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Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions

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... Covariates (i.e., gender, ethnicity, mother's education, father's education, parents' relationship) were entered in Step 1. Family predictability and personal predictability beliefs, which were centered first by subtracting the mean from each score (see Aguinis, 2010), were entered in Step 2. The interaction term, which was created by multiplying the centered family predictability and personal predictability scores, was then entered in Step 3. As shown in Table 2, the final model for life satisfaction, accounting for a combined total of 41% of the variance, was significant. The significant interaction was probed and graphed using simple slopes analyses, following procedures outlined by Aiken & West (1991). As shown in Fig. 1, the association between family predictability and life satisfaction differed for individuals high and low in personal predictability beliefs. ...
... As shown here, the final model, which included the covariates, family predictability, predictability beliefs, and the interaction term, accounted for 34% of the variance in love of life scores. To examine the significant interaction more closely, simple slope analyses were, once again, conducted following guidelines outlined by Aiken & West, (1991). As shown in Fig. 3, the association between family predictability and love of life scores differed for adults high and low in personal predictability beliefs. ...
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Recollection of family unpredictability in one’s childhood has been associated with depression and/or anxiety (Hood et al., 2019; Ross et al., 2016); however, it is unclear whether low levels of unpredictability are beneficial for our well-being. Following the positive psychology trend, the present study assessed whether less unpredictability (i.e., more predictability) is associated with mental health (life satisfaction, love of life, and happiness) in two samples, and whether these relationships relate to control and personal predictability beliefs. Among college students (N = 161), mental health correlated with more family predictability, weaker unpredictability beliefs, and more internality. In addition, we detected two moderation models in the student sample: stronger personal unpredictability beliefs dampened the relationship between family predictability and life satisfaction, and low internality intensified the relationship between low family predictability and love of life. In a separate study, adults (N = 220) with stronger mental health also reported more family predictability, weaker personal unpredictability beliefs, and internality. Beliefs regarding internality and personal unpredictability mediated the relationship between family unpredictability and both love of life and life satisfaction. Finally, regression analysis indicated a moderation, in that the combination of less family predictability and stronger unpredictability beliefs appears particularly detrimental for adults’ love of life. Taken together, one’s family of origin and current beliefs (that likely develop in the context of that family) relate to current mental health. We conclude with limitations and implications of our findings.
... In addition, hierarchical regression analysis may overcome the drawbacks of PLS in that the strength of the relationships is overestimated, and the significance of the relationships is underestimated [76]. We mean-centered the data before analysis to minimize the potential multicollinearity issue [77]. ...
... To further interpret the results, we plotted the moderating effects of video emotion polarity and video involvement. A high and low level of a moderator (i.e., video emotion polarity and video involvement) are indicated by the scores one standard division above and below the mean [77]. The moderating effect of video emotion polarity on the relationship between product information visualization and purchase intention was plotted in Figure 2. The effect of product information visualization on purchase intention is stronger with a low level of video emotion polarity than that with a high level of video emotion polarity. ...
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Short videos have been increasingly prevalent around the globe and have become an important channel for users to share product and service information and for marketers to attract potential customers. However, rarely have studies empirically examined the impact of product review videos posted on short video platforms on consumers’ purchase intention. Grounded in the elaboration likelihood model, this study proposes a research model to investigate how the product review video features (i.e., video information quality, product information visualization, video emotion polarity, and video publisher credibility) influence consumers’ purchase intention. Moreover, the moderating role of involvement (i.e., product involvement and video involvement) in the above-mentioned relationships have also been examined in this new research context. We empirically validate the research model with survey data. It is interesting to find that product information visualization and video publisher credibility are significantly and positively related to purchase intention. Video involvement negatively moderates the relationship between video publisher credibility and purchase intention. Furthermore, video emotion polarity negatively moderates the relationship between product information visualization and purchase intention. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... To further validate the moderating effect, we followed the recommendations of Aiken and West (1991) and conducted a simple slope test, and plotted the interaction effect of tie strength and instrumental ties on employee creativity at low and high values of tie strength. The results present that when tie strength is weak at one standard deviation below mean (β = 0.11, p< ns), the effect of instrumental ties on employee creativity is insignificant. ...
... Following Aiken and West (1991), we further examined the moderating effect using slope test and plotted the interaction effect of tie strength and expressive ties on employee creativity at low and high values of tie strength. The slope test reveals that when tie strength is high at one standard below deviation, the effect of expressive ties on employee creativity is most strong (β = 0.37, p < .01). ...
... We obtained CIs (based on 5000 bootstrap samples) using the PROCESS macro for SPSS (Hayes, 2013), which also includes the stepwise procedure described by Baron and Kenny (1986). All continuous measures were mean-centered (Aiken & West, 1991) in regression analysis. ...
... see Table 2). 1 The negative signs on these coefficients indicated an inverted U-shape relationship between age diversity and the two mediators. Following Aiken and West (1991), we plotted these two inverted U-shape relationships (see Figs. 2 and 3). Based on Pierce and Aguinis's (2013) suggestion, and following Weisberg (2005), we estimated that the inflection point occurs at the mean centered value 1.08 of age diversity for team effectiveness, and 1.15 for team identification. ...
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While prior research has shown a relationship between age diversity and outcomes in teams, little knowledge exists regarding the theoretical mechanisms driving these outcomes. Furthermore, mixed findings from prior research indicate that these relationships differ depending upon contextual factors. Our field study tests two potential mediators and one possible moderator of the relationship between age diversity and team performance. Multi-source data collected from 71 Chinese township government leadership groups showed that team age diversity is positively associated with survey measures of two emergent states, specifically, perceived team effectiveness and collective team identification, which in turn positively predict an objective measure of team performance. The fully mediated model was moderated by leader moral identity, which strengthened the relationships between age diversity and both team emergent states. Results also showed a curvilinear relationship between age diversity and the two team emergent states which was not significantly moderated by leader moral identity. These findings contribute to extant knowledge from an integrative approach within a non-Western cultural context. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... p = .008). Its interpretation with simple slopes [63,64] revealed a positive relationship between deliberative thinking style and attribution of blame to the offender regarding female victims (coefficient = 13.36, SE = 4.35, t = 3.07, p = .002, ...
... p = .005). Its interpretation with simple slopes (Aiken & West, 1991;Dawson, 2014) revealed a negative relationship between deliberative thinking style and attribution of severe consequences for the victim regarding male victims (coefficient = -0.34, SE = 0.10, t = -3.31, ...
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Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deliberative vs. intuitive thinking styles on forensic judgments of legal professionals. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) that low deliberative thinking would be related to judgmental biases (b) that lawyers would report a greater tendency and preference toward deliberative thinking in comparison to students and make more rational judgments. Method Ninety-one lawyers and 120 undergraduate students, who served as controls, were asked to read a criminal case depicting sexual harassment (SH) and judge victim and offender blame, whether the case constitutes SH, and the damage for the victim. Results Deliberative thinking of lawyers was higher than students, and higher than their intuitive thinking style, supporting the more rational blame attributions of the former. In addition, higher deliberative thinking was related to a stronger perception of the event as SH. Nevertheless, all the participants were more inclined to perceive the case as SH when the victim was a woman instead of a man. Conclusions The results suggest that gender stereotypes and bias may persist despite high deliberative thinking and may even be manifested through deliberative thinking processes. Awareness of legal professionals of these biases as well as the development of more objective tools which will help make the judging process less subjective—will ensure more accurate assessment of victims, offenders, and cases.
... Thus, following Xu et al. [40], we applied hierarchical multiple regression analyses to test our hypotheses using SPSS 25. All independent variables were centered at their grand mean [41]. Table 1 presents the means, standard deviations, and correlations of all variables. ...
... Specifically, we regressed the dependent variable overall performance on the independent variable employee voice and its square. It is essential to include the first order in the regression equation [41], as leaving it out is tantamount to assuming that the turning point is at employee voice = 0. As shown in model 3 of Table 2, the quadratic term of voice is negatively related to performance evaluations (β = −0.41, ...
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In the rapidly changing business environment, employee voice can be a key driver of organizations’ sustainable development. However, how can employees ensure that they receive a positive response from their managers? To what extent do the voice patterns within the team influence managers’ reactions to one employee’s voice behaviors? To address these questions, we draw on the antecedent–benefit–cost framework (ABC framework) and knowledge management literature to investigate the inverted U-shaped relationship between employee voice and managers’ performance evaluations and the role of voice consensus (i.e., the extent to which the frequency of an employee’s voice is dissimilar to that of his/her coworkers) in shaping this relationship. The results of a field study of 173 employees in 37 groups show that employees who engage in moderate levels of voice are rated as better performers than those who rarely voice or voice very frequently, especially when the frequency of employees’ voice deviates from the voice frequency of their coworkers (i.e., low consensus). These findings highlight that it is not only important to explore the frequency of voice when studying managerial responses to employee voice but to also examine other dimensions of the voice behavior (such as voice consensus).
... δ i is the firm-specific component of the error term and ε itþ1 is a pure random component of the error term. We mean-centered the moderators before generating their interaction terms (Aiken & West, 1991). ...
... Model 7). We followed Aiken and West (1991) and plotted the interaction effects in Figure 2. As shown in Panel A, the association between political ties and operational efficiency is negative (b = À.931, p < .01) in regions with a low level of factor market development (i.e., 2 standard deviations below the mean), but it becomes non-significant (b = .297, p > .10) in regions with a high level of factor market development (i.e., two standard deviations above the mean). ...
Article
Although the significance of relational ties with supply chain partners to firms' operations management has been frequently studied, it is unclear how political ties, which represent another form of relational ties that is especially important in emerging economies, relate to operational efficiency. Drawing on the political embeddedness perspective, we propose a negative association between political ties and operational efficiency and examine how this association is moderated by environmental and firm‐level factors. Using panel data of listed private firms in China, we show that political ties are negatively correlated with operational efficiency. In addition, this negative relationship is stronger when firms operate in regions with less developed factor markets and in highly competitive industries. However, the negative relationship is weaker for firms with high levels of foreign shareholding and customer concentration. These findings caution against the downsides of political ties for operations management and highlight strategies for reducing their negative effect. Firms should be cautious about the use of political ties in emerging economies because it can lead to poor operational efficiency. The negative impact of political ties on operational efficiency is more profound in regions with less developed factor markets and in highly competitive industries. To reduce the dark side of political ties on operational efficiency, firms could introduce foreign shareholders or develop a condensed customer base.
... In all regression models reported in Table 2, the VIF values are below 5 which indicate that multicollinearity is not a concern for us to interpret the results (O'brien, 2007). In addition, the independent variables are centered before creating the interaction terms to test the moderation hypotheses (Aiken & West, 1991). ...
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This case study examines the implementation of a multi-disciplinary course to prepare students for living overseas. The same instructor taught this course to over 1000 students over a period of four years. Teaching evaluations and written comments were used discovering that a traditional course was preferred over an online course. Findings suggest that colleges carefully consider the target markets and curriculum before deciding whether the curriculum should be Internet-based.
... Our data were collected in October 2020 when both right-and left-leaning national outlets presented more consistent messages about the seriousness of the virus (Deane et al., 2021;Leonhardt, 2021). Because media exposure was reported in minutes and unstandardized coefficients are sensitive to measurement units (Aiken and West, 1991), we standardized this variable to improve interpretation. ...
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Occupational health and safety are critical in promoting the wellness of organizations and employees. The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most life-threatening viruses encountered in recent history, providing a unique opportunity for research to examine factors that drive employee safety behavior. Drawing from terror management theory, we propose and test a moderated mediation model using data collected from employees working during a peak of the pandemic. We identify two sources of influence - one external (i.e., media exposure), and one internal (i.e., HR practices) to the organization - that shape employees' mortality salience and safety behaviors. We find that COVID-19 HR practices significantly moderate the relationship between daily COVID-19 media exposure and mortality salience, with media exposure positively associated with mortality salience at lower levels of HR practices but its effects substituted by higher levels of HR practices. Moreover, our results also show that mortality salience spurs safety behaviors, with age moderating this relationship such that younger - but not older - employees are more likely to engage in safety behaviors due to mortality salience. Taken together, we offer theoretical implications for the safety behavior literature and practical implications for organizations faced with health crises or having employees who commonly work in hazardous conditions.
... This reflected the direct effects of predictors and stroke severity on cognitive function and the indirect effect of predictors on cognitive function mediated by stroke severity. To avoid overfitting, we retained all predictors, regardless of whether the path was significant (34). ...
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Objectives Cognitive impairment may affect one-third of stroke survivors. Cardiovascular risk factors and stroke severity were known to be associated with cognitive function after stroke. However, it is unclear whether cardiovascular risk factors directly affect cognition after stroke, indirectly affect cognition by changing stroke severity, or both. Moreover, the effect of a combination of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was conflicting. We aimed to investigate the multiple direct and indirect associations and inspire potential intervention strategies. Materials and methods From February 2020 to January 2021, 350 individuals received cognitive tests within 7 days after incident stroke. Cognitive tests were performed using the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A moderated mediation model was constructed to test the indirect associations between cardiovascular and demographic risk factors and cognition mediated through stroke severity, the direct associations between risk factors and cognition, and the moderating effects of hypertension and diabetes. Results Age (estimate, −0.112), atrial fibrillation (estimate, −4.092), and stroke severity (estimate, −1.994) were directly associated with lower cognitive function after stroke. Vascular disease (estimate, 1.951) and male sex (estimate, 2.502) were directly associated with better cognition after stroke. Higher education level was associated with better cognition directly (estimate, 1.341) and indirectly (estimate, 0.227) through stroke severity. The combination of hypertension decreased the magnitude of the negative association between atrial fibrillation and cognition (estimate, from −4.092 to −3.580). Conclusion This is the first Chinese study exploring the moderated and mediating associations between cardiovascular risk factors, stroke severity, and cognitive function after stroke. Age, female sex, and atrial fibrillation were directly associated with lower cognition after stroke. The combination of hypertension might have a positive effect on cognition.
... One challenging aspect of performing a power analysis for an interaction is selecting an appropriate value for the magnitude of the interaction effect -for the correlation between 1 2 and . A common practice is to interpret interaction effects in light of the simple slopes (the association between 1 and , at different values of 2 (Aiken & West, 1991); see also (Finsaas Figure 8. The shape of an interaction. ...
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Interaction analyses (also termed ‘moderation’ analyses or ‘moderated multiple regression’) are a form of linear regression analysis designed to test whether the association between two variables changes when conditioned on a third variable. It can be challenging to perform a power analysis for interactions with existing software, particularly when variables are correlated and continuous. Moreover, while power is impacted by variable parameters that are always present in cross-sectional observational studies, such as reliability and skew, it can be unclear how to incorporate these effects into a power analysis. The R package InteractionPoweR and associated Shiny app allow researchers with minimal or no programming experience to perform analytic and simulation-based power analyses for interactions. At minimum, these analyses require the Pearson’s correlation between variables and sample size, and parameters including reliability, skew, and the number of discrete levels that a variable takes (e.g., binary or likert scale) can optionally be specified. In this Tutorial we demonstrate how to perform power analyses using our package and give examples of how power can be impacted by main effects, correlations between main effects, reliability, and variable distributions. We close with a brief discussion of how researchers may select an appropriate interaction effect size when performing a power analysis.
... ":" symbolises interaction. (Aiken and West, 1991). ...
Article
Amphibians are of great interest to scientific research, but many populations are highly threatened and declining worldwide. Although varieties of aquatic survey methods exist, traditional methods for terrestrial surveys are very time-consuming but often not very effective. A novel method to detect terrestrial amphibians is the use of wildlife detection dogs. While their use for and factors affecting detection rates of mammals and reptiles are well documented, scientific literature on amphibian detection dogs is just emerging. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of environmental (habitat, weather) and training factors on detection probabilities for a newt detection dog. An experienced wildlife detection dog was trained and tested on smooth (Lissotriton vulgaris) and great crested newts (Triturus cristatus). Environmental and training parameters were recorded for 101 test trials and used as explanatory parameters in a binomial GLM. I found that detection probability strongly depended on temperature, whereby optimal temperatures varied by habitat. Detection probabilities were lowest in short grass, but there was no strong difference among forest habitats. They were higher for males than females and for great crested than smooth newts. For this dog, detection probabilities were also higher if the dog was working off the leash than on it, and when the dog was cooperative than fatigued. Dog performance increased over time with a strong increase at the beginning and a plateau at 92% detection probability. However, detection rates of this specific dog slightly decreased when the dog was working more than two hours. The findings of this study provide a valuable basis for future deployments of this and other amphibian detection dogs. Dogs can certainly work in a variety of different habitats, although directed off-leash searching with enough time in complex habitats and specific training for small species with low detection distances may enhance their performance. The study design might also consider the temperature and humidity at which the dog will be deployed. A regular assessment of the detection dog using blind tests will give an indication on its reliability. Assessments similar to this study may further be used to estimate detection probability for a particular dog under given field conditions. Regular blind tests will show when the detection rates reached a plateau, which may then give an indication on its reliability. Altogether, results suggest that newt detection dogs may provide a highly promising survey method, which can certainly be transferred for detecting other amphibians in terrestrial habitats.
... Table 2 shows our empirical results. In Table 2, we present the results for the standardized regression estimates from Model 1 to Model 7. The mean values of variance inflation factors (VIF) for each regression were much lower than the benchmark of 10, which means that multicollinearity was not a serious concern [88]. We also conducted F-tests to examine the significance of R square changes, and the results indicate that newly added independent variables in each model could account for significant variances in dependent variables. ...
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This paper provides an investigation into how different types of government supports can be used to enhance organizational resilience capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on resource orchestration theory, this study examines the effects of direct government support and indirect government support on organizational resilience capacity, the mediation role of digital capability, and the moderation effects of organizational unlearning. The empirical results from 205 Chinese firms show that direct government support and indirect government support have positive effects on organizational resilience capacity, which were mediated by digital capability. In addition, organizational unlearning positively and negatively moderates the positive relationship between direct government support, indirect government support and digital capability. Our theoretical discussion and empirical results contribute to the literature related to organizational resilience, digital capability, government support, and organizational unlearning.
... Next, we investigate the moderating effects of collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity. The main variables are mean-centered to reduce multicollinearity (Aiken & West, 1991). Model 2 adds interaction effects of physical attractiveness squared and the cultural moderators of collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity on the linear and nonlinear relationships. ...
Article
As customer co-creation behaviors in the peer-to-peer (P2P) economy become an increasingly important part of the global economy, the study of its drivers is of great necessity. One of the important yet overlooked drivers is digital physical attractiveness. This research draws on impression formation theory to examine how physical attractiveness drives customer citizenship behaviors in the P2P economy. More importantly, the current study investigates the non-linear effect of digital physical attractiveness and how the physical attractiveness effect differs across cultures. Two studies are used to test the framework. Study 1 uses secondary data crawled from China’s largest P2P accommodation-sharing platform. Study 2 analyzes the survey data from 533 accommodation-sharing customers in China (n = 213), Hungary (n = 159), and the U.S. (n = 161). Results found an n-shaped (inverted U) physical attractiveness effect in Study 1 in China, but a U-shaped effect in the cross-cultural context. The U-shaped effect is only effective when customers score high on collectivism, low on power distance, or low on masculinity.
... Significant interactions and follow-up comparisons in the core models were examined by refitting the model with a dummy coded categorical factor to examine simple effects at each level of the categorical factor. In the case of significant interactions involving continuous factors, simple effects were also conducted by rescaling a given continuous factor 1 SD above/below the mean (Aiken & West, 1991). For example, a significant interaction between O-span score and adjective type might indicate that the effect of the latter depends on working memory ability. ...
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What we say generally follows distributional regularities, such as learning to avoid "the asleep dog" because we hear "the dog that's asleep" in its place. However, not everyone follows such regularities. We report data on English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals to examine how working memory mediates variation in a-adjective usage (asleep, afraid), which, unlike typical adjectives (sleepy, frightened), tend to resist attributive use. We replicate previous work documenting this tendency in a sentence production task. Critically, for all speakers, the tendency to use a-adjectives attributively or non-attributively was modulated by individual differences in working memory. But for bilinguals, a-adjective use was additionally modulated by an interaction between working memory and category fluency in the dominant language (English), revealing an interactive role of domain-general and language-related mechanisms that enable regulation of competing (i.e. attributive and non-attributive) alternatives. These results show how bilingualism reveals fundamental variation in language use, memory, and attention.
... Here, we were interested in whether system justification is stronger when national ingroup identification was strong (as per SIMSA) or weak (as per the strong dissonance-based SJT) and whether this is qualified also by the endorsement of the harmony group norm. To answer these questions, we probed the significant objective status x harmony norm x national identification interaction in both the purist and realist tests (see Table 5), by examining the simple association (Aiken & West, 1991;Hayes, 2015) between national identification and system justification amongst the objectively (dis)advantaged, when their harmony norm was weak (M-1SD) versus strong (M+1SD). ...
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Why do poorer and less-educated Asians trust their institutions of governance more than richer and well-educated people, despite their disadvantaged position within society? System justification theory (SJT) assumes that this trust is driven by a system-level motivation that operates independently from social identity needs. In two nationally representative surveys spanning 27 cumulative years (Ntotal = 221,297), we compared SJT’s explanation with a newer social identity model of system attitudes (SIMSA): that system justification amongst disadvantaged Asians is driven by a group norm for harmony, especially amongst those strongly invested in their national ingroup. Results supported SIMSA more than SJT. Specifically, a strong sense of national pride/loyalty boosted trust in systems of governance amongst poorer and less-educated Asians, both when societal norms for harmony (Study 1), and personal endorsement of this norm (Study 2) were strong. Hence, social identity needs help to explain stronger system justification amongst objectively disadvantaged Asians
... To test the study's hypotheses, linear stepwise regressions were conducted. As recommended (Aiken & Stephen, 1991), the BJW and fake news scores were centered and an interaction term was created to test for the moderation effect. In the first step of the regressions, centered BJW and fake news scores were entered. ...
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Context: Hygiene and social distancing were recommended as strategies to mitigate the proliferation of COVID-19 early in the pandemic. Despite their importance, many people resisted implementing such strategies. In this sense, it is important to understand social and psychological processes underlying people's prevention behaviors regarding COVID-19. Method: This research aimed to assess the influence of fake news (FN) and belief in a just world (BJW) on prevention behaviors for the COVID-19. 198 participants indicated the extent to which they believed in FN about COVID-19, answered questions about their hygienic behavior and social distancing, completed the personal BJW scale, and answered a sociodemographic questionnaire. The results indicated that believing in FN was associated with fewer hygienic behaviors [β=-0,17, t(195)=-2,44, p=0,016] and less social distancing [β=-0,16, t(195)=-2,28, p=0,024]. Personal BJW moderated the effects of FN on social distancing [β=0,16, t(194)=2,21, p=0,028]. Results: These results show the impact of FN on prevention behaviors during the pandemic and illustrate the role of BJW on this relationship. Conclusions: It was concluded that it is essential to inform the population by trustworthy sources of knowledge and that public figures only disseminate scientifically accurate information. Although BJW may mitigate the negative impact of misinformation, the reduction of fake news and its impact is of utmost importance for public health during a pandemic.
... Listwise deletion of missing data left 45 schools available for the first analysis, which examined attendance as the dependent variable and independent variables student overall climate ratings, school type (dummy variable coded), and the climate by school type product variables needed to assess the interaction effect. The climate variable in each of these product variables was centered; that is to say, the mean on student overall climate was subtracted from each student climate score as recommended by Aiken and West (1991). ...
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This research examines the relationship between student ratings of school climate and three student outcome variables: Number of credits earned in one semester, number of days in attendance in one academic year, and number of discipline referral incidents in one academic year. The research further examines whether these relationships were moderated by school type. Data were disaggregated by traditional and three types of alternative schools (i.e., innovative, academic remediation, and behavior-focused). Results indicate that the predictive power of school climate is moderated by school type, thus school climate is not uniformly predictive of school outcome. Implications of findings are discussed.
... First, we centered the personality factor scales around the midpoint for each scale, as recommend for this type of analysis [59,52], [see also 54,60]. Therefore, we subtracted 3 from each original (not standardized) personality factor score, because ratings were measured on a 5-point Likert scale. ...
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The present study examined whether disagreement between self-, other-, and meta-perceptions of personality was related to burnout symptoms and eudaimonic workplace well-being. We expected disagreement in personality perceptions to explain incremental variance in burnout symptoms and eudaimonic workplace well-being beyond the main effects of the different personality ratings. Participants were 459 Dutch employees and their 906 colleagues (who provided other ratings of personality). The results, based on polynomial regression with response surface analyses, highlighted strong main effects of self-rated personality traits in relation to burnout symptoms and eudaimonic workplace well-being. This study provides, as far as we know, the first empirical evidence that self-rated Honesty-Humility negatively predicts burnout symptoms. Results showed little evidence on incremental effects of disagreement between personality perceptions, with one clear exception: when respondents misjudged how their colleagues would rate them on Honesty-Humility (i.e., discrepancy between meta- and other-perceptions), respondents experienced more feelings of burnout and less eudaimonic workplace well-being. Our study contributes to the literature by providing evidence that discrepancies between meta- and other-perceptions of Honesty-Humility affect employee well-being (i.e., burnout symptoms and eudaimonic workplace well-being).
... If assumptions were not met, non-normal distributions were transformed. Continuous variables were mean-centered to improve interpretation of the intercept (Aiken & West, 1991;McClelland & Judd, 1993). For Aim 1, we used the R package, lavaan, to conduct a path analysis. ...
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Objective: Muslims living in the United States (MLUS) report high mental health stigma. They also underutilize professional psychological help, despite experiencing rising Islamophobia and comparatively poorer mental health. In line with double stigma, we examined whether MLUS who perceived greater Islamophobia also experienced greater self-stigma of seeking help, and whether this was related to negative help-seeking attitudes. We also assessed therapist demographic and treatment modality preferences and explored how they related to risk factors for low help-seeking. Method: Utilizing a representative sample of 350 MLUS (50% women, 33% immigrants) acquired via a Qualtrics panel aggregate, we assessed a path model of help-seeking attitudes to determine the direct and indirect effects of perceived Islamophobia via self-stigma and psychological distress. Therapist and treatment preferences were examined via multiple regression models and analysis of variance (ANOVAs). Open-ended responses were coded through content analysis. Results: Perceived Islamophobia was associated with greater psychological distress and also indirectly related to negative help-seeking attitudes via greater self-stigma. Therapists of a similar background, therapy in a mosque-setting, group therapy, and imam collaboration were more appealing to MLUS who were at risk for low help-seeking. Conclusions: Among MLUS, perceived Islamophobia may present a dual risk-simultaneously increasing psychological distress and indirectly leading to negative attitudes toward help-seeking via higher self-stigma. Conversely, for MLUS at risk for low help-seeking, accessible community-based treatments and treatment with a Muslim or race/ethnicity-matched therapist may facilitate help-seeking behaviors. Future work may determine whether addressing double stigma within Muslim communities (e.g., Islamophobia and self-stigma) may improve psychological help-seeking. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Although we detected the existence of a multicollinearity problem with the variance inflation factor, we found that the largest variance inflation factor was 1.35, meaning there was no substantial multicollinearity problem in the data (Aiken & West, 1991). To avoid discrepancies within the same information source, one questionnaire was designed for entrepreneurs (Questionnaire A), and one questionnaire was designed for vice-presidents of finance (Questionnaire B). ...
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Drawing on the theory of socioemotional wealth (SEW), we propose that family relationships have implications for entrepreneurial orientation (EO) through enhancing energy and reducing stress, and that this is especially important when family decision-making is not inclined towards EO. Survey data from 528 family firms, collected from across China, generally supports our model, which in turn explains the heterogeneity behind family firms' priorities and routines. The results indicated that family decision control negatively affects a firm's EO, while family cohesion and adaptability play a negative moderating role in this relationship. Our findings help explain how family provides a powerful source of motivation that can boost EO in the family business, offering meaningful implications for research on entrepreneurship.
... We followed the commonly used procedures for testing moderation. 23 We standardized our variables to reduce the effects of multicollinearity. ...
Article
Purpose: We examined the associations between intersectional minority stress and substance use among sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents of color and the moderating role of family support on these associations. Methods: Data were from a national U.S. sample of SGM adolescents of color (N = 3423). Intersectional minority stress was assessed with the LGBT People of Color Microaggressions Scale. Results: Intersectional minority stress was associated with greater odds of recent and heavy alcohol and recent cannabis use, but not tobacco use. When examining specific domains of intersectional minority stress, racism from SGM communities was associated with greater odds of recent and heavy alcohol, and recent cannabis use, whereas heterosexism from same racial/ethnic communities was associated with greater odds of recent cigarette and cigar use. Family support was associated with lower substance use. Family support was not a significant moderator. Conclusions: Findings underscore the need to examine intersectional stressors that SGM adolescents of color experience and to bolster family supports to prevent substance use. Family support did not buffer the effects of intersectional minority stress on substance use outcomes, suggesting that other strategies, such as other forms of family support (e.g., identity-specific support) and community-level and structural changes that target reducing and dismantling oppression are needed to reduce the deleterious impact of intersectional minority stress.
... Research questions 2 and 3 are addressed through correlation analysis, controlling for country dummies, visual inspection of the bar charts, and ordinary regression analysis to quantify the explanatory power between variables. The analysis also examines whether the strength of the relationship between support for a more climate-friendly agriculture and level of education varies across the left-right political spectrum, using a standard procedure (Aiken & West, 1991). ...
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This paper aims to improve an understanding of how EU citizens’ left-right political positions and ideological polarization on climate change affect their views on both agriculture and diet in the context of climate change policy. It uses the methods of survey research and quantitative analyses of the data (principal components and regression analysis). The work combines the Farm- and Fork-related branches of Eurobarometer 93.2 (2020) and focuses on citizens’ responses to a more climate-friendly agriculture and their ideas about “eating a healthy and sustainable diet”. The analysis revealed different degrees of citizen support for a more climate-friendly agriculture and climate-friendly dietary options (including meat reduction). Citizens’ left-right political position correlated negatively with support for a more climate-friendly agriculture and support for climate-friendly dietary options, but only in the Northwestern European countries. In these countries, the expected positive correlations between level of education and pro-environmental variables were found, but these correlations were not observed among the right-leaning participants. However, the positive correlation between support for a more climate-friendly agriculture and support for climate-friendly dietary options was less strongly affected by left-right political positions. Hence, public opinion is moving in the direction of EU climate policy over time; however, citizens did not fully acknowledge the priority of meat reduction in this context. Key policy insights • Political and ideological polarization has seriously interfered with attempts to promote a more climate-friendly agriculture (Farm) and changes in dietary thinking including meat reduction (Fork). To promote these changes, more work must be done on the role of cultural identities in relation to climate issues. • Yet, EU citizens showed an increasing support for more climate-friendly agriculture, which correlated positively with support for climate-friendly dietary options across the left-right political spectrum. Science-based information regarding climate risks and/or loyalty to local farmers may play a role in shaping these opinions. • The priority of meat reduction needs considerably more attention to achieve the EU’s climate objectives. For citizens, both nutritional (health) and environmental (i.e., climate change, as well as species decline and farm animal welfare) reasons can be strong motivating factors to consider meat reduction.
... On the other hand, the slope for customer incivility predicting employee retaliation intention at high procedural injustice is 0.36 (p < 0.001). The interaction effect is graphed in Fig. 2 on the basis of the simple slope approach, with customer incivility and procedural injustice redefined as plus/minus one standard deviation from the corresponding means (Aiken and West, 1991). The figure shows that employees who suffer high customer incivility maintain a stronger retaliation intention, especially when they hold a stronger perception of procedural injustice. ...
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Why would employees fight back to reciprocate uncivil customer behaviors? This research explores employees’ revenge propensity by drawing on frustration–aggression theory. On the basis of survey data collected from hotels in Hong Kong, we examined the customer incivility–employee retaliation link through a serial mediation relationship among job demand, emotional exhaustion, and employee disengagement, along with the moderation of procedural injustice. This research adds to the literature by identifying the negative spiral effect to highlight the frustration–cognitive–affective–attitudinal–aggression chain of relationships. It illuminates the coupling effect of incivility–injustice on employee retribution intention. This joined harmful force helps better articulate the importance of the organizational process in the frustration–aggression hypothesis. It further informs an incivility–retaliation mechanism that helps explain the relationship among customers, organizations, and employees.
... We examined separate simple slopes depicting the relationship between seeking motivation and influence in family decisions by mapping out the regression outputs. Separate plots were produced for individuals whose scores on PSO were one standard deviation below the mean, at the mean, and one standard deviation above the mean (Aiken & West, 1991;Liu et al., 2017). As shown in Figure 2(a), the SF-II relationship was non-significant for the low-PSO group (II = −.624 ...
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Individuals’ motivation explains their efforts to meet their preference in consumption situations within family. This study aims to examine the relative importance of intrinsic and external elements of adolescents’ tourist motivation in explaining their influence over parents’ decisions regarding family vacation. We also look at the moderating role of disagreement resolution approach used in their family life. Data from 571 responses by adolescents in Taiwan revealed that seeking force (SF) is positively related to their perceived influence across the stages of family travel decisions. In contrast, adolescents’ escape force (EF) is unrelated to these outcomes. Furthermore, adolescents’ problem-solving orientation (PSO) to conflict resolution appears to strengthen the relatedness of SF to adolescents’ perceived influence at the initiation stage (II), the search and evaluation stage (SEI) and the final decision stage (FDI). The non-problem-solving orientation (NPSO) to conflict resolution appears to weaken the relationship between EF and SEI. We also found an inverse-V-shaped pattern of influence as speculated. This contrasts with the conventional view of this as a declining or V-shaped pattern in family purchase decisions.
... For anxiety, symptom burden was significantly associated with anxiety ( = 3.34, p < 0.001)Although the two-way interaction between symptom burden and physicians' communication skills (β = 0.01, p = 0.893) was not significant, there was a significant three-way interaction among symptom burden, physicians' communication skills, and disease understanding (β = 0.23, p = 0.014). As recommended by Aiken and West [32], simple slope tests were conducted following the significant three-way interaction to compare the association between symptom burden and anxiety at high vs. low ratings for physicians' communication skills (i.e., 1 standard deviation above vs. below the mean, respectively) for participants with high vs. low levels of disease understanding (i.e., 1 standard deviation above vs. ...
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Purpose The elevated physical symptom burden in advanced lung cancer can disrupt patients’ emotional well-being, and current literature suggests that physicians’ good communication skills might be a buffer. However, little is known about for which group of patients this buffering effect is most effective. Based on a cross-sectional study in patients with advanced lung cancer, the present study examined whether the moderating effect of physicians’ communication skills on the association between physical symptoms and emotional distress would further depend on patients’ perceived disease understanding. Methods Patients with advanced lung cancer (n = 199) completed a questionnaire including measures of physical symptoms related to lung cancer, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, perceptions of physicians’ communication skills, and self-reported understanding of their disease. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant three-way interaction among physical symptoms, perceptions of physicians’ communication skills, and perceived disease understanding on both anxiety and depression. Specifically, physicians’ good communication skills exerted a buffering effect only for patients with lower levels of disease understanding. Conclusion Our findings indicate that improving physicians’ communication skills may be especially beneficial for reducing the maladaptive emotional reactions to symptom burden for patients with limited disease understanding. When time and resources for communication are restricted, enhanced awareness and focused training may be directed at communicating with patients who possess limited knowledge about their disease.
... Support from locals moderated the relationship between cultural distance and acculturative stress. To further probe this moderation, we conducted a simple slope analysis (Aiken & West, 1991) to test effects of cultural distance on acculturative stress at low (one SD below the mean) and high (one SD above the mean) levels of support. The results revealed that the positive relationship between cultural distance and acculturative stress was weaker at high (t = 3.11; p = .002) ...
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China has become one of the leading study abroad destinations worldwide. Recent research also indicates that international students encounter diverse life challenges and mental health issues in China. Therefore, scholars have shown increasing interest in their adjustment in Chinese social and academic settings. Seeking theoretical guidance from the Job Demands-Resources Model with mediation and moderation assumptions, our study aimed to test the dual processes (i.e., the health impairment process and the motivational process) leading to academic, sociocultural, and psychological adjustment, among international students sojourning in China. Using a convenience sampling method, our study recruited 1,001 participants (535 males and 466 females; Mage = 22.73; SD = 1.62) who completed an online survey including scales of perceived cultural distance (contextual demands), social support from local members (contextual resources), coping self-efficacy (personal resources), acculturative stress, intercultural engagement, as well as three types of cross-cultural adjustment (academic, sociocultural, and psychological adjustment). Results based on the structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that perceived cultural distance had indirect relationships with the three types of adjustment through the mediator of acculturative stress. Social support from locals had indirect relationships with the three types of adjustment through the mediators of acculturative stress and intercultural engagement. Coping self-efficacy had indirect relationships with academic and sociocultural adjustment through the mediator of intercultural engagement. Additionally, social support from locals was revealed as a moderator that buffered the relationship between perceived cultural distance and acculturative stress. These mediated and moderated relationships not only confirmed the dual processes underlying international student adjustment, but also added new knowledge of how demands and resources can interplay to predict the dual processes.
... Following Aiken & West's (1991) suggestion, we center stock liquidity measure on its sample mean before we generate the interaction term between the stock liquidity measure (LIQ_HL t ) and the accruals measure (ACC t ). Centering the stock liquidity measure on its sample mean ensures that the regression coefficient on the accruals measure (β 9 ) is empirically meaningful because the stock liquidity measure is always positive in the sample (Aiken & West, 1991). According to our specification, β 9 measures the magnitude of the relation between ACC t and RET tþ1 for "representative" firms with average stock liquidity. ...
Article
Purpose This study examines the effect of stock liquidity on the magnitude of the accrual anomaly. Design/methodology/approach This paper examines the relation—both time-series and cross-sectional—between stock liquidity and the magnitude of the accrual anomaly and use the 2001 minimum tick size decimalization as a quasi-experiment to establish causality. Findings There is both cross-sectional and time-series evidence that stock liquidity is negatively related to the magnitude of the accrual anomaly. Moreover, the extent to which investors overestimate the persistence of accruals decreases with stock liquidity. Results from a difference-in-differences analysis conducted using the 2001 minimum tick size decimalization as a quasi-experiment suggest that the effect of stock liquidity on the accrual anomaly is causal. The findings of this study are consistent with the enhancing effect of stock liquidity on pricing efficiency. Originality/value The study's findings are well aligned with the mispricing-based explanation for the accrual anomaly, suggesting that the improvement in market-wide stock liquidity drives the contemporaneous decline in the magnitude of the accrual anomaly, at least to a great extent.
... Path Diagrams of Three Rounds of Tested Moderation Models 1st round of tested moderation models (n = 1) 2nd round of tested moderation models (n = 6) 3rd round of tested moderation models (n = 9) I followed up each significant moderation effect (n = 5) with a simple slopes analysis (Aiken & West, 1991) to interpret the nature of the interaction effect. The PROCESS v4.0 tool in SPSS was employed to perform all these analyses. ...
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Supervisee development is integral to counselor training. Despite the general acknowledgement that supervisors adopt different styles when supervising counselor trainees at varying levels, there is a paucity of studies that (a) measure supervisee levels using reliable and valid psychometric instruments, other than a broad categorization of supervisees based on their training progression (e.g., master’s level vs. doctoral level; practicum vs. internship; counselor trainee vs. postgraduate); and (b) empirically document how the matching of supervisory styles and supervisee levels relates to supervision processes and/or outcomes. The supervisory working alliance is key to the supervision process and outcome. To test the hypothesized moderation effects of supervisee levels on the relationship between supervisory styles and the supervisory working alliance, the author performed a series (n = 16) of moderation analyses with a sample (N = 113) of master’s- and doctoral-level counseling trainees and practitioners. Results suggested that supervisee levels and their three indicators (self and other awareness, motivation, and autonomy) were statistically significant moderators under different contexts. These findings (a) revealed extra intricacies of the relationships among the study variables; (b) shed light on future research directions concerning supervisee development; and (c) encouraged supervisors to adopt a composite of styles to varying degrees to better foster supervisee growth.
... (Fig. 2). To avoid potentially problematic high multi-collinearity with the interaction terms, the variables were centered and an interaction term between adaptive coping style and suicidal ideation as well as the interaction between resilience and suicidal ideation were created [3]. Examination of the interaction plots is illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. ...
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Background As a global phenomenon, suicide has generated a lot of concern. Scholars from various fields have conducted extensive research on the prevalence, causes, factors, and/or management or possible solutions to suicidal ideation. Despite the research efforts, suicidal cases worldwide still yell for more empirical attention. No doubt that some of the extant literature have specifically evidenced the causal links and factors in suicidal ideation. Yet, none had focused on the moderating roles of coping and resilience in an academic population. We therefore, examined the moderating roles of coping and resilience in the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation. Method We used a cross-sectional design to sample 505 participants (329 males and 176 females) from three southern Nigerian universities. Participants who willingly indicated their participatory consent were administered a paper self-report questionnaire containing the Lakaev Academic Stress Response Scale (LASRS), Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI), Brief COPE (B-COPE), and Resilience Scale (RS-14). Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses of the study. Academic stress (r = 0.17; p.001) was found to be positively associated with suicidal ideation, whereas resilience (r = −.22; p.001) was found to be negatively associated with suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation had no significant correlation with adaptive coping style, but it did have a significant correlation with maladaptive coping (r = .15; p.001). The regression-based PROCESS macro showed that academic stress was a significant predictor of coping [ΔR² = .03, F (1, 502) = 16.18, p = .01]. Academic stress was positively associated with suicidal ideation at low or moderate levels of adaptive coping styles. At high levels of adaptive coping styles, the association between academic stress and suicidal ideation was not significant. However, resilience negatively predicted suicidal ideation [R = .29, (R² = .08), F(1, 499) = 19.94, p = .00] with academic stress showing a positive association with suicidal ideation at low and moderate levels of resilience, but for those with high resilience, academic stress was not associated with suicidal ideation. In sum, suicidal ideation is heightened by increased academic stress, with greater resilience ameliorating the tendency of academic stress resulting in suicidal ideation. Also, adopting maladaptive ways of coping promotes suicidal ideation among students, with resilience and adaptive coping strategies moderating the relationship between academic stress and suicidal ideation. It is therefore recommended that educational administrators, policy makers, lecturers, teachers, and tutors incorporate courses, teachings, and sessions that foster as well as inculcate resilience and efficient coping skills in pupils and students.
... To better isolate the moderated relationship, the demographics (age, gender, ethnic group, employment status, past union membership) were positioned as control variables (covariates) in the regression analyses. Also, to reduce the possibility of collinearity between main effects and the interaction term containing the main effects, the predictor variable and the covariates were mean-centered in the analyses (Aiken & West, 1991). ...
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With the United States Supreme Court’s Janus Decision, public-sector employees who were covered by a union contract but had not joined the union were free to choose whether to pay fair-share agency fees or not. Based on Brehm and Cohen’s (1962) postulate attached to cognitive dissonance theory—that dissonance arousal is contingent on free choice—we examined a downstream effect of the Decision on after Janus fee-paying employees, in which, ostensibly, fee-paying avoids dissonant cognitions between choosing not to pay and benefiting from collective bargaining. We predicted that these dissonant-avoidant employees—or, alternatively, these consonant-striving employees—would also strive to align cognitions when questioned about their stance on right-to-work laws and their willingness to act publicly in accordance with their stance. Using survey data from matched subsamples of no-choice paying employees before Janus and free-choice paying employees after Janus, we found that only after Janus employees showed consistency between their stance and their willingness to act publicly, a consistency that suggests a downstream effort to maintain consonance. In conjunction with the postulate and our results, we suggest that when free choice is present, dissonance avoidance not only predicts the nonobvious immediate effect of the Decision but also the downstream effect.
... Finally, interaction terms were constructed to test whether the race of the man committing fraud in the scenario differentially influenced the outcomes among participants scoring higher on the faith in Trump scale. The latter measure was mean centered prior to creating the interaction term to reduce levels of harmful collinearity (Aiken & West, 1991). 6 To ensure that the findings were robust, the regression models were re-estimated using alternative multivariate models. ...
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Objectives The first goal of the study was to investigate the willingness of former President Trump’s supporters to punish a particular form of white-collar crime (i.e., bank fraud). The second objective was to test whether the race of the person who committed the bank fraud influenced Trump supporters’ willingness to punish. Methods This study used data from factorial vignettes that were administered to a national sample of adults in 2021 (N = 1509). A 2 (race of the individual who committed bank fraud) × 2 (prior criminal record) × 2 (COVID-19 related fraud) between-subject experimental design was used. Multivariate techniques were used to regress the dependent variables (e.g., length of prison sentence) onto the faith in Trump scale, the experimental conditions, and other variables. Results Participants who expressed a strong faith in Trump were less likely to support sending an adult male who committed bank fraud to prison, but they were more supportive of deporting the individual to another country. The effect of faith in Trump changed when the race of the person who committed bank fraud was manipulated. Specifically, participants who expressed greater faith in Trump were more likely to view bank fraud as harmful and wrong, more likely to support the use of prison and recommend longer prison sentences, and expressed greater support for deporting the individual when he was depicted as Chinese American. Conclusions Allegiance to the former president likely increased the targeting of Chinese Americans as out-group members in need of greater social control.
... To assist in interpretation (Aiken & West, 1991;Wooldridge, 2003, page 190;Gelman, 2008), we mean-centered IM, EM, and Exp 2 . We then estimated the model using MCMC, executing the hierarchical Bayes model, for a total of 165,000 draws discarding the first 65,000 ...
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Researchers and practitioners acknowledge that sales prospecting plays an important role in new customer acquisition. Yet, rigorous academic research on prospecting is virtually nonexistent. In this study, we examine the salesperson's role at the front of the sales funnel which involves prospecting for leads (prospecting efficacy; PE) and converting those prospects into customers (conversion efficacy; CE). Based on the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability framework, we test the relationships between several drivers of PE and CE via an NBD and Beta regression model. First, we discover an implicit trade-off between PE and CE, implying a 'sweet spot' that maximizes new customer acquisition. Also, more experienced salespeople acquire fewer new customers than those with less experience. Higher advertising support and extrinsic rewards improves CE to a greater extent for more-, versus less-experienced salespeople, which suggests that incremental increases in advertising budgets and incentive rewards are better allocated in favor of more experienced salespeople.
... In order to aid interpretation, the interaction was plotted and probed using simple slopes analysis procedures outlined by Aiken and West (1991); (see Fig. 1). Child age was divided into three age groups in order to examine differences in the relation between PSE and internalizing problems as a function of age. ...
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Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) has been linked to a variety of important child and family outcomes, including child internalizing and externalizing problems. However, there is uncertainty regarding the relation between PSE and these problems as a function of child age. The current study examined: (1) the associations of PSE and child age with internalizing and externalizing problems and (2) the role of age as a potential moderator in the relation between PSE and internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included youth ranging from 5–18 years of age in the southeastern United States (N = 276, M age = 11.27, 55.6% male). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated child age and PSE were negatively associated with externalizing problems, and the relation between PSE and externalizing problems was constant as a function of age. Among late adolescents, PSE was not associated with internalizing problems. However, among youth in middle childhood and early adolescence, PSE was negatively associated with internalizing problems. Implications of study findings for future research and practice are discussed.
... Finally, a three-way interaction among three independent variables was established to investigate the high-order interaction effect. The conditional effects (i.e., interactive associations) were further assessed by simple slope analyses and corresponding figures in accordance with conventional standards (Aiken & West, 1991;Preacher et al., 2006). ...
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Prior research has widely demonstrated that children who remain in their original communities after one or both biological parents migrated (i.e., left-behind children) confront salient emotional and behavioral difficulties; however, an insufficient amount of research has been devoted to understanding their prosocial behavior. The current study extended prior research by comparing the prosocial behavior between left-behind children and their non-left-behind peers. Subsequently, this study examined the individual variations (i.e., narcissism and left-behind status) of the correlation between teacher autonomy support and prosocial behavior in a combined sample of left-behind and non-left-behind children. 738 youth (N left-behind = 246, Mean age = 15.77, 53.6% girls; N non-left-behind = 492, Mean age = 15.91, 55.1% girls) participated in the present research and completed a packet of well-established questionnaires. The results, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, showed that the prosocial behavior of left-behind children did not significantly differ from that of non-left-behind children. Furthermore, the results based on linear regression analysis exhibited teacher autonomy support was positively related to prosocial behavior, and high narcissism buffered against the adverse effect of low teacher autonomy support on left-behind children's prosocial behavior. The current study indicates that creating an autonomy-supportive atmosphere at school and facilitating left-behind children's narcissism are paramount to promoting their prosocial tendencies.
... Below are results for both (1) moderation of the direct effect and (2) moderation of the indirect effect (moderated mediation). Given these results, we subsequently examined the influence of IU on coronavirus anxiety at three values of threat appraisal: one standard deviation below the mean (low threat), the mean (moderate threat), and one standard deviation above the mean (high threat; [33]). At both moderate and high severity of threat appraisal, the positive association between IU and coronavirus anxiety was significant; the association was strongest among those who perceived pandemic as most threatening. ...
Article
Background: In two conditional process models, we examined whether intolerance of uncertainty (IU) had both direct and indirect effects on coronavirus anxiety (through worry) and depressive symptoms (through rumination) among college students; these associations were hypothesized to be more likely among students who appraised COVID-19 as highly threatening. Method: Data were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic from September 2020 to November 2020 in the USA. Participants (n = 134) completed measures of IU, COVID-19 specific threat appraisal, rumination, worry, coronavirus anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The PROCESS macro (Model 8) was used for analyses with gender as a covariate. Results: IU had a direct positive effect on coronavirus anxiety and the effect was strongest among students who perceived COVID-19 as more threatening. Threat appraisal did not moderate the IU-depressive symptoms relationship. IU had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms through rumination at all levels of threat appraisal. Unexpectedly, this indirect effect was strongest among students who perceived the pandemic as less threatening. Conclusion: Results may inform interventions that address IU, threat appraisals, and repetitive negative thinking to mitigate symptoms of coronavirus anxiety and depression.
... To understand the essence of the moderating effect, a simple slope test was conducted (Aiken and West, 1991). As shown in Figure 3, self-esteem had a significant negative predictive effect on adolescent depression when peer relationships were low (i.e., one SD below the mean; β simple = −0.56, ...
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In consideration of family system theory, the vulnerability model of depression, and the stress buffering model of social support, the current study examined the effect of family functioning on adolescent depression, the mediating effect of self-esteem, and the moderating effect of peer relationships. A sample of Chinese adolescents (n = 562, 47.15% male, 52.85% female, mean age 14.33 years, SD = 1.81 years) completed questionnaires regarding family functioning, depression, self-esteem, and peer relationships. The results showed that: (1) family functioning had a significant negative predictive effect on adolescent depression; (2) self-esteem plays a mediating role between family functioning and adolescent depression; and (3) peer relationships have a moderating effect on the relationship between self-esteem and adolescent depression, supporting the moderated mediation model. These results reveal the influence mechanism of family functioning on adolescent depression and have implications for adolescent depression intervention.
... t (263) = 1.98, p < 0.05). Simple slopes analysis [42] showed that there was a significant positive relationship between lactation room quality and perceived organizational support when environmental sensitivity was both low (− 1 SD; b = 1.00, t = 5.69, p < 0.001) and high (+ 1 SD, b = 1.49, t = 8.56, p < 0.001), but that the effect was stronger in the latter case. This means that, in line with our expectations, the effect of lactation room quality on perceived organizational support was especially pronounced for mothers who are high in environmental sensitivity, see Fig. 4. No other significant interaction effects were found. ...
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Abstract Background The challenging combination of breastfeeding and work is one of the main reasons for early breastfeeding cessation. Although the availability of a lactation room (defined as a private space designated for milk expression or breastfeeding) is important in enabling the combination of breastfeeding and work, little is known about the effects of lactation room quality on mothers’ feelings and thoughts related to breastfeeding and work. We hypothesized that a high-quality lactation room (designed using the Theory of Supportive Design) would cause mothers to experience less stress, have more positive thoughts about milk expression at work, perceive more organizational support, and report more subjective well-being, than a low-quality lactation room. Methods In an online randomized controlled trial (Study 1), Dutch mothers (N = 267) were shown either a high-quality or a low-quality lactation room (using pictures and descriptions for the manipulation) and were then asked about their feelings and thoughts. In a subsequent field experiment (Study 2) we modified the lactations rooms in a large organization in Groningen, the Netherlands, to manipulate lactation room quality, and asked mothers (N = 61) who used either a high-quality or low-quality lactation room to fill out surveys to assess the dependent variables. Results The online study showed that mothers exposed to the high-quality lactation room anticipated less stress, more positive cognitions about milk expression at work, more perceived organizational support, and more subjective well-being than mothers exposed to the low-quality lactation room (p
... This was also supported by the results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis (β = 0.18, p < 0.01, Model 4). We further plotted the interaction effect by applying the procedure of Aiken and West (1991). Figure 2 indicates that the relationship between exploitative leadership and moral justification was significant among employees high in hostile attribution bias (β = 0.39, p < 0.01) but not significant among those low in hostile attribution bias (β = 0.02, n.s.). ...
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Drawing on the perspective of causal reasoning and the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action, this study explores the mechanisms underlying the association between exposure to exploitative leadership and employee workplace deviance. The results of a time-lagged survey conducted in China reveal that exposure to exploitative leadership can evoke a moral justification process that leads to increased employee organizational and interpersonal deviance. A tendency toward hostile attribution bias reinforces the direct link between exploitative leadership and moral justification and the indirect effects of exploitative leadership on employee organizational and interpersonal deviance, via moral justification. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed and potential directions for future studies are proposed.
... In line with the results, we plotted the two-way interaction effect in Figure 2 based on Aiken and West's (1991) procedures. Obviously as indicated in Figure 2, when employees are psychologically empowered at a high level, entrepreneurs' empathy had a stronger negative effect on employees' emotional exhaustion, suggesting that psychological empowerment could reinforce the function of empathy in alleviating employees' emotional exhaustion and encouraging their persistence and resilience in the workplace. ...
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Drawing upon upper echelons and self-determination theories, we hypothesize and test a mediating process linking entrepreneurs’ empathy to employees‘ emotional exhaustion and the moderating role of psychological empowerment. Based on a dyadic-survey study of entrepreneurs and their employees in high-tech new ventures in China, we conducted the empirical test by using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and found that entrepreneurs’ empathy has a negative effect on employees‘ emotional exhaustion, and psychological empowerment not only partially mediates the relationship between entrepreneurs’ empathy and employees‘ emotional exhaustion but also positively moderates the above relationship. This study frames an integrative perspective of emotions and psychologies and sheds a nuanced understanding of the mechanisms linking empathy with emotional exhaustion. Limitations and future directions are addressed.
... On the other hand, the slope for customer incivility predicting employee retaliation intention at high procedural injustice is 0.36 (p < 0.001). The interaction effect is graphed in Fig. 2 on the basis of the simple slope approach, with customer incivility and procedural injustice redefined as plus/minus one standard deviation from the corresponding means (Aiken and West, 1991). The figure shows that employees who suffer high customer incivility maintain a stronger retaliation intention, especially when they hold a stronger perception of procedural injustice. ...
Article
South Africa is divided along race lines and this has made social integration difficult to achieve in the nation. The aspiration for the rainbow nation since the end of apartheid has been a country united in its diversity. Research evidence shows that interracial trust and interaction are still very low in the nation. This study set out to examine the determinants of support for social integration in South Africa. The variables of perceived improvement in race relations, social distrust, and racial identification were examined. Data were sourced from the South African Social Attitudes Survey 2017. Participants were 2,946 men (38.9%) and women (61.1%) with the age range of 16 to 99 years. Data analysis showed that perceived improvement in race relations, social distrust, and racial identification were all associated with increased support for social integration. However, a low level of social distrust provides the best outcome for support for social integration. Equally, identifying with one's racial group is likely to be beneficial for increasing social contact between groups. Findings were discussed based on the peculiarity of South African society and existing literature. The implication of the findings for policies and programmes to facilitate social contact and social cohesion was emphasised. Please refer to the Supplementary Material section to find this article's Community and Social Impact Statement.
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Traditionally software products have beenclassified as utilitarian or hedonic based on thevalue they provide to the users. In this cross-disciplinary study, we introduce another categoryof software products called social products i.e.those which provide symbolic value to its users.However, we also suggest these three types ofsoftware products are ideal types. In reality, mostsoftware products are likely hybrid. They providediffering magnitude of all three values: Utilitarian,Hedonic and Social. We use the different levels(high, medium and low) of these three values toclassify products as predominantly Utilitarian,predominantly Hedonic, predominantly Social andfive types of Hybrids. This classification ofproducts offers a fresh perspective into how usersview different products in terms of the value theyprovide to them. The insights from the study canbe used to assess software product positioning andto develop suitable product development strategies.
Conference Paper
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Traditionally software products have been classified as utilitarian or hedonic based on the value they provide to the users. In this cross-disciplinary study, we introduce another category of software products called social products i.e.those which provide symbolic value to its users.However, we also suggest these three types of software products are ideal types. In reality, most software products are likely hybrid. They providediffering magnitude of all three values: Utilitarian,Hedonic and Social. We use the different levels (high, medium and low) of these three values to classify products as predominantly Utilitarian ,predominantly Hedonic, predominantly Social and five types of Hybrids. This classification of products offers a fresh perspective into how users view different products in terms of the value they provide to them. The insights from the study can be used to assess software product positioning and to develop suitable product development strategies.
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Technology search is crucial to establishing competitive advantage and improving firm performance. However, it is still unclear how different technology search strategies affect competitive advantage and performance at the firm level and how to determine technology search strategies in dynamic environments. Therefore, based on resource-based theory, this study explores the relationship between digital technology search, competitive advantage, and new venture performance (NVP) in dynamic environments with a sample of 267 Chinese new ventures. The results show that the breadth and depth of digital technology search positively affect NVP. Environmental dynamism weakens the positive effect of digital technology search breadth on NVP but strengthens the positive relationship between digital technology search depth and NVP. Moreover, digital technology search breadth affects NVP via differentiated competitive advantage, and digital technology search depth affects NVP through differentiated and cost-leadership competitive advantage. Finally, implications and limitations are discussed.
Article
Drawing on the self-determination theory, this study explored the effect of three kinds of low-carbon knowledge (LCB), including system knowledge (SK), action-related knowledge (AK), and effectiveness knowledge (EK), on college students’ low-carbon behavior (LCB) by focusing on the mediating role of low-carbon intrinsic motivation (LCIM) and the moderating role of climate change risk perception (CCRP). Using a sample of 2846 college students in China, this study found that SK has an inverted U-shaped relationship with LCB, but AK and EK positively affect LCB. Moreover, LCIM mediates the relationship between three kinds of LCK and LCB. The moderated path analysis also indicated that CCRP could strengthen the impact of LCB on LCIM. Finally, this study discusses the theoretical significance of these findings and provides some policy suggestions and practical implications for the government.
Article
The present study pairs narrative meaning‐making with topic modeling to richly capture how girls choose to describe their experiences of change during puberty and to establish how these narratives map onto depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 125 girls; Mage = 11.61 years; 90.40% White) wrote about changes during puberty and reported their level of pubertal development, relationships, and mood. The relationship between meaning‐making and depressive symptoms was negatively moderated by early pubertal timing (d = .31) and positively moderated by more advanced pubertal status (d = .36). Exploratory analyses indicated that writing proportionally more about menstruation‐related changes had a small effect on subsequent depressive symptoms (f2 = .12). Results provide a conceptual and methodological update to decades‐old, landmark qualitative findings on girls' perceptions and assessments of experiences at puberty.
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As climate change proceeds, ecosystems are changing rapidly. Marine ecosystems are complex and difficult to monitor, making the prediction of future changes a daunting task. Seabirds are often suggested as potential bioindicators, yet the development of their data for general predictive use is rare. I, using the data of many collaborators, examined the potential use of Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea) diet and demographic data as bioindicators in the rapidly warming Gulf of Maine (GOM) ecosystem. The collapse of the breeding colony at Machias Seal Island, formerly the largest in North America, was primarily driven by unmitigated egg predation by large Larus gulls, not a decline in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus). At the metapopulation scale, reproductive success of Arctic Terns was subject to multiple environmental interactions. The proximity of a colony to shore was associated with higher diet quality, but also greater predator pressures. Interactions between diet quality, weather, and predator behaviour strongly influenced the reproductive success of terns. At the ecosystem scale, the diets of Arctic and Common Terns (S. hirundo) could be combined with environmental data to describe and track ecosystem states. Arctic Terns were more likely to consume white hake (Urophycis tenuis) and small marine invertebrates, but their dietary trends also tracked measures of the herring stock and fishery. Common Terns were more likely to target high-lipid fish, but they showed stronger spatial trends that limited regional inferences. Finally, I estimated rates of survival, dispersal, and return rates. Arctic Terns have strong dispersal behaviour and regularly leave the major colonies of the GOM, but adult survival has not changed, despite major warming. Multiple types of tern data indicated that the weakest period of the past 30 years was between 2004-2012, when salinity was reduced and small copepods like Centropages typicus were less abundant. Arctic Terns were able to react to major declines in habitat quality, and have adjusted well to recent warming. Although Arctic Terns are affected by both top-down and bottom-up forcing, their diet and demographic data are useful as indicators. Terns could function well as ecosystem, guild-, or site-specific indicators, depending on the desired use.
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Job Satisfaction, organization performance and employee turnover intention are closely interlinked. High performance culture organizations that promote both job satisfaction and work-life balance often produce good results and have the ability to attract and retain talented employees. Job satisfaction of fixed scheduled employees in the Malaysian offshore outsourcing support is constantly challenged from working long irregular hours to fulfill global “Follow-the-sun” workflow commitment and maintaining effective communication in a temporal dispersed virtual organization. The work time demand is felt more as the temporal dispersion variance between parties in communication widens. This research was initiated with the objective of understanding employees working under such conditions and whether having good management policies such as flexible work arrangement buffer the impact and restore job satisfaction. For this quantitative survey, 306 Information Technology Outsourcing, and Business Process Outsourcing respondents, located in the MSC flagship town of Cyberjaya, were identified. The results reveal that Malaysian offshore outsourcing workers are generally satisfied with their work environment. Whilst global communication remains a temporal dispersion challenge, flexible work arrangement does not alleviate the impact of long irregular work hours; however, it promotes job satisfaction. The findings also confirm the importance of co-workers and supervisory support in mitigating the demands of work. Contrary to the belief that globalization emphasizes cost optimization and reluctance of MNCs in spending and developing resources, most respondents acknowledged that good support from their co-workers and supervisors are vital. The study highlights the critical impact of globalization and temporal dispersion on job satisfaction among fixed working arrangement employees who support Malaysian offshore outsourcing.
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Scientific knowledge is an underlying basis for technological innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. Collaboration is the main way to participate in the creation of scientific knowledge for pharmaceutical firms. Will network positions in scientific collaboration affect their technological innovation performance? Moreover, what factors moderate the firms' scientific collaboration network positions and technological innovation link? Using a dataset based on 194 Chinese publicly traded pharmaceutical companies, this paper constructs the dynamic scientific collaboration networks among 1,826 organizations by analyzing 4,092 papers included in CNKI and Web of Science databases. Then we probe the impact and boundaries of positions in the scientific collaboration network of pharmaceutical firms on their technological innovation performance through the negative binomial modeling approach. Our study confirms that degree centrality has an inverted U-shaped impact on pharmaceutical firms' technological innovation performance, while structural holes benefit it. Moreover, this article identifies that the strength of scientific collaboration positively moderates the U-shaped relationship between degree centrality and technological innovation of pharmaceutical firms, the matching of high patent stock and high structural holes can promote their technological innovation performance. The results deepen the present understanding of scientific collaboration in the pharmaceutical industry and offer new insights into the formulation of pharmaceutical firms' scientific collaboration strategies.
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