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Abstract

Bibliotherapy, as a part of expressive therapy, involves the systematic use of books to help people cope with mental, physical, emotional, or social problems. It has been widely recognized as an approach that holds great promise in helping librarians to better address emotional, behavioural and socials concerns of various groups of people. The benefits of bibliotherapeutic services such as reading groups, expanded readers’ advisory, books-on-prescription and information-on-prescription services as well as various outreach programs are well documented in the library literature. On the other hand, health professionals who work in cooperation with educators and librarians share medical records on the healing and consoling power of books. The paper will explore the role of bibliotherapy in a library setting and identify particular bibliotherapeutic schemes to be used when serving people affected by HIV/AIDS. The paper will provide an overview of the library project developed to address educational and recreational needs of the African people living with HIV/AIDS. The project was successfully implemented at the Nkosi’s Haven Library in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2010. Although the project targeted all the residents of Nkosi’s Haven, the paper will focus mostly on the part of the program developed for children and young adults. The paper will identify psychological and social factors that affect the targeted group of children within the African environment. Particularly, it will highlight a negative effect that stigmatization around the disease has on the lives of the HIV-infected individuals and their families. Within this context, bibliotherapy is seen as an effective way of reaching out and breaking the isolation of people, especially children living with HIV/AIDS. The paper will describe specific activities strategically chosen for the bibliotherapy sessions to provide a channel through which the participants of the program could analyze their behaviours or situations and address their concerns. It will also provide a list of books selected for the targeted group of children and young adults. The paper will highlight the great potential of bibliotherapy in addressing the needs of vulnerable people and thus justify the importance of implementing bibliotherapy within the library setting.
Partnership: the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, vol. 6, no. 1 (2011)
Bibliotherapy in a Library Setting: Reaching out to
Vulnerable Youth
Natalia Tukhareli
Independent Researcher, MLIS, PhD
ntukhare@gmail.com
Abstract
Bibliotherapy, as a part of expressive therapy, involves the systematic use of books to
help people cope with mental, physical, emotional, or social problems. It has been
widely recognized as an approach that holds great promise in helping librarians to better
address emotional, behavioural and social concerns of various groups of people. The
benefits of bibliotherapeutic services such as reading groups, expanded readers’
advisory, books-on-prescription and information-on-prescription services as well as
various outreach programs are well documented in the library literature. On the other
hand, health professionals who work in cooperation with educators and librarians share
medical records on the healing and consoling power of books.
The paper will explore the role of bibliotherapy in a library setting and identify particular
bibliotherapeutic schemes to be used when serving people affected by HIV/AIDS. The
paper will provide an overview of the library project developed to address educational
and recreational needs of the African people living with HIV/AIDS. The project was
successfully implemented at the Nkosi’s Haven Library in Johannesburg, South Africa in
2010. Although the project targeted all the residents of Nkosi’s Haven, the paper will
focus mostly on the part of the program developed for children and young adults. The
paper will identify psychological and social factors that affect the targeted group of
children within the African environment. Particularly, it will highlight a negative effect that
stigmatization around the disease has on the lives of the HIV-infected individuals and
their families. Within this context, bibliotherapy is seen as an effective way of reaching
out and breaking the isolation of people, especially children living with HIV/AIDS. The
paper will describe specific activities strategically chosen for the bibliotherapy sessions
to provide a channel through which the participants of the program could analyze their
behaviours or situations and address their concerns. It will also provide a list of books
selected for the targeted group of children and young adults. The paper will highlight the
great potential of bibliotherapy in addressing the needs of vulnerable people and thus
justify the importance of implementing bibliotherapy within the library setting.
Keywords
Bibliotherapy; children’s library; HIV/AIDS; collection development; library programs
Partnership: the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, vol. 6, no. 1 (2011)
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Introduction
The goal of this project was to identify library materials and bibliotherapeutic techniques
to serve the needs of a particular group of African children, young adults and adults,
living in Nkosi's Haven in Johannesburg, South Africa. Nkosi's Haven is a recognized
NGO offering holistic care and support for destitute HIV/AIDS infected mothers, their
children and resulting AIDS orphans. During her stay and work at Nkosi's Haven in the
spring and summer of 2010, the author set up a library for the residents of the shelter,
developed and purchased a quality collection of books and reference materials relevant
to the needs of the residents, and conducted a variety of educational and recreational
programs for children and adults, including an innovative bibliotherapy program on
HIV/AIDS.
The user group profile was described based on a thorough analysis of developmental,
psychological and social factors affecting this group within the South African
environment. The analysis revealed complex and varied problems faced by African
children living with HIV/AIDS. Particularly, it identified a strong stigma associated with
the HIV infection, which in most cases led to reduced social interaction or isolation of
people living with HIV/AIDS, lack of knowledge about the disease and a distorted
perspective on the culture to which they belonged. These findings provided the context
for collection development and the design of bibliotherapeutic schemes to serve the
targeted group of children and young adults.
Based on the user group profile, educational and recreational needs were identified and
addressed in the Nkosi's Haven Library through its collection and programming. The
bibliotherapy program designed for the targeted group of children and young adults
aimed to reach out and break the isolation of people living with HIV/AIDS, educate them
about the disease, increase their self-awareness and enhance their coping skills.
Although the project targeted all the residents of Nkosi's Haven, the paper will focus
mostly on the part of the program developed for children and young adults.
About Bibliotherapy
For the purpose of this paper, we define bibliotherapy as the practice of using books to
help people cope with their mental, physical, developmental or social problems.
Together with other similar practices, such as art therapy, dance therapy, music
therapy, and play therapy, bibliotherapy emphasizes the idea of the healing, consoling
power of art through its various forms. Today, almost one hundred years since the term
bibliotherapy was first introduced to therapists, bibliotherapy has been effectively
implemented by a wide range of professionals, including librarians, teachers and social
workers.
Recent studies on bibliotherapy show that it could be successfully implemented to help
diverse groups of people cope with stress, anxiety, isolation, grief and bereavement,
domestic abuse, problems related to physical and mental health, or man-made and
natural disasters. Bibliotherapy is used with people of all ages in a wide variety of
clinical, educational and community settings. The large body of available literature
Partnership: the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, vol. 6, no. 1 (2011)
3
reports on the application of bibliotherapy within a wide range of areas - from
conducting bibliotherapeutic sessions with special needs students (Kurtts and Gavigan
23-31) to helping library patrons survive terrorist attacks and natural disasters (Reid and
Van Hemert 40-45, Rycik 145-153), to providing self-help books to patrons with mental
and physical problems (Brewster 13-16, Turner 56-61). The latter, for example, has
become the most common form of bibliotherapy in the UK: a recent survey suggests
that "over half of English library authorities are operating some form of bibliotherapy
intervention, based on the books-on-prescription model" (qtd. in Morrison par. 11).
The psychological basis of bibliotherapy is related to the psychology of reading and the
"book-reader" interaction. In bibliotherapy, the value of literature depends strictly on its
capacity to encourage a therapeutic response from the participants. The individual's
feeling-response is more important than an intellectual grasp of the work's meaning.
When analyzing the bibliotherapeutic process, the researchers often stress the
importance of identification as part of an active dialogue between the reader and the
character in a book: the reader identifies with some real or fictional character in the
book and becomes aware of the parallels between his life and the one in the book
(Cornett and Cornett 18). As Herbert and Kent note, bibliotherapy provides a channel
for learning "how to solve some of the problems upon reflecting how the characters in
the book solved their problem" (Herbert and Kent 169).
Another common view articulated in the literature is that one of the main goals of
bibliotherapy is universalization - "recognition that you are not the only one who feels a
certain way" (Brewster 14). Bibliotherapy can help an individual to understand that he or
she is not the first or the only one to face a specific problem or challenge. Other
important goals of bibliotherapy include: relieving emotional or mental pressure;
developing an individual's self-concept; communicating new values and attitudes with
regard to the problem; as well as providing clients with alternative solutions to the
problem.
Background to the Problem
According to UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010, Sub-Saharan Africa
remains the region most heavily affected by HIV. More than 14.8 million children in Sub-
Saharan Africa were estimated to have lost one or both parents to AIDS in 2009
(UNAIDS 11). The research studies addressing the situation with AIDS in Africa identify
the major factors that contribute to the spread of the epidemic in this region. The
common view expressed in the literature is that poverty, income inequality, gender
inequality, cultural reality and the strong stigma surrounding the disease are the main
reasons why Africa bears the major burden of the epidemic (Cohen 1, Richter and
Desmond 1026, Bunn et al. 206). Stigma associated with HIV infection can
unfavourably impact the lives and behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The HIV-
positive individuals and their family members often experience "prejudice,
discrimination, stereotyping, and exclusion" (qtd. in Bunn et al. 198).
Feldman et al. examined how the stigma of AIDS often results in negative attitudes and
a lack of empathy toward persons with AIDS among Zambian high school students. The
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study showed that while most students expressed compassion for persons living with
AIDS, many believed that people living with AIDS should be locked up permanently or
even killed. During focus groups and individual interviews, some students were quite
candid about how they felt about persons with AIDS: "Since there is not yet cure for
AIDS, people with AIDS should be killed to reduce the spread of AIDS, or to stop the
spread of AIDS" (Feldman et al. 131).
Stigmatization can affect not only the lives of HIV-infected individuals, but also their
families and friends. Mason's study shows that in children experiencing stigma by
association with their HIV-positive mothers, stigma is exemplified by reduced social
interaction or isolation and feeling of shame. In addition, stigma by association is a
predictor of adverse outcomes, for example depression, loneliness, externalizing
behaviour and low self-esteem. The following statements made by African American
adolescents during the interviews illustrate the findings of the study:
I feel worse about myself because my mom has HIV; Because my mom has HIV,
I feel apart and isolated from the rest of the world; Friends would drop me if they
knew my mom has HIV; People would think I am a bad person if they knew my
mom has HIV; Most people think that a person with HIV is disgusting. (Mason et
al. 67)
Another major psychological factor we need to take into account when approaching this
group of children is that they might face death in a family and go through bereavement.
HIV/AIDS is a multigenerational family disease: death and losses occur across
generations. Many of these children and families must cope with multiple deaths and
losses, and thus have little time either to prepare for death or to mourn past losses.
Thus, bereavement is a major psychological stressor in their lives (Boyd-Franklin,
Steiner and Boland 6). Developmental grief comprises a full spectrum of emotions, such
as fear and anxiety, anger, shame and guilt, and depression (Di Ciacco 93). Also, with
AIDS mourners, grief is made more difficult by some other factors with which they must
also cope. Their issues are frequently compounded by poverty and various levels of
family dysfunction and stigma (Silverman 78).
Research has also shown that HIV-infected children might experience severe
psychological or emotional problems due to a lack of adults emotionally available to
these children. It has been widely recognized that a young child needs a warm, intimate,
consistent and predictable relationship with a mother to grow up psychologically
healthy. Clinical observations revealed that trauma, neglect, parental loss and
separation increase the risk of insecurity as an adult. Without a consistent and
predictable caregiver, isolation-rearing can result in disorganized social behaviour (Di
Ciacco 51).
Finally, when working with this particular population of children, we need to take into
consideration the impact of chronic illness on the developmental tasks of childhood.
Garrison and McQuiston note that chronically ill children face the same developmental
tasks and challenges as healthy children. However, mastery of these tasks and
successful coping with the typical stresses of childhood are complicated by the ongoing
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presence of a disease that can significantly alter the child's physical and mental
functioning, as well as his or her interactions with the environment (Garrison and
McQuiston, 25).
To summarize, the AIDS epidemic has made an unparalleled attack on the lives and
well-being of children in Africa. HIV/AIDS affects children on many levels -
economically, socially and psychologically. Children's vulnerability is a product of a
number of factors, such as poverty, multiple deaths and losses in a family, various
levels of family dysfunction, lack of education about HIV/AIDS and the strong stigma
surrounding the disease. Stigmatization puts enormous psychological strain on children
living with HIV/AIDS. It often prevents children from articulating their concerns and fears
as well as triggering a full spectrum of negative emotions, such as anxiety, anger,
shame and guilt, depression and despair, loneliness, fear of social isolation and fear of
death. As a result of the stigmatization of the disease, many HIV-infected children and
their families live in a "conspiracy of silence" (qtd. in Boyd-Franklin, Steiner and Boland
5).
Problem Statement
A thorough analysis of the social, developmental, psychological and emotional effects
that HIV/AIDS has on African children helped to create a comprehensive profile of the
targeted group of children. The user group of Nkosi's Haven Library could be described
as a group of children and adolescents between 3 and 19 years of age, both HIV-
positive and HIV-free. All children have at least one family member living with HIV;
some have been orphaned because of HIV/AIDS. The disease might impede cognitive
development of these children, particularly the development of literacy skills. Children
might experience severe psychological and emotional problems, such as depression,
anxiety, loneliness and low self-esteem. In addition, children may face multiple deaths in
their families and go through bereavement. Due to the "secrecy" surrounding HIV/AIDS,
children might not have access to relevant information on HIV/AIDS. Also, they might be
stigmatized by their peers outside Nkosi's Haven and be rejected by extended family
members or larger communities. Stigma and bias around the disease may negatively
affect the way children conceptualize the disease. Moreover, stigmatization might cause
low self-awareness in children and thus distort their perception of the cultural domain to
which they belong.
Based on the user group profile, the following educational and recreational needs were
identified and addressed in the Nkosi's Haven Library through its collection and
programming:
Children need to be educated about HIV/AIDS through materials
appropriate to their age and developmental level.
Children need to be educated about their culture to define their place in
the world and to develop self-awareness and a sense of belonging.
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Children need to be given a safe place, a "shelter" where they have a
chance to expand their world through creative interaction with books
and their peers.
Given the fact that home and school environments in Africa often do not encourage
young children's active participation in making meaning of HIV/AIDS, a library can
become a "safe place" where children might feel free to talk about the disease and ask
questions. Within this context, bibliotherapy is seen to be an effective way of addressing
educational and recreational needs of African children living with HIV/AIDS.
Strategically chosen stories can provide a channel through which children can discuss
their behaviours and get insights into their own situations. Books can help children see
universality in difficulties that they are experiencing ("I am not alone," "AIDS is not an
African disease"). By stimulating a sense of a shared fate with others, bibliotherapy can
help a child overcome loneliness, isolation and despair.
Objectives
The objectives were identified based on common cognitive and affective changes that
clients experience through bibliotherapy. It was anticipated that at the end of the
program, the participants would:
increase their awareness about HIV/AIDS (understand what HIV and AIDS mean
and how the HIV virus affects the immune system; identify ways in which HIV is
transmitted; and learn how to protect themselves from contracting HIV);
gain comfort in thinking and talking about HIV/AIDS;
reduce the intensity of their emotional and psychological pressure;
become aware of the "universality" of problems and challenges they are going
through;
obtain insight into their own situations;
feel less isolated and gain an increased network of emotional support;
respond to people with HIV/AIDS in a caring and compassionate manner;
enhance essential coping skills, positive thinking, and appreciation for life.
Methodology
The methodology involved an extensive literature review as well as one-on-one and
group interviews with the participants of the program. The conceptual framework of the
project was based on a thorough analysis of both the theoretical and practical aspects
of bibliotherapy, such as types of bibliotherapy, goals and objectives, methodology, the
psychological bases of bibliotherapy, book selection, evaluation, as well as challenges
and concerns about bibliotherapy. A comprehensive review and analysis of the literature
on developmental, psychological and social factors affecting African people living with
HIV/AIDS helped to describe a user group profile as well as provided context for
collection development and the design of bibliotherapeutic schemes to serve the user
group. The analysis of a variety of bibliotherapy practices and case studies in the UK
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and North America helped to identify the ways bibliotherapy could be used to help the
targeted group of children cope with life.
Overall, 82 people - 59 children and young adults (age 6-19) both HIV-positive and HIV-
free and 23 adults (age 20-58) all HIV-positive participated in the Bibliotherapy Program
on HIV/AIDS. The program was designed in a 3-month cycle and delivered through
weekly sessions. Each group session was 45 minutes for children and young adults and
1.5 hours for adult participants. The evaluation activities were conducted at the end of
the program cycle. A thorough analysis of the data collected through the following
activities provided clear evaluative information about the effectiveness of the program.
Oral quizzes were conducted for each age group at the end of the program to
ensure that the young participants successfully acquired essential information
about HIV/AIDS.
One-on-one interviews with the adult participants were conducted at the end of
the program to evaluate changes experienced by the participants to ensure that
program objectives were achieved.
For the list of questions used during oral quizzes and interviews, see Appendix 1.
The following criteria were used to select appropriate bibliographic materials used
during the bibliotherapy sessions:
accuracy and currency of the information on HIV/AIDS;
relevance of the content (reading and discussing the book provides insight into
the problem to be solved);
appropriateness of the information to the children's developmental level;
a high level of sensitivity in approaching terminal illness and death;
literary value;
illustrations creating a good visual image;
accuracy of cultural details and interpretations.
For the list of books selected for the bibliotherapy sessions, see Appendix 2.
Program Sessions and Activities
The bibliotherapy sessions addressed the following issues:
HIV/AIDS: terminology; facts and myths about HIV transmission and prevention.
Death and Loss: death as a natural part of the life cycle - universal, inevitable
and irreversible.
Positive thinking and appreciation for life.
African cultural norms and values: to broaden children's perspective on their
ethnic roots and traditions, enhance their appreciation of African culture and
develop self-awareness.
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It should be noted that for African children affected by HIV/AIDS, the development of
self-awareness becomes of special importance since their perspective on African
culture is often significantly distorted by the negative cultural connotations attached to
HIV/AIDS. The study of the ways in which seven- and eight-year-old children in South
Africa understand HIV/AIDS revealed stereotyped attitudes towards HIV infected
people. Collectively the children associated HIV infection with black people. When
asked about the disease, a common response was: "Some blacks are getting it" (Bhana
313).
The above mentioned topics were explored through individual and group read-aloud
sessions, group storytelling sessions and one-on-one conversations with the
participants of the program. The group sessions for young children lasted 45 minutes
and were conducted in a small group setting (4-5 children of the same sex and age
group).
Due to the well recognized therapeutic value of the read-aloud group sessions, they
constituted the main component of the program. The benefits of these types of sessions
are well documented in the literature on bibliotherapy. As Jane Davis states, "the read-
aloud model facilitates the creation of a series of powerful interplays: between the
written text and the aural experience; between hearing the text from outside and
processing it within; between one's own experience and that of the author and
characters; between the privacy of personal consciousness and the public experience of
group discussion" (Davis 715). It should be mentioned that the read-aloud sessions
designed for the bibliotherapy program on HIV/AIDS included a strong educational
component since one of the primary goals of the program was to increase the HIV
awareness of the participants in the program. The facilitator would explain the HIV/AIDS
terminology and teach the HIV/AIDS related issues while reading a particular children's
book on HIV/AIDS.
The storytelling sessions were considered particularly important for a targeted group of
people since they honour the oral tradition which coexists with the reading culture within
the African context. Sarah Webb, who studied library services in Rwanda and worked
on a few local library projects there, emphasized the central role of storytelling in
education and library service in Africa (Webb 28-30).
Table 1: A Step-by-Step Description of the Program Activities
Program Session
Sequence of Activities
Read-Aloud Sessions
1. Warm-up activity: the facilitator introduces a topic for a
session.
2. Read-aloud activity: the facilitator reads the selection
aloud clearly.
3. Guided group discussion: the facilitator initiates and
furthers a discussion allowing each member to
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contribute ideas and feelings about the literature. The
participants are encouraged to ask questions and share
their stories relevant to issues and situations discussed.
4. Writing activity (for adult participants only): the
participants are asked to fill out the participant reflection
forms. The forms include open questions related to the
topics covered during the session.
5. Follow-up activity: participants' reflections and
comments.
Storytelling Sessions
1. The facilitator tells or reads a story selected from a
collection of African folktales (with particular emphasis
on the "orphan tales").
2. The participants identify and discuss the moral of the
story through a guided group discussion.
3. The participants retell the stories as a group or
individually.
The "Wall of
Happiness" Sessions 1. During one-on-one conversations with the facilitator, the
participants are asked to identify a few things that make
them feel happy.
2. The facilitator displays all the individual answers on
colourful posters (with participants' permission).
Outcomes
The participant outcome analysis based on the data collected throughout the evaluation
shows that:
Approximately 92% of young participants (54 out of 59) demonstrated
o increased knowledge about HIV/AIDS and related issues
o an understanding of the universalities of the difficulties they are
experiencing.
Approximately 78% of young participants (46 out of 59) acknowledged
o a decreased level of fear about HIV/AIDS
o an increase in their comfort level in thinking and talking about HIV/AIDS.
Approximately 91% of adult participants (21 out of 23) reported
o a decreased level of isolation and mental and psychological pressure
o improved self-esteem and orientation to reality
o enhanced positive thinking and attitudes
o strengthened coping skills.
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Approximately 43% of adult participants (10 out of 23) developed an action plan
to make a positive change in their current situations.
The interview data collected through the "Wall of Happiness" sessions revealed that
approximately 38% of children (18 out of 48) mentioned books, reading and the library
as something that makes them feel happy. Listed below are some of the responses that
children made in relation to the following question: "Could you please tell me about a
few things that make you feel happy?"
I feel happy when I: play with my friends; learn how to read; spend time with my
family (Odelle, 8); think of my mom who was beautiful; speak with Rumbi; read
books (Bonolo, 13); play with my friends; come to the library; borrow a book in
the library; draw with a chalk outside (Christine, 6); read books in the library;
listen to a story; see animals in the Zoo; see birds flying in the sky; when my
father takes me home (Syiabonga, 6); play with my friends; eat cornflakes; come
to the library; go to the church; when somebody reads a book to me (Sibongile,
8); read books; play with my mom; play drum (Junior, 6); go to the park; go to
see my brother; come to the library; eat cakes, jelly and custard; when I am with
my mom (Philisile, 11); come to the library; play with my friends; go to my cousin;
go to the movies with my mom (Jester, 8); read books; draw pictures; play with
little babies; when my mom hugs me (Sphiwe, 9); play nicely with my friends;
read and do puzzles in the library; follow my mom when she walks (Innocent, 6).
Findings
The Nkosi's Haven Library project has proved that the future of children's libraries in
African countries as well as in all developing countries lies in our attempt to design a
"space" and a "place" that will aim at an adequate satisfaction of fundamental human
needs. It has demonstrated that a library, with its collection, services and programs,
could become a safe environment where the needs of love and belonging, self-esteem
and self-actualization, education and aesthetics could be met.
The project justified the importance of the implementation of creative bibliotherapy
within the library setting. It proved that bibliotherapy has great potential in addressing
the needs of vulnerable groups of people, especially children. Bibliotherapy can help
children cope with their own physical, psychological and social problems, and become
more compassionate to other people's problems. By recognizing similarities between
themselves and book characters, a child can understand that he or she is not the first or
only one to face a specific problem or challenge. By reinforcing a "child-book"
connection, bibliotherapy reveals the power of a book to a young reader: a book might
be a friend, a companion or just a safe place, a "shelter."
Conclusion
I have always believed in the consoling power of books and the reading process itself.
During the three months that I spent at Nkosi's Haven, I had a chance to see this power
in action. Books helped these kids escape. Books helped expand their world, which was
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especially beneficial because in most cases the children at Nkosi's Haven were trapped
in their physical and emotional problems. Although I realize that books cannot protect
the children of Nkosi 's Haven from the reality where, in the majority of cases, there is
"no escape to a happy ending," I believe that they can help children build the coping
skills they need to survive in this harsh reality.
Although this project targeted the HIV/AIDS community in South Africa, its outcomes
could find a primary application within the Canadian context and be used to help
Canadian children and adults living with or affected by HIV cope with their lives.
Moreover, the bibliotherapy program could be successfully implemented to serve the
needs of other groups of library patrons within the Canadian community - from
Aboriginal people in Northern communities, to immigrants and refugees who often cope
with emotional problems when adapting to a new environment, to children living through
tragic events as a result of both man-made and natural disasters (e.g. children from
Haitian or Japanese communities in Canada who were affected by devastating
earthquakes).
Overall, I truly believe that bibliotherapy can help strengthen relationships between
public libraries and their communities. By developing and providing bibliotherapy
services targeting vulnerable children and adults, public libraries will reinforce their
commitment to the community they serve. This seems especially important in today's
unpredictable reality when people of all ages, and especially children, need help when
coping with emotional issues caused by lack of security.
Acknowledgements
The author wishes to acknowledge Susan Getchell and Daisy Oliver for their valuable
contribution to the library project at Nkosi's Haven, as well as Gail Johnson, a Founding
Director of Nkosi's Haven, for her help with the implementation of the library programs.
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Morrison, Blake. "The Reading Cure." The Guardian 5 Jan. 2008. Web. 29 Mar. 2011.
Reid, Martha, and Shannon Van Hemert. "Shelter form the Storm: Resources to Help
Children and Young Adults Cope with Grief and Trauma." School Library Journal
46.1 (2000): 40-45. Print.
Richter, Linda M., and Chris Desmond. "Targeting AIDS Orphans and Child-Headed
Households? A Perspective from National Surveys in South Africa, 1995-2005."
AIDS Care 20.9 (2008): 1019-1028. Print.
Rycik, Mary T. "9/11 to the Iraq War: Using Books to Help Children Understand
Troubled Times." Childhood Education 82.3 (2006): 145-153. Print.
Silverman, Phyllis R. Never Too Young to Know: Death in Children's Lives. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.
Steiner, Gloria L., Nancy Boyd-Franklin, and Mary G. Boland. "Introduction: Rationale
and Overview of the Book." Children, Families and HIV/AIDS: Psychological and
Therapeutic Issues. Eds. Nancy Boyd-Franklin, Gloria L. Steiner and Mary G.
Boland. New York, London: The Guilford Press, 1995. Print.
Turner, June. "Bibliotherapy for Health and Wellbeing: An Effective Investment."
Australian Public Libraries and Information Services 21.2 (2008): 56-61. Print.
"UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010: HIV and AIDS Estimates and
Data, 2009 and 2001." UNAIDS Web (2010): 1-32. Web. 29 Mar. 2011.
Webb, Sarah. "Creating a Reading Culture: One Librarian's Mission in Rwanda."
Children and Libraries 3.3 (2005): 29-30. Print.
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Appendix 1: Questionnaires
HIV/AIDS Quiz Questions
Age group: 6-10
1. What is a virus?
2. How does the HIV virus differ from other viruses (for example, flu virus)?
3. HIV, AIDS... What is the difference?
4. How do children get the HIV virus in their blood?
5. Can moms and dads also have HIV and AIDS?
6. Can animals have HIV or AIDS?
7. Can one get AIDS from mosquitoes?
8. Must one always be very careful with blood?
9. Can one get better if one has AIDS?
10. Is it alright for everyone to know if you are sick with AIDS?
11. Can one play normally with someone who has AIDS? Is it safe to hug them, hold their
hands and eat with them?
12. Do you think of HIV/AIDS as an African disease? Do people from other parts of the
world get HIV/AIDS?
Age group: 11-19
1. What are HIV and AIDS? Is it one disease or two different diseases?
2. What is an immune system? What is immune deficiency?
3. Why does the HIV virus weaken the immune system?
4. What are "white blood cells" and how do they fight viruses?
5. When will HIV cause people to get AIDS?
6. What happens to a person when he or she gets HIV?
7. How does a person know if he or she has HIV?
8. How can people get HIV/AIDS?
9. What do "heterosexual" and "homosexual" mean?
10. Is HIV only a homosexual (gay) disease?
11. What is a condom? How does a condom protect you from getting HIV?
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12. Is there a cure for HIV/AIDS?
13. How long do people who have HIV or AIDS live?
14. Do you think that what you have learned about HIV/AIDS made you less afraid of the
disease?
15. Do you feel more comfortable now when you think or talk about HIV/AIDS?
Interview Questions for Adults (Age 20-58):
1. Could you please tell me if you have learned anything new about HIV/AIDS during our
sessions?
2. What is your opinion about the disease? Has it changed over the past three months? If
"Yes", please tell me how and why?
3. Do you think that our sessions helped you to decrease your fears and concerns about
living with HIV/AIDS?
4. How do you feel about yourself as a part of the community you live in?
5. Did our sessions help you improve your self-confidence?
6. Did our sessions and particularly group discussions help you feel less lonely, less
isolated?
7. Did our session on death and bereavement help you deal with the recent death at Nkosi's
Village?
8. Did our sessions help you develop a more positive attitude towards your current
situation?
9. Have you developed any new strategies of coping with stress over the past three months?
10. Do you feel more comfortable now sharing your concerns and problems with other
people? Will you consider disclosing your HIV status to your children if you have not
done it yet?
11. Could you think of any ways how you can improve your current situation (go back to
school, find a job, reconcile with your family)?
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Appendix 2: A list of books selected for children and young adults
Books on HIV/AIDS
Arnold, Linda. My Mommy Has AIDS. Blue Bell, PA: Dream Publishing,1998.
Atkins, Jeannine. A Name on the Quilt: A Story of Remembrance. New York: Aladdin
Books, 2003.
Beake, Lesley, and Karin Littlewood. Home Now. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge
Publishing, 2007.
Bush, Jenna. Ana's Story: A Journey of Hope. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.
Earl, Alexander. My Dad Has HIV. Minneapolis, MN: Fairview Press, 2005.
Ellis, Deborah. Our Stories, Our Songs: African Children Talk about AIDS. Markham,
ON: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 2005.
Ellis, Deborah. The Heaven Shop. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 2004.
Hopes, Wishes and Dreams: A Book of Art and Writing by Children Living with
HIV/AIDS in their Family. Toronto: The Teresa Group Publications, 2005.
Merrifield, Margaret. Come Sit by Me. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry and Whiteside,1998.
Mhlophe, Gcina. Ithemba Means Hope. Cape Town: Shuter & Shooter, 2006.
Michael, Jan. City Boy. New York: Clarion Books, 2009.
Oosthuizen, Sarah. Nosipho Comes to Stay. Somerset West, South Africa: Nation
Rising Publishing, 2007.
Reeder-Bey, Valerie and Annisha M. Wilburn. My Grandma Has AIDS: Annisha's Story.
San Diego, CA: Agouron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 1999.
Schuster, Liz. Lolita and Maria Ask "What is AIDS?" Queenstown, Guyana: The Guyana
Book Foundation, 2001.
Stratton, Allan. Chanda's Secrets. Vancouver, BC: Annick Press, 2004.
Tasker, Mary. Jimmy and the Eggs Virus. Newark, NJ: National Paediatric HIV
Resource Centre, 1988.
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The Group of Five. Bye-Bye Secrets: A Book About Children Living With HIV or AIDS in
their Family. Toronto: The Teresa Group Publications, 2002.
Verniero, Joan C. You Can Call Me Willy: A Story for Children about AIDS. Washington,
DC: American Psychological Association, 1994.
Books on Loss and Bereavement
Buscaglia, Leo. The Fall of Freddie the Leaf: A Story of Life For All Ages. Thorofare,
NJ: Slack Publishing, 1982.
LeMieux, Michele. Stormy Night. Toronto: Kids Can Press, 1999.
Mills, Joyce. C. Gentle Willow: A Story for Children about Dying. Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association, 2004.
Mills, Joyce. C. Little Tree: A Story for Children with Serious Medical Problems.
Washington, DC: Magination Press, 2003.
Olsen, Sylvia, and Ron Martin. Which Way Should I Go? Winlaw, BC: Sono Nis Press,
2008.
Varley, Susan. Badger's Parting Gifts. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.
African Folktales
Badoe, Adwoa. The Pot of Wisdom: Anansi Stories. Toronto, ON: Groundwood Books,
2008.
Bryan, Ashley. Ashley Bryan's African Tales, Uh-Huh. New York: Atheneum Books,
1998.
Bryan, Ashley. Beat the Story Drum, Pum-Pum. New York: Atheneum Books, 1997.
Bryan, Ashley. The Night Has Ears: African Proverbs. New York: Atheneum Books,
1999.
Bynum, Eboni and Ronald Jackson. Jamari's Drum. Toronto, ON: Groundwood Books,
2004.
Cleeve Dot. The Feather. London: Tamarind Books, 2003.
Diakite, Baba Wague. A Gift from Childhood: Memories of an African Boyhood. Toronto,
ON: Groundwood Books, 2007
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Diakite, Baba Wague. Mee-An and the Magic Serpent. Toronto, ON: Groundwood
Books, 2007.
Diakite, Baba Wague. The Hatseller and the Monkeys. New York: Scholastic Inc., 2009.
Diakite, Baba Wague. The Hunterman and the Crocodile: A West African Folktale. New
York: Scholastic Inc., 1997.
Diakite, Baba Wague. The Magic Gourd. New York: Scholastic Inc., 2003.
Fati and the Honey Tree. Winnipeg, MB: OSU Children's Library Fund, 2002.
Fati and the Old Man. Winnipeg, MB: OSU Children's Library Fund, 2004.
Fati and the Green Snake. Winnipeg, MB: OSU Children's Library Fund, 2005.
Kilaka, John. Amazing Tree. New York: North-South Books, 2009.
Lippert, Margaret H. and Won-Ldy Paye. Mrs. Chicken and the Hungry Crocodile. New
York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 2003.
Lottridge, Celia B. The Name of the Tree. Toronto, ON: Groundwood Books, 2002.
Mandela, Nelson. Madiba Magic: Nelson Mandela's Favourite Stories for Children. Cape
Town, South Africa: Tafelberg Publishers, 2002.
Morpurgo, Michael. The Butterfly Lion. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
Onyefulu, Ifeoma. The Girl Who Married a Ghost: and Other Tales from Nigeria.
London: Frances Lincoln Children's Books, 2010.
Tadjo, Veronique, ed. Talking Drums: A Selection of Poems from Africa South of the
Sahara. NY: Bloomsbury, 2004.
Wulfsohn, Gisele. Bongani's Day. London: Frances Lincoln Children's Books, 2005.
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Part I: Introduction. Steiner, Boyd?Franklin, Boland, Rationale and Overview of the Book. Part II: The Epidemiological and Medical Context. Boland, Oleske, The Health Care Needs of Infants and Children with HIV/AIDS: An Epidemiological Perspective. Hanna, Mintz, Neurological and Neurodevelopmental Functioning in Pediatric HIV Infection. Part III: The Psychosocial Context: Psychosocial Issues for Different Groups. Boyd?Franklin, Aleman, Jean?Gilles, S. Lewis, Cultural Sensitivity and Competence: African?American, Latino, and Haitian Families with HIV/AIDS. Bartlett, Keller, Eckholdt, Schleiffer, HIV?Relevant Issues in Adolescents. Aleman, Kloser, Kreibick, Steiner, Boyd?Franklin, Women and HIV/AIDS. Part IV: Therapeutic Approaches with HIV?Infected Children and Their Families. Boyd?Franklin, Aleman, Steiner, Drelich, Norford, Family Systems Interventions and Family Therapy with HIV/AIDS. Pollock, Thompson, The HIV?Infected Child in Therapy. Torrance, O. Lewis, La Brie, Czarniecki, Nonpharmacological Pain Management for Children with HIV/AIDS: Working with Hypnotherapeutic Techniques. Gomez, Haiken, S. Lewis, HIV/AIDS Children's Support Group. Kreibick, Caretakers' Support Group. Boyd?Franklin, Drelich, Schwolsky?Fitch, Death and Dying/Bereavement and Mourning. Service Deliverers and Systems Issues. Boyd?Franklin, Boland, A Multisystems Approach to Service Delivery for HIV/AIDS Families. Boyd?Franklin, Boland, Caring for the Professional Caregiver. Pozen, HIV/AIDS in the Schools. Brady, Boyd?Franklin, Staloff, Professional, Ethical and Moral Issues. Harvey, Legal Issues. Research and Public Policy. Sherwen, Tross, Psychosocial Research Concerning Children, Families, and HIV/AIDS: A Challenge for Investigators. Harvey, HIV/AIDS and Public Policy: Recent Developments.
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This article examines how developmental bibliotherapy featuring young adult literature serves as an effective strategy to address emotional issues in the lives of gifted teenagers. Following a discussion of bibliotherapy and a rationale for its use with gifted students, a description of a young adult novel entitled The Mosquito Test is presented. The authors then describe how a group of intelligent teenagers in a high school English classroom responded to the novel in a bibliotherapeutic fashion. Also provided is an annotated bibliography of current young adult literature, appropriate for use with bibliotherapy in secondary classrooms.
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This booklet provides an overview of the process of bibliotherapy and suggests some techniques that can be used in implementing it. Various sections of the booklet discuss the following topics: (1) the definition of bibliotherapy, (2) the history of bibliotherapy, (3) bibliotherapy and human needs, (4) the bibliotherapeutic process, (5) the methodology of bibliotherapy, (6) the attributes of a bibliotherapist, (7) and the limitations of bibliotherapy. An appendix contains a list of books to be used in bibliotherapy. (FL)
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The primary objective in this study was to explore what HIV and AIDS mean to seven- and eight-year-old children in South Africa and how sexual and gender dynamics are embedded within these meanings. Against representations that associate young children with innocence, the paper argues for a more capacious view of young children as sexual and gendered agents with the ability to exercise their rights. In contrast to research that addresses children as relatively passive desexualised beings, focusing on their dependence on adults, their innocence and their need for protection, this paper examines how HIV and AIDS are constructed and negotiated by young people. It views children not simply in terms of their need for sexual rights but as potentially active participants in the negotiation of their rights. Viewing children's rights as highly contested, the notion that young children have sexual rights opens up possibilities for children (including those from marginalised groups) to talk about their concerns and pleasures, fears and hopes, as well as issues relating to sexual rights and resistances. By working creatively with teachers, it may be possible to broaden young children's knowledge of HIV and AIDS and sexuality within a more supportive environment.