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Steps to an Ecology of Mind

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... The consequence of this is that either the action is not carried out, or an elementary basic principle is contravened. A double-bind situation is given, if the situation has the following characteristics (Bateson, Jackson, Haley, & Weakland, 1956;Bateson, 1972;Watzlawick et al., 1967): 1. At least two persons are involved in the situation, whereby one of them is the victim (as the "double bound"). ...
... For the victim, the only "escape" from double-bind situations consists of learning to perceive the world in double-bind patterns, which, ultimately, is a 'schizophrenic' perception. However, in principle double-bind situations also occur in normal relationships, whereby parallels can be seen in behaviour patterns to those of schizophrenia patients (Bateson, 1972;Watzlawick et al., 1967). ...
... The paradox is internalized as an unquestionable fact and becomes part of the victim's identity. However, at the same time, the victim can no longer break free of their paradoxical habitual patterns (Bateson, 1972;Westenholz, 1993). ...
Article
In their recently published article, Berti and Simpson introduced a comprehensive framework for the systematic analysis of the dark side of organizational paradoxes. While I follow the authors in connecting the analysis of this dark side to types of organizational power, I am concerned with the narrow view on double binds as an expression of coercions only. This narrow view not only runs counter to the basic idea of double bind theory, but also neglects or even denies transition dynamics between different types of organizational double binds. To address these issues, I develop an alternative framework for the analysis of the dark side of organizational power that considers double binds in a broader and more fruitful way. This framework not only facilitates the analysis of transition dynamics between types of double binds, but also reveals practical strategies for mitigating paradoxes and disentangling them from implicit structures that are in the blind spot of Berti and Simpson's framework.
... We have seen in the previous chapter that hiplife performance is best seen through the performeraudience interface and we observed that factors that promoted the performer-audience cohesion as a unit were located in a cultural situation (Merriam, 1955;Lord, 1960;Bateson, 1972;Blacking, 1973;Bauman, 1977;Feld, 1982;Havelock, 1982;Yankah, 1989;Waterman, 1990;Diop, 1995;Rose, 1996, Ntarangwi;. Hip hop in particular presents two major cultural situations that we need to pay attention to if we have to appreciate it as a cultural development. ...
... In chapters 3 and 4, the emphasis has been on the localization of hip hop (Condry, 2006;Kohlhagen, 2007;Perullo, 2007;Journo, 2009) in Ghana -hip hop as a culture produced by factors located in a specific cultural situation (Bateson, 1972;Blacking, 1973;Bauman, 1977;Feld, 1982;Havelock, 1982;Yankah, 1989;Waterman, 1990;Diop, 1995). In this case, hiplife has for its locus the Ghanaian culture that produces its own cultural cues interpretable by its audience. ...
... It says "judge me as I am and not as you think". Bateson also postulates that the performance frame provides the receiver with instructions or aids that help him/her to understand the message in the frame (Bateson, 1972). It is the metacommunication, "a range of explicit or implicit messages which carry instructions on how to interpret other messages" (Bauman, 1977: 15), which in turn provides the frame for interpreting performance. ...
Article
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The study looks at the contemporary lyrics of Ghana and uses the Performance theory to investigate the social and cultural precipitates of these lyrics. It looks at social environment that that influences the cognitive semiotics of these texts, especially Ghanaian youth ideologies and philosophy that informs their contemporary lifestyles.
... In reality, nothing is actually transferred, neither matter nor energy and much less information (Hoffmeyer and Emmeche 1991). According to Bateson, information should not be related to material causality, but rather to the pattern which connects and allows the context to be perceived as a difference that makes a difference (Bateson 1972). ...
... On the other hand, information is not simply transferred along a channel in the living world but interpreted by an agentive subject. Interpreting any incoming message as a sign makes it possible for the subject to restructuring its capacity to learn and act (Bateson 1972). In conclusion, while information conveyed through signals is received and eventually processed to trigger stereotyped responses, information perceived by an agentive subject is mediated by a sign and interpreted as a meaningful relationship. ...
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Life has been defined as the quality that distinguishes functional beings from corpses. This distinction is primarily based on properties that living systems have expressed during evolution. On this ground, to be alive appears to depend on the system’s capacity to persist invariant on the condition of holding mutually dependent such magnitudes as form, function, energy, and information through the organization of an internal hierarchy dynamically coupled with the environment. The scientific explanation of this complex relationship reduces the living hierarchy to the composite interactions of all constituting elements expressed in isolation. Thus, the resulting functional teleonomies are explained as due to the diachronic nature of the underlying mechanisms without having to account for the origin of their emergent relationships. In this study, I will argue that living systems could be more adequately signified, and not merely explained if the role of signs in the emergence of new forms and functions could be understood as instrumental in channeling natural selection toward the establishment of specific evolutionary trends.
... General systems theory originated by that name largely in the middle of the twentieth century (even though the ideas are at least four millennia old and appear in Vedic scriptures; Macy, 1991). Informing and developing this paradigm of general systems theory was a remarkable confluence of similar and compatible ideas from multiple disciplines including, but not limited to (in alpha-order), biology (von Bertalanffy, 1967(von Bertalanffy, , 1968(von Bertalanffy, /1928, communication (Bateson, 1972(Bateson, , 1979, economics (Boulding, 1956), mathematics (Wiener, 1954(Wiener, /1950(Wiener, , 1961(Wiener, /1948, and philosophy (Lâszló, 1972a, b;Whitehead, 1978). Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972, a biologist and a founder of general systems theory, describes equifinality as follows: ...
... Informing and developing this paradigm of general systems theory was a remarkable confluence of similar and compatible ideas from multiple disciplines including, but not limited to (in alpha-order), biology (von Bertalanffy, 1967(von Bertalanffy, , 1968(von Bertalanffy, /1928, communication (Bateson, 1972(Bateson, , 1979, economics (Boulding, 1956), mathematics (Wiener, 1954(Wiener, /1950(Wiener, , 1961(Wiener, /1948, and philosophy (Lâszló, 1972a, b;Whitehead, 1978). Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-1972, a biologist and a founder of general systems theory, describes equifinality as follows: ...
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This article introduces the Faculty Appointment Security Typology which combines the variables of Permanent Faculty (tenured, tenure-earning), Contingent Faculty (non-tenure), Full-Time, and Part-Time. The research question is, are female and minoritized faculty overrepresented in less secure faculty appointment types, and has the phenomenon worsened in the last decade? The answer is yes, but it is complicated. The study disaggregates Race/Ethnicity into constituent categories and combines those categories with Gender, which clarifies the phenomenon and leads to generative questions for further inquiry. This article builds on an 11-year line of research regarding intentional change at large public metropolitan research universities. The three universities studied (Florida International University, Georgia State University, and University of Central Florida) emerged as exemplary from the author’s two previous national studies regarding performance metrics related to the often competing goals of Student Success, Access, and Research Preeminence. Equifinality, a concept from general systems theory, refers to the phenomenon of different complex dynamical systems taking different paths to the same outcomes, which in pursuit of metrics and rankings these three universities did. The studies in the line of research, including this one, use creative combinations of fundamental IPEDS variables to form novel derived variables that address improvement over the study period with regard to the competing goals of Student Success, Access, and Research Preeminence. Although arriving at the same point with regard to improvement on certain performance metrics, the different paths taken by the three universities had different faculty equity outcomes. This article establishes these equity differences empirically and discusses the phenomenon’s faculty equity issues within the immediate context of metric-centric leadership, policy, and practice. The study’s larger theoretical contexts are critical theory, behavior analytic theory, and general systems theory.
... The journey towards our theory has involved many different fields; nonetheless, we can define the main sources that have helped us in forging the new idea. Bateson's "ecology of mind" (Bateson, 1972) breakthrough is surely a cornerstone from which we started as we GKMC look at the human being as immerse in his complex natural-social-cultural framework. The concepts of agency (Haggard, 2017;Haggard and Roger, 2017) and inner speech (Morin, 2009) are two other major points which support our request for an ethical code for the resulting implications when applied to humanoid robots. ...
... Man should keep always in mind that the survival unit to which he belongs; it is not made up solely by human beings but by the environment defined as biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components plus the super-systems that are the socio-cultural frameworks in which he lives (Agnati et al., 2012;Bateson, 1972;Guidolin et al., 2019;Schulkin, 2011;Schwartz et al., 2009). ...
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Purpose This conceptual paper aims to explore the possibility of human beings reaching a virtual form of immortality. Design/methodology/approach The paper is an investigation of the path from an early example of human knowledge to the birth of artificial intelligence (AI) and robots. A critical analysis of different point of views, from philosophers to scientists, is presented. Findings From ancient rock art paintings to the moon landing, human knowledge has made a huge progress to the point of creating robots resembling human features. While these humanoid robots can successfully undertake risky tasks, they also generate ethical issues for the society they interact with. Research limitations/implications The paper is conceptual, and it does attempt to provide one theory by which human beings can achieve the dream of immortality. It is part of a work in progress on the use of AI and the issues related to the creation/use of humanoid robots in society. Originality/value This paper provides an overview of some of the key issues and themes impacting our modern society. Its originality resides in the linking of human knowledge to collective knowledge and then of collective mind to the hyper-collective mind. The idea of humans reaching immortality is burdened by the imperative need to define ethical guidelines for the field of AI and its uses.
... The desire of many Balinese people to restore the past nuances through the "Ajeg Bali" movement is only one small example of how Balinese who live in the modern era simultaneously also want an exotic and authentic Bali like the image of Bali in the past. Bateson (1972) stated that facts like this are influenced by the characteristics of Balinese culture that never ends. There is always a dynamic that produces a rhythm that lives on, like a mosaic. ...
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p> Geguritan Nengah Jimbaran as a material object in this study is a traditional Balinese literary work written by Cokorda Mantuk Ring Rana. This study uses a qualitative approach that focuses on finding the meanings of religious moderation in the Geguritan Nengah Jimbaran text. The hermeneutic method is applied to understand and interpret the meaning and intention of Cokorda Mantuk Ring Rana in his writing. Based on the analysis carried out at Geguritan Nengah Jimbaran, it shows Balinese people are indeed dominated by Hindus but they have a great tolerance and can live harmoniously side by side among different faith during the reign of Cokorda Mantuk Ring Rana. It can be concluded that religious tolerance as one of the spirits of religious moderation has long been present and has become a habit of Balinese people today. </p
... To, zda bude program v plnění svých cílů úspěšný, je ovlivněno řadou faktorů. Silný vliv na vnímání zážitků a zkušeností nabytých v programu má způsob, jakým dospělí (lektoři, doprovázející učitelé) tyto zážitky rámují (Bateson, 1972), a tedy komunikují směrem k účastníkům (Carson, 2017). Kromě vhodné komunikace je klíčový také celkový přístup lektora k účastníkům (O'Hare et al., 2020). ...
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Cílem studie je představit hlavní výsledky tříletého ověřování modelu Real World Learning určeného pro přípravu a realizaci programů venkovní environmen­tální výchovy. Výzkumu realizovaného na pěti pobytových programech se účastnili lektoři a vedoucí pracovníci center environmentální výchovy a žáci třetích až sed­mých ročníků základních škol a jejich doprovázející učitelé. Pomocí kvalitativních (rozhovor, ohniskové skupiny, pozorování) i kvantitativních (dotazník) výzkumných metod byly sledovány především následující proměnné související s modelem Real World Learning: zkušenostní učení, hodnoty, empowerment, srozumitelnost progra­mu a spokojenost s programem. Lektoři při realizaci programů inklinují k hodnotově orientovanému působení na účastníky, zaměřenému často na silné transformativní zážitky v přírodě. Tyto zážitky jsou účastníky pozitivně přijímány, žáci v programech oceňují prvky zkušenostního učení a zároveň netouží po přílišné autonomii směrem k ovlivňování obsahu a průběhu programu. Instrumentální přístup preferují také lek­toři, podpoření v tomto pohledu doprovázejícími učiteli. Ti vnímají programy přede­vším jako příležitost pro rozvoj sociálních kompetencí svých žáků. Z představených výsledků jsou vytvořena doporučení pro realizaci venkovních programů environmen­tální výchovy.
... The concepts of frames and framing have an established history in various research disciplines. In our case, we follow the interactional strand and the framing concept established in political science and policy studies, rooted in the work by [24] and others [63,64]. It is closely linked to discursive traditions in which we follow Hajer who describes discourse as "a specific ensemble of ideas, concepts and categories [...] through which meaning is given to physical and social realities" ( [65]: 60) and sees framing as part of discourse-making that provides the tools by which problem definitions are constructed [66]. ...
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The exit from socio-technical regimes enjoys increasing scientific interest. While many studies which cover energy or sustainability transitions focus on system contexts, there is still a lack of research focusing on the locations and arenas of negotiation. The Hambach Forest in Germany is one such opportunity to investigate the discontinuation of coal energy production. Reconnecting the global with the local sides of policy issues, we focus on the local policy arena in the context of the national coal phase out. The question is how the coal discon-tinuation is negotiated in the context of the Hambach Forest conflict and how actors engage in framing interaction over the course of the conflict, and how the competing framings changed over time. With an analysis of the controversy in the social and mass media about lignite mining in a very specific location, we were able to identify framings along which two groupings clashed in a physical and discursive struggle in 2018-2019, the 'Climate and Landscape Protectors' and the 'Protectors of Public and Economic Order'. We found the framing categories of 'responsibility', 'cost-lose-gain nexus', and 'dependencies' and identified their fluctuation during the period of analysis. Energy transition and environmental protection clash with energy production incumbency, primacy of economy or ecology, and law and order. The Hambach Forest conflict has become a representative struggle about the speed of the coal exit pathway in Germany.
... While Data Selfie does not modify or interfere with Facebook's interface and its function, it operates at a metacommunicative level. Metacommunication (Bateson, 1987) conveys information as to how a message is to be interpreted and what kind of message it is (Jensen, 2011). Data Selfie reveals the affordances of Facebook's functionalities that are reserved for a different set of users, thereby signalling the nature of what is being afforded and to whom, and reframing those affordances. ...
Article
This study draws on several data activism projects and applies discursive interface analysis to understand the material means by which activist software strives to empower users vis-à-vis data power. The analysis uncovers four types of oppositional affordances: (i) enabling the use of hidden affordances (ii) imagining new affordances (iii) creating meta-affordances (resignifying perceptible affordances of corporate platforms and reconstructing their meaning), and (iv) creating anti-affordances (hindering or distorting corporate platforms' affordances to the extent that they do not perform their intended function). Although not without limitations, oppositional affordances reveal the actual agentic possibilities of data activism for users other than activists to affect the very algorithms that produce them as datafied subjects. The proposed typology provides a means for further empirical analysis of critical software and its subversive potential for users. The article concludes with a critical discussion of data activism as a means of vernacular critical praxis.
... No less than this, although multiple spheres wrap up linguistic communication in the form of fluid contours, they still exist analytically in a structural relation. Some of the communicative spheres perform a function of bracketing other spheres in a way of meta-communication (Bateson 1972). But it is not easy to give the whole of linguistic communication consisting of communicative chains a consensual definition. ...
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Although “crossing” as a new concept comes from Rampton’s seminal work, this article argues that crossing defines linguistic communication in a perspective of process, act, and especially change. As a controlling principle for linguistic communication, it might be in a different way complementary to Husserl’s shared sense, Habermas’s reaching understanding, and Searle’s shared intentionality. Crossing denotes changes in phase, sphere, and universe, characterizing the process of communication and having a meaningful value for continuing interpersonal relationship and reinforcing communicative competence. Crossing is also constitutive of communicative order both in monolingual contexts and in superdiversity multilingual settings. Against the backdrop of globalization, a new communicative order is being shaped in the reality of mobility and diversity. This new order of linguistic communication is characterized by dramatic code-switching, rhetorical mirror effect, and focus on linguistic medium. The mobility of human resources requires crossing to take creative strategies to achieve what monolingual crossing could not.
... As there are several currents of thought, it is important to list the main theories of learning, as follows: the behaviorist theories, which include authors such as Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner [91][92][93][94], who, having different perspectives on the behaviors studied, contribute to the development of the behavioral approach and frame the learning as a form of conditioning, resulting from the association of stimuli and reactions that, given the surrounding context, can be reinforced or eliminated, according to the results obtained; the cognitive theories, where the focus is on the learning process at the expense of the product obtained, these theories being divided into form or configuration theory and field theory, giving the first emphasis to the structure of learning and the way in which it is organized, as well as the relationships that result from this interaction [95][96][97][98], and on the other hand, field theory, in which the attribution of meaning is an elementary condition, resulting from the change in the individual's knowledge structure, as well as the way in which he/she perceives the context, chooses and organizes objects and events [99][100][101][102][103][104]; and the biological theory of self-production, initially enunciated by Maturana and Varela [105], based on studies by Bateson, Bertalanffy and Heiz von Foerster [106][107][108], which postulate the non-existence of separation between who produces and what is produced, this being a set of processes created by the individual who maintains the organism's survival, constituting its knowledge and adapting to external disturbances [109]. ...
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Leadership competence development in the Portuguese fire services is an area to be explored and one where we must obtain more profound knowledge. The research seeks to identify the role of the initial training course for professional firefighters in the proficiency level of leadership competences in trainees at the Lisbon Fire Service. To achieve the objectives of the investigation, the researchers adopted a quantitative method with a longitudinal case study research design, using a questionnaire of leadership competences, applied to 126 trainees of the Initial Training Course for professional firefighters from Lisbon Fire Service (case study), at three different moments during a one-year training period (longitudinal study). From the obtained results, it was concluded that the leadership competences with the highest level of proficiency at the end of the course are problem solving, participatory leadership, delegative leadership, conflict management, influence by example, task orientation, decision making, vision and proactivity.
... The last pillar, constraint theory (Breunlin, 1999), is built on the concept of Bateson's (1972) 'negative explanation.' IST assumes that clients can solve their problems when constraints are removed. ...
Article
Couple and family therapy is distinguished from individual therapy due to its focus on the interactional patterns between family members. However, there is plenty of overlap because of the reciprocal relationship between individual psychopathology and its relational contexts. Many clients seeking individual therapy aim to improve their relationships, and couples and families who have relational difficulties often have at least one partner with some type of psychopathology. This article presents integrative systemic therapy (IST) as a method for integrating individual, couple, and family therapy. IST is a multitheoretical and multisystemic perspective that utilises concepts and interventions from a variety of therapies for a broad variety of presenting concerns and populations, including individuals, couples, and families. In IST, a repetitive pattern of interaction is co-occurring at two levels – within an individuals’ minds (i.e., intrapsychic) and externally in people’s interactions with others in their system (i.e., interpersonal) – and they influence each other. Therefore, IST therapists utilise various interventions from individual and couple and family therapy within a case to disentangle problems occurring at various systemic levels. The paper begins with a summary of the theoretical assumptions of IST and introduces basic terms such as sequences. This is followed by specific descriptions of two critical tools, essence and blueprint, which walk therapists through the steps of how to conduct IST and integrate individual, couple, and family therapy. Finally, two case examples are used to demonstrate this process.
... This truth can be especially hard for family therapists, since we are by nature rescuers, and for all our warnings to clients to avoid black and white thinking, we frequently see the world in starkly black and white, victim versus oppressor-and ourselves saviorsterms. Gregory Bateson (1972) famously divided the world into "Occident" and "Orient," with "Occidentals" prone to "errors of epistemology," as if being born east of the Urals somehow rendered one immune from human folly, or west of them doomed us to stupidity. Yet, as silly as it was-how many different cultures make up the so-called "Orient"?-many ...
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Sue and Roger had been married for seven years when I first met them in therapy. They were experiencing hopelessness in their marriage, and they described intense bouts of conflict. Sue would experience hurt and express anger. Roger would experience hurt and either express anger or emotionally withdraw. This is a glimpse into their therapeutic process.
... Building on past learning appeared requisite for the appearance of deutero learning. Deutero learning is, most simply stated, "learning how to learn" (Bateson, 2008;Visser, Max, 2003). However, deutero learning is always contextual (in relation to others and/or the environment), and that context typically is interwoven with the values of the person needing to adapt (Visser, 2007). ...
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Editorial The RSD10 symposium was held at the faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, 2nd-6th November 2021. After a successful (yet unforeseen) online version of the RSD 9 symposium, RSD10 was designed as a hybrid conference. How can we facilitate the physical encounters that inspire our work, yet ensure a global easy access for joining the conference, while dealing well with the ongoing uncertainties of the global COVID pandemic at the same time? In hindsight, the theme of RSD10 could not have been a better fit with the conditions in which it had to be organized: “Playing with Tensions: Embracing new complexity, collaboration and contexts in systemic design”. Playing with Tensions Complex systems do not lend themselves for simplification. Systemic designers have no choice but to embrace complexity, and in doing so, embrace opposing concepts and the resulting paradoxes. It is at the interplay of these ideas that they find the most fruitful regions of exploration. The main conference theme explored design and systems thinking practices as mediators to deal fruitfully with tensions. Our human tendency is to relieve the tensions, and in design, to resolve the so-called “pain points.” But tensions reveal paradoxes, the sites of connection, breaks in scale, emergence of complexity. Can we embrace the tension and paradoxes as valuable social feedback in our path to just and sustainable futures? The symposium took off with two days of well-attended workshops on campus and online. One could sense tensions through embodied experiences in one of the workshops, while reframing systemic paradoxes as fruitful design starting points in another. In the tradition of RSD, a Gigamap Exhibition was organized. The exhibition showcased mind-blowing visuals that reveal the tension between our own desire for order and structure and our desire to capture real-life dynamics and contradicting perspectives. Many of us enjoyed the high quality and diversity in the keynotes throughout the symposium. As chair of the SDA, Dr. Silvia Barbero opened in her keynote with a reflection on the start and impressive evolution of the Relating Systems thinking and Design symposia. Prof.Dr. Derk Loorbach showed us how transition research conceptualizes shifts in societal systems and gave us a glimpse into their efforts to foster desired ones. Prof.Dr. Elisa Giaccardi took us along a journey of technologically mediated agency. She advocated for a radical shift in design to deal with this complex web of relationships between things and humans. Indy Johar talked about the need to reimagine our relationship with the world as one based on fundamental interdependence. And finally, Prof.Dr. Klaus Krippendorf systematically unpacked the systemic consequences of design decisions. Together these keynote speakers provided important insights into the role of design in embracing systemic complexity, from the micro-scale of our material contexts to the macro-scale of globally connected societies. And of course, RSD10 would not be an RSD symposium if it did not offer a place to connect around practical case examples and discuss how knowledge could improve practice and how practice could inform and guide research. Proceedings RSD10 has been the first symposium in which contributors were asked to submit a full paper: either a short one that presented work-in-progress, or a long one presenting finished work. With the help of an excellent list of reviewers, this set-up allowed us to shape a symposium that offered stage for high-quality research, providing a platform for critical and fruitful conversations. Short papers were combined around a research approach or methodology, aiming for peer-learning on how to increase the rigour and relevance of our studies. Long papers were combined around commonalities in the phenomena under study, offering state-of-the-art research. The moderation of engaged and knowledgeable chairs and audience lifted the quality of our discussions. In total, these proceedings cover 33 short papers and 19 long papers from all over the world. From India to the United States, and Australia to Italy. In the table of contents, each paper is represented under its RSD 10 symposium track as well as a list of authors ordered alphabetically. The RSD10 proceedings capture the great variety of high-quality papers yet is limited to only textual contributions. We invite any reader to visit the rsdsymposium.org website to browse through slide-decks, video recordings, drawing notes and the exhibition to get the full experience of RSD10 and witness how great minds and insights have been beautifully captured! Word of thanks Let us close off with a word of thanks to our dean and colleagues for supporting us in hosting this conference, the SDA for their trust and guidance, Dr. Peter Jones and Dr. Silvia Barbero for being part of the RSD10 scientific committee, but especially everyone who contributed to the content of the symposium: workshop moderators, presenters, and anyone who participated in the RSD 10 conversation. It is only in this complex web of (friction-full) relationships that we can further our knowledge on systemic design: thanks for being part of it! Dr. JC Diehl, Dr. Nynke Tromp, and Dr. Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer Editors RSD10
... Desde otra perspectiva, también antropológica, Gregory Bateson (1972) observó que toda unidad de comunicación conlleva un mensaje acerca de sí misma (una especie de meta-comunicación que trata sobre su propio carácter), y que, por lo tanto, comprender una comunicación implica enmarcarla apropiadamente. Por ejemplo, quien entiende una amenaza debe determinar si es real o es parte de un juego. ...
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DISCURSO FERNANDO CASTAÑOS ZUNO Se sintetizan los cambios en el significado de la palabra DISCURSO como se ha empleado en el lenguaje cotidiano en las últimas décadas. A continuación, se indican las principales conceptualizaciones académicas que han propiciados aquellas modificaciones. Se reseñan las principales corrientes de estudio del discurso, se ofrecen perspectivas del desarrollo del campo interdisciplinario que conforman y se proponen planteamientos clave para el desarrollo de una ciencia dentro del mismo, en la que se articulen coherentemente principios ontológicos, epistemológicos, teóricos y metodológicos.
... The analytic separation of individuals from a larger ecology of other people, objects, and environments remains highly useful in this sense. Our emphasis, rooted in the empirical observations presented earlier, illustrates the importance of supra-individual dynamics and evokes the relevance of a more holistic unit of analysis that harkens back to Bateson's (1972) blind man with the stick and cognitive action collectively playing out on a brain-bodyworld continuum, all of which are relevant to educators tasked with constructing environments for learning. As the educational anthropologist McDermott (1993) remarked, "context is not so much something into which someone is put, but an order of behavior of which one is a part" (p. ...
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Drawing on usage-based approaches to the study of language learning-including recent research on mobility in interaction, embodied approaches to cognition and communicative action, and innovations in place-based language learning in the wild-this article uses methods from ethnomethodological conversation analysis to investigate video recordings of 3 English language learners playing an augmented reality game that advocated for environmental stewardship. The analysis focused on 1 aspect of the game, an oral report about different green technologies, which was repeated 3 times due to technical difficulties. Analysis reveals emergent interactional dynamics that included (a) the use and creative reuse of multiword expressions, and (b) aligned interbodied cooperative practices that together supported (c) the building of a discourse structure for making oral reports that were part of the game narrative. The analysis highlights the semipermeable, collaboratively produced, and emergent nature of grammar for social action. Implications for pedagogy include (a) the consideration of structured unpredictability in language task design, and (b) a (re)conceptualization of language structure and language development as both an individual and group achievement.
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The Covid-19 pandemic has put all health systems worldwide to the test and is accelerating the shift from the information and knowledge society to the digital society. It isa great challenge to understand the theoretical foundations, conception and legal frameworks of social protection that have provided the constitution of the health system, socialprotection, and the right to health. This article aims to present a reflection and debate onhow to prevent, prolong people's lives and their social well-being, aswell aspromote health. Part ofthe origins and dtheevolution of the world's health-disease system, taking intoaccount the milestones of social protection and the right to health, characterizing the theoretical frameworks and concepts thatunderpintedthe healthreforms that gave origin to the different Health System,as wellas, to discuss its principlesandguidelines, based on the design of the extension of the right to health, with the purpose of providing reading, learning, debate and reflection on concepts and reality,as well as the necessary human, social, economic, financial, technological transformations policies, and what is the impact of these changes.
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This paper explores Mary Catherine Bateson's critique of individualism and argument for the recognition and development of interdependence. Individualism is presented as a cornerstone of American culture, forming a constellation along with analytic thinking, methodological individualism and free market capitalism. This constellation stands in opposition to and is held in place by the constellation of collectivism, holistic thinking, methodological holism and socialism/ communism. These constellations and their dimensions are viewed as static and reified and polarized to the extent that they are no longer useful. Creativity is introduced as a factor for change and the elements of process and transformation. The discussion is contextualized drawing on examples from both academia and popular culture.
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This article proposes that mathematics education has reached a socio-ecological turn. I identify three strands to this turn. Firstly, current advances in the sciences point to the interconnectivity of life and the ecologies living within and without human bodies. Secondly, advances in the humanities point towards the need to re-think human and non-human relations. And thirdly, the ecological precarity of the world points to the need to re-think the purposes and aims of mathematics education. Two possible curriculum innovations, in response to a socio-ecological turn, are offered. In one case, the curriculum starts from a pressing ecological issue facing a community. In the second case, in a more standard schooling context, a communal mathematics is promoted, with an emphasis on students asking their own questions. A commonality is the dramatization of the curriculum.
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Bondage/Discipline/Dominance/submission/Sadism/Masochism (BDSM) is most frequently conceptualized as only non-normative, 'kinky' sex. In this dissertation, I combine feminist ethnographic accounts of women's experiences as BDSM practitioners alongside theoretical frameworks of gendered embodiment to propose a reading of some BDSM practices as other-than-sex. Rather than narrowing the definition of sex, I instead take up Foucault's expression of the possibilities of bodies and pleasures to explore how alternative relationality is formed between practitioners with some types of BDSM play with pain and power. In doing so, there is an expanded potential for women's queer pleasure and a real possibility of disrupting patriarchal social structure with practitioners' altered being-in-the-world. This analysis is centred on accounts from eighteen women participants in Toronto and Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, who were active BDSM practitioners. Participants in this project challenged traditional understandings of pain and masochism to produce new understandings of both. They accounted for safety and risk considerations in practices that help formulate a more robust consideration of the complications of consent in other-than-sex practices than is typically allowed for in either mainstream or BDSM-specific frameworks of consent. Lastly, they expressed conceptions of the strategic eroticization of power that accounted for it in play without eliminating the social power that some bodies exercise more flexibly than others. The alternative relationality that is fostered by other-than-sex BDSM practices is powerfully intimate and based on the radical vulnerability and bodily access between practitioners.
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This paper aims to investigate how aesthetics can foster the evolution of language. For this purpose, it is first necessary to define the two terms of research and their ecosystemic function from a broader perspective than that of many authors who, in reasoning about the relationship between aesthetics and language, circumscribe them to their symbolic products. We have therefore adopted the perspective of biosemiotics or, more specifically, the Modeling System Theory by Thomas Sebeok and Marcel Danesi.This allows us to state that aesthetics and language are two modeling systems useful for creating models of the surroundings, and they originate in a typically averbal and iconic modeling system: the Primary Modeling System. Assuming that language and aesthetics are not limited to the verbal symbolic sphere, we can advance the hypothesis that aesthetics is a particular modeling system that allows all living beings to grasp meaningful differences and similarities in the Umwelt, then synthesize them into classificatory connections. However, the outcome of such a system can never be taken for granted and often involves trial and error. In the aesthetics-linguistic relationship, these are the variable and chance elements that may (or may not) allow for the emergence of novelty.
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The vast majority of rural settlements in Western China are located in the ecologically sensitive and diverse mountainous environment, which also experienced rapid changes in policy and institutional interventions over the past 40 years. At present, in the transitional period of “post-poverty alleviation,” they have more opportunities to re-integrate themselves into the large regional development. However, there is a lack of systematic evaluation and cognition of the related functions of the spatial structure between the settlements at the regional village scale and town scale. Therefore, in this paper, the theory of complex adaptive system and its analytical NK model were introduced, and a quantitative measurement framework was constructed for the adaptability level of this kind of rural settlement spatial structure organization so as to explore the effective path for its global optimization. Taking Xinglong Town of Chongqing in the western mountainous area as an example, it was found from the analysis that (1) the number of villages at a high comprehensive adaptation level has increased over time, which has an obvious positive correlation with the construction of transportation network, and a structural adsorption effect. (2) The spatial structure of the rural settlement system in the region has changed from weak industrial nodes – traffic single branch connection – public service decentralized coverage in 2010 to the organizational adaptation characteristics of stable industrial agglomeration – traffic expansion and extension – public service continuous coverage in 2019. (3) The spatial elements related to industry and public service in each village have an increasingly significant impact on the reconstruction and differentiation of its spatial structure. Finally, based on the changing trend of adaptability level and the correlation characteristics of regional space, in this paper, the spatial structure optimization strategy of Xinglong Town is put forward, which provides a reference basis for the coordinated development of the town and village space under the township-level planning in the western region.
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In today's world liberals look at conservatives as the villains, and vice versa. How did this come to pass? In this essay a model of the biological roots of liberalism and conservatism is advanced; this is followed by a discussion of why cognitive dissonance may represent the key process in our social evolution. Alfred Russel Wallace's experience with cognitive dissonance is then detailed, including how he dealt with it.
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The master thesis is written in an effort to answer the question: What should be the practice of critical art education so that it initiates sustainable changes and tangible transformation for those involved in it and for the world in which they live? It tackles this topic through a retrospective reflection on a couple of projects in the field of art education, in particular in the context forced migration, in which I have personally participated. I have undergone qualitative analysis based on the coding method. The work presents the results of this analysis based on which several suggestions, or a set of advices, are made. It is also intended to motivate and inform future work in the field of critical art education with an anti-discriminatory perspective.
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This paper explores two seemingly diverse case studies that share stories of place through co-creative media digital storytelling practices. The co-creative media practice of digital storytelling is applied as a framework to extend the current understanding of community issues in their individual contexts. Case one applied digital storytelling as a tool to investigate aged-care residents' therapeutic landscape experience. In Case two, it explores local communities’ experience of flood and how digital storytelling was applied as a way to relieve trauma. This research adopts a comparative case studies methodology. With the two cases in very different contexts, common themes of “a sense of identity”, “memories and belonging” and “therapeutic narratives” emerged. Findings suggest digital storytelling enables social connection. It also engages with memories as narratives and is an effective way to recall significant experiences, in our research contexts, therapeutic experiences. Finally, digital storytelling as a co-creative practice is also a way to build resilience and contribute to co-creating places.
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This study is a comparative analysis of the communication practice and theory of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Mao Tse Tung during the period in which they were the major leaders of the national liberation movements in India and China. In broadest terms, the problem dealt with is how they succeeded in communicating with hundreds of millions of illiterate peasants without the use of such modern means of communication as radio and television. If they had not solved the problem of communication, they would have been would-be leaders with very few followers and their movements would have been doomed to failure. The major method is that of content analysis in the context of the broader patterns of historical change in the countries involved. The first step, therefore, is a panoramic summary of the socio-economic and political situations in India and China during the period between World Wars I and II, the growth of the Indian and Chinese movements for independence from foreign control, and the detailed phases of national struggle during the critical war-time years of 1942 through 1944. The next step is a detailed content analysis of the major themes in almost all the recorded messages of Gandhi and Mao in the 1942-44 period. The quantitative analysis shows that, despite many differences with respect to other themes, the various themes relating to leadership style, received the greatest amount of attention from both. The qualitative analysis shows that, despite important differences, both Gandhi and Mao discussed leadership in terms that dealt not only specifically with channels of communication but also with goal values as alternatives to the perceived conditions of crisis, two broader themes that helped establish a sense of communality and understanding between the leaders and the led. The next step pulls together the communication theories of both Mao and Gandhi, a presentation based not only on the content analysis for the 1942-44 period but also on explicit statements over a longer period and tacit premises which are inferred from more general statements. It is suggested that the operational doctrines of both Gandhi and Mao have important implications for communication theory and that the more specific communication of each is a version of what, in Mao's terminology, has been called "the mass line." Finally, conclusions are reached concerning the multi-modal, multi-directional communication behavior of both Gandhi and Mao and their emphasis on the necessity that the communicator identify himself with the needs and even the life-styles of the recipients. These conclusions, it is suggested, have possible implications for future research on the vital connection between communication and development and particularly on the possibility of non-charismatic leadership in so-called "developing" countries.
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Modes of play and playfulness are central to ethics, yet have not been as rigorously considered by anthropologists as have more earnest forms of ethical life. In this article, I argue that attention to play reframes recent anthropological debates about ethical transcendence and immanence. I do so through a consideration of the Islamic discourse of ‘calculation’ (ḥisāb), an idiom by which Muslims articulate their hoped‐for state in the hereafter through the imagery of a divine accounting of good and bad deeds. Drawing on ethnography from the Indonesian province of Aceh, I show how ḥisāb cultivates forms of epistemological play through which Muslims explore the inscrutability of transcendence. Such play reveals the socially and theologically emergent qualities of transcendent truths and values, suggesting hidden affinities between transcendent stances and more immanent forms of ethical life. « Ne soyez pas si sérieux » : le jeu éthique, l'Islam et le transcendant Résumé Le jeu et le ludique occupent une place centrale dans l’éthique, mais les anthropologues ne les ont pas étudiés aussi rigoureusement que les formes plus sérieuses de vie éthique. L'attention portée au jeu recadre les récents débats anthropologiques sur la transcendance et l'immanence éthiques. L'article contribue à ces débats à partir d'un examen du discours islamique de « calcul » (ḥisāb) par lequel les musulmans expriment leur état espéré dans l'au‐delà à travers l'imagerie d'une comptabilité divine des bonnes et des mauvaises actions. En s'appuyant sur l'ethnographie de la province indonésienne d'Aceh, l'auteur montre comment le ḥisāb cultive des formes de jeu épistémologique par le biais duquel les musulmans explorent l'impénétrabilité de la transcendance. Un tel jeu révèle les qualités socialement et théologiquement émergentes des valeurs et des vérités transcendantes, suggérant ainsi des affinités cachées entre des positions transcendantes et des formes plus immanentes de vie éthique.
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According to “material engagement theory” (Malafouris, 2013), technological media could be seen as a constituent tool for the co- etermination of mind and things. In fact, media-based experiences such as moviegoing or gaming, involve humans in the complex processes of mind extension, distribution, and sensory recalibration. In this regard, the concept of “presence”, defined as the neuropsychological state whose goal is the control of agency, is a key term in understanding this epistemological framework. Moreover, by modulating “fields of presence” (Gatti, 2019), technical media contribute in performing perception-action-affection-reasoning routines among bodies, minds, and environments. With a media archaeological approach towards enactive theory, the paper will analyze different media-based experiences that orient, recalibrate, extend and augment the human state of presence. In doing so I will introduce the notion of “presence media” (an ensemble of devices whose design goal is the mediation of presence). Concepts like “transparent/opaque experience” (Clark, 2003), “self-presence” (Lombard, Biocca, 2015) and “narrative simulations” (Herman, 2013) will be discussed by analyzing Chroma Keys (2019), an in intermedial performance by Italian theatre company Motus. By employing an innovative live green screen technique, the intersexual performer Silvia Calderoni intervenes into a hallucinated journey-trip with an apocalyptic climate which reflects the sense of going and discovering a “world to come”. In doing so the paper aims to shed new light on the study of mediated experience by challenging the notions of subjectivity, representation, and identification with that of presence, emulation, and enaction.
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The present study examines the relationship between language and generation among Japanese Americans during World War II by focusing on an example of the rarely studied ethnic press called the Utah Nippoo (“Utah Daily News”). In the difficult period of the war between the United States and Japan, Japanese Americans in Utah were generally successful in dealing with the gap between the first generation’s Japanese nationalism and the second generation’s American citizenship. The Utah Nippoo honored both a pro-Japan stance and a pro-American stance by allowing editorial freedom for each language section, yet maintaining cohesion and keeping the generations together. Data explicated in this study, which focuses on institutional talk, suggests that the linguistic gap between the Japanese-dominant first generation and the English-dominant second generation does not necessarily lead to generational tension if appropriate measures such as the use of linguistic politeness strategies are considered. This study will contribute to our understanding of the relationship between a relatively understudied language such as Japanese and acculturation among immigrants in the United States, with our focus on linguistic politeness.
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Inspired by the provocations raised in Cañas’s RISE Manifesto (2015), this essay argues that language learning, language teaching, and performative activities are caring acts. They are qualitative offerings that manifest themselves as embodied, relational, and artful events concerned with fostering fairer and caring societies. I refer to them as qualitative acts of care. The essay also voices concerns regarding the structural constraints faced by language educators and educational practitioner-researchers when they seek to enact language learning, arts practice, or practice-based research as caring and ethical work. Qualitative care is an ever-changing process that is often difficult to capture (both conceptually and experientially) in the flow of practice, which raises epistemological questions about the way qualitative care is measured and deemed to be self-sufficient and self-contained. Paradoxically, measurement and evaluation turn qualitative care into practices that are referred to here as quantitative acts of care. The essay does not provide readers with answers to the problems raised by Cañas (2015). Rather, from the reflexive standpoint of a language teacher and practitioner-researcher, it suggests the need to leverage the qualities of performative learning and teaching by making any work of care a continual endeavour.
Article
Ecologists, social scientists, and policymakers alike define “resilience” as the properties that allow complex systems to function in the wake of sudden shocks. While proponents treat these properties as empirical qualities that can be engineered into existence, critics have largely treated government‐organized attempts to do so as consistent with the dismantling of the welfare state. This article offers an ethnographic account of a conservation policy initiative in northwest British Columbia designed to generate consensus‐based quantitative indicators on salmon health. I examine how workshop organizers, emboldened by provocative metaphors of survival and systematicity, mobilize resilience discourse as a platform for social analysis, and urge other researchers to envision how their own work might allow them to transcend institutional attachments altogether. Resilience‐based initiatives have wrought profound changes in experts’ everyday lives, in part by encouraging precariously employed researchers to reimagine their relationships to shrinking government institutions. In addition to naming an emergent political logic for legitimating downsizing and other organizational responses to disasters, I argue that resilience discourse provides the experts entrusted with designing these responses with new grammars for imagining the future viability of their own expertise. Ecólogos, científicos sociales y diseñadores de políticas similarmente definen “resiliencia” como las propiedades que permiten a sistemas complejos funcionar tras impactos repentinos. Mientras proponentes tratan estas propiedades como cualidades empíricas que pueden ser diseñadas para que existan, los críticos han tratado principalmente los intentos organizados por el gobierno para hacerlo como consistentes con el desmantelamiento del Estado de bienestar. Este artículo ofrece un relato etnográfico de una iniciativa de políticas de conservación en el noreste de Columbia Británica diseñado para generar indicadores cuantitativos basados en consenso sobre la salud del salmón. Examino cómo los organizadores de talleres, animados por metáforas provocativas de sobrevivencia y sistematicidad, movilizan el discurso de resiliencia como una plataforma para el análisis social, y urgen a otros investigadores a visualizar cómo su propio trabajo puede permitir trascender enteramente los vínculos institucionales. Las iniciativas basadas en resiliencia han forjado cambios profundos en las vidas cotidianas de los expertos, en parte al estimular los investigadores empleados precariamente a reimaginar sus relaciones con las instituciones gubernamentales cada vez más reducidas. En adición a nombrar una lógica política emergente para legitimar la reducción del personal y otras respuestas organizacionales a los desastres, argumento que el discurso de la resiliencia provee a los expertos encargados del diseño de estas respuestas con nuevas gramáticas para imaginar la viabilidad futura de su propia experticia. 无论是环境学家、社会学家、还是决策者, 都将“恢复力(resilience)”定义为一种能使复杂系统面对突发事件的冲击时仍能正常运作的特性。支持者认为人们可以在真实的社会实践中培育这种特性, 而反对者则普遍认为若由政府组织进行这种尝试, 现有的福利制度将会被瓦解。本论文从民族志的视角记述了英属哥伦比亚西北的一个小镇为生成一个基于共识的可衡量三文鱼健康的量化指标而设计的保育措施。本论文研究了在“生存与系统性”的讽喻的启发下, 研讨会的组织者们如何将有关恢复力的话语建设成为一个支持社会分析的平台, 并进而启发其他研究者大胆设想他们自身的工作可以使其共同超越体制性依附。基于恢复力的措施已经对专业人员的日常生活产生了深刻影响, 其中一部分是因为这些措施促使了没有稳定雇佣关系的研究者们去重新审视正在逐步衰退的政府机关之间与他们自身的关系。除了命名一种被用于论证缩减政策干预的决定和其他由机关采取的应对灾难的措施的合理性的新生政治逻辑, 本文也同时提出:有关恢复力的话语为那些被委以重任的人类学专家们提供了一个全新的视角去构想他们自身的专长在未来的生存潜力。
Chapter
SignSign is a semioticSemiotics tool, whose formForms is meaningful for certain agentsAgents. AgentsAgents use signs to regulate their activities, communicate with others, and accumulate knowledge in the formForms of heredity, memoryMemories, perceptionPerceptions, representationRepresentations, and cognitionCognition. Sign processesSign processes, collectively known as semiosisSemiosis, vary in their complexityComplexity and functionFunctions, and their types roughly fall in line with the hierarchyHierarchy of agentsAgents. ActionsAction of agentsAgents are always sign-mediated, and draw on some formForms of experienceExperiences, which is also sign-mediated. The main difference between signs and agentsAgents is that the role of signs is to signify to agentsAgents, whereas the role of agentsAgents is to interpret signs and act accordingly. In a system hierarchyHierarchy, agentsAgents are above signs because agentsAgents perform interpretationInterpretations and create or reshape sign relationsSign relations. We integrate the conceptConcepts of semiosisSemiosis with the notion of informationInformation in the senseSenses of Gregory BatesonBateson, G.. Two aspects of signs are distinguished: a sign processSign processes has a material side and is space-time specific. A sign relationSign relations is a type of sign processSign processes that is embodied and encoded in an agentAgents. AgentsAgents use sign relationsSign relations to control material processes, and thereby have some powers to change matter. The second half of the chapter presents an overview of two basic levels of semiosisSemiosis: (1) protosemiosisProtosemiosis is a mechanistic processing of signalsSignals inside living cells, where objectsObjects are not perceived; (2) eusemiosisEusemiosis constitutes a ‘minimal mindMinimal mind’ that supports perceptionPerceptions and recognitionRecognition (categorizationCategorizations) of objectsObjects.
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This feeding clinic engaged parents as active participants in a group intervention. Parents' participated behind a two‐way mirror. This novel approach to practice in this domain largely evolved from an integration of theory, service user feedback, service development and the local context. This review sought to understand how parents experienced being part of a reflecting team in this way. Semi‐structured interviews were completed and analysed using thematic analysis. The researchers took a critical realist approach to the research, data analysis and report writing. Parents talked about benefiting from perspective taking that enabled them to see the child in context, which in part supported novel understandings of their child's feeding and their relationship to it. Three themes were identified: 1. “Connection and Distance” explored parents' experience of being behind the screen in terms of the dialectic potential that was created by being simultaneously close to and distanced from their children and the other parents. 2. “Playing with Techniques” describes the way parents valued learning in the group through discussion and working on techniques between sessions. In particular, they moved from looking for techniques to thinking about how and when to use “techniques” that is, second‐order change. 3. “Unexpected Gains” describes how parents came to new and unexpected insights about their understanding of their children, the presenting issues and their relationships to these issues. “Connection and Distance” explored parents' experience of being behind the screen in terms of the dialectic potential that was created by being simultaneously close to and distanced from their children and the other parents. “Playing with Techniques” describes the way parents valued learning in the group through discussion and working on techniques between sessions. In particular, they moved from looking for techniques to thinking about how and when to use “techniques” that is, second‐order change. “Unexpected Gains” describes how parents came to new and unexpected insights about their understanding of their children, the presenting issues and their relationships to these issues. Parents' experiences suggest that there is merit in engaging parents in a reflecting team in a feeding clinic. This way of working with parents supports their engagement in change and positions them as active agents of this change. Parents taking up this position has the advantage of moving from passive consumers of health care to active and critical collaborators. Children with disabilities can present with eating difficulties that can be stressful for families and the health care teams trying to support them. Integrating behavioural and family therapy models offers a new way to work with families in this context. Parents working as a reflecting team can support sharing and comparing of ideas and learning over time. Supporting families to move from consumers of health care to coproducers enables them to learn new techniques. More importantly, it enables them to think about the techniques being offered and how to adapt these to their family preferences, culture and context. Children with disabilities can present with eating difficulties that can be stressful for families and the health care teams trying to support them. Integrating behavioural and family therapy models offers a new way to work with families in this context. Parents working as a reflecting team can support sharing and comparing of ideas and learning over time. Supporting families to move from consumers of health care to coproducers enables them to learn new techniques. More importantly, it enables them to think about the techniques being offered and how to adapt these to their family preferences, culture and context.
Article
If one accepts (following Poustilnik 1995 and 1998) that Aleksandr Bogdanov’s intention in using the term podbor over otbor aimed at defining the process by which the ‘system in its environment’ comes into and continues in existence, one is also constrained to accept that such systems are active agents in the definition of self. Systems that create and maintain themselves in this way actively ‘assemble’ or construct themselves in reference to the nature of their relationship with their environments, rather than passively surviving in relation to environmental conditions. By extending this interpretation (of the choice of podbor over otbor ) to the proletariat, as an individually and collectively adaptive system, it becomes possible to visualize the Proletkult as a conscious project to create an environment where it (the proletariat) could construct and adapt itself as a politically active, relevant and dominant class, thereby placing creative and cultural workers in the forefront of radical social change.
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Employing Gregory Bateson's conceptual framework that identifies the Pleroma and the Creatura as two distinct causal domains, the following paper presents a metaphysics that links these two modes of causation.
Article
While much scholarly work has contributed to the theorizing of translanguaging, in this article, we sketch an alternative model based on materiality and information theory (Bateson, Gregory. 1951. Information and codification; and Conventions of Communication. In Jurgen Ruesch & Gregory Bateson (eds.), Communication: The social matrix of psychiatry, 168–227. New York: Routledge; Lemke, Jay L. 2015. Feeling and meaning: A unitary bio-semiotic account. In Peter Pericles Trifonas (ed.), International handbook of semiotics, 589–616. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer) to theorize translanguaging together with flows, through reconsidering issues of speech events in which features normally associated with different language systems co-occur. And in doing so, we hope to contribute to the ongoing theorizing work in the field of translanguaging.
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General education reform is one of the most difficult challenges facing higher education institutions because general education is embedded in organizational culture. This paper examines the reform of general education as a process of organizational change and illustrates how deeper, more sustainable reform may be achieved by integrating cultural and structural approaches to change.
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