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Training Methods: A Review and Analysis



In reviewing training methods reported in the literature, 13 were identified: case study, games-based training, internship, job rotation, job shadowing, lecture, mentoring and apprenticeship, programmed instruction, role-modeling, role play, simulation, stimulus-based training, and team-training. The nature and characteristics of these training methods and the relationships among them were analyzed using the following seven criteria: learning modality, learning environment, trainer presence, proximity, interaction level, cost considerations, and time demands. Results from this in-depth review suggest that the majority of training methods are not interactive, involve doing, and are off-the-job. As expected, it also concluded that technological advancements have expanded the delivery mode to various distance options. Profiles for the 13 identified training methods generated from this research should assist practitioners in selecting training methods most suitable for their needs and circumstances and serve as a platform for future research and development.
Human Resource Development Review
2014, Vol. 13(1) 11 –35
© 2013 SAGE Publications
Reprints and permissions:
DOI: 10.1177/1534484313497947
Integrative Literature Review
Training Methods: A Review
and Analysis
Barbara Ostrowski Martin1, Klodiana Kolomitro2,
and Tony C. M. Lam2
In reviewing training methods reported in the literature, 13 were identified: case study,
games-based training, internship, job rotation, job shadowing, lecture, mentoring
and apprenticeship, programmed instruction, role-modeling, role play, simulation,
stimulus-based training, and team-training. The nature and characteristics of these
training methods and the relationships among them were analyzed using the following
seven criteria: learning modality, learning environment, trainer presence, proximity,
interaction level, cost considerations, and time demands. Results from this in-depth
review suggest that the majority of training methods are not interactive, involve doing,
and are off-the-job. As expected, it also concluded that technological advancements
have expanded the delivery mode to various distance options. Profiles for the 13
identified training methods generated from this research should assist practitioners in
selecting training methods most suitable for their needs and circumstances and serve
as a platform for future research and development.
training and development, literature reviews, program planning, human resource
education, instructional design
Now more than ever, individuals and organizations must continuously gain knowledge
to remain competitive (Sheikh, 2008). The author argues that “[n]ew knowledge may
perhaps be the only remaining and one of the most critical sources of competitive
1Humber Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
2University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Corresponding Author:
Barbara Ostrowski Martin, School of Applied Technology, Humber Institute of Technology & Advanced
Learning, 205 Humber College Blvd, Toronto, ON, M9W 5L7, Canada.
497947HRD13110.1177/1534484313497947Human Resource Development ReviewMartin et al.
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12 Human Resource Development Review 13(1)
advantage available to an organization in the 21st century” (Sheikh, 2008, p. 34).
However, training is a very costly investment. Consequently, research and develop-
ment on training to optimize its effectiveness and efficiency is critical. In Forbes mag-
azine, Mary Crane (2006) reported that “the employee-training market may be worth
some $109 billion in the U.S.” As there is no single method to deliver training, trainers
continue to search for the best method to present targeted information to trainees. With
the ever-changing technological advances of our time and the continual development
of learning theories, there are now more options than ever before in how we train
people. In this article, we report our findings from an integrative literature review
(Callahan, 2010; Torraco, 2005) of training methods. The goal of the review of this
mature topic is to take stock of the repertoire of methods that have been used for train-
ing, to generate some guidelines for deciding the best way of providing training for a
given circumstance, and to enhance communications as well as research and develop-
ment of training methods. But, before we embark on our journey to understand the
different types of training methods, we should first have a clear understanding of what
a training method is.
A reasonable place to begin the task of defining training method is to define train-
ing itself. In most literature associated with training, the term training is often
assumed to be understood and thus, it is a struggle to actually find a definition of
training. In Train the Trainer: Instructors Guide, by Ittner and Douds (1997), train-
ing is defined as
the development and delivery of information that people will use after attending the training.
This definition distinguishes “training” from other situations where people are provided with
information, but are not necessarily expected to use the information they are given. (pp. 1-4)
In this way, training is different from teaching in K-12 grades or taking courses in
postsecondary or continuing education.
Imparting knowledge, abilities, skills, or attitudes (KASAs) to participants involves
a process governed by certain strategies. These strategies for imparting KASAs are the
training methods, which Ampaipipatkul (2004) defined as
the methods or activities that a trainer or instructor employ[ed] as a medium to convey
knowledge, experience or information to the participants in order to facilitate their learning
which might lead them to change their working behaviour and attitudes according to the
course objectives. (p. 4)
Deriving from this conceptualization of training, we define a training method as a
set of systematic procedures, activities, or techniques that are designed to impart
KASAs to the participants that have direct utility in enhancing their job performance.
It should be noted that in our definition, we do not require the inclusion of a trainer
since some training methods can utilize instruction through sources other than a
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Martin et al. 13
A term closely akin to training method is training aid. Training aids are specific
tools used to assist in the delivery of the training content. Bink, Wampler, Dlubac, and
Cage (2011) define training aids “as objects or apparatuses that facilitate the learning
objectives of training” (p. 1) and offer some of the following examples: flashcards,
films and videos demonstrating various tasks, printed materials, whiteboards, and flip
Training is provided within a training program. In an organization, needs assess-
ments are conducted to analyze problem areas and to identify potential solution strate-
gies. If the identified need is training, then a training program is developed, which
begins with recognition of training needs and methods, leads to training, and subse-
quently, evaluation (to examine the extent to which the identified needs are met and
the problems are resolved).
Our review aims to advance the understanding of methods used in the field of train-
ing. Decades ago, the term computer training would have encompassed any kind of
training done on computers; the present reality is that the smallest subtleties can denote
very significant distinctions. For instance, Webinar and computer-programmed
instruction involve computers but are applied quite differently. As training methods is
an established topic, our review aims to create a conceptual framework for understand-
ing and for future investigation of methods of training reported in the literature. Such
a framework should facilitate communication among training providers and research-
ers and encourage research and development on training methods. Moreover, it should
provide an effective tool that can enhance the likelihood of trainers selecting the meth-
ods best suited for a particular training context and goals. In conducting our review,
we used the following three questions to guide us:
What are the various core methods of providing training?
What are the key characteristics of the identified training methods?
Under what conditions is each of the identified training methods most
We recognize that our goal to study training methods can be challenging for the
following reasons: (a) training methods are sometimes difficult to define or the label
is used to refer to tools, aids, and the like; (b) given the relatively long history of train-
ing methods, providing a comprehensive list of types of training methods is problem-
atic; and (c) training methods are rapidly changing to reflect the current technological
advances, making it difficult to categorize definitively.
Procedure for Exploring Training Methods
We reviewed, analyzed, and synthesized the training literature to answer the afore-
mentioned research questions. We aimed for an integrative literature review
(Torraco, 2005). Electronic databases used in our literature search included ProQuest,
ERIC, PsycInfo, and ABI/Inform. Electronic journals were accessed through
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14 Human Resource Development Review 13(1)
Interscience/Wiley, Scholars Portal, JSTOR, and ScienceDirect. In an effort to focus
our search, articles were only selected if published after 1979. Only when the identi-
fied sources cited training methods published prior to 1980, were the original sources
accessed. Books were searched using an internal electronic search engine at a major
university in Canada and online book purchasing catalogs:
and For all searches, the advanced search feature was used and
two or more keyword searches were performed simultaneously to identify core
training methods (i.e., training method* and type*). As the field of training methods
is a mature one and this topic long-standing, the initial search yielded more than
2,000 sources. Next we eliminated nonrefereed articles or books that did not use
scholarly references. After excluding from the remaining publications those that
either did not describe a training method or describe redundant training methods, we
were able to narrow down the number of remaining articles and books to fewer than
500. Finally, we selected 94 sources that provided clear, detailed, and new informa-
tion related to the training methods as the data pool for our review and analysis. It
should be noted that the vast majority of these sources was originated from the
United States. We found that very few pieces of training-related literature compare
a broad range of training methods; our desire is to explore core training methods and
compare them in such a way that the reader would be able to make decisions as to
which method is most suitable under certain conditions. In an effort to create a thor-
ough and useful system for comparing the training methods that we identified, we
consulted the literature on systems for classifying training methods. To ensure that
our search was broad enough to encompass related classification systems, we also
included “learning methods” in our literature review. A summary of our findings is
presented in Table 1.
After reviewing these existing classification systems, we discovered that none of
them were able to achieve our goals; to this end, we developed our own framework
with the goal that ours would: (a) serve as a means of understanding the training meth-
ods we identified, and (b) serve as a selection tool.
Table 1. An Overview of Systems for Categorizing Training Methods.
Source Categories
Occupational Health and Safety Canada,
Instructor-driven training, work-driven instruction,
and learner-driven instruction
de Jong, Thijssen, & Versloot, 2001 Job instruction, apprenticeship, inquiry, and self-
Simmonds, 2003 Imitation, thinking, being told, and trial and error
Woodall & Winstanley, 1998 (as cited
in Simmonds, 2003)
Learning from another person, learning from tasks,
and learning with other
Heneman, Schwab, Fossum, & Dyer,
Off-the-job training: information presentation,
information processing, and simulation
Hackett, 2007 Trainer-centered, learner-centered, and coaching
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Martin et al. 15
Core Training Methods
Instead of selecting or predetermining a classification system and then deducing how
the training methods fit in the system, we took the reverse approach by first compiling
a comprehensive list of training methods; this was done by noting the procedures used
for training and the labels used for these procedures.
We identified 13 core methods (arranged alphabetically): case study, games-based
training, internship, job rotation, job shadowing, lecture, mentoring and apprentice-
ship, programmed instruction, role-modeling, role play, simulation, stimulus-based
training, and team-training. We believe that these 13 methods constitute an exhaustive
list of training methods and that any training methods not included on the list are mere
extensions or subcategories. Table 2 provides an overview of these 13 training meth-
ods. For each method, we provide a definition, examples of its use (as reported in the
literature), and literature references that were used to help us define and provide an
example of that particular method.
Torraco (2005) specifies that when presenting a framework it is necessary to supply
an explanation of its conceptual foundations, its interrelationships, and the conceptual
reasoning used to create it. Therefore, we begin our task of systematically comparing
the 13 training methods with an account of how we arrived at this framework of analy-
sis and justification for how we describe each training method within our system.
Key Characteristics of the Core Training Methods
As mentioned above, we reviewed the literature on systems of classifying training
methods (see Table 1) and concluded that for helping practitioners select training
methods these systems, or generally, grouping training methods into different types
are not as useful as identifying, analyzing, and comparing specific training methods.
Consequently, we looked for a common set of criteria to guide our analysis of the
training methods. In this effort, we looked to the existing classification systems we
reviewed for variables that these systems used to group training methods. On the basis
of relevance to all the training methods and value to the training design, the seven
criteria we identified are: learning modality, training environment, trainer presence,
proximity, interaction level, cost considerations, and time demands. Each of these
criteria represents a dimension that can be used to classify training methods. For
example, we can group training methods according to their learning modality: meth-
ods based on seeing, hearing, or doing.
Criteria for Comparing Training Methods
Our criteria are considerations that a trainer may wish to take into account when
choosing training methods. The use of these criteria creates a profile for each training
method centered on these considerations. Based on these criteria, the training methods
can be compared against one another, resulting in a guide for selecting training meth-
ods. To this end, we will explain the criteria; it is up to the reader to utilize this guide
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16 Human Resource Development Review 13(1)
Table 2. An Overview of the 13 Core Training Methods.
Training method Definition Example References
Case study Provides the participants an
opportunity to develop skills by
presenting a problem, without a
solution, for them to solve, or
with a solution, as an exemplar
of how to solve it.
Used in training law students, where
students learn about past legal
cases and the judicial decisions that
resulted (with a solution)
Bruner, Gup,
Nunnally, &
Pettit, 1999;
Elam & Spotts,
2004; Menkel-
Meadow, 2000
A bank administration course has
students select a bank from a list,
then they are given a hypothetical
situation and are asked to apply their
financial analysis to the situation
(without a solution)
Trainees compete in a series of
decision-making tasks which
allows them to explore a variety
of strategic alternatives and
experience the consequences
which affect the other players,
but with without risk to the
individuals or the organization.
The hit American reality TV show The
Apprentice has contestants work
in teams that compete against one
another in business-related tasks and
each week a contestant is “fired,”
leaving only one winner at the end
Brown, 2004;
Gentry, 1990
Internship Involves supervised, practical
training while on the job where
the trainee is permitted to
work in the position for which
they are training, but with
some restrictions and with
substantially less pay or no pay.
The successful completion of a 1-year
internship is required of all clinical
and counseling psychology students
in the United States; this internship
is supervised by an experienced
psychologist and is overseen by
the Association of Psychology
Postdoctoral and Internship
Ballard & Carroll,
2005; Stedman,
Job rotation Involves training for a job by
working in the job for a limited
duration, while still maintaining
the original job.
At Ingram Micro. participating
employees rotate their jobs between
five different process areas so that
at the end of the program they can
perform in all of the company’s five
distribution centers
Barbian, 2002; Ho,
Chang, Shih,
& Liang, 2009;
Wilson, 2000
Job shadowing Involves a trainee closely
observing someone perform a
specific job in the natural job
environment for the purpose of
witnessing first-hand the details
of the job.
Choice Hotels International in Silver
Spring, Maryland, USA, offers staff
at all levels the opportunity to job
shadow for a day in one of their
franchised hotels to experience
what it is like to be a hotel
Tyler, 2008
Lecture Involves the dissemination of
training material by a trainer to
a group of trainees, by means of
verbal instruction.
The Interactive E-classroom allows
students to watch and listen to the
lecture presented by the course
instructor, while automatically being
shown the corresponding slides and/
or lecture notes on a single web
Zhang, Zhao,
Zhou, &
Mentoring and
Involves a one-on-one partnership
between a novice employee
with a senior employee.
Mentorship aims to provide
support and guidance to
less experienced employees
whereas apprenticeship is for
the development of job skills.
The Organizational Development &
Learning Centre at the University of
Toronto offers mentoring programs
of a 12-month duration, which
partner staff with more senior
university leaders to assist them in
enhancing their job skills and their
university experience
Andrews &
Chilton, 2000;
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Martin et al. 17
Training method Definition Example References
Involves the delivery of training
through instruction that is
delivered by a program via
some electronic device without
the presence of an instructor;
the electronic device can be
a computer, DVD player, CD
player, etc.
In pronunciation training using a
computer program with a built-in
automatic speech recognition
component, provides automatic
feedback to trainees at the word and
sentence level
Gist, Rosen, &
2006; Neri,
Mich, Gerosa, &
Giuliani, 2008;
Russ-Eft, 2002
Role-modeling Involves the live presentation
of skill(s) to an audience of
A Wheelchair Skills Training Program
developed to train users of manual
wheelchairs to attain the important
but dangerous and difficult skill of
curb climbing
Kirby, Bennett,
Smith, Parker,
& Thompson,
2008; Verma
& Singh, 2010;
Wang & Hsu,
Role play Requires trainees to assume a
character and act out the role
in a make-believe scenario or
series of scenarios; learning
comes by way of reflection on
the play.
Reference assistants training at a
library, has the trainees play out
scenarios which are then followed by
a trainer-led discussion
Sheets, 1998
Simulation Involves the use of a simulator
where specific skills are
developed through repeated
practice with a multisensory
experience of imitated
conditions. A special form of
simulation training is Virtual
Reality Training which entails
total sensory immersion.
The Harvey Simulator is a life-sized
mannequin that can simulate 27
different cardiac conditions, enables
trainees to perform various physical
tests, including blood pressure,
pulses, impulses, and respiration, to
train on diagnostic skills
Kneebone, 2003
Using some type of stimulus (i.e.,
music, works of art, narratives,
etc.) to motivate the learner
to learn. The training induces a
state of being (e.g., relaxation or
awareness) in the participants
to achieve learning.
The use of music to eliminate or
lessen failure cues and to induce a
state of relaxation or success cues
in students to promote learning of
Lam, Kolomitro,
& Alamparambil,
2011; Kumagai,
2008; Zemke,
Team-training Intended exclusively for groups
of individuals that behave
interactively, to either improve
mutual knowledge within a team
or to train the team on a team-
specific skill.
An exercise which has each team
member write opinions to a prompt
question, then come to team
Wheelan, 2005;
Craig, 1996
Table 2. (continued)
and, along with an understanding of their unique circumstances, judge which method(s)
are best suited for their situation. The scales that we used for the interaction level, cost
considerations, and time demands criteria are ordinal scales of measurement, the other
four are nominal scales (see Table 3).
Learning modality. Learning modality refers to the method of communication by which
training content is conveyed to the learners. The three learning modalities are: learning
by doing, learning by seeing, and learning by hearing. When trying to create a mean-
ingful grouping system for training methods, we considered the sensorial nature of
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Table 3. A Comparison of the Identified Training Methods Based on the Seven Criteria.
presence Proximity
Interaction level
considerations Time demands
Case study Doing Contrived Yes Face to face or distance Variable Low Moderate
Games Doing Contrived Yes Face to face or distance Interactive Moderate High
Internship Doing Natural Yes Face to face Somewhat interactive Low High
Job rotation Doing Natural n/a Face to face Not interactive n/a n/a
Job shadowing Seeing Natural Yes Face to face Not interactive Low Low
Lecture Hearing Contrived Yes Face to face or distance Not interactive Moderate Low
Mentorship and
Doing Natural Yes Face to face or distance Somewhat interactive Low Moderate
Programmed instruction Seeing Contrived No Distance Not interactive Moderate Low
Role-modeling Seeing Simulated Yes Face to face or distance Not interactive Moderate Low
Role play Doing Simulated Yes Face to face Interactive Low Low
Simulation Doing Simulated No Face to face Not interactive High Moderate
Stimulus-based Variable Simulated Yes Face to face Somewhat interactive Moderate Low
Team Doing Contrived Yes Face to face or distance Interactive Moderate Low
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Martin et al. 19
each method, and we noticed a pattern (seeing, hearing, and doing). While some meth-
ods can have two or more of these characteristics we readily agreed that each one had
at least a primary nature. Furthermore, we noticed that some methods, like lecture, for
example, inherently had only one. Learning by doing refers to situations where the
trainees acquire training content through the action of performing the task. Learning
by doing is aligned with the educational philosophy referred to as experiential educa-
tion, which asserts that learning comes by way of the transformation of experience
(Kolb & Kolb, 2005). To that point, Roger Schank (1996) suggested that “we need to
transform all training and education so that it looks, feels, and is like doing” (p. 300).
Lujan and DiCarlo (2006) speak to the importance of identifying “the learners’
preferred mode of learning in terms of the sensory modality by which they prefer to
take in new information” (p. 13) when considering instructional approach. They iden-
tify the following sensory modalities: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. Similarly, we
characterize the training methods by their sensorial approach and instead use the terms
learning by seeing to refer to cases where the trainees acquire the training content by
watching the task being performed, and learning by hearing for the acquisition of
training content by hearing.
Training environment. The training environment refers to the setting in which the train-
ing takes place. A natural environment refers to the real work environment. A con-
trived environment refers to a training environment that is created specifically for the
training and does not resemble the work environment, whereas a simulated environ-
ment is contrived but aims to simulate the natural work environment. Therefore, for
the training environment criterion we have three possibilities: natural, contrived, and
simulated. All on-the-job training takes place in a natural environment whereas off-
the-job training can be either contrived or simulated.
Trainer presence. Trainer presence refers to whether the method necessitates delivery
through a trainer or through some other source (e.g., computer). Klein, Noe, and Wang
(2006) support this notion stating that “the ‘instructor’ may be a person or instruction
may be delivered without any human interaction using . . . other instructional media”
(p. 666). The presence of a trainer is an important criterion when considering what
training method to use because technology is enabling more and more training content
to be delivered without a trainer.
Proximity. Proximity refers to the locality of the trainer and trainees. In this case, the
training can occur face-to-face or at a distance (in other words, remotely). As Van
Noord and Peterson (2010) argue, “[o]nline learning is no longer a novelty—it is now
an accepted, even expected, component of professional development” (p. 1). Distance
learning no longer refers to the, now antiquated, practice of correspondence training;
technology is making it feasible for many training methods to be delivered remotely.
It is important to consider proximity in our analysis of training methods because
knowledge sharing, like most things these days, is impacted by globalization. While
there was a time when social experience reflected only the face-to-face perspective,
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20 Human Resource Development Review 13(1)
technology is likewise enabling distance training to be a social experience and is
removing the spatial boundaries that were previously barriers to participation.
Interaction level. Interaction level refers to the relative amount of interaction between
trainer and trainee and among trainees. Learning is widely believed to be a socio-cul-
tural experience necessitating social interaction to achieve effective [professional]
learning (Webster-Wright, 2009). We used a basic scale to describe the degree of
interaction expected in each training method: interactive, somewhat interactive, and
not interactive. An exception to note is with the case study method, which we rate as
variable. With the case study training method, where trainees are required to indepen-
dently read and retain information from a given case study, the degree of interaction is
somewhat interactive. However, where trainees are instructed to engage in a group
discussion and devise a group solution about a case study, the interaction level is
decidedly interactive. In all other cases, we apply a judgment to describe its interac-
tion level. Two factors are considered in this judgment: the likelihood of interaction
between the trainer and trainee(s) and the likelihood of interaction among the trainees.
Put another way, interactive = likely trainer and trainee interaction AND likely among-
trainee interaction, somewhat interactive = likely trainer and trainee interaction OR
likely among-trainee interaction, and not interactive = unlikely trainer and trainee
interaction AND unlikely among-trainee interaction.
Cost considerations. The criterion of cost considerations identifies what are the most
significant expenditures associated with each particular training method, as well as
whether the expenses are initial or ongoing. Cost considerations were identified as
either low, moderate, or high. A low descriptor involves those methods where the only
specific training costs are the cost of the trainer, a moderate descriptor involves meth-
ods where the cost of a training space is required in addition to the cost of the trainer,
and high involves trainer and equipment costs (including equipment purchase/rental,
maintenance, and upgrades). It is important to note that to provide empirical data on
the cost of each method would be futile, as there are so many variables at play. There-
fore, the best that we can do is to provide a way of comparison. Furthermore, common
factors such as the expense of possible employee error were not considered because
this could arguably be a common factor across all the training methods.
Time demands. Time demands refers to the time commitment required of the trainees.
This is an important consideration because the duration can impact trainee and organi-
zational buy-in. This criterion addresses considerations of whether the training method
requires ongoing participation or not, and whether the time spent participating in the
training is flexible or fixed.
For the purposes of our analysis, we assigned the following levels with respect to
time demands; low, moderate, and high. The outcomes are as follows: low = fixed +
singular, moderate = fixed + ongoing OR unspecified + singular, and high = unspeci-
fied + ongoing.
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Martin et al. 21
Training Methods Comparison Results
In Table 3, we present results from our analysis of each of the 13 core training methods
based on the seven aforementioned criteria. This provides a profile of each training
Our analysis reveals some trends with respect to training methods. A majority of
training methods are off-the-job (69%). A greater number of training methods involve
the learning modality of doing (62%) when compared with the learning modalities of
seeing or hearing. Technological advancements have made it possible for some train-
ing methods (46%) to be offered face-to-face as well as in a distance option. With
regard to the level of interaction, “not interactive” was the most frequent (50%). A
majority of training methods (85%) fall among the low to moderate range with regard
to associated cost, with only one method having greater cost considerations and one
with negligible cost considerations. These higher cost considerations are due to the
cost associated with purchasing, maintaining, and upgrading specialized equipment
required by the simulation training. A majority (54%) of training methods fall in the
low rating with respect to time demands, with only two in the high rating.
When Should We Use Which Methods
With regard to the seven criteria that we used to present the profiles for the 13 training
methods as discussed in the previous section, we expect the trainers to choose the most
suitable method, according to the seven criteria, based on their unique circumstances.
In this section, we will explain some of the advantages and disadvantages pertaining
to each criterion to assist trainers in utilizing these criteria in their decision process.
We will also provide an example on how to perform the selection procedure.
Learning Modality
Although it would be more time and resource demanding, training practitioners would
be remiss to ignore the value of considering the learning preferences or cognitive
styles of learners to maximize the effectiveness of transfer of learning. A study exam-
ining the interaction between trainees’ cognitive factors and lecture and case study
training methods revealed that higher verbal comprehension ability trainees achieve
higher posttest scores in training using the lecture method than case study method
(Carter, 2002). These findings suggest that it is useful to match training methods with
trainee learning styles to motivate and facilitate learning. It would be extremely chal-
lenging and beyond the resource limitations of most training programs to customize
training to each learner; however, we contend that practitioners should document the
learning preferences of the trainees through self-reporting, and try to be aware and
make thoughtful choices in their selection. With regard to the training of medical stu-
dents Lujan and DiCarlo (2006) express that “. . . it is the responsibility of the instruc-
tor to address this diversity of learning styles among students and develop appropriate
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22 Human Resource Development Review 13(1)
learning approaches” (p. 13). To this end they utilize a questionnaire to determine the
preferred sensory modality of each student: visual, auditory, or kinesthetic. This type
of background questionnaire could be used to help practitioners narrow their choice of
training methods by selecting the method that matches the primary preferred sensory
modality of the trainees as determined by the trainees’ responses to the questionnaire.
In this article, we characterize training methods by their dominant learning modality.
Training Environment
In her article “Reframing Professional Development Through Understanding Authentic
Professional Learning,” Ann Webster-Wright (2009) examines how professionals
learn. Included in this is the element of authentic work experiences and the “lived
experience” (p. 706) of professional learning. Learning in the natural environment is
the most ideal, thus on-the-job training methods are generally the most desirable. We
propose that the desirability of learning environment (from most to least) is: the natu-
ral environment, then the simulated environment, and lastly the contrived environ-
ment. There are, however, some stipulations to consider. Problem behavior can be
minimized in controlled settings, the most controlled setting being a contrived envi-
ronment. These recommendations were cited with regard to the treatment of persons
whose problem behavior poses undue danger to themselves or others (Tiger, Hanley,
& Bruzek, 2008) but can also be extended to include dangerous training situations
such as competitive combat like martial arts. High-stakes training such as warfare
training, pilot training, or surgical training will naturally be most desirable in a simu-
lated environment, where danger can be mitigated while still providing some degree
of a “practice environment.” Another consideration is with respect to the number of
trainees. A single trainee may be most cost-effectively and time-effectively trained in
a natural environment. However, this might not be feasible for a large cohort of
Trainer Presence
The presence of a trainer provides the opportunity for the trainer to monitor the prog-
ress of the trainees and adjust the process as needed. This is especially advantageous
when the training content is complex. Despite the sophistication of some human-gen-
erated technologically delivered programs, it is reasonable to expect that a trainer
would have a greater aptitude for regulating the training program spontaneously where
needed. The presence of a trainer can also impact the motivation of the trainees (Klein
et al., 2006); some personalities may need the presence of another to motivate their
participation in a training session.
Distance education enables the trainer to deliver instruction to large groups of geo-
graphically dispersed participants, removing the spatial barriers of face-to-face
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Martin et al. 23
delivery. However, interaction level is typically more limited with distance delivery.
Trainees’ learning through distance training may be more distracted than they would
otherwise be if they were face-to-face; this can create a further challenge for distance
delivery regarding the ability of the trainer to monitor learning and impact motivation.
Moreover, learning can, at times, be ineffective, frustrating, and less satisfactory if the
content of the training is not properly designed for this mode or when social interac-
tion is lacking (Richardson & Swan, 2003; Scott, 2010). Fortunately, current develop-
ments in distance learning have provided a variety of options to enable greater
flexibility in this forum. For example, Realgame is a computer-based business game
that allows participants to play remotely and includes instantaneous feedback from an
interactive online mode (Lainema & Nurmi, 2003). Telementoring is a tool that allows
experts to train and give feedback at a distance. A study about surgical skill training
concluded that telementoring can effectively micromanage technical maneuvers and
can positively impact proficiency of trainees (Tsuda et al., 2008). Traditional mentor-
ing can also be accessed in a virtual arena, and is commended for the following ben-
efits: accessibility, anonymity (may be more likely to discuss sensitive issues),
flexibility, easier to find mentors suited to particular needs (e.g., female mentors or
mentors who identify themselves as minorities; Knouse, 2001). Virtual team-training
has proven to be a beneficial option for training teams in remote areas (Forbush &
Morgan, 2004).
Overall, distance delivery is an advantageous option for learners who live in remote
areas, who are self-motivated, have good self-discipline, appreciate the freedom and
flexibility of distance education, and are not intimidated by technology (Zhang, Zhao,
Zhou, & Nunamaker, 2004).
Interaction Level
Interaction is advantageous and the greater the interaction, the more gainful it is to the
learner. This is especially true for complex training content as interaction allows
opportunity for the trainees to ask questions and obtain clarification and immediate
feedback on their knowledge acquisition. Face-to-face social interaction motivates the
learners (Russ-Eft, 2002) and enables them to discuss, share insights, and collaborate
(Scott, 2010). In most cases, interaction is desirable but the trainer needs to allocate
time during training for those interactions to occur.
Cost Considerations
While nearly all methods involve the cost of the trainer, those that don’t have a trainer
have the cost of the equipment to consider (i.e., programmed instruction and simula-
tion). Similarly, training methods that are off-the-job and are face-to-face may involve
the cost of the learning facility, while distance methods will not require a facility but
will require equipment. Regardless of how the money is spent, methods that can reduce
the costs of the training are generally much more desirable.
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24 Human Resource Development Review 13(1)
Time Demands
Some training methods have fixed time demands, while with some methods, a trainer
may be able to let the trainees decide how much time they spend participating in the
training. The longer the time commitment, the less desirable is the training method.
Salas, Wildman, and Piccolo (2009) promote simulation as having the ability to “col-
lapse time and space” (p. 561) thereby being advantageous despite its cost. As with
cost, the exception to this is where the stakes are high; in this case, it can be advanta-
geous and desirable to use a training method that has higher time demands.
To demonstrate how to use the classification system, we have provided a step-by-
step example herein. A large-sized college plans to roll out an organization-wide
human rights training program. The staff consists of full-time and part-time faculty,
administrative staff, as well as support staff, numbering over 1,500 individuals in total.
The Human Resources Department must ensure that every single employee receives
the training. Given the sensitive nature of the training content, the training program
development team determines that a trainer should be present so as to monitor prog-
ress, give instantaneous feedback, respond to reactions, and adjust the training when
needed. In consideration of the large number of individuals that need to receive the
training and to ensure that school schedules and student support services are not dis-
rupted, it is necessary that the training be replicated numerous times. Therefore, it
should have low time demands. The college is a publicly funded institution; therefore,
the budget for such an endeavor is limited, making cost considerations an important
factor. As an institute of higher learning, the college believes that learning is best
achieved through an experiential, social, interactive approach. To recap, given these
particular circumstances, the department decides that they want to use a method that
has low cost, low time demands, that is interactive, is learning by doing, and has a
trainer present. Using Table 3, it becomes apparent that the training method that
achieves these identified characteristics is role play.
We also wish to point out that combining methods within a single training program
is beneficial for multiple reasons. It can help to appeal to a range of learning styles and,
therefore, also improve motivation to learn. Moreover, it can help diminish the irrita-
tion around the training that requires high time demands (by mitigating boredom).
Combining methods is often not only the preferred mode of receiving information
(Lujan & DiCarlo, 2006), but research has found that it results in more complex men-
tal models (Nadkarni, 2003).
We have provided an overview of some of the advantages and disadvantages of
each criterion; next, on the basis of the seven criteria we will report some of the advan-
tages and disadvantages of each of the 13 training method we identified.
Case Study
The applied nature of the case study method may serve to enhance trainee interest and,
therefore, positively impact learner motivation. However, if the accessibility of neces-
sary resources proves to be a challenge for the learners, it could hinder their motiva-
tion and learning (Johnson & Helms, 2008). In his paper, Kirti Shivakumar (2012)
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Martin et al. 25
offers the development of decision-making skills, improved communication and inter-
personal skills, and strengthened analytical skills as some of the advantages to the case
study method. This method is suited for the situation where the learners have some
prerequisite knowledge but could benefit from the applied nature of the training. This
is a low-risk, low-cost training method, capable of training any number of learners
simultaneously and, as such, it has been a popular choice for training students in law,
medicine, and counseling. For example, dozens of law students can be trained simul-
taneously on a true-to-life case (Menkel-Meadow, 2000) by assessing the many per-
spectives and permutations of a case, without the risk of losing a real legal case.
Games-Based Training
The popularity of games for training purposes has increased over the past decade as
games offer a low-cost, yet effective alternative to training (Wilson et al., 2009). The
games-based training method is competitive, which can be a motivating feature for the
majority of learners. Similar to the case study method, the content is also applied,
which can further serve to motivate learners. Some disadvantages of this method are
the inability to know what components of the game contribute to the training (Wilson
et al., 2009) and the difficulty for the trainer to ensure that all key learning concepts
are transmitted through this method.
In a literature review of studies involving the effectiveness of business games, Faria
(2001) demonstrates that player personality characteristics, player academic ability,
and team characteristics (such as motivation and cohesion) can all be correlated to
performance in business games. It is important to note that business is, by its nature, a
competitive field and it is likely to attract individuals that thrive in a competitive envi-
ronment. Consequently, we would recommend games-based training for learners that
thrive in or are motivated by a competitive environment; business, military, and sports
professionals are all likely to fit this category of learner.
The major advantages of this method are that the employer can train an employee at a
fraction of, or no cost at all, and that the employee actually gets the opportunity to
work in the role that they are training to fill; thus, the training content is relevant to
their future job responsibility. On the other hand, however, the training experience for
the learners can be inconsistent and high-pressured. A survey designed to gauge the
reaction measures of practicing physicians a few years after they had completed their
medical internship revealed largely unfavorable reactions, specifically, reporting that
the experience was too variable, too fragmented, and help in acquiring skills was lack-
ing (Löwe et al., 2008).
We feel that internship is relevant for situations where the training content is best
suited to the learning modality of doing and where the learners have the extensive
prerequisite knowledge to overcome the variable, fragmented, and unsupportive nature
of this method. It may also be well suited to a situation where financial investment of
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26 Human Resource Development Review 13(1)
the employer to training is limited, either because there are a high number of trainees
participating or because the employer cannot afford to pay for other, highly time-
consuming, and more structured training.
Job Rotation
One of the most significant advantages of this method is that it can promote greater
interest in the company and enhance the employee commitment to the company. It
offers employees opportunities for development and promotion, which can also
improve career satisfaction, motivation, and interdepartmental co-operation (Geet &
Deshpande, 2008). Job rotation is beneficial to the organization as it “helps develop a
common culture because of wide and common exposure and at the same time infuses
‘fresh blood’ in tasks” giving employees “a fresh challenge and opportunity to prove
themselves” (Saiyadain, 2009, p. 409).
A concern that comes with job rotation is the possibility of failing in front of one’s
colleagues; failing on the job can feel like a very public type of failure and can damage
one’s reputation at work. Moreover, quite often this training method causes disruption
because it requires the employees to adjust to the new member of the group with every
rotation of job (Geet & Deshpande, 2008). Despite the notion that job rotation does not
cost the company any money in the way of extra salary, there are costs associated with
the learning curve on new jobs, including time spent learning, training costs, and
errors that employees make while learning a new job. We would like to rebut this with
the consideration that the time required to recruit, hire, and train new employees would
likely supersede the “learning curve” of existing employees.
Ultimately, our recommendation for job rotation is for a situation where the learner
already has the background knowledge and aptitude to perform the role successfully,
so as to minimize the chance of public failure.
Job Shadowing
Job shadowing can be useful as a method to generate employee interest and engage-
ment. As Kathryn Tyler points out, it is an ideal way for employees to gain new per-
spectives on a company and even “shop” for different roles within the company. While
the primary purpose of job shadowing is for the trainee to learn to perform a specific
job, Tyler (2008) demonstrates that trainees get the unique opportunity to view the
company from a different perspective, which may give them a broader view of the
company. We recommend job shadowing for situations where a company is training
existing employees for a new role in the company, or giving existing employees a
chance to “try on” a new role (without the risk and cost of failure associated with job
Even though “lectures are probably the most ridiculed training technique” (Thiagarajan,
2005, p. 1), the lecture method is a widely used training method mainly because it can
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Martin et al. 27
accommodate a wide range of audience sizes, takes less time to design, offers ease in
revising the content, and gives the company and trainer assurance that the trainees
complete the training. Thiagarajan’s (2005) main criticism of the lecture method is the
lack of interaction because it implies a one-way communication and a lack of support
to overcome learning challenges and engage in peer learning. The professional devel-
opment literature advocates learning that is continuing, active, experiential, social, and
has relevance to practice (Webster-Wright, 2009). In contrast, the lecture method is
finite, passive, not social, and disconnected from real practice, resulting in less than
optimal learning. Consequently, we feel that lecture should only be used in cases
where the training content is simple, where standardized learning is desired, and where
there is no high-stakes consequence should the trainees fail to acquire the target
Mentoring and Apprenticeship
A key advantage of this method is the one-on-one learning environment. It would be
hard to imagine a learner that would not benefit from this learning structure unless
there was interpersonal conflict between the mentor and trainee. Mentorship serves the
trainee in two important ways: psychosocial support (acceptance, confidence, buffer
against burnout, and the like) and career facilitation (Zerzan, Hess, Schur, Phillips, &
Rigotti, 2009). Research suggests that those who are mentored are more willing to
become mentors (Vincent & Seymour, 1994). With this in mind it is reasonable to
consider the mentorship training method as having the ability to provide long-term
This method is best suited, for example, in a situation where a company wants to
groom its trainee(s) for growth within the company. To combat the possible negative
impact that can arise from interpersonal conflict, it is imperative that mentor and
trainee be carefully prepared (this could include having participants complete ques-
tionnaires and allowing trainees to be involved in the selection process; Andrews &
Chilton, 2000). Furthermore, support for the mentors by way of training them on com-
munication, encouragement, and leadership skills could also greatly contribute to the
success of this training method.
Programmed Instruction
There are many advantages in using programmed instruction as a training method. It
is flexible and allows for repeated practice, its consistent delivery means that the learn-
ing experience is standardized, and it also has the ability to offer multisensory features
(color, sound, text, animation, graphics, and special effects). On the flip side, learner
motivation can be negatively affected if the learners are unfamiliar with the technol-
ogy or are generally intimidated by technology (Zhang et al., 2004). Furthermore, the
necessity for specialized equipment creates the opportunity for disruption in learning
should technical difficulties arise. Other notable disadvantages are that it demands
greater self-discipline than with most other methods, and that there is the possibility
that trainees may cheat on or skip parts of the training.
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28 Human Resource Development Review 13(1)
Stanisavljevic and Djuric (2013) performed a comparative evaluation of lecture and
computer-programmed instruction effectiveness. One group was presented the course
content through programmed instruction, and the other group was presented the same
content through the traditional lecturing model. They found that programmed instruc-
tion was more effective in terms of quantity and quality of knowledge acquired by
learners. The two methods compared involve different modalities of learning, which
means that a trainee’s learning style may be a useful consideration when selecting this
We recommend programmed instruction for use as a training method in cases
where the trainees have a reasonable level of comfort using the required equipment,
where the trainees will appreciate the flexibility of being able to participate in the
training at a time and pace convenient for them, and where the content is not so critical
that skipping parts or cheating could have major negative consequences. CPR training
would be a good match for programmed instruction. While performing CPR can also
mean the difference between life and death, with CPR the adage that “any attempt is
better than no attempt” applies. The flexibility of programmed instruction could serve
to motivate more people to learn CPR and even if they skip over parts, some knowl-
edge is more advantageous than none (Todd, Heron, & Thompson, 1999). It must be
noted, however, that professionals for whom CPR knowledge and ability is founda-
tional to their job (i.e., life guards, paramedics, and other medical practitioners) should
not learn life-saving skills through programmed instruction alone.
Like its counterpart the lecture method, role-modeling is a popular training method
and it allows organizations to readily control trainee completion of the training pro-
gram. As with the lecture method, there is no expectation of interaction suggesting a
lack of support for learners to overcome challenges.
Assaf, Cummings, Graham, Mettlin, and Marshall (1985) reported favorable skill
performance outcomes for the role-modeling training method where participants wit-
nessed a demonstration and were given the chance to practice on a life-like model.
They compared three methods of teaching women how to perform breast self-exami-
nation. It is unclear whether the opportunity to practice on the model factored into the
successful outcomes, but it does suggest that role-modeling, combined with the oppor-
tunity for the trainee to practice what was modeled, can be a useful combination.
Consequently, we feel that role-modeling should be used in cases where trainees can
have the chance to practice the skill soon after seeing the demonstration.
Role Play
One major advantage of this method is that it provides the trainees with the opportu-
nity to apply the content to a simulated situation, thereby getting the chance to practice
without the possibility of failing on the job. However, as there is no consequence,
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Martin et al. 29
there is the risk that the content will be taken lightly. Furthermore, the stress of perfor-
mance may deter some learners and ultimately inhibit their learning.
A study investigating the use of role play in the training of genetic counseling stu-
dents (McIlvried, Prucka, Herbst, Barger, & Robin, 2008) found that participants saw
this method as effective in training them on the process and implications of genetic
counseling, and felt that the experience would help them to communicate with patients.
Role play is particularly well suited for providing trainees with the opportunity to
practice and collectively reflect on how to manage important responsibilities of their
job, or for sensitivity training and other contexts that include attitudinal training
(Barone et al., 2005). The opportunity for reflection on the practice without the conse-
quence of facing the embarrassment of failure is particularly helpful in cases where the
content is of a sensitive nature, so we recommend the role play method for such
Simulation training is well suited for training that would otherwise be extremely dan-
gerous or costly if conducted in a real-life environment. This method provides “safe,
structured, engaging, and effective practice opportunities” (Rosen, Hunt, Pronovost,
Federowicz, & Weaver, 2012, p. 243) in a risk-free environment, and has been used in
medical training, flight training, military training, as well as technical training in other
high-stakes fields such as nuclear power generation. Other advantages of this method
are that it provides the opportunity for repeated practice, the opportunity to test limits
safely, and can provide immediate feedback and a standardized experience for all
trainees. Simulation can be affordable, depending on what sort of equipment is needed.
Some business-ready simulations are free and readily available (Salaset al., 2009),
whereas flight simulators require specialized equipment and will thus be more expen-
sive. Hence, one drawback to this method is that simulation training systems can be
costly (Noe, 2010); the potential for lost time due to equipment malfunction/technical
difficulties, and the possibility that simulation training can have a dehumanizing effect
on the subject matter are also worth considering. Moreover, Noe (2010) argued that
for this training method to be effective and increase the likelihood of transfer of learn-
ing, trainees must be provided with immediate feedback and the simulations must be
As with any technology, simulation training systems are becoming more affordable
and therefore more accessible, making them available to a wider range of training
programs, such as those for medical professionals, in sports training for athletes, and
even in the high school biology classroom (The Digital Frog 2.5, 2009). The most
obvious recommended use for simulation training is for contexts where failure to learn
the content has weighty consequences. We also recommend simulation training for
situations where applied learning is necessary but the high volume of trainees makes
it impractical to provide sufficient practice on-the-job; for example, a particular surgi-
cal technique for an entire group of surgical residents.
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30 Human Resource Development Review 13(1)
A significant advantage of this method is that it can be widely applied, but its uncon-
ventional nature may deter some participants altogether or result in the content being
taken too lightly. Trainees might not be comfortable with methods that incorporate
creativity and deviate from “traditional” formats (Occupational Health and Safety
Canada, 1995). Some studies show that this method enables learners to acquire the
knowledge more thoroughly and more rapidly than through other methods.
We reason that this method is appropriate for contexts where the training content
has a tendency to elicit stress or negative emotions in the learners. Examples cited by
Zemke (1995) include training on mathematics, accounting, payment and billing ser-
vices, where this method helped the learners internalize the content by its association
with the positive emotional impact induced by the stimulus. This same method has
been shown to be successful in the sensitivity training of medical practitioners,
enabling them to overcome the barrier of their technical medical understanding to
appreciate the person behind the illness (Kumagai, 2008).
The goal of team-training is to develop a team collectively, rather than each individual
trainee. A benefit of this method is that it helps to develop social skills and camarade-
rie within a team (Moreland & Myaskovsky, 2000). On the flip side, to be successful,
all the members of the team need to be on board and engaged in the training. There is
always the possibility of resistance from one or more of the group members that would
negatively affect the group performance and dynamics.
Team-training can be used to develop knowledge in a team or to develop skills in a
team (i.e., time management or planning skills). Moreland and Myaskovsky (2000)
cite findings that indicate that groups perform tasks better if their members are trained
together and work together through the learning process rather than if trained apart. In
a study that had participants trained on how to assemble radios, the groups whose
members were trained together recalled more and made fewer assembly errors, than
did groups whose members were trained separately (Liang, Moreland, & Argote,
1995, cited in Moreland & Myaskovsky, 2000). We recommend the team-training
method for any context where employees have to work together as teams in the work-
place. It is not uncommon for team members to live and work in different parts of the
world, making virtual team-training a real need in some organizations; virtual team-
training may include videoconferences, chat rooms, blogs or WebEx-sessions, inter-
net-based two-way audio/visual system (Forbush & Morgan, 2004; Holtbrugge,
Schillo, Rogers, & Friedmann, 2011).
In our review, we have identified 13 core training methods that we believe comprehen-
sively cover all the current methods available in the training field (notwithstanding
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Martin et al. 31
that the terms used to refer to these methods may differ among trainers). We used
seven criteria to analyze and compare these 13 training methods. We checked and
assured consistency and consensus of the analysis results among us; however, we must
acknowledge that consistency is no guarantor for validity, as the analyses were subjec-
tive judgments substantiated not by empirical data but by our knowledge of the train-
ing methods as reported in the literature.
Finally, we made some recommendations about which training methods are best
suited for which contexts. We should caution the readers that such recommendations
are designed to supplement, but not to replace, formal needs assessment designed to
empirically determine training needs and the most effective strategies to meet these
identified needs. Our recommendations for choice of training must be ultimately
guided by local conditions and context, and trainers must try to meet the gold standard
of training: using a variety of training methods to meet the diverse learning styles and
needs of trainees. The notion of hybridization of training methods was only briefly
touched on in our review; practitioners could significantly benefit from research find-
ings on combining training methods to create optimal benefits for specific contexts.
Technology is pushing our understanding of these methods, creating variation
within each method, and creating an abundance of “hybridization” possibilities. As
new technology continues to change the training landscape, it will be advantageous to
test our framework to ensure that it is robust enough to apply to these advancements.
Another area requiring a deeper investigation is how technology is and will come
to further affect all types of training methods. Technology is changing the workplace;
moreover, there are typically multiple generations of workers in the workplace and all
“. . . generations still require training but each has its own focus, perspective, and
expectations about that training” (Tyler, 2007, p. 40). The challenge then is not only
about updating training to reflect the changing technology but also understanding how
to use the technology to meet the range of needs and expectations of all the learners.
Finally, we hope that our research will promote greater attention about choice of train-
ing methods among trainers, elevate the level of communication among training research-
ers about training methods, and, consequently, foster greater effort to research and develop
or refine methods of training based on the 13 core methods we identified and profiled.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship,
and/or publication of this article.
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of
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Author Biographies
Barbara Ostrowski Martin is a curriculum consultant at the Humber Institute of Technology
and Advanced Learning. Her interests are in teaching and learning research.
Klodiana Kolomitro is an educational developer at Queen’s University. Her research interests
include learning theories, faculty development, and evaluation.
Tony C. M. Lam is a professor at the University of Toronto, whose teaching and research are
in measurement and evaluation.
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... At the same time, to overcome a limitation of the training on psychological safety developed by Dusenberry and Robinson (2020), our training almost exclusively contained active-learning methods, namely role-play and group discussion. Active-learning methods and interactions between learners are indispensable for learning, but they require time (Martin et al., 2014), which was limited in our 1-h session. Students only participated in two role-plays (one as active participants, and one as observers), while it is recommended to have three sets of role-plays (Blanchard and Thacker, 2012). ...
... Students only participated in two role-plays (one as active participants, and one as observers), while it is recommended to have three sets of role-plays (Blanchard and Thacker, 2012). Moreover, with a 1-h session, it was not possible to combine more than two training methods, although this combination enhances training effectiveness (Martin et al., 2014). Although short training is effective to impact peer pressure (Li, 2017), longer training may be required to impact psychological safety and trust, because as Hunt et al. (2021) argued it is difficult to foster psychological safety. ...
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Introduction: Peer feedback can be very beneficial for student learning in higher education, yet students may feel uncomfortable providing and receiving peer feedback: they may for example not feel safe in the group or have little trust in their peers’ abilities to provide feedback. Surprisingly, only few studies have investigated how students’ feelings of discomfort can be reduced. To fill this gap, we created a 1-h training session using active learning methods. The training focuses on enhancing students’ perceptions of psychological safety, trust in their abilities and in their peers’ abilities to provide feedback. Methods: The efficacy of this training was tested using a quasi-experiment with preand post-test design. Third-year bachelor students in physical education participated in a peer feedback activity to fulfill the requirement of an obligatory course. In 2019– 2020, 47 students participated in a peer assessment activity without specific training on psychological safety and trust (control group), while in 2021–2022, 42 students received specific training before peer assessment (experimental group). Results: Analyses include a comparison of the control and experimental groups with regard to (1) the evolution of their perceptions (psychological safety, trust in their abilities, and trust in their peers’ abilities) for pre-to post-test, (2) the quality of the feedback they provided to their peers (3) and the improvement of students’ work between the draft submitted for the peer activity and the final version submitted to the professor. Discussion: Results do not support the training’s efficacy, yet suggest pathways for future research.
... Martin et al. [96] stated how important the method used can affect the quality of training by conducting a comparative analysis of 13 types. These results show that the suitability of training methods and facilities is an important indicator that can measure ATM. ...
... For example, teachers who work with students dealing with networking problems can find creative ways to support them as well as create awareness concerning issues they can and cannot control. Preliminary studies stated that creative action can be considered both an agency and metacognitive activity [65,96,116]. Therefore, other creative Education Research International resources, such as associative and divergent thinking, beyond those included in this study, could facilitate the management of this kind of innovation. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic makes it difficult for the teaching and learning process to be conducted freely using all learning modes due to the limited interaction between teachers and students by distance. Therefore, teachers must creatively utilize various learning models to ensure students are properly taught during the pandemic. In this regard, this study aims to elaborate on the relationship between training management, effectiveness, and its impact on the teaching creativity of public teachers from kindergarten to upper secondary level. This is an online quantitative survey with a sample of state-funded teachers consisting of civil, honorary, and contract teachers. These three types of teachers were included in the category of teachers of the State Civil Apparatus. The accidental sampling technique was used to obtain data from 405 respondents through the questionnaire distribution for a month. This was greater than the initial target of 200 people as a condition for the eligibility of the number of respondents when using structural equation modeling (SEM)—AMOS analysis. A total of four hypotheses were proposed in this study, with three accepted and one rejected. The result showed that training management contributed significantly to training effectiveness but had a minimal contribution to increasing teachers teaching creativity during the pandemic. Furthermore, training effectiveness had a significant contribution to the invention of teaching teachers and was a full mediator. This study also found the lack of references about management training and the relationships built. Proper management is a key factor in encouraging the effectiveness of activity, but it is unable to improve the creativity of teaching teachers directly. The role of training effectiveness was significant because it increases the contribution of training management to teacher teaching creativity. This research also showed that the training carried out on ASN only be successful with good management. The effectiveness of teachers teaching creativity can only be increased through training, especially during a pandemic.
... Pelaksanaan kegiatan pengabdian masyarakat dilaksanakan dalam bentuk pelatihan. Pelatihan adalah suatu prosedur sistematis yang berkaitan dengan tatacara, kegiatan, ataupun teknik yang disusun sedemikian rupa untuk dapat meningkatkan sikap, kemampuan, pengetahuan dan juga keahlian orang yang mengikutinya guna meningkatkan kualitas pekerjaan mereka (Martin et al., 2014). Terdapat dua jenis pelatihan yang dapat dilakukan, yaitu on-the job dan off-the-job training (Milhem et al., 2014). ...
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An important factor for entrepreneurs to succeed in their business is offering products that meet market needs. Having knowledge of product design and process design is crucial for both current and aspiring entrepreneurs to create products that align with consumer preferences. This topic will be the answer to student learning in designing products and business processes, both businesses that are already running and those that are still in the preparation of business concepts. This community service activity aims to educate the students of Santa Maria 1 Cirebon High School, who are potential young entrepreneurs, on how to enhance operations management functions in their businesses through effective process and product planning that caters to market demands. These aspiring young entrepreneurs don't understand real-world business operations and don't understand how to build the right product features for the target market. A lack of understanding of the real world of business and understanding of designing the right processes and products can jeopardize long-term business continuity. The chosen approach for this activity is training, which will be conducted in the form of an Online Webinar. It will include informative presentations followed by interactive question and answer sessions. By providing participants with information on product and process design, we aim to overcome any initial lack of knowledge and skills they may have in achieving product-market fit. This activity has enhanced the knowledge and skills of the participants related to product design and process design in order to support the success of the business they will run. ABSTRAK Salah satu faktor yang dapat menyebabkan seorang wirausaha berhasil dalam menjalankan bisnisnya adalah karena menawarkan produk yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan pasar. Pengetahuan mengenai desain produk dan desain proses sangat penting bagi wirausaha maupun calon wirausaha untuk dapat tercapainya produk yang sesuai dengan preferensi konsumen. Topik ini diharapkan akan menjadi jawaban bagi pembelajaran siswa dalam mendesain produk dan proses bisnis, baik bisnis yang sudah berjalan maupun yang masih dalam penyusunan konsep bisnis. Kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat ini bertujuan memberikan pengetahuan kepada siswa-siswi SMA Santa Maria 1 Cirebon sebagai calon wirausaha muda, yaitu bagaimana memperkuat fungsi manajemen operasi di dalam bisnis melalui perencanaan proses dan produk yang cocok dengan perminataan pasar. Para calon wirausaha muda ini tidak memahami operasi bisnis dalam dunia nyata dan tidak memahami bagaimana membangun fitur produk yang tepat untuk pasar sasaran. Kurangnya pemahaman akan dunia bisnis secara nyata dan pemahaman mengenai merancang proses maupun produk yang tepat dapat membahayakan kelangsungan bisnis dalam jangka panjang. Metode pelaksanaan dilakukan dalam jenis pelatihan, dimana kegiatan ini dilaksanakan dalam bentuk Online Webinar yang terdiri dari pemaparan materi dan disertai dengan sesi tanya jawab. Pengetahuan dan keterampilan dalam hal desain produk dan desain proses yang pada awalnya tidak dimiliki oleh para peserta dalam kaitannya untuk mencapai product market fit dapat diatasi dengan pembekalan materi tentang desain produk dan desain proses. Kegiatan ini telah meningkatkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan bagi para peserta terkait dengan desain produk dan desain proses dalam rangka menunjang keberhasilan bisnis yang akan dijalankan.
... This perspective supports the human capital theory founded on the idea that employees' abilities are a resource an organisation can use to improve its productivity (Becker, 1962). This assertion corresponds with the findings by Tassabehji and Moorhouse (2008) and Martin et al. (2014), which provides an employee with knowledge, skills and job-related attributes which enhance their performance and effectiveness on their jobs. ...
Purpose Human resource development (HRD) has been considered in enhancing organisational operations as human resources are vital for organisational performance. This study aims to examine the role of HRD on the effectiveness of public procurement in Tanzania. Design/methodology/approach This study employed a cross-sectional research design under which data was collected from 168 procurement professionals in Dodoma city, Tanzania. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed to analyse the collected data and examine the structural relationships between HRD and the effectiveness of public procurement in Tanzania. Findings The findings revealed that all the variables of human resource development; career development, training and performance appraisal, are statistically significant and positively related to the effectiveness of public procurement. Therefore, the findings reveal that career development, training and performance appraisal as HRD practices play an important role in enhancing the effectiveness of public procurement in the surveyed public procuring organisations in Tanzania. Research limitations/implications This current study divides HRD into three main practices: career development, training and performance appraisal. This limits the study's applicability to other HRD practices that organisations may institutionalize to public procurement professionals who work in various public organisations in Tanzania. Originality/value This paper integrates the concept of HRD and public procurement effectiveness. Therefore, the study adds value to the literature on human resource management and public procurement management.
... Online training has limited interaction, causing a stressful level of loneliness and isolation (Yarberry and Sims, 2021). In addition, online training lacks practical application, a feeling of realism, the presence of trainer and immediate feedback (Martin et al., 2014;Shirmohammadi et al., 2022;Thite, 2022;Yarberry and Sims, 2021). Considering these limitations, organizations have been looking for more efficient alternatives. ...
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the potential contribution of the metaverse to improve training and development as a function of human resource development (HRD) perspective. The authors explore the benefits and challenges of the metaverse and introduce cases of companies using the metaverse in training. Design/methodology/approach A narrative literature review was conducted to collect information on the metaverse in training. The authors reviewed peer- and non-peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, white papers, corporate websites and blogs and business magazines. Findings A total of 75 articles were reviewed, including 14 cases, which were summarized to demonstrate how companies are applying metaverse technology in training contexts. For a more in-depth review, three cases were selected and summarized in terms of context, process and outcomes. Originality/value The metaverse is an emergent topic in HRD. It has the potential to revolutionize the functions of training and development through the combination of advanced technologies, including virtual reality, augmented reality and mixed reality. This article is the foundational attempt to provide a comprehensive summary of existing literature and case studies that highlight the potential of the metaverse in training within the context of HRD.
... A case study analyses a specific or complex topic in depth. Most methods are off-the-job (Martin et al., 2014;Ahadi & Jacobs, 2017). Experiential learning (or learning by doing) is one of the trends for the future in training and development (Innovation Training, 2020). ...
... Job satisfaction is an outcome variable which explains attitude of employees toward their job. Institutions expend numerous resources on training and development, to elevate the knowledge and skills of their staff as part of building positive feelings or job satisfaction, and recently, research effort has been dedicated to enhancing the link between employee training and job satisfaction (Martin et al., 2013). This relationship has garnered unceasing attention from an array of stakeholders. ...
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This study examined the relationship between on-job and off-job training on employee job satisfaction at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) in Western Uganda. To be able to realise the study objectives, a cross-sectional survey design, quantitative in nature was adopted. The targeted population comprised the employees of MUST where a sample of 230 respondents was chosen guided by Krejcie and Morgan sample determination table. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaires through telephone interview in order to adhere to Corona Virus pandemic guidelines related to social distancing. Simple random sampling technique was adopted during sample selection. Data collected was analysed using the analysis function of the Statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS version 20). The study findings indicate a moderate positive and significant relationship between on-job training/off-job training and job satisfaction. On-job training predicted job satisfaction to the tune of 14% compared to 9% variation in job satisfaction caused by off-job training. On the basis of observation that the case institution does not organize trainings for supervisors on how to conduct appraisals, the study recommends that human resource (HR) practitioners and policy makers inculcate trainings for supervisors on how to conduct performance appraisals in order to equip supervisors with sufficient performance appraisal skills to be able to appropriately identify employee training needs. Future research may carry out a long tudinal study to test how on-job and off-job training predict job satisfaction in a private higher learning institution setting in another country.
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For IT companies, one of the most important competitive advantages is a highly skilled workforce, so their learning and development, which can provide and stimulate this to a large extent, becomes one of the main priorities. In order to ensure its effectiveness, it is very important to select the most appropriate learning methods for the development of a specific set of skills. Therefore, the object of the article is the process of selecting the optimal method of learning of the employees of IT companies for the development of time management skills, which are important for each employee of the IT company, especially in the conditions of remote work. The goal is to improve the tools used to make such a choice. Fuzzy TOPSIS is the methodological basis of the article. The paper suggests a list of twelve criteria for achieving the research goal, which are divided into four groups: organisational aspects; resource components; quality criteria; and learning effectiveness criteria. The main choice was made from among six alternatives, including webinars, workshops, MOOCs, case studies, role-playing and shadowing. Because these learning methods are well suited to the development of time management skills. A total of three experts took part in this research. All of them work for IT companies and are qualified to carry out this type of analysis. The experts' linguistic ratings were converted into fuzzy triangular numbers on the basis of a seven-level linguistic scale. As a result, it was concluded that the best solution would be to use workshops to develop the time management skills of the company's employees. To check the reliability of the analysis, a sensitivity analysis was carried out, in which twelve different scenarios were analysed. In 75% of the cases, the result remained unchanged, which indicates a satisfactory level of quality of the calculations carried out. Thus, this approach makes it possible to significantly improve the effectiveness of employee learning and development through a well-founded selection of the most appropriate methods for developing a defined set of skills. It is also quite flexible and easily adaptable to other learning and development tasks.
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We suggest that AI can help decision-makers learn; specifically, that it can help them learn strategic interactions by serving as artificial training partners and thus help them to overcome a bottleneck of scarce human training partners. We present evidence from chess computers, the first widespread incarnation of AI. Leveraging the staggered diffusion of chess computers, we find that they did indeed help chess players improve by serving as a substitute for scarce human training partners. We also illustrate that chess computers were not a perfect substitute, as players training with them were not exposed to and thus did not learn to exploit idiosyncratic (“human”) mistakes. We discuss implications for research on learning, on AI in management and strategy, and on competitive advantage.
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Background: Empathy is an individual’s capacity to understand the behavior of others, to experience their feelings, and to express that understanding to them. Empathic ability is an asset professionally for individuals, such as teachers, physicians and social workers, who work with people. Being empathetic is also critical to our being able to live with others in general, and ultimately to leading happier lives. Subsequently it seems imperative to examine if and how it is possible to enhance people’s empathic ability. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to use narrative review method to analyze studies of empathy training in human service and social science disciplines over the past thirty years to address the questions: “How have people been trained in empathy and what are the findings?” and “How was empathy training evaluated and how valid are these evaluation findings?” Setting: Not applicable. Intervention: Not applicable. Research Design: Not applicable. Data Collection and Analysis: Narrative review. Findings: Twenty-nine articles pertaining to empathy training evaluation research were identified based on an advanced computer search on the following databases: “Education Full Text,” “ProQuest Education Journals,” “Web of Knowledge” and “Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Seven types of training methods were noted in these 29 evaluations with the most popular being didactic related (42%). All but two studies (93%) reported positive findings, mainly in regard to learning (86%), or the cognitive component of empathy. These findings suggest that regardless of the training method, individuals can learn about the concept of empathy. Unfortunately, information pertaining to the effects of training on individuals’ feeling for others, and their ability and propensity to take the perspective of others and to demonstrate it in the natural environments is lacking. Consequently, very little is known about the trainability of the affective and behavioral components of empathy. Also, some of the findings were moderated by gender, age, education level, and time of measurement. Regarding evaluation research designs, most of the studies used self-reporting to collect trainees’ knowledge about empathy and most of the quantitative studies used a control group and pretesting to examine training impact. Construct validity of both empathy measurement and training is very problematic. A majority of the studies did not clearly define empathy, provide training as defined, and/or measure what is being trained; conceptualization of empathy across studies was not consistent either. In sum, data from the studies reviewed were neither complete nor valid enough to provide a clear and full understanding of the trainability of empathy. More research is apparently needed and hopefully lessons learned from our review will be considered in designing future studies. Keywords: empathy training; empathy training evaluation; narrative review
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This book is on Human Resource Management (HRM), which is one of the most important functional fields of management of organizations today. HRM is a subject that is compulsory for managers irrespective of their fields of specialisation and interest. Also indeed, it is an important field of specialisation for those who wish to establish careers in human resources and personnel management. It is an exciting academic discipline and a practice as well. Sri Lanka is a developing country where industrialisation is pacing ahead considerably. It is my firm belief that many of the problems being faced by Sri Lankan organizations have been caused by mal-human resource management. It is almost impossible to find problems in managing organisations which do not involve in human resource issues. This book is about how to effectively and efficiently utilize human resources in order to achieve goals of an organisation. There are seven reasons for writing this book. 1. Management Education in Sri Lanka has been commenced nearly 50 years ago. Despite the long history of Management Education in Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan literature on fundamentals and functions of HRM in English is nil or negligible, and specially there is no single book on HRM in English Medium written by a Sri Lankan or by anyone relating to Sri Lankan context which can be used by the Sri Lankan student, Sri Lankan university teacher and the Sri Lankan manager. My basic objective of writing this book is to fill this gap to a significant extent. 2. Our students and even teachers find it difficult to understand fully the books written by foreign authors. 3. Many traditional topics in HRM such as job analysis, recruitment, hiring, welfare management, employee movements, health and safety management, employee discipline management, grievance handling and labour-management relations need to be Sri Lankan oriented by taking into account Sri Lankan Labour Laws and other specific cultural conditions. Hence there is an essential need to have learning and teaching materials, which match with Sri Lankan context. Consequently this book will improve quality and relevance of HRM education in Sri Lanka. 4. Many students in Sri Lanka are unable to find even foreign books to buy or read. 5. Current books being used by students and teachers of Management Studies are foreign books. Consequently a considerable amount of foreign exchange goes out of Sri Lanka in every year. To have a Sri Lankan text will have a positive impact on saving foreign exchange to a significant extent and of course I believe in that my book will give an encouragement to Sri Lankan academics to write books in English which is the language of Management Education (except a few programmes) in Sri Lanka. Postgraduate Education of Management in Sri Lanka is conducted in English. 6. This book will definitely increase the images of the Department of HRM, Faculty of Management Studies and Commerce, and the University of Sri Jayewardenepura. 7. The commemoration of 50th Anniversary of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura falls on February 2009. This book can be treated as a special contribution by the USJ to the society. In fact I have dedicated this book to the University. The purpose of this book is to provide a systematic and rational understanding of HRM, both conceptual understanding and job-oriented practical understanding to the reader. It delivers a systematic and scientific approach to the analysis and handling of issues in HRM with special reference to Sri Lankan context. This book is not a mere collection of thoughts of various foreign authorities but a book based on a distinct model developed by my perspective of HRM. It has been written by using Process Perspective and System Perspective containing many original theoretical formulations. I tried to write the book in a way that appeals to the person who has no or little competency of management of human resources. Also an attempt was made to present complex subject matters by simplifying English language with the intention of enhancing readability and ability of understanding of the reader. I believe in that the book has a balanced coverage of both traditional concerns and emerging concerns, and is highly readable and teachable. Key features of the book include the following: 1. Chapter objectives 2. Real-life examples 3. Actual experiences of the author as a Practitioner of HRM 4. Chapter summary 5. Review and discussion questions 6. Cases 7. Critical incidents 8. Skill builders 9. Chapter references 10. Glossary Long – term success of this endeavour made by myself as the pioneer in Sri Lankan literature of HRM depends on the degree of increasing productivity of organizations and human development through the application of the competency acquired from this book. May this book contribute to increase organizational productivity and success and then enhancement of standard of living of people! This is my heart- felt wish.
Functional communication training (FCT) is one of the most common and effective interventions for severe behavior problems. Since the initial description of FCT by Carr and Durand (1985), various aspects of the FCT treatment process have been evaluated, and from this research, best practices have emerged. This manuscript provides a review of these practices as they arise during the development of effective FCT interventions.
Each year approximately 2,500–3,000 students, primarily from clinical and counseling psychology programs, seek internship programs. But what is known about this key educational event? This article attempts to answer that question by reviewing the internship-related literature of the last 22 years. Existing literature demonstrates that there is a substantial body of knowledge but also points to the need for updates of old data and for additional new investigations.
In this study I explore the differences in the mental models of students exposed to three instructional methods of teaching an organizational behavior course-lecture-discussion, experiential, and hybrid. The lecture-discussion and experiential methods are integrated into a "hybrid method" to exploit the synergy between the best features of the two methods. My results suggest that the students in the hybrid group had more complex mental models than those exposed to either the lecture-discussion or the experiential method. Implications of the findings are discussed.