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Water Resources in Sudan

Authors:
AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION and
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES
International Agricultural Research and Training Center
(IARTC) in Izmir/Turkey between 13 17 May 2013.
Water Resources in Sudan
Dr Ali W M Elamin
University of Khartoum- Sudan
awidaa@yahoo.com
Water Resources and Utilization in
Sudan
Water is an essential key to development and
social welfare as it is the gate to agricultural,
industrial, and domestic activities.
Water resources in Sudan are rather limited
despite the fact that they are comprised of
Rainfall, Surface flows and Qroundwater.
1.Surface Water
a. Nilotic water:
Blue Nile and tributaries;
Dinder and Rahad
White Nile and tributaries .
Main Nile and Atbra River
Mean Annual discharge 84
milliard m3
Sudan share due to Nile
water Agreement (1959)
between Egypt and Sudan
18.5 milliard m3
b. Non-Nilotic water:
Represented by all other
water sources that not
involved in the Nile
system
The average annual yield of
the Non-Nilotic streams
is estimated at about 7
milliard m3 of which 5
milliard m3 are internally
produced.
2. Rainfall:
Annual rainfall: 25 mm in
the extreme dry north to
over 700 mm in the
tropical rain forest of the
south.
General annual average
416 mm.
Annual quantity 1000
BCM.
In the last 30 years annual
rainfall decreased about
10 mm in the north and
100 mm in the southern
portion.
Sudan Rainfall Map
3. Ground water:
Main water supply source for drinking and domestic use
for more than 80% of the human population and their
livestock in the country.
Found in about 50% of the country area
Depth ranges from 40 to 400 m.
Ground Water Basins:
Nubian basin, Umm Rawaba basin, Nubian Basalt Basin
and Alluvial basins
4. non-conventional
water resources
Desalinization in
Port Sudan and
sewage treatment in
some parts of
Khartoum are of
limited use. In the
future there is a good
potential for the
development of
these alternative
sources.
Water resources
Quantity
BCM
Constrains
Sudan present share from the
Nile water agreement (at central
Sudan)
20.5
Seasonality, limited storage facilities,
expected to be shared with riparian’s.
Water from wadis
5.0
to 7.0
High variability in amounts, short duration
flows, difficult to monitor or harvest, some
shared with neighbors.
Renewable groundwater
4.0
Deep water, high cost of abstraction,
remote areas, lack of infrastructure.
Present total
30.0
Expected from reclamation of
swamps
6.0
High capital investment social and
environment problems expected.
Total
36
Table 1. Summary of the available water in Sudan
Dam
Reservoir
Location
(River)
Construction
Year
Design
Capacity
BCM
Present
Capacity
BCM
Sinnar
Blue Nile
1925 0.93 0.40
Jabel
Awlia
White Nile
1937 3.5 3.5
Roseries
Blue Nile
1966 7.4 7.4
Khashm
Elgerba
Atbara
Rivers
1966 1.3 0.65
Total
13.23 11.65
Table 2. Sudan storage facilities
Nile water resources
Agriculture
91%
Domestic
2%
others
1%
Non-Nile
Agriculture
62%
Domestic
2%
Livestock
36%
Groundwater
Agriculture
48%
Domestic
32%
Livestock
13%
others
7%
Figure 1: Water sectors use from different resources in Sudan
Irrigated Agricultural Schemes
scheme
Area ( ha)
Irrigation
method
crops
Water source
Gezira
882000
Surface (short
furrow)
Sorghum+
cotton + wheat
Blue Nile
El
Rahad
243000
Surface (short
furrow)
Sorghum+
cotton + wheat
Blue Nile
New
Halfa
133650
Surface (short
furrow)
Sorghum+
cotton + wheat
Atbara River
Sugar cane
company
68000
Surface (long
furrow)
Sugar cane +
forage
White,
blue,
Atbara rivers
Kenana
36000
Surface (long
furrow)
Sugar cane
White
nile
White Nile
52000
Surface (long
furrow
Sugar cane
+ forage
White Nile
Marowe
Dam
schemes
61000
Surface +
center pivot
Wheat +
vegetable
+fruit
River Nile
Yea
r
Ir
rigation
A
nimals
&
others
D
omestic
S
upply
T
ota
l
2010
27.1
3.9
1.1
32.1
2020
32.6
5.1
1.9
39.6
2025
40.3
5.3
2.5
48.0
2027
42.5
7.3
2.8
52.6
Table 3. Water Demand Projection to 2027 (bcm)
Conclusions
In the light of the climatic changes, the Nile basin
initiative and the separation of South Sudan Republic,
the conventional water resources of Sudan need to be
accurately assessed for proper utilization, sustainable
development and management.
Sudan storage facilities volume should be developed and
increased
Modern techniques should be adopted in using sound
rainwater harvesting methods and conversation tillage.
Introduction of modern irrigation systems, and increasing
the efficiency of the exiting surface irrigation systems
Recommendations
Future research should focus on water resources
assessment and management with the use of
advanced techniques.
Development of data base and mentoring
stations for rainfall and streams for the design
and implementation of efficient water
harvesting methods and development of the
seasonal streams.
Thank for your
Attention
... This indicates that the course of the wadi is structurally controlled by lineaments (faults, joints and fractures). In the downstream side the wadi has established a flood plain with a significant meandering system.According to El Tayeb[5], the average annual amount of water flow in Wadi El Galla is estimated as 73 million cubic meters. This amount of water is mainly utilized for domestic uses and animal watering. ...
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