escalas para avaliação da resiliência. As escalas com as melhores propriedades psicométricas foram a Escala de Resiliência Connor-Davidson (Connor & Davidson, 2003) e a Escala Breve de Resiliência (Smith et al., 2008), ambas desenvolvidas nos Estados Unidos, e a Escala de Resiliência para Adultos (Friborg et al., 2003), desenvolvida na Noruega. Contudo, os autores da revisão reportam a necessidade de mais pesquisas de confirmação de validade dessas escalas, pois entre as outras avaliadas, muitas não apresentavam adequação conceitual e teórica com a resiliência, ou ainda, não passaram por processos de adaptação cultural para outros países e contextos. ...
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O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os conceitos e os instrumentos utilizados para mensurar a resiliência psicológica. Os resultados indicam uma grande variabilidade conceitual sobre a resiliência, com características psicológicas, processuais ou ecológicas. Apesar da diversidade conceitual, 43 artigos utilizaram o mesmo instrumento criado na década de 90, embora a maioria das pesquisas brasileiras utilize conceitos atuais de resiliência. A carência de instrumentos validados, e principalmente pensados para a realidade brasileira, afeta a capacidade da avaliação da resiliência no cenário nacional.
... The full CD-RISC (25 items) is based on a theory of personal resilience and consists of five domains: (a) personal competence, high standards, and tenacity; (b) trust in one's instincts, tolerance of negative affect, and strengthening effects of stress; (c) positive acceptance of change and secure relationships; (d) control; and (e) spiritual influences (Connor & Davidson, 2003). The second most commonly used resilience measure in these studies was the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA; Friborg et al., 2003), with four studies (two unique samples) using this measure. The RSA (33 items) assesses personal and external resilience factors through five factors: (a) personal strength; (b) social competence; (c) structured style; (d) family cohesion; and (e) social resources. ...
Article
Resilience research has documented the ability to cope with traumatic and stressful situations and/or retain functioning given certain risk factors in the context of psychosis. In this study, we conducted the first systematic review of the literature on psychosis-like experiences (PLEs) and resilience. Fifteen articles (from 11 unique study samples) from 10 countries were included in this systematic review, with a total of 11,937 unique study participants. Inclusion criteria were broad, capturing a wide range of individuals with PLEs who have not yet experienced threshold psychosis, such as individuals in the general population with elevated self-reports of PLEs, as well as clinical groups diagnosed by clinician interviews (i.e., clinical- or ultra-high-risk for psychosis [CHR or UHR]). For this review, studies needed to include research aims and empirical research related to resilience, and use an established or author-defined measure of psychological and/or social resilience. Data reporting quality was assessed with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and place of residence, race/ethnicity/culture/language, occupation, gender/sex, religion, education, socioeconomic status, social capital (PROGRESS) guidelines. Study aims and measurement of key variables varied widely, and all studies were cross-sectional. In 73% of the studies, resilience was inversely associated with PLEs or psychosis risk status (e.g., CHR or UHR). Results related to specific resilience subscales were mixed. Author-defined resilience was typically related to internal/psychological resources. Future research, particularly longitudinal research involving multidimensional measurement of resilience (e.g., internal and external factors), along with well-defined theoretical models, are necessary before drawing firm conclusions on resilience and PLEs. We propose a dynamic, multifaceted, developmentally appropriate, and culturally sensitive model of resilience for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... A different research tradition on resilience is dedicated to conceptualising and measuring resilience as a relatively stable person characteristic or personal quality (for an overview, see Windle et al., 2011). Such conceptualizations of trait resilience encompass dealing with environmental demands flexibly (also referred to as egoresiliency, see Block & Kremen, 1996), stress coping ability (Connor & Davidson, 2003), intrapersonal and interpersonal protective factors (e.g., personal competence and social support; Friborg et al., 2003), hardiness (including commitment, control, and challenge; Bartone et al., 1989), or competence and acceptance (see, e.g., Wagnild & Young, 1993). In contrast to resilience as a trajectory, trait resilience does not presuppose the presence of stressful events or risks (Luthar, 2006). ...
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Resilience describes successful adaptation in the face of adversity, commonly inferred from trajectories of well‐being following major life events. Alternatively, resilience was conceptualized as a psychological trait, facilitating adaptation through stable individual characteristics. Both perspectives may relate to individual differences in how stress is regulated in daily life. In the present study, we combined these perspectives on resilience. Our sample consisted of N = 132 middle‐aged adults, who experienced major life events in between two waves of a longitudinal study. We implemented latent change regression models to predict change in affective distress. As predictors, we investigated trait resilience and correlates of resilience in daily life (stressor occurrence, stress reactivity, positive reappraisal, mindful attention, and acceptance), measured using experience sampling (T = 70 occasions). Unexpectedly, trait resilience was not associated with change in distress. In contrast, resilience correlates in daily life, most notably lower stress reactivity, were associated with more favorable change. Higher trait resilience related to higher average mindfulness, higher reappraisal, and lower negative affect. Overall, while trait resilience translated into everyday correlates of resilience, it was not predictive of changes in affective distress. Instead, precursors of changes in well‐being may be found in correlates of resilience in daily life. (200/200) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Measurements The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [40] is a self-rated assessment that measures a person's sense of control and tenacity, self-efficacy, tolerance of negative affect and ease of recovery, positive acceptance of change, and secure relations. Friborg et al. 's Resilience Scale for Adults [41] measures personal and social competence, family coherence, social support, and personal structure. The Wagnild & Young Resilience Scale [42], derived from a qualitative study of older women (aged 67-92), measures equality, perseverance, self-reliance, meaningfulness, and existential aloneness, while Rahman et al. 's Medical Professionals Resilience Scale [43] measures control, involvement, resourcefulness, and growth. ...
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Background The resilience of nursing home (NH) nursing staff is emphasized to improve the quality of care provided, but the concept has not been clearly defined. By composing such a definition through concept development, a basis for active research in the future can be established. Aim To identify the definition and conceptual characteristics of the concept of resilience of NH nursing staffs. Method In this study, the concept was developed using Schwartz-Barcott and Kim’s hybrid model, which included theoretical, fieldwork, and final analysis stages. In the theoretical stage, a literature review on the definition and measurement of concepts was performed. For the fieldwork stage, 22 interviews were conducted with 7 participants, and a content analysis was performed. During the final analysis stage, the results of the theoretical and field work stages were integrated. Results Three dimensions, eight attributes, and three types were identified. The three dimensions are internal resources, external support, and positive coping with situations as they arise; the eight attributes are optimism, patience, mindfulness, supportive relationships, available resources, work-life boundary setting, self-development, and growth; and the three types are those who want to adapt themselves to the situation, those who actively seek to cope with stressful situations, and those who hold positive expectations for the future. Conclusion Coping with difficult situations using internal resources and external support was a unique trait revealed in the resilience of NH nursing staff members. This study provided future research directions to improve the resilience of NH nursing staffs by revealing the characteristics of their resilience.
... Although it is essential to reduce risk factors during stressful life events, focusing on protective factors and increasing positive outcomes is also crucial [13]. A protective factor can increase the likelihood of positive outcomes [14,15]. ...
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Background Bereavement research has mainly explored potential risk factors associated with adverse outcomes, and the role of protective factors has received less attention. More knowledge is needed about factors related to unresolved grief in bereaved siblings. This study aimed to assess grief adjustment and possible gender differences among bereaved young adults 2–10 years after losing a brother or sister to cancer. We also sought to explore how resilience and social support influenced their grief. Methods A total of 99 young adults (18–26 years) who had lost a brother or sister to cancer between the years 2009 and 2014 were invited to participate in this Norwegian nationwide study. The study-specific questionnaire was completed by 36 participants (36.4%). Social support during the sibling's illness, after the death, and during the past year, in addition to grief and resilience, were measured. Results Overall, the prevalence of unresolved grief was 47.2% among bereaved siblings, whereas 52.8% had worked through their grief. The level of having worked through grief and resilience was similar between male and female siblings. Bereaved siblings with higher Personal Competence reported lower unresolved grief. Conclusion Approximately half of the young adults experience unresolved grief 2–10 years after losing a sibling to cancer. The findings also highlight the need for long-term support for bereaved siblings to help improve their resilience and better have worked through their grief.
... Resilience was assessed by Resilience Scaling [RS], was estimated to be the finest instrument to investigate resilience in the young people because of psychometric features of the instrument and application of various ages, counting youth, it consists of 25 items each is scored fro 1 to 5 the sum of them gives an idea about the level of resistance [6] . The Hamilton Rate Scaling of Depression [HRSD] was utilized to determine the severity of the symptoms of depression. ...
... Coping can be considered as an assessment of stress coping skills and can be changed and made better, making it a significant target in the intervention of sadness, anxiety, and stress. People with higher levels of coping are usually more capable to use family, communal and external support systems to deal with stress in a better way, and lower stress levels predict the increasing adaptation overall, and throughout the changing to university studies (Friborg et al., 2003). Mirowsky and Ross (1989) defined psychological distress is the hostile individual condition of sadness and nervousness (still anxious, agitated, worried, irritable, and fearful), which has both emotive and mental appearances. ...
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Purpose-The purpose of the research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and life satisfaction among university students during the second wave of COVID-19, also to assess the moderating role of resilience. Method-The population of this study is university students. The selection of samples in the current research using purposive sampling strategy and selected 200 students. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis, hierarchical regression analysis, and path analysis. Result-The results show the psychological distress has a significant negative relationship with life satisfaction and resilience has a significant positive relationship with life satisfaction. Regression findings reveal that psychological distress and resilience were significant predictors of life satisfaction. Moderation findings show the resilience plays a significant moderating role between psychological distress and life satisfaction. Implications-The current research suggests improving the skills performance in the life of students. The present study helps to understand the importance of life satisfaction, especially among university students. Originality-This is the first study that used intervening variables psychological distress, resilience, and life satisfaction. It is not only particular for professionals or students to be aware of psychological distress toward life satisfaction in the Pakistani society but also to be educated about the culture itself and clinical area.
... In this study, the evaluation was based on the relation in which the increase in the scores indicated increased psychological resilience. Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults was developed by Friborg et al. 14 and was adapted to Turkish by Basim and Cetin. 15 The reliability coefficient of the scale (Cronbach alpha) was determined as 0.89. ...
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Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effect of childhood traumas on the disease severity in fibromyalgia and evaluate the mediating role of psychological resilience in this effect. Patients and methods: Between June 2017 and January 2018, this study included a total of 80 female patients (mean age: 31.9±4.0 years; range, 20 to 40 years) with fibromyalgia according to the 2010 American College of Rheumatology fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. All patients were evaluated using the sociodemographic data form, Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Results: A positive correlation was observed between the FIQ and CTQ total scores, emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect scores. The FIQ was negatively correlated with the RSA scores. Path analysis conducted to evaluate mediating effect of psychological resilience revealed that psychological resilience had a mediator role in the correlation between FIQ and emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect scores. Conclusion: The main finding of this study is the protective effect of psychological resilience -improvable capacity to cope with early life traumas- on fibromyalgia symptoms that leads to negative functioning of several aspects.
... A 3-item measure adapted from the social support subscale of the Resilience Scale for Adults [25] was employed to assess the social support of participants during the lockdown period. Sample items included "I have some close friends/family members who really care about me", "I always have someone who can help me when needed" and "I can discuss personal matter with friends/family members". ...
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Background While older age is associated with better emotional well-being, it is unclear whether such age advantages remain during a pandemic. This study examined differences in mental health, adaptive behaviours, social support, perceived stress, digital media usage, and perceived change in circumstances between younger and older adults during the circuit breaker period (partial lockdown) in Singapore. Methods A door-to-door survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of 602 younger ( n = 302) and older ( n = 300) adults aged 21–89 years from Singapore from 17 October to 27 November 2020. All participants self-reported their depression, anxiety, stress, adaptive behaviours, social support, perceived stress, change in circumstances, and digital media usage during the partial lockdown period. Results Older adults were found to report significantly lower levels of depression, anxiety, and stress as compared to younger adults. Although older adults were less able to perform essential activities during the lockdown, they were more adaptable psycho-socially. Logistic regression analyses revealed that for older age group, adaptability and health status significantly predicted better mental health. Older adults had higher odds of low depression scores [odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.07–3.08], anxiety scores (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.05–3.08), and stress scores (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.72–5.41). In addition, adaptability was found to moderate the relationship between age and mental health with detrimental effects of low adaptability stronger for younger adults than older adults. Conclusions During the lockdown period, older adults in Singapore had better mental health, perceived less stress-related concerns and were more adaptable psycho-socially as compared to younger adults. This study’s findings extend current evidence that age-related advantages in emotional well-being persisted in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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This study aims to investigate the relationship between predictive factors of secondary traumatic stress (STS), i.e., sociodemographic and work characteristics, and the psychological resilience of healthcare professionals working in different regions of Turkey. This cross‐sectional study included 1,416 healthcare workers (HCWs). An independent sample t‐test and hierarchical regression analysis were performed to analyze the data. The predictor variables for STS included perception of health, fear of contagion, anxiety about infecting family members, psychological resilience, type of work, having a COVID‐19 diagnosis in the family, and experiencing a loss due to COVID‐19 (p<0.05). The variables that predicted psychological resilience included socioeconomic status, health status, age, marital status, work experience, and type of work (p<0.05). A low number of resilient HCWs experienced secondary traumatic stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The number of resilience conceptualizations in psychology has rapidly grown, which confuses what resilience actually means. This is problematic, because the conceptualization typically guides the measurements, analyses, and practical interventions employed. The most popular conceptualizations of psychological resilience equate it with the ability to (1) resist negative effects of stressors, (2) "bounce back" from stressors, and/or (3) grow from stressors. In this paper, we review these three conceptualizations and argue that they reflect different concepts. This is supported by important lessons from engineering physics, where such concepts are clearly differentiated with precise mathematical underpinnings. Against this background, we outline why psychological resilience should be conceptualized and measured in terms of the process of returning to the previous state following a stressor (i.e., bouncing back). By establishing a clearer language of resilience and related processes, measurements and interventions in psychological research and practice can be targeted more precisely.
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The Palestinian community in Israel has experienced significant stressors historically, yet little research has assessed the strategies these individuals cope with stress. The COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity to assess coping resources among Palestinian adults. The present study explored the religious and personal resources adopted by Palestinians living in Israel to cope with the stress caused by the COVID-19 outbreak, and whether differences in using these resources were attributed to selective demographic variables. The sample consisted of 985 Palestinian adults, 58% of whom are women and 42% are men. Participants’ ages ranged from 18 to 50 years old (M = 35.8, SD =14.48), and they were chosen using convenience sampling from the Palestinian community living in Israel. Participants completed self-report questionnaires to report on their personal resources for coping with stress. Palestinian adults who participated in this study tended to rely more on faith in God, optimism, social and family support, having the self-control and self-efficacy, as well as subjective well-being, as resources for coping caused by crises like the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, there were significant differences on these coping resources that attributed to selective demographic variables. The findings were discussed with relation to previous studies.
Article
Background A high level of resilience is a valuable trait that can assist service employees to manage diverse pressures, and contribute to maintaining a high quality of service while promoting mental health. Methods This study examined work and life factors that impacted the resilience levels of Chinese service employees. The survey data were collected from a total of 753 employees from various service sectors in China. A multi-level regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. Results and Conclusions The confirmatory factor analysis verified the reliability and validity of each measurement, indicating its suitability and implications in the Chinese context. Our findings revealed a negative relationship between negative life events and the resilience levels of Chinese service employees, while individual positive lifestyle habits nonlinearly moderated the relationship between negative life events and resilience. An inverted U-shaped relationship was observed between negative life events and resilience when employees reported that they adopted more positive lifestyle habits. In addition, the interaction between a regular diet and work restrictions produced the most significant moderation effect. The implications and limitations of this study are also discussed.
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Aim: The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) is a self-administered 7-point Likert scale of 33 items, structured in 6 factors measuring personal and interpersonal resources. We aimed to develop and validate a brief form of the RSA, in order to produce a short, fast and handy tool for assessing resilience. Materials and methods: A non-clinical sample of 500 university students was recruited using a research website. Reduction of the RSA-33 was performed using an item response theory (IRT) analysis by means of a Graded Response Model (GRM) protocol on the 6 RSA factors separately. After the IRT reduction process, a Pearson's correlation matrix of the original RSA-33 and the reduced version was estimated. Finally, a CFA was estimated to assess factorial validity. The estimation of item discrimination from the GRM ranged from 0.69 and 5.94 and allowed to retain 11 items. Results: For both the original RSA-33 and the brief RSA-11, the strongest correlations were between Family Cohesion and Social Resources factors. CFA was estimated to assess factorial validity in a simplified model with two latent first-order factors, i.e., Personal and Contextual resources. Conclusions: The availability of short and psychometrically robust measures is needed to improve evaluation and monitoring in mental health programs. For this reason, we provided a brief and effective tool to assess resilience resources in both research and clinical settings.
Article
Araştırmada, ‘’Akademik Yılmazlık Ölçeğinin (ARS-30)’’ Türk kültürüne uyarlanması, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmasının yapılarak envanterin Türk literatürüne kazandırılması amaçlanmıştır. ARS-30, azim, yansıtıcı ve uyarlanabilir yardım arayışı, olumsuz duygulanım ve duygusal tepki olmak üzere 3 alt boyuta sahiptir. Çalışmaya gönüllü 687 öğrenci katılmıştır. DFA analizi sonucunda, ölçeğin özgün formunda belirlenen 3 boyutlu yapıyla iyi uyum gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir. Ölçeğin benzer ölçek geçerliği analizleri genel öz yeterlik ölçeğiyle yapılmış ve her iki ölçek arasında anlamlı pozitif ilişkiler belirlenmiştir. ARS-30’un genel güvenirlik Cronbach Alpha katsayısı .89; alt boyutlarının Cronbach alfa katsayılarının .71 ile .85 arasında değiştiği ve kabul edilebilir düzeyde olduğu görülmüştür. Sonuç olarak, ARS-30’un Türkiye’deki üniversite öğrencileri için geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğu söylenebilir.
Preprint
The 'digital mindset' is frequently raised by both researchers and practitioners to be an essential factor of the human side of digitalization to successfully cope with the arising challenges of digitalization. Despite existing conceptualizations of the construct, the literature provides no operationalization usable for quantitative research, so far. Our research pursues the goal to address the question of how the digital mindset can be measured. Using a multi-method approach, a literature-and Delphi study-based initial scale has been developed and empirically validated with 156 and 147 participants. Based on this initial scale, we developed two further survey scales and a structured interview approach as alternative measures for the digital mindset. In a pilot-study with 18 participants, the correlations of the answers from using the different measures indicates that the developed survey scales can serve as quite accurate proxies for the qualitative approach, which is assumed to measure the 'true' level of the digital mindset. In the future, researchers can choose from different scales based on their requirements for precision and efficiency (i.e., time needed to complete the survey items).
Conference Paper
The ‘digital mindset’ is frequently raised by both researchers and practitioners to be an essential factor of the human side of digitalization to successfully cope with the arising challenges of digitalization. Despite existing conceptualizations of the construct, the literature provides no operationalization for quantitative research, so far. Our research pursues the goal to address the question of how the digital mindset can be measured. Literature- and Delphi study-based approaches were used to develop various types of scales which were pre-validated by experts and statistically validated. For contentual validation, 35 participants were interviewed and subsequently completed the developed scales in a panel study. The resulting interview statements were rated by two independent raters and the results compared with the scale results. The correlations of the answers from using the different measures indicate that the developed survey scales can serve as proxies for the qualitative approach, which is assumed to measure the ‘true’ level of the digital mindset. In the future, researchers can choose from different scales based on their requirements for precision and efficiency (i.e., time needed to complete the survey items).
Article
Background Given the chronic work-related stressors experienced by nursing staff in today’s healthcare systems, international evidence suggests an elevated risk of developing stress-related mental symptoms. Therefore, identifying effective methods to foster resilience (i.e., maintenance or fast recovery of mental health despite stressor exposure) seems crucial. To date, little is known about the efficacy of these interventions in nurses. Objective This systematic review aimed at summarizing the evidence on the pre-pandemic efficacy of psychological interventions to foster resilience, to improve mental symptoms and well-being as well as to promote resilience factors in nurses. Based on training programs with evidence for positive effects on resilience and mental health in meta-analyses, we aimed at identifying important and helpful intervention techniques. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses based on a Cochrane review on pre-pandemic resilience interventions in healthcare professionals. Data sources MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL and 11 other databases were searched until June 2020 to identify eligible randomized controlled trials. Trial registers, reference lists and contact with authors were additional sources. Review methods Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility and extracted data. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used to evaluate the risk of bias of included studies. We conducted random-effects pairwise meta-analyses for five primary outcomes, including resilience. The intervention contents and techniques were narratively synthesized. Results Of 39,794 records retrieved, 24 studies were included in the review (N = 1,879 randomized participants), 17 in meta-analyses (n = 1,020 participants). At post-intervention, we found very-low certainty evidence of moderate effects in favor of resilience training for resilience (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.39; 95% CI [confidence interval] 0.12–0.66) and well-being (SMD 0.44; 95% CI 0.15–0.72), while there was no evidence of effects on symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress. The improvement of well-being was sustained in the short-term (≤ 3 months), with additional delayed benefits for anxiety and stress. There was no evidence of effects at later follow-ups, with the caveat of only three available studies. Among nine programs with evidence of positive moderate effect sizes, intervention contents included mindfulness and relaxation, psychoeducation, emotion regulation, cognitive strategies, problem-solving and the strengthening of internal and external resources. Conclusions Given the chronic stressor exposure in nursing staff, our findings may guide both the design and implementation of nurse-directed resilience interventions. To improve the certainty of evidence, more rigorous high-quality research using improved study designs (e.g., larger sample sizes, longer follow-up periods) is urgently needed. Registration PROSPERO 2017 CRD42017082827
Article
Animal care professionals can experience adverse psychological outcomes due to their work, therefore research exploring supporting resilience in this population is needed. This study investigated the capacity of the Stress Shield Model (SSM) to explain relationships between individual, interpersonal, and organisational factors with outcomes in resilience (resilience, growth, and job satisfaction) in animal care professionals. Empowerment was hypothesised to mediate these relationships. Australian and New Zealand animal care professionals (N = 393) completed an online survey measuring conscientiousness, coping, team and leader relationships, job demands, organisational resources, empowerment, growth, resilience, and job satisfaction. Results indicated that SSM can partially explain relationships between individual, interpersonal, and organisational factors and outcomes in resilience, and empowerment partially mediated the effect of organisational resources on growth. Problem‐approach coping positively predicted resilience and growth; conversely, emotion‐avoidant coping negatively predicted these outcomes. Conscientiousness positively predicted resilience and negatively predicted job satisfaction. Team relationships positively predicted growth and resilience, while leader‐member relationships positively predicted job satisfaction. Organisational resources positively predicted resilience, growth, and job satisfaction, conversely, job demands predicted reductions across these outcomes. Findings indicate supporting resilience in animal care professionals requires fostering individual, interpersonal, and organisational resources.
Article
Background We sought to develop and validate age-specific instruments for measuring early childhood resilience at ages 3, 5 and 8 in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study, a national longitudinal study. Methods Using data from 18,553 mother-infant pairs, we conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on a simple random half of our sample. We then used the remaining half of these data for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to further assess the fit of three CFA models (i.e., first-order, second-order, and bifactor). Psychometric properties, distributions, and inter-item and inter-factor correlations of each instrument were also evaluated. Results EFA and CFA showed that the bifactor model of resilience (which included a general resilience factor and five specific factors) had the best fit for all three resilience scales, with 19 items at year 3, 18 items at year 5, and 19 items at year 8. All three resilience scales showed good psychometric properties, including construct validity, internal consistency, and normal distributions. For predictive validity, we found that in the face of adversity (measured by the High Risk Family Score), individuals with high resilience scores at age 3 had better general health scores at ages 3, 5, and 8 compared to those with low resilience scores. Conclusions We describe the development and validation of age-appropriate survey instruments to assess resilience in young children at the population level. These instruments can be used to better understand how resilience can impact child health over time, and to identify key factors that can foster resilience.
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An 18-item Portuguese-language version of the CompACT scale has recently been proposed for the Portuguese population. This study aims at conducting the first Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Portuguese CompACT in participants from two different samples (community adults and women in the post-partum period; total N = 1090). Given that the CompACT had yet to be subjected to gender invariance testing, the present study also presents an invariance analysis between male and female community participants. The measurement invariance of the Portuguese CompACT between community and post-partum women was also examined. The current study additionally explored the scale's relationships with theoretically relevant outcomes associated in the literature with psychological flexibility. Results showed that the three-factor correlated model of the Portuguese CompACT was an adequate fit for the data taken from the complete sample, with most items presenting statistically and practically significant loading values. The Portuguese CompACT presented acceptable to good internal consistencies for all factors-Openness to Experience (OE), Behavioral Awareness (BA), and Valued Action (VA). Full measurement invariance was found, with results further indicating that community women presented lower scores in BA than community men, and that women in the post-partum period scored higher than community women in BA and VA, and lower in OE. The three subscales of the Portuguese CompACT, that underpin the overarching construct of psychological flexibility, demonstrated different patterns of association from one another with various aspects of individual functioning. Although those associations were in the expected directions with flexibility being associated with lower distress, some forms of psychological flexibility 3 assessed by the CompACT were not significantly associated with measures of positive affect or resilience. This result underscores the difficulty of measuring psychological flexibility as a single construct, as it comprises a number of sub-component processes. Further implications of findings are discussed.
Article
Background Dialysis treatment for kidney failure is a condition that can lead to long-term psychiatric problems. Resilience is the ability to adapt to stressful life events. High resilience can alleviate the stress caused by illness and dialysis treatment. Aims This study was conducted to determine the level of psychological resilience and ego resilience in patients with renal failure receiving dialysis treatment and to investigate the relationship between anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic growth. Design A correlational cross-sectional design. Methods A convenience sample of 75 patients who had been undergoing hemodialysis therapy participated in this study. Data were collected using the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Posttraumatic growth inventory (PGI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Ego-resilience scale (ERS). Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used. Results It was determined that patients with renal failure receiving dialysis treatment had moderate resilience and ego resilience, severe depressive symptoms, moderate anxiety, and post-traumatic growth scores. There was a negative correlation between RSA total score and trait anxiety scale and BDI score (r = 0.497 p = 0.001; r = 0.497 p = 0.001), while a positive correlation was found between RSA total score and ego resilience and post-traumatic growth score (r = 0.530 p = 0.001; r = 0.497 p = 0.001). Conclusions It was found that state anxiety, post-traumatic growth, and age were found to be effective variables on resilience. Resilience increases as post-traumatic growth and ego resilience scores increase; decreases as depressive symptoms and anxiety increase.
Article
Through this study we aimed to explore how primary school teachers were able to adapt their teaching practices in the online context during the COVID-19 pandemic and which were the protective factors that contributed to the development of resilience. We focused on their self-assessment of online teaching quality and investigated its correlation with their level of resilience. In measuring the resilience levels of primary school teachers we have taken into account risk and protective factors. Thus, we observed that social and family support had the greatest influence on the formation of resilient attitudes among teachers. The majority of the teachers that participated in this study scored a high and very high level of resilience. We obtained a positive correlation between the chosen variables: primary school teachers' level of resilience and their self-assessment on the quality of their own online teaching during the quarantine caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
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This study aims to determine the role of stakeholder orientation, strategic capability, and joint value creation on the competitiveness of Banten’s cultural tourism destinations. This research is located in Banten Province, Indonesia. This research was conducted by distributing electronic questionnaires to 321 respondents. Furthermore, focus group discussions among stakeholders were conducted to balance and strengthen the data collected. The findings of the test results indicate that Stakeholder Orientation (OS), Strategic Capabilities (KS), and Shared Value Creation (PNB) have a significant role in the competitiveness variable of cultural tourism destinations. The results of the partial test found that the diversity of OS and KS was not significant for the competitiveness variable of cultural tourism destinations (DS). This means that in the future the OS, KS, and GNP indicators must be improved, especially the shared value creation (PNB) variable which has the biggest role.
Article
Purpose: This descriptive and correlational study was conducted to determine whether the self-esteem and resilience levels of students were predictors of suicide probability. Design and methods: The survey included the demographic data sheet, Resilience scale for adults, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, the Suicide probability scale. Findings: Resilience and self-esteem scores of the students were high, while the suicide probability was low. Self-esteem and resilience levels were predictors of suicide probability. Practice implications: This highlights the need for assessing the ongoing adjustment of students' resilience and self-esteem levels over a period and providing effective programs to help them improve their resilience and self-esteem.
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Physical distancing measures during the coronavirus pandemic are associated with increased psychological distress, especially in people with mental disorders. We investigated which social risk and resilience factors influence distress over time in people with pre-existing mental disorders. We conducted a longitudinal online survey with weekly follow-ups between April and July 2020 (n = 196 individuals with, and n = 545 individuals without pre-existing mental disorders at baseline). Our results show that individuals with, but not those without pre-existing mental disorders displayed higher distress levels when social resources and empathic disconnection are low and perceived social isolation is high. The distress development differed between participants with and without pre-existing mental disorders depending on their level of social resources, empathic disconnection, and perceived social isolation. These findings offer specific information for targeted social interventions to prevent an increase in incidence of mental disorders during physical distancing measures.
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The puspose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the psychological resilience and life balance points among nurses. The study design was descriptive and cross-sectional, and conducted with 155 nurses. Data collection instrumetns included a Demographic Form, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory- Turkish Form. T-test, one-way ANOVA and correlation analysis were used to evaluate the data. The total mean score of the Resilience Scale for Adults of the nurses was determined as 124.30±19.61. Nurses' Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory sub-dimension mean scores were; General Health 32.83±6.73, Quality of Relationship 24.14±5.7, Positive Orientation 25.84±6.13, Depression 19.21±4.85, Spiritual Support 22.47±5.48, Friendship/Intimacy 18.85±3.97, Career/Occupation 15.84±3.94, and Sleep Difficulty 17.54±4.17. Negatively low level between the Resilience Scale for Adults and Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory Sleep Difficulty sub-dimension (r=-0.172, p=0.032); A low negative correlation was found between the Adult Resilience Scale, Structural Style sub-dimension and the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory Quality of Relationships sub-dimension (r=-0.165, p=0.040). The Resilience Sacale for Adults, Family Cohesion sub-dimension and Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory Quality of Relationships (r= -0.182, p=0.024); a low negative correlation was found between the sub-dimensions of Positive Orientation (r=-0.170, p=0.035) and Friendship (r=-0.170, p=0.034). There was a low level of positive correlation between the Resilience Scale for Adults's, Self-Perception sub-dimension and the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory Career/Occupation (r=0.239, p=0.003) and Sleep Difficulty (r=0.231, p=0.004) sub-dimensions. A low level of positive correlation was determined between the Social Resources sub-dimension of the Resilience Scale for Adults and the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory Positive Orientation (r=0.161, p=0.046) sub-dimension. A low level of negative correlation was found between the Resilience Scale for Adults Scale, Social Resources sub-dimension and the Juhnke-Balkin Life Balance Inventory Sleep Difficulty (r=-0.212, p=0.008) sub-dimension. The psychological resilience levels of the nurses are above the average. Nurses' concepts of resilience and life balance may differ based on socio-economic based demographic characteristics such as age, marital status, and economic status.
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La creciente demanda de tecnologías y productos que causen menor impacto ambiental ha incrementado la conciencia ecológica y el interés por el estudio y la aplicación de las materias primas biodegradables, renovables y sustentables. Entre estos materiales naturales se destaca la celulosa como un polímero natural, abundante, renovable, y biodegradable. El propósito fundamental de este proyecto fue la conformación de una red internacional de colaboración de ca (México-Brasil) para el desarrollo y la innovación de nuevos materiales, aprovechando desechos agroindustriales que se generan en el proceso de industrialización de diferentes fuentes botánicas. El objetivo de esta cooperación fue desarrollar y caracterizar nanomateriales reforzados con nanocristales de celulosa y nanofibrillas de celulosa, obtenidos a partir de bagazo de agave, estopa de coco, henequén y otros más, con la finalidad de obtener materiales con buenas propiedades mecánicas y características físicas y químicas notables.
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A tutorial example demonstrates the effects of social desirability bias on fictional multiculturalism and mental health data and how bias can be moderated by parital correlations using social desirabiliry measures of different degrees of validity. The 33-item Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale was translated from English to Norwegian and presented to 117 university students and 124 non-students. Using psychometric criteria, and a “seed-crystal” method accretion, a 10-item Norwegian short-form of the Marlowe-Crowne scale was produced.
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Notably lacking in the promising new literature on psychological resilience are longitudinal studies of adults who have not only survived extreme early life stresses, but have actually thrived in the face of them. The present study compared 31 resilient adults who were middle-aged, upper-middle class and well educated with 19 controls from comparable life circumstances who had not been exposed to severe early adversity. The experimental group reported exceedingly high scores for early life stress, with emotional abuse by parents being the most pervasive compliant. They felt and showed extreme signs of emotional oppression as children, but normal (or even superior) intellectual development. The majority sought and received substantial support outside the family, including religious counseling and formal psychotherapy, but healing was tediously slow and probably not entirely complete. Most attributed their success to relentless effort and self-reliance, but the groups did not differ significantly on psychological measures of internal locus of control. "Transcenders" appeared remarkably normal as adults, showing significant improvement in interpersonal relations. Their self-descriptions of exceptional fortitude may have been slightly exaggerated but probably contributed to their growing self-esteem. There was only limited support for the hypothesis that resilient people become scrupulously appropriate in their own parenting attitudes and behavior. Their enthusiasm to promote disclosure about their stressful early lives, and about the possibilities for successful outcome seemed to fulfill altruistic needs to counter the popular myth that extreme adversity in early life inexorably leads to adult patholog, and also provided some validation for themselvesas people.
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Research on the origins of conduct problems such as disruptive, aggressive, and delinquent behaviour has focused mainly on deficits and risk factors. Protective factors have received more attention only recently in the context of resilience research. In the present study cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year interval) comparisons were made of two groups of 14 to 17-year-olds from residential homes. Both groups have grown up under accumulated stressful life events and circumstances (multiproblem milieu). One group (N=66) has so far shown no serious behavioral and emotional problems (Resilients); the other (N= 80) has developed manifest disorders, particularly in the externalising syndrome. Potential protective factors (intelligence, temperament, self-related cognitions, coping styles, experience with reference persons, social support, social climate, etc.) were recorded with tests, questionnaires, and interviews. Protective factors functioned additively, subtypes could not be differentiated. Findings from the longitudinal survey showed somewhat lower effects in personal resources and were only partially consistent with the cross-sectional comparison. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed, and it is suggested that the construct of resiliency in multi-problem milieus requires a dynamic, development and context-related interpretation.
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In the present study, the factor composition of a new, brief, easy-to-administer, depression inventory for children and adolescents, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ), was examined. Using longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, confirmatory factor analyses were computed to evaluate the age-invariance of a single-factor SMFQ structure. Results provided strong support for the unidimensional structure of the SMFQ across grades 1-10 in a large sample of boys. Factor loading correlations across age groups were substantial suggesting developmental continuity in item (symptom) salience for the latent variable of depression. The magnitude of the mean factor loadings increased with age, suggesting that the depression construct was measured with less error as the children matured. In sum, the SMFQ appears to provide a brief and reliable measure of a core depression construct in children and adolescents.
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Describes the development of the Child Rating Scale, a socioemotional self-rating scale for elementary school children. Four factors (i.e., Rule Compliance–Acting-Out, Anxiety–Withdrawal, Interpersonal Social Skills, Self-Confidence) were found consistently across 4 independent samples totaling more than 2,000 1st–6th graders. Internal consistency, test–retest reliability, demographic comparisons, and indices of concurrent and construct validity are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In 4 studies, the authors address the definition, development, revision, reliability, and validity of a self-report measure of resiliency, the Resiliency Scale, among 9th grade students. Researchers have suggested that specific psychological characteristics are related to resiliency. These characteristics are reflected in skills and abilities that resilient people use in stressful situations. In this article, it is assumed that resiliency emerges from a system of specific beliefs that interact with environmental stressors to determine an individual's coping skills. These beliefs include perceptions about oneself, one's abilities, one's relationships, and goodness in the world. The development of this belief system may be influenced by variables such as personality, environment, and developmental stage. This definition places resiliency as a belief system, causing prior coping, as a set of behaviors based on a belief system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Resilience, the development of competence despite severe or pervasive adversity, is examined using data from a longitudinal study of high-risk children and families. The study is guided by an organizationaldevelopmental perspective. Resilience is conceived not as a childhood given, but as a capacity that develops over time in the context of person-environment interactions. Factors related to resilience in our study are examined in terms of this transactional process. From our studies, we have found emotionally responsive caregiving to mediate the effects of high-risk environments and to promote positive change for children who have experienced poverty, family stress, and maltreatment. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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The maintenance of high social competence despite stress was examined in a 6-month prospective study of 138 inner-city ninth-grade students. The purpose was to provide a replication and extension of findings derived from previous cross-sectional research involving a comparable sample of children. Specifically, goals were to examine the extent to which high-stress children with superior functioning on one or more aspects of school-based social competence could evade significant difficulties in (a) other spheres of competence at school and (b) emotional adjustment. Measurements of stress were based on uncontrollable negative life events. Competence was assessed via behavioral indices including school grades, teacher ratings, and peer ratings, and emotional distress was measured via self-reports. Results indicated that high-stress children who showed impressive behavioral competence were highly vulnerable to emotional distress over time. Furthermore, almost 85% of the high-stress children who seemed resilient based on at least one domain of social competence at Time 1 had significant difficulties in one or more domains examined when assessed at both Time 1 and Time 2. Findings are discussed in terms of conceptual and empirical issues in resilience research.
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This article outlines recent research in attachment and developmental psychopathology and proposes the approach as an epistomological framework underpinning the development of primary prevention and early intervention in regard of mental health problems. Focusing on published evidence of effective interventions antenatally onwards, the article argues that secure attachment which can be established in the very early years of the child's life, will provide the necessary resilience for the child to cope with most adverse life events as an adult without developing psychological or psychiatric symptomatology. The review concludes with practical suggestions and action points for a comprehensive primary prevention strategy, the singular aim of which would be to facilitate resilience and social competence from early childhood onwards.
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begin by reviewing briefly the origins and current status of research concerning the etiology of schizophrenia and related disorders among the offspring of schizophrenic parents / our goal is to highlight some of the methodological and conceptual issues that have shaped the nature and direction of this research / we then examine the concepts of risk, vulnerability, and protective factors, with an eye toward emphasizing some of the dangers inherent in not paying careful attention to important distinctions among them / against this backdrop we present a rationale for exploring hypotheses of environmental influence to account for patterns of early deviance among high-risk offspring / and in the context of this discussion we summarize recent findings from the Stony Brook High-Risk Project that buttress our confidence in the usefulness of this pursuit (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A consecutive sample of 231 refugee patients referred to the outpatient unit at the Psychosocial Centre for Refugees, University of Oslo, were examined by means of a semistructured clinical interview, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and the self-reports Hopkins Symptoms Check List (HSCL-25) and a checklist for post-traumatic symptoms (PTSS-10). A significant relation was found between the self-report scores on the HSCL-25 and ratings made by the clinician on Global Assessment of Function Scale (GAF) and Global Rating on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). A further analysis showed that HSCL-25 had a significant relation with mainly two of the four symptom patterns identified in a factor analysis of BPRS, namely Factor II (emotional withdrawal/retardation) and Factor III (anxiety/depression). Multiple regression analyses based on HSCL-25 scores for age, sex, nationality of origin, stay in prison, torture, exposure to war actions, refugee status, and employment situation in Norway showed a significant association with sex, nationality of origin, refugee status, and employment situation in Norway, but with not with any of the traumatization factors.
Article
Four meta-analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in personality in the literature (1958-1992) and in normative data for well-known personality inventories (1940-1992). Males were found to be more assertive and had slightly higher self-esteem than females. Females were higher than males in extraversion, anxiety, trust, and, especially, tender-mindedness (e.g., nurturance). There were no noteworthy sex differences in social anxiety, impulsiveness, activity, ideas (e.g., reflectiveness), locus of control, and orderliness. Gender differences in personality traits were generally constant across ages, years of data collection, educational levels, and nations.
Article
Four meta-analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in personality in the literature (1958-1992) and in normative data for well-known personality inventories (1940-1992). Males were found to be more assertive and had slightly higher self-esteem than females. Females were higher than males in extraversion, anxiety, trust, and, especially, tender-mindedness (e.g., nurturance). There were no noteworthy sex differences in social anxiety, impulsiveness, activity, ideas (e.g., reflectiveness), locus of control, and orderliness. Gender differences in personality traits were generally constant across ages, years of data collection, educational levels, and nations.
Article
Resilience in human development is defined in relation to positive adaptation in the context of significant adversity, emphasizing a developmental systems approach. A brief history and glossary on the central concepts of resilience research in developmental science are provided, and the fundamental models and strategies guiding the research are described. Major findings of the first four decades of research are summarized in terms of protective and promotive factors consistently associated with resilience in diverse situations and populations of young people. These factors-such as self-regulation skills, good parenting, community resources, and effective schools- suggest that resilience arises from ordinary protective processes, common but powerful, that protect human development under diverse conditions. The greatest threats posed to children may be adversities that damage or undermine these basic human protective systems. Implications of these findings for theory and practice are discussed, highlighting three strategies of fostering resilience, focused on reducing risk, building strengths or assets, and mobilizing adaptive systems that protect and restore positive human development. The concluding section outlines future directions of resilience research and its applications, including rapidly growing efforts to integrate research and prevention efforts across disciplines, from genetics to ecology, and across level of analysis, from molecules to media.
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The psychometric properties of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence (SOC) Scale were examined. Subjects (N = 374) completed the SOC scale and a battery of theoretically relevant questionnaires. Principal-components analysis with a Varimax-Promax rotation produced a solution with 5 factors, which were further reduced to 1 factor, suggesting that the SOC scale is a unidimensional instrument. Additional analyses indicated satisfactory internal consistency as well as test-retest reliability at 1 and 2 weeks. Evidence for the validity of the SOC scale was obtained in that nonclinical subjects obtained higher SOC scores than did clinical subjects. Additional validity evidence was provided by negative correlations between SOC scores and self-reports of (a) perceived stress, (b) trait anxiety, and (c) current depression. Discriminant evidence for the validity of the SOC scale was mixed.
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This study examined personality, social assets, and perceived social support as moderators of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset. In a group of 170 middle and upper level executives, personality hardiness and stressful life events consistently influenced illness scores, the former serving to lower symptomatology, the latter to increase it. Perceived boss support had its predicted positive effect. Executives under high stress who perceived support from their supervisors had lower illness scores than those without support. Perceived family support, on the other hand, showed a negative effect on health when reported by those low in hardiness. Finally, social assets made no significant impact on health status. These results underscore the value of differentiating between kinds of social resources, and of monitoring the effects of two or more stress-resistance resources in a single study.
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A meta-analysis of 193 survey research studies examined differences in response rate by population type. Analysis suggests higher response rates may be expected from surveys of students and educators than from surveys of the general population. Effects of treatments intended to affect response rate differed minimally by type of population.
Book
Clinicians and those in health sciences are frequently called upon to measure subjective states such as attitudes, feelings, quality of life, educational achievement and aptitude, and learning style in their patients. This fifth edition of Health Measurement Scales enables these groups to both develop scales to measure non-tangible health outcomes, and better evaluate and differentiate between existing tools. Health Measurement Scales is the ultimate guide to developing and validating measurement scales that are to be used in the health sciences. The book covers how the individual items are developed; various biases that can affect responses (e.g. social desirability, yea-saying, framing); various response options; how to select the best items in the set; how to combine them into a scale; and finally how to determine the reliability and validity of the scale. It concludes with a discussion of ethical issues that may be encountered, and guidelines for reporting the results of the scale development process. Appendices include a comprehensive guide to finding existing scales, and a brief introduction to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, making this book a must-read for any practitioner dealing with this kind of data.
Article
In Sweden the first epidemiologic study on mental disorders in children and adolescents was made in 1945–46. Since then investigations have been made on different age groups using various methods to clarify the nature and magnitude of psychiatric morbidity in children and adolescents. During the last two decades the assessment of single behaviour deviances and stress reactions has been replaced by studies on psychiatric disorders according to the DSM system or using factor-analysed composite clusters of behaviours. High rates of comorbidity show that the symptoms of young people are more diffuse than those of adults. The frequency of “psychiatric cases” varied depending on the methods used. Most studies rate 5–20% as behaviourally disturbed i.e. enough to cause a problem to the child and/or his/her parents and teachers. Most studies state that boys have more behaviour deviances than girls before puberty. Girls have more problems during adolescence, especially depressions and psychosomatic symptoms. Girls have more internalizing symptoms, while boys display more acting-out behaviours. Self-reported symptoms are generally more frequent than symptoms reported by parents. Teachers report the lowest frequencies. Severe psychopathology like anorexia nervosa, major depressive disorders and psychoses are comparatively rare. The study of such conditions requires different methods than the study of adjustment problems and stress reactions.
Article
Reviews the literature on the concept of resilience in children. The topic of individual resilience is one of considerable importance with respect to public policies focused on the prevention of either mental disorders or developmental impairment in young people. In planning preventive policies, it is important ot ask whether it is more useful to focus on the risks that render children vulnerable to psychopathology or on the protective factors that provide for resilience in the face of adversity. Topics covered include methodological considerations in the study of resilience, studies directly focusing on resilience, processes associated with resilience, and associated policy implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the psychometric properties of A. Antonovsky's (1988) Sense of Coherence (SOC) Scale. 374 Ss completed the SOC scale and a battery of theoretically relevant questionnaires. Principal-components analysis with a Varimax-Promax rotation produced a solution with 5 factors, which were further reduced to 1 factor, suggesting that the SOC scale is a unidimensional instrument. Additional analyses indicated satisfactory internal consistency as well as test–retest reliability at 1 and 2 wks. Evidence for the validity of the SOC scale was obtained in that nonclinical Ss obtained higher SOC scores than did clinical Ss. Additional validity evidence was provided by negative correlations between SOC scores and self-reports of (1) perceived stress, (2) trait anxiety, and (3) current depression. Discriminant evidence for the validity of the SOC scale was mixed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
begin by providing a historical overview of the traditional debates regarding the etiologies of mental disorders / they then discuss some of the successes and shortcomings of the risk-research strategy focused on parental psychopathology as the prepotent risk factor for psychopathology / using parental schizophrenia as an exemplary model, these authors outline the bases for the early etiologic reasoning of the risk-for-schizophrenia researchers and describe how the Rochester Risk Project failed to confirm all of the model's predictions / of particular importance to these authors were the discoveries of the nonspecificity of effects of parental diagnosis on children's current adjustment, the more salient effects of chronicity and severity regardless of maternal diagnosis, and the powerful influences of socioeconomic status on children's early adaptations given these findings and those of their contemporaries in both risk research and more basic developmental research, these authors contend that the medical-illness model and the high-risk child model are flawed / this is because the models fail to include a transactive systems model of competence and vulnerability during development (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Contends that the most serious and long lasting effects of maltreatment follow significant neglect and abuse during the 1st 3 yrs of an infant's life, and the ramifications of such maltreatment place an emotional and financial burden upon society. It is suggested that further development of knowledge and abilities to prevent maltreatment by providing more appropriate and better services to help parents in the 1st 3 yrs is crucially important. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
consider the following issues: (a) the usefulness of the χ[superscript]2 statistic based on various estimation methods for model evaluation and selection; (b) the conceptual elaboration of and selection criteria for fit indexes; and (c) identifying some crucial factors that will affect the magnitude of χ[superscript]2 statistics and fit indexes / review previous research findings as well as report results of some new, unpublished research (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
looks at war and its effects on children as a trauma that brings in its aftermath profound familial and social dislocations and instability concludes with a brief overview of various types of research that reaffirm the resilience of children even in dire circumstances (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article summarizes the major findings of a longitudinal study that traced the developmental paths of a multiracial cohort of children who had been exposed to perinatal stress, chronic poverty, and a family environment troubled by chronic discord and parental psychopathology. Individuals are members of the Kauai Longitudinal Study, which followed all children born in 1955 on a Hawaiian island from the perinatal period to ages 1, 2, 10, 18, and 32 years. Several clusters of protective factors and processes were identified that enabled most of these high-risk individuals to become competent and caring adults. Implications of the findings for developmental theory and social action programs are discussed, and issues for future research are identified.
Article
The papers in this special issue attest to the theoretical and empirical advances that have been made in understanding the epidemiology, subtypes, etiology, neuropsychology, psychobiology, course, consequences, prevention, and treatment of conduct disorder (CD) (see also Kazdin, 1987; Loeber, 1990; Loeber & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1986; Moffitt, 1990; Patterson, 1982; Robins, 1991; White, Moffitt, Earls, Robins, & Silva, 1990). A number of theoretical conceptualizations have been forwarded in an attempt to comprehend this complex form of disorder in children. Such divergence in thinking indicates that the topic of CD has evolved into an active and significant domain of inquiry. To date, however, there has been no unifying theoretical framework for bringing conceptual clarity to the diverse perspectives represented in the study of conduct disorder. Although existing work within particular disciplines and subdisciplines has provided substantial contributions to our understanding of CD, these accounts typically have not considered the broader matrix of complex and evolving biological, cognitive, socioemotional, representational, and social-cognitive capacities of the developing child. As a consequence, disparate theoretical formulations are often too narrow in focus to address the range of processes and mechanisms that will be necessary to explain adequately how and why manifestations of CD emerge, change overtime and are influenced by children's developmental levels.