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Seventy-four species of glassfrogs of the family Centrolenidae have been reported from Colombia, including two species of to the genus Cochranella that inhabit the Chocoan lowlands: Cochranella euknemos and C. litoralis (Frost, 2014). Ortega-Andrade et al. (2013) suggested the presence of Cochranella mache on the Chocoan lowlands of southwestern Colombia, based on ecological niche models; however, all known records of C. mache came from the north-western lowlands of Ecuador (Guayasamin and Bonaccorso, 2004; Cisneros-Heredia et al., 2007, 2008, 2009; Ortega-Andrade et al., 2013). Herein we report the first records of C. mache from Colombia, base don recent fieldwork and revision of amphibian collections deposited at Universidad del Valle (UV-C) and Instituto de Ciencia Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia (ICN). These records significantly increase the geographic range of the species, and call for a review of the range of C. euknemos in the country.
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Seventy-four species of glassfrogs of the family
Centrolenidae have been reported from Colombia,
including two species of to the genus Cochranella that
inhabit the Chocoan lowlands: Cochranella euknemos
and C. litoralis (Frost, 2014). Ortega-Andrade et al.
(2013) suggested the presence of Cochranella mache on
the Chocoan lowlands of southwestern Colombia, based
on ecological niche models; however, all known records
of C. mache came from the north-western lowlands of
Ecuador (Guayasamin and Bonaccorso, 2004; Cisneros-
Heredia et al., 2007, 2008, 2009; Ortega-Andrade et al.,
2013). Herein we report the first records of C. mache
from Colombia, base don recent fieldwork and revision
of amphibian collections deposited at Universidad
del Valle (UV-C) and Instituto de Ciencia Naturales,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia (ICN). These
records significantly increase the geographic range of
the species, and call for a review of the range of C.
euknemos in the country
One adult male Cochranella mache (photographed
and released, Figure 1.A) was observed at Vereda El
Salto (3.855317 N, -76.78125 W, 750 m, Figure 2),
Corregimiento 18, municipality of Buenavantura,
department of Valle del Cauca, on 25 March 2014. It
was active at 16h40 on leaf litter in primary forest next
to a ravine, after rain. An adult male (UV-C 13658)
was collected at Guaimia (3.718611 N, -76.963056
Herpetology Notes, volume 8: 161-163 (2015) (published online on 10 April 2015)
Range extension of Cochranella mache Guayasamin and
Bonaccorso, 2004 (Anura: Centrolenidae) with comments on the
distribution of C. euknemos (Savage and Starrett, 1967)
in Colombia
Andres F. Jaramillo-Martinez1,*, Alejandro Valencia-Z. 1, Victoria E. Cardona1, Fernando Castro-Herrera1
and Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia2,3
1 Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Biología, Grupo
Laboratorio de Herpetología, A.A. 25360, Cali, Valle del
Cauca, Colombia.
2 Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Colegio de
Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales, Laboratorio de Zoología
Terrestre, calle Diego de Robles y Ave. Interoceánica,
Campus Cumbayá, edif. Darwin, DW010-A, Casilla Postal
17-1200-841, Quito, Ecuador
3 King’s College London, Department of Geography, Strand,
London WC2R 2LS, England, United Kingdom
* Corresponding Author E-mail:
andres.jaramillo.martinez@correounivalle.edu.co
Figure 1. Dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views of Cochranella
mache from El Salto, Buenaventura, Colombia, showing
specific diagnostic features, including bluish-green dorsum
with yellow spots and dermal enameled fold and tubercles on
ventrolateral edge of limbs.
Andres F. Jaramillo-Martinez et al.
162
W, 43 m, Figure 2) “Bajo Anchicaya”, municipality
of Buenaventura, Valle del Cauca, on March 1999.
An adult specimen (ICN 8665) was collected at the
Amarrapado river (7.0167 N, -76.4 W, 850 m, Figure
2), municipality of Dabeida, department of Antioquia
(on the border with deparment of Chocó) on September
1981. Two adult specimens (ICN 10689-90) were
collected at an unspecific locality in the department
of Chocó (Figure 2), on September 1982. Two adults
specimens (ICN 19638-39) were collected at Quebrada
La Miquera, Vereda Venados, Parque Nacional Natural
Las Orquideas (6.529722 N, -76.308611W, 1030 m,
Figure 2), municipality of Frontino, department of
Antioquia, on May 1988.
All specimens reported herein have the diagnostic
features of Cochranella mache described by Guayasamin
and Bonaccorso (2004) and Cisneros-Heredia et al.
(2008), including ventrolateral edges of fingers IV,
forearms, elbows, toe V, tarsi, and heels with dermal
enameled folds and tubercles (Figure 1.A-B), diagnostic
features that separate them from C. euknemos.
These new records significantly extend the geographic
range of C. mache northwards (721 km north of the
nearest locality in Ecuador, Figure 2) and represent the
first reports of the species in Colombia. Cochranella
mache is currently classified as an Endengered (EN)
species according to The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species (Guayasamin 2006). Its categorization was
based on its extent of occurrence thought to be less than
5,000 km2, essentially known from only one location
(the Mache-Chindul mountains in northwestern
Ecuador), and continuing declines in the extent of its
habitat. Data presented herein shows that the species
has a significantly larger extent of ocurrence towards
Colombia, but habitat destruction is a major factor on
that country too. A re-evaluation of the species’ IUCN
Red List category is needed.
This new information calls for a revision of the range
of Cochranella euknemos in Colombia, since several
specimens herein identified as C. mache were previously
reported as C. euknemos. Both are sister-species and
morphologically similar, which has prompted to its
confusion (all UV-C and ICN specimens herein reported
were formerly identified as C. euknemos). Hayes and
Starrett (1980) first reported C. euknemos from Colombia
based on a specimen collected in the department of
Antioquia (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles
County, LACM 47066 collected at Arquia river, Finca
Los Llanos, above Vegaez). We examined photographs
of this specimen and confirmed its identity as C.
Figure 2. Distribution map of Chocranella mache (green dots
represent previously known distribution, and red dots represent
the new records) and C. euknemos (yellow squares).
Figure 3. Specimen of Cochranella sp. from of high lands of
Risaralda, photo by John Lynch.
euknemos. Lynch and Suárez-Mayorga (2004) reported
C. euknemos from the departments of Antioquia and
Chocó, and although most of their specimens are in fact
C. mache (ICN 8665, 10689–90), one specimen from
the department of Chocó is C. euknemos (ICN 16876
collected at the road to Tamando, 5 km from the bypass
to the road to Yuto, municipality of Quibdó). Lynch and
Suárez-Mayorga (2004) and Bernal and Lynch (2008)
reported C. euknemos from the department of Risaralda,
however all those records correspond to an undescribed
species (Figure 3), which inhabits forests above 1500 m
(while C. euknemos and C. mache are lowland species).
Therefore, C. euknemos is in fact known from just two
Colombian localities in the departments of Antioquia
and Choco. Cochranella euknemos and C. mache seem
to be parapatric, apparently having some range overlap
on the lowlands of the department of Choco (Figure 2).
Acknowledgments. We thank John D. Lynch (ICN) for access
to specimens under his care and the use of the photography of
Cochranella sp, to Marvin Anganoy for his help during our visits
to ICN, to Ronald A. Viafara for finding the UV-C specimen,
and to Neftali Camacho for providing pictures of the LACM
specimen.
References
Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., McDiarmid, R.W. (2007): Revision of the
characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia: Anura: Athesphatanura),
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of glassfrogs. Zootaxa 1572: 1–82.
Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., Delia, J., Yánez-Muñoz, M., Ortega-
Andrade, H.M. (2008): Natural history and intraspecific
variation of the Ecuadorian Blue Glassfrog Cochranella mache
Guayasamin & Bonaccorso, 2004. Herpetozoa 21: 57–66.
Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., Delia, J., Yánez-Muñoz, M., Ortega-
Andrade, H. (2009): Endemic Ecuadorian glassfrog Cochranella
mache is Critically Endangered because of habitat loss. Oryx 44
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glass frog (Centrolenidae: Cochranella) from the lowlands
of northwestern Ecuador, with comments on the Cochranella
granulosa group. Herpetologica 60: 485–494.
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www.iucnredlist.org. Last accessed on 19 November 2014.
Hayes, M.P. & P.H. Starrett, 1980. Notes on a collection of
centrolenid frogs from the Colombian Chocó. Bulletin Southern
California Academy of Sciences 79: 89-96.
Lynch, J.D. & A. Suarez-Mayorga. 2004. Catálogo de anfibios en
el Chocó Biogeográfico. p. 654-668. In Rangel (ed.) Colombia
Diversidad Biótica IV, El Chocó Biogeográfico/Costa Pacífica.
Volumen I. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de
Ortega-Andrade, H.M., Rojas-Soto, O., Paucar, C. (2013):
Novel data on the ecology of Cochranella mache (Anura:
Centrolenidae) and the importance of protected areas for this
critically endangered glassfrog in the Neotropics. PLoS ONE
8 (12): e81837.
Accepted by Raffael Ernst
Range extension of Cochranella mache in Colombia 163
... Tadpole: Not described. Distribution ( Figure 76): Cochranella mache has been reported from few localities in northwestern Ecuador, provinces of Esmeraldas, Imbabura, and Manabí, at elevations between 38 and 800 m ( [157][158][159], this work), and from the Pacific lowlands of Colombia, Departments of Antioquia and Valle del Cauca, at elevations of 750-1030 m [161]. Three localities lie within protected areas (Reserva Biológica Bilsa, Reserva Biológica Canandé, Reserva Jama-Coaque). ...
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Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (09 March of
  • D R Frost
Frost, D.R. 2014. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0 (09 March of 2015). Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/ index.html. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.
Cochranella mache. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version
  • J M Guayasamin
Guayasamin, J.M. (2006): Cochranella mache. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. Available at: http:// www.iucnredlist.org. Last accessed on 19 November 2014.
Notes on a collection of centrolenid frogs from the Colombian Chocó
  • M P P H Hayes
  • Starrett
Hayes, M.P. & P.H. Starrett, 1980. Notes on a collection of centrolenid frogs from the Colombian Chocó. Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences 79: 89-96.
  • D F Cisneros-Heredia
  • J Delia
  • M Yánez-Muñoz
  • H M Ortega-Andrade
Cisneros-Heredia, D.F., Delia, J., Yánez-Muñoz, M., Ortega-Andrade, H.M. (2008): Natural history and intraspecific variation of the Ecuadorian Blue Glassfrog Cochranella mache Guayasamin & Bonaccorso, 2004. Herpetozoa 21: 57-66.