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Sport Matters: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence, and Civilization

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... It is widely recognised amongst academics in the sociology of sport that sport has been overly-dominated by men and founded upon central tenets of masculinity (Boutilier and SanGiovanni, 1983;Dunning, 1999;Hall, 1996;Hargreaves, 1994;Messner, 1992). Women encounter a number of barriers to their involvement in sport. ...
... FSFI under Milliat had a limited base of resources and power, but consistently challenged patriarchal sport dominance. The hegemonic male organisations of the IOC and IAAF felt threatened by the encroachment of 'militant' groups (Hargreaves, 2007, p.5;Terret, 2010Terret, , p. 1166 into 'their' sporting domains (see Dunning, 1999;Hargreaves, 1994). By 1926, the IAAF and IOC showed increased desire to control FSFI as they thought 'they were the best judges of what was suitable and proper for women [so] promoted the governance of women's sports by the international federations only in order to limit and control their growth' (Leigh and Bonin, 1977, p. 77). ...
... Feminist sociology of sport research produced since the 1980s has positioned multiple experiences of women more centrally into an analysis of how patriarchal structures within sport constrain and oppress women (Birrell and Cole, 1994;Connell, 2012;Dunning, 1999;Hall, 1996;Hargreaves, 1994;Messner, 1988;Scraton and Flintoff, 2002;Talbot, 1986;Theberge, 1985). This has allowed for a greater understanding of the politics and representation of difference for women and sport SMOs which have, over time, aimed to address issues that affect women in sport. ...
Thesis
It is widely recognised that women encounter barriers to participation and involvement in sport. How these issues have gained recognition and become legitimised within dominant sporting and non-sporting rhetoric is less well understood. The lobbying and activism of women and sport organisations has been relatively overlooked in favour of making sense of the growing awareness of how the structure and practice of sport subordinates women. Based on an interpretive thematic analysis of documents from the Anita White Foundation International Women and Sport Movement Archive and 21 semi-structured interviews with 24 key personnel from women and sport organisations, this thesis uses social movement literature to focus on the processes involved with mobilising and politicising women's activism in sport, predominantly the period 1949 to 1997. Over time, uncoordinated groups of disparate women became a collective and formalised into national, regional, and international organisations. The mobilisation of a variety of resources by these groups has helped to affect positive change for women and sport through the publication of major governmental and non-governmental discourse, for example. However, the most substantial work to have focused on this activism also provides a strong critique with regard to whether the white, Western women who have directed global advances for women and sport represented difference through their dialogue (Hargreaves, 2000). This thesis challenges this critique by using social movement literature and postcolonial feminist theory to provide reasons both for why the movement has predominantly grown in Western contexts, and, why it has struggled to connect with some non-Western areas. The thesis provides the 'Women and Sport Movement (W&SM)' as a term to encompass women and sport activism, and includes an analysis of the origins, development, and relations between different women and sport organisations nationally and internationally, the outcomes and impact of their activism, and possibilities for future directions.
... Le sport sanglant-la pratique de faire s'affronter des animaux les uns contre les autres (ou contre des humains) dans un combat sanguinaire à mort-est une forme tragique de divertissement humain qui persiste depuis l'antiquité. Alors que le sport sanglant animal est une forme de violence sportive dont les humains sont à l'origine et qui implique l'abus et la souffrance d'autres animaux (Young, 2012), il fournit aussi un « référent identitaire » (Dunning, 1999) : tous les sports et des jeux compétitifs masculins fournissent aux hommes une opportunité de démontrer leur masculinité en féminisant leurs adversaires (Dundes, 1997). Cet argument théorique n'a pas été analysé systématiquement en sociologie du sport, et mon essai est une tentative de combler ce vide. ...
... "Sport matters," argues Eric Dunning (1999). Sport is an "important identityprop … a site where significant battles over gender identities and gender roles are … fought," where people establish their identification with the groups to which they belong, shaping the conception of self and the rank ordering of individuals in the group (Dunning, 1999, 5-6;Dunning, 1986). ...
... Animal blood sports are combative sporting rituals that involve animals being killed or hurt to make the people watching or taking part feel excitement. The use of animals in sporting contests has been part of human "violent folk traditions" (Dunning 1999) since antiquity. Much has been written about the staged fights in the Roman arena (for a review see Kalof, 2007), so I will skip to the more modern era in my discussion of animal blood sport. ...
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Blood sport-the practice of pitting animals against each other (or against humans) in bloody combat to the death-is a tragic form of human entertainment that has been resilient since antiquity. While animal blood sport is a form of human driven sport related violence that involves the abuse and suffering of other animals (Young 2012), it also provides an "identity prop" (Dunning 1999): all male competitive sports and games provide men with a way to demonstrate masculinity by feminizing opponents (Dundes 1997). This theoretical argument has not been systematically analyzed in the sociology of sport, and my essay is an attempt to fill that gap. I examine animal blood sport with a focus on its connection to the validation of masculinity and heterosexuality. Le sport sanglant-la pratique de faire s'affronter des animaux les uns contre les autres (ou contre des humains) dans un combat sanguinaire à mort-est une forme tragique de divertissement humain qui persiste depuis l'antiquité. Alors que le sport sanglant animal est une forme de violence sportive dont les humains sont à l'origine et qui implique l'abus et la souffrance d'autres animaux (Young, 2012), il fournit aussi un « référent identitaire » (Dunning, 1999) : tous les sports et des jeux compétitifs masculins fournissent aux hommes une opportunité de démontrer leur masculinité en féminisant leurs adversaires (Dundes, 1997). Cet argument théorique n'a pas été analysé systématiquement en sociologie du sport, et mon essai est une tentative de combler ce vide. J'examine le sport animal sanglant en m'attardant sur sa connexion avec la validation de la masculinité et de l'hétérosexualité.
... This article is based on the notion that (football) hooliganism, manifested in various forms of disorderly and anti-social conduct (not only at football venues), represents much more than "a disturbing social problem" (Spaaij 2014, 1). Hence, the article makes use of the notion that football hooliganism should not be understood only as the result of the behavior of violent brutes; football hooliganism also reflects the very rifts and fault lines within a given societal order, the creation of respective identities and subculture, patterns of specific societal organization, and interactions that happen between hooligans and others, such as the state apparatus, other social groups, and so forth, as argued by Dunning (1999) and as reiterated by Spaaij (2014, 4). In general, it can be claimed that football hooligans are a subculture having strong tendencies toward radicalization (cf. ...
... Many respected authors in the field use their own definitions of football hooliganism (cf. Dunning 1999Dunning , 2000Frosdick and Marsh 2005;Mareš 2003;Sekot 2008). In light of the variety of descriptions, this article introduces a minimalist working definition of football hooliganism based on an understanding of hooligan behavior as ultimately antisocial and within the confines of a particular subculture associated with violence and law-breaking in general, perpetrated by those who consider themselves hooligans. ...
... The aforementioned societal rifts and fault lines were visible in Central Europe long before 1989, when the environment of football fans and hooligans largely stood in opposition to the communist regime (cf. Dunning 1999Dunning , 158, 2000. This anti-systemic attitude is also observed in contemporary hooligans, who are often associated with far-right organizations and/or political actors advancing anti-systemic policies and agendas, as evidenced by the "us vs. the system" discourse (cf. ...
Article
This article discusses Central European football hooliganism from the comparative perspective of the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia, and characterizes the nature of, and responses to, football hooliganism in the post-communist period. It argues that the less repressive and more preventive nature of football anti-hooligan policies is a direct result of Europeanization and internationalization. These processes impacted domestic legislative frameworks concerning the EU acquis as well as football hooliganism, allowed for creation of new domestic bodies, and influenced the states toward innovative agendas and cooperation frameworks. The regional analysis is warranted due to the shared communist legacy of the Visegrád Group (V4), filling the research gap that exists on the topic.
... Within sport, the work of Norbert Elias has regularly been applied to the development of sports as games, past times and activities especially with regard to violence and ethics within and around sport (Dunning 1999, Waddington 2000. Increasingly the ideas of Elias are appearing in analyses of policy processes both within sports development (e.g. ...
... For Elias, traditional sociological models were too reductionist, with artificial dichotomies between the self and the environment and insufficient appreciation for the constant flux of social bonds (Elias 1971, Dunning 1999, Baur and Ernst 2011. Central to Elias' conceptual architecture is the idea of the figuration -described as a dynamic constellation of mutually oriented and dependent people (Elias 1978, Murphy et al. 2000. ...
Article
This critical commentary contends that there needs to be a re-orientation of approaches to understanding policy design and implementation in high-performance sport. The existing approach to understanding policy making breaks the sport system into constituent agencies with a focus on the investment targeted towards specific organisations or programmes of activity. Governing agencies are discussed in reified terms, as if the organisations themselves were the actors and this paper will argue that this is a fundamentally problematic simplification. When the networks of interdependent people who work within, on and for governing organisations are neglected by [or worse, erased from] discourse and research, academic recommendations and policy design will forever be limited in effectiveness. Here lies the opportunity, by looking through a sociological relational lens, strategists within funding agencies stand to make a radical shift in leadership and professional practice. The work of social theorist Norbert Elias’, in particular his notion of the figuration and associated ‘Game Models’, are herein used as a conceptual framework to demonstrate an alternative perspective to policy making in UK high-performance sport. The intent of the paper is not to hold up Elias’ as a ‘right’ way of approaching this work, but rather to spark conversation and to open the door for a broader sociological imagination and discussion of sport policy and practice.
... Llamemos a estas cinco condiciones: (a) requerimiento competitivo; (b) requerimiento físico; (c) el requerimiento de la difusión amplia; (d) el requerimiento de longevidad, y (e) el requerimiento de una praxis establecida. (Tamburrini, 2000) Del mito a la competencia En el proceso de separación de los rituales antiguos a su adaptación como competencia deportiva hay un extenso tramo histórico, recurrentemente analizado por la sociología del deporte (Elias, 1991) (Dunning, 1999) En esa línea vale remarcar la propuesta del historiador norteamericano Allen Guttmann en From Ritual to Record: The Nature of Modern Sports (2004) cuando plantea siete elementos determinantes en la consideración de una práctica como deporte: secularización del deporte, especialización del deporte, burocratización, racionalización, la obsesión del récord, igualdad y cuantificación. A pesar de que el deporte moderno plantea cierto distanciamiento con el mito, vale la pena subrayar que algunos deportes modernos como el fútbol se pueden estudiar como una encrucijada transdisciplinaria puesto que entrega elementos de articulación compleja: mito, ritual, imaginario, actuación, simulacro, experiencia, ethos e ideología. ...
... El abandono de los dioses y la posterior aparición del deporte laico (deporte por el deporte) representarán una importante dimensión social de convocatoria 2 . Al respecto los postulados de Dunning mencionan que los elementos superfluos de cohesión social (la diversión, el placer, el juego, las emociones y las tendencias) (Dunning, 1999) al margen de la racionalización constituyen un pilar de unión social "nunca ha existido sociedad humana sin algo equivalente a los deportes modernos". (Elias, 1991) Posterior a la revolución industrial, la cultura de masas cimentará las bases idóneas para que los espectáculos deportivos se conviertan en importantes espacios de aglutinación social. ...
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Tradicionalmente desde la academia el deporte como objeto de estudio académico fue desprestigiado y no recibió la atención adecuada. Este artículo reflexiona sobre el pesimismo analítico del deporte en la academia. Se destaca su concepción desde la modernidad, su tipología, su racionalización y su conceptualización actual. Finalmente se propone un sustento para que pueda ser observado desde diferentes campos del conocimiento como un objeto científico de estudio claro y específico.
... On an ideological level, sport connects people from various countries and social groups (Dunning, 1999;Jarvie, 2013). Eco (1987) viewed sport as a "deep area of collective sensibility" (Eco, 1987, p. 160). ...
... Sport has often had an integrative impact on the political sphere (Frey & Eitzen, 1991;Kunz, 2018). Furthermore, sports events have substituted for war in many instances (Dunning, 1999;Levermore 2008). 9 Jarvie (2013) argues that sport has had an impact on the protection of human rights. ...
Thesis
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This dissertation is aimed at exploring social media communication of Czech athletes, with a focus on the commercialization of their content. Its purpose is to analyze the subject from the perspective of the athletes who are communicating through social networking sites as well as from the perspective of their fans who are receiving their messages with both sports and commercial character. Although studies focused on athlete’s communication on social media and audience reactions to it have been conducted in other countries, similar studies have not yet been conducted in the Czech Republic. Athletes’ communication via social networks and its commercial potential is a topic of current interest. Exploring it is beneficial, and this work will expand the body of knowledge of the subject. It will also help to show the regional specifics of sports-related communication via social media and the commercialization of sportsrelated content. The research consists of two parts: the first is a content analysis of selected athletes’ Facebook pages, which encoded data over the course of one year in order to preclude distortion of the results due to seasonality. The second part is an analysis of interviews with athletes and some of their representatives. Both parts are mutually complementary and expand understanding of the subject matter.
... Although the very attempt to conduct theoretical studies of sports sociology issues through the prism of all sociological paradigms is interesting and important, this situation was dangerous, especially because the representatives of different paradigms began to misinterpret the positions of their opponents, which certainly did not contribute to fruitful discussions and sometimes even led to devastating conflicts. Eric Dunning called this situation a 'destructive inter-paradigm rivalry' [6]. However, the very destructive attempt to consider the processes in the field of sports through the theories of functionalism, symbolic interactionism, feminism, poststructuralism and postmodernism contributed to the institutionalization of sports sociology and to the social development in the field of physical culture and sports. ...
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In recent years, the importance of sports in Russia has increased dramatically, which is determined primarily by the country’s hosting international sport events, in particular, the Olympics and the FIFA World Cup 2018. The influence of sports on social processes has increased, sports began to strengthen its position in public opinion as a prestigious sphere of employment and an important social category [24. P. 60]. Thus, there is an obvious need to identify the relationship of physical culture with society as a whole and with all elements of the social structure and specific social institutions. The article examines the origins and prerequisites for the formation of sociology of sport as a relatively independent scientific discipline; presents the issues of sports sociology in the historical perspective - in the context of both their social genesis and contemporary sociological theories; considers the social role and social functions of sport education and sports. The authors believe that the differentiated social distribution of sports practices is determined by the interconnections of the space of possible practices (supply) and the space of demand for certain practices. In the article, the well-known foreign scientists are presented in the new perspective - as sociologists who provided for both Russian and foreign authors the incentive and direction for theoretical studies of sports issues. The article also presents to Russian readers the original studies on sociology of sports conducted by famous scientists - Norbert Elias, Eric Dunning, Anna Ingram, Georges Hébert, etc.
... Spor bir toplumda kadın ve erkek rollerinin desteklenmesi, farklılaşması ya da hangi sporu hangi cinsiyetten bireyin yapacağı gibi kişilerin kendilerini nasıl algıladıkları üzerine kimlik oluşumunda da etkin bir rol üstlenmektedir (Dunning, 1999;Coakley, 2004). ...
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Maksimal Aerobik Hız, Maksimal Sprint Hızı ve Anaerobik Hız Rezervi
... This is a key function of "extremely gendered" organizations. For example, playing football is a rite of passage for many boys in English society-especially working-class boys (Dunning 1999)whereas this continues to raise questions for girls participating in a traditionally "male" sport (Pope 2017). American football serves a similar function in u.S. society as football (soccer) does in the united Kingdom (Messner 1992). ...
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In this article, we frame men’s club football as an “extremely gendered” organization to explain the underrepresentation of women leaders within the industry. By analyzing women’s leadership work over a 30-year period, we find that women’s inclusion has been confined to a limited number of occupational areas. These areas are removed, in terms of influence and proximity, from the male players and the playing of football. These findings reveal a gendered substructure within club football that maintains masculine dominance in core football leadership roles and relegates women to a position of peripheral inclusion in leadership roles. Through a discourse analysis of gender pay gap reports, we show that men’s football clubs legitimize women’s peripheral inclusion by naturalizing male dominance at the organizational core. These findings are significant because they demonstrate that men’s football clubs, as masculinity-conferring organizations, have excluded women from core roles to maintain their masculine character while superficially accepting women into roles that do not challenge the association of football with hegemonic masculinity. Therefore, organizational change may be possible only if women are granted greater access to core organizational roles. Here, we offer a new theoretical framework for “extremely gendered” organizations that can be applied to other sporting and male-dominated contexts to analyze women’s access to core leadership roles.
... Ta (2006) reveals how in embodying both victim and villain throughout the film, actor Ed Norton frees himself and other men from the constraints of patriarchal capitalism, only to embody what is later suggested as an extremely violent expression of masculinity. In referring to the ideas of Elias (Ibid) and Dunning (1999) on the history of the civilizing process, Brent and Kraska (2013) propose that fighting reinvigorates a more authentic form of the human spirit, as presented in the film Fight Club. ...
Thesis
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Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combat sport where pugilists combine various martial art forms to compete in sanctioned bouts of hand-to-hand cage fighting. Through immersive ethnographic research at an MMA gym, this thesis presents a carnal sociology that investigates rigorous human sparring as a method of human liberation. Carnal sociology is a method of embodied inquiry where the sociologist uses their own body to investigate social phenomena of interest. Chapter 1 reveals connections between modern sparring encounters and early religious violence as described in Émile Durkheim’s sociology. I argue that human sparring is a form of violent and primitively religious prayer that allows the sparrer to extract originary feelings of human agency that are stored in the social energies of sparring intensity. Chapter 2 explores current debates regarding gender in modern mixed-sex martial arts gyms, arguing for a more patient approach to conceptualizing gender in sparring. Despite scholars depicting the history of sparring as being saturated with violent expressions of masculinity, modern sparring practices appear to present a novel space for men and women to enter into freer associations with gender on their own terms. In Chapter 3, I expand on Dale Spencer’s (2009) concept of body callusing, where instead, I argue that sparrers are primarily drawn to sparring to engage in existential callusing where the sparrer is driven towards a mastery of the non-body to overcome death anxiety. Drawing on participant diary entries, field notes, and immersive ethnography, this thesis argues that human sparring is best understood as a mechanism of human liberation that is undertaken by sparrers through a unique transcendental phenomenology. Sparring violence allows practitioners to overcome certain limitations embedded in everyday human thought by becoming intoxicated by especially altered states of consciousness as a means of accessing primary qualities of the human condition.
... In fact, these violent combat sports are replete with imagery and narratives of the sacralisation of violence intertwined with the spectacularisation of violence (Debord 1967;Sánchez-García, 2018a. We conclude that there is a need to further investigate the relationship between sacralised violence and the more secular (de-)civilising processes (Dunning 1999;Sánchez-García, 2018b). Indeed, as illustrated by Rage Against The Machine's 1992 iconic protest track, Killing in the name of, there are good reasons to deepen our critical understanding of the relationships between power, violence and the sacred occurring within culture and cultures of combat. ...
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Engaging in martial combat, whether for military, self-defence or cultivation purposes, is taken to sensitise practitioners towards existential issues which in turn enliven potential religio-spiritual experiences and awakenings. In this paper, we Keywords Martial Arts | Spirituality | Religion | Imagery | Sacred draw on Girard's (1977) Violence and the Sacred, and in particular his proposition that, "religion shelters us from violence just as violence seeks shelter in religion" (Girard, [1977] 2005: 25) to examine sacralisation processes in the traditional martial arts with a particular focus on highlighting how violence, sacralised through sacred imagery, is used as a structuring force to instill dispositions that counter ubiquitous human tendencies towards unfettered violence and violent vengeance. We highlight the phenomenon and function of sacred imagery used in martial arts with very different cultural, ethnic, and spiritual influences, specifically: Japanese Karate, Korean Taekwondo, Brazilian Capoeira and Mexican Xilam. For authenticity, each section is written by an experienced scholar-practitioner of the art and combines literary, empirical, and biographical reflection. Despite these variations, we identify two modalities of sacred imagery use. The first is representational imagery used as sacred signifiers which embed the art in a tradition of sacred attachment. The second form of sacred imagery is metaphorical discourse which is designed to invoke creative visualisations aligning practitioners with idealised experiential states taken to have sacred (as well as practical) value in relation to combat. We conclude that the use of sacred imagery in these ways becomes part of an affective body pedagogy used by the traditionalist martial arts to transfer valued knowledge through the corporeal medium to offset and sacralise violent tendencies. It is qualified that in practice, this sacralisation process involves complex entanglements of the cultural origins, practitioner interpretation and the contemporary context of the martial art in question. The outcome is an evolving sacralisation process which rests in constant tension with the underlying problems initiated by the ubiquitous body-in-conflict problem and the propensity for violence and violent vengeance that the learning of combative skills might otherwise unleash in the body and onto society.
... Yet, the concepts of strength and endurance contained within ice hockey are thought to have contributed to women's empowerment. When evaluated in the context of gender, we observe that concepts such as strength and endurance are identified with masculinity from the past to the present (Dunning, 1999;Adams & Leavitt, 2018). The question of whether these perspectives exist in sports and leisure activities is an object of curiosity (Theberge, 1995;Gilenstam, Karp & Henriksson-Larsén, 2008;Weaving & Roberts, 2012). ...
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The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine within the framework of symbolic interaction theory and field theory how women national ice hockey players understand ice hockey through their experiences. Semi-structured interviews were used to understand the experiences of 21 ice hockey players from the Turkish women’s national team, and themes were developed from the data using the thematic analysis methods. A total of three main themes and two sub-themes were created after the analysis. In this context, three main themes related to the theoretical framework were established: “Symbolic Meanings: A Strong Ice Hockey Player,” “Ice Hockey As a Life Space,” and “A Hard Fight On the Ice.” In addition, under the main theme of “Ice Hockey As a Life Space” are two sub-themes: “World of Emotions” and “Constraints.” Ice hockey is perceived by women players as a living space that expresses a firm stance towards life. Despite the presence of traces of the concept of gender, ice hockey is not seen as a fully gendered area by Turkish players. In general, women players reported the lack of financial and social support as limiting factors for participation in ice hockey, while moral support and high motivation were supporting factors.
... Policy and politics often convey an overly simplistic connotation of the goodness of sport and its potential to bring social objectives closer (Elling, 2018). 'Sport matters', it is said, and there is an ever-growing interest in involving as many citizens as possible in sport (Coalter, 2007;Dunning, 1999). One could say that nowadays there is a seemingly naturalised, normative and instrumental view of sport participation and sport policy, with a presumption of links between sport and various democratic, economic, educational, societal and health values (Coalter, 2007;€ Osterlind, 2016). ...
... Mangan, (2001: p.2) states that the sports were variously received; they were assimilated, imitated likewise, occasionally resisted and adapted to local talents, preferences, needs and possibilities. Dunning ( 1999) classifies the export in the 19 1 h century of European and more specific the "Anglo-Saxon" modem sports as the take off phase of the sportisationprocess. Dejonghe, (2001 b;p.29-30) links this process with the take off phase -with a rising consciousness of globalisation, nationalism and standard scientific methods -of the modernisation theory. ...
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The place of Sub-Sahara Africa in the Worldsportsystem The contemporary world sportsystem is developed through globalisation with its homogenisation and heterogenisation processes. The result of these opposite forces is the division of the world in 6 classes. Sub-Sahara Africa underwent, with the exception of South-Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe, a total and passive acceptance of the western (British) modern sports. The place of that part of Africa is analogue to and correlates with its place in Wallerstein’s worldsystem periphery. The introduction of modern sports is associated with the spatial diffusion of the 19th century British hegemonic cultural imperialism. The purpose of this policy was a transformation of the traditional society into a modern functional world-culture and the incorporation of that part of the world in the world-system. The anti-western feelings after the independence resulted in a political Pan-Africanism. However, sport and more specific soccer, a typical product of the western domination, has not been rejected. On the contrary, local politicians used it to create a national identity. The strong link between soccer and soil resulted in a strong form of topophily. This connection was transformed into sportnationalism and created in the, through artificial borders developed, nations a unity and a national pride. The outcome of sport games was used to demonstrate the successes in politics and economics. The absence of any political platform on which the Third World had a strong voice brought about that the international sport scene, such as the FIFA, was used for the unification of the Third World against the former colonial powers. Nowadays, the globalisation processes result in an increasing labour migration of African football players to the rich core competitions in Europe. This form of migration can be classified as another form of “cash crop” or in this case “foot drain..” “As Roman imperialism laid the foundation of modern civilisation and led wild barbarians of these islands (Britain) along the path of progress, so in Africa today we are repaying the debt, and bringing to the dark places of the earth – the abode of barbarism and cruelty – the torch of culture and progress… we hold these countries because it is the genius of our race to colonise, to trade and to govern” (quote by the English educationist Sir Frederick Lugard (1858-1954) in Mandell, 1986: p.102).
... immediate peers only (Coakley, 2009;Dunning, 1999;Hershcovis & Barling, 2009). Several theoretical insights can add some nuance to this understanding. ...
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Emergent research has investigated the impact of abuse on the decision of match officials to leave their sport. The existing literature is largely descriptive and qualitative. Based on large surveys of football referees in France and the Netherlands, this paper investigates the factors that are associated with the verbal and physical abuse of the referees and also the association of this abuse with the intentions of referees to quit officiating. The associations are investigated by estimating the marginal effects from bivariate probit and probit models respectively. Bivariate probit estimation reveals a strong correlation between each form of abuse. Both, unsurprisingly, are also positively associated with years of experience of referees. Probit estimation reveals that both forms of abuse, as well as intimidation from refereeing certain teams, are associated with an increased consideration of referees to quit. As increased intention to quit is also associated with the experience of the referee it is likely that the effect of abuse on referee considerations of quitting increase through time. The main conclusions are that the alternative forms of abuse are not zero-sum and both should be targeted by governing bodies to reduce the decline in the number of football referees. The data show that support of referees, for example through mentoring, can offset stated intentions to quit. Highlights • This study looks at the factors that are associated with verbal and physical abuse of football referees and the association of this abuse with the intentions to quit. • The alternative forms of abuse are not zero-sum and both should be targeted to reduce the decline in referees. • Support of referees, for example through mentoring, can offset stated intentions to quit.
... Son zamanlarda çok sayıda genci kendine çekmeyi başaran yeni popüler bir etkinliğin ortaya çıktığı açıkça görülmektedir. Bu yeni spor arenasının bazı yönlerden bilgisayarların hegamonik spor algılarına meydan okuduğu da bilinmektedir (Dunning, 1999). eSpor normal bilgisayar oyunu organizasyonlarında düzenlenen boş zaman aktivitelerine katılmanın aksine, genel olarak kabul edilen bir boş zaman etkinliği değildir. ...
... A ruptura dessa conjuntura de marginalização do objeto esportivo se dá, conforme sinaliza Alabarces (2004) Archetti (1994), a identidade nacional está intimamente relacionada às práticas sociais heterogêneas e, dentre elas, o esporte está incluso. No entanto, esse fenômeno costumava não chamar tanta a atenção de acadêmicos, sendo um objeto periférico no meio científico (DUNNING, 1999). Nesse sentido, Eduardo Archetti comparece nesse cenário como um "inventor de zonas nuevas para el trabajo académico", abrindo espaço para que outros estudos fossem realizados sobre esse objeto marginalizado (ALABARCES, 2008, p. 256). ...
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A Sociologia do Esporte, como subdisciplina, emergiu a partir dos anos 1960-70 na Europa e América do Norte com a finalidade de analisar a relação interdependente do fenômeno esportivo e da vida em sociedade. As discussões da Sociologia do Esporte, no entanto, só adentraram o território latino-americano a partir dos anos 1980, principalmente através de estudos antropológicos do futebol no Brasil e, posteriormente, na Argentina. O presente ensaio tem o objetivo de apresentar um panorama da estrutura do campo científico argentino e localizar a Sociologia do Esporte no interior desse sistema, apontando as peculiaridades dessa subdisciplina na Argentina.
... Nedić, Škerbić: Definiranje sporta u hrvatskim i međunarodnim pravnim aktima 168 Kako bi se odredilo što jest, a što nije sport, od presudne je važnosti imati preciznu i nedvosmislenu definiciju ili pak odrednice sporta koje će na jasan i precizan način odjeljivati sport od onoga što sport nije. Posebno je to važno u recentnim (ne)uspjelim pokušajima sportificiranja ili proglašenjima sportom različitih ljudskih (ali i ne samo ljudskih) igara, aktivnosti i praksi (Dunning 1999;Jirásek i Zain Kohe 2015;Parry 2018;Borge 2020). Sam izraz sportificiranje uveo je O. Grupe definirajući ga kao transferiranje performativnih, interpretativnih i površinskih elemenata sportskih fenomena izvan oblasti sporta (Grupe 1994). ...
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In the first part of this paper, the authors analyse definitions of the term sport and its use within Croatian legal acts regarding sports (the Croatian Sports Act and bylaws of the Croatian Olympic Committee), as well as several international legal acts (especially those of the International Olympic Committee - IOC) on which the Croatian acts are based. The analysis shows that these acts do not clearly or precisely define the term sport. Thus, in the second part of the paper, the authors turn to the philosophy of sport research literature and its definitions of sport in order to find solutions for the sports law. In the third part of the paper, the authors present their interdisciplinary proposal – integrating four determinants of sport into a sport legal system, especially for the purpose of deciding whether a particular human activity should receive the legal status of a sport.
... Além dessas contribuições, seu trabalho em conjunto com Eric Dunning em A busca da Excitação (1992) se traduz como uma das principais obras para os estudos do Esporte e do Lazer (Dunning, 1999;Giulianotti, 2004), conseguindo transparecer a "utilidade" de seus conceitos sociológicos em questões mais específicas do Esporte. Um dos diferenciais do tratamento de Elias em relação ao Esporte é o interesse nos processos históricos na longa duração, sendo essa característica e, notadamente, a teoria do Processo Civilizador, como uma das principais bases nos estudos historiográficos do Esporte (Góis Junior, Lovisolo & Nista-Piccolo, 2013;Terret, 2019). ...
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Este estudo buscou apresentar o cenário das publicações científicas que vem sendo divulgada no Journal of the Latin American Social-cultural Studies of Sport (JLASSS), revista vinculada à instituição latino-americana especializada nas discussões socioculturais do Esporte no continente, a Asociación Latino Americana de Estudios Socioculturales del Deporte (ALESDE). Para isso, realizou-se a análise do conteúdo dos artigos publicados no periódico desde a sua criação, em 2011, até o último volume publicado em 2020. Encontrou-se um total de 124 estudos produzidos em diversos países e instituições, predominantemente sul-americanos, os quais abordaram variados assuntos, mas todos com aporte das Ciências Sociais e Humanas, evidenciando que a revista estudada cumpre com seus esforços de promover pesquisas exclusivamente com tais subsídios teóricos e majoritariamente da respectiva região. Palavras-chave: Produção do conhecimento, Estudos socioculturais, Educação Física e Esporte, América Latina.
... The aim of the game is to score the goals by kicking the ball. Football played in over 200 countries, So it is considered the most famous sport in the world in both number of spectators and players (Dunning, 1999 (Moor, 2007). ...
Thesis
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Football is considered as most popular sport in the world in both the number of spectators and players. The popularity of football has increased in the last few years and it became an important contributor to the global economy. Where the revenue for European football clubs alone for 2017 rated at $27bn. In football, team management considers as one main challenge in this sport especially those related to choosing the suitable player for the suitable position in a specific formation because there is no formula or scientific equations used to identify the preferred available position for the player in the team. where, the assignment generally is done by the coaches by using their experiences and observations about the players, these making selecting of players subject to many biases. Therefore, we need to build intelligent decision support systems to face these challenges. This thesis proposes a new intelligent decision support system for football team management by using algorithms of machine learning. The main purpose of this decision support system is to find intelligent solutions based on the skills of players (technical, physical and mental) to find the preferred available position for players in the team and find the best available squad according to formations of play. finally, the system can predict dribbling skills for each player in the team to monitor the growth and performance of players because predicting player's skills (like dribbling) will help managers to make suitable decisions like sell, buy and contract renewal. In this thesis, we use the dataset of the FIFA Soccer video game, which contains data for 17359 players for one season. When analyzing players data, we have used machine learning techniques (linear and logistic regression, random forest, neural network and k nearest neighbour) for classification and regression problems. Further, we use recursive feature elimination algorithm (RFE) and principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm for reducing data dimension. where we found 17 performance attributes using which we can predict the preferred available position for each player in the team out of 29 attributes. Differently from the previous studies, in this thesis, we use a random forest algorithm to find the preferred available position for each player in the team, and it has proved to be more efficient in the classification of players positions than other algorithms, where we obtained a predictive accuracy of 88.6% for binary classification (2 positions) and predictive accuracy of 58.5% for multi-classification (14 positions). Where, the performance of all these algorithms are evaluated using three common techniques (Hold-out (train and test split), Cross-Validation (CV) and Repeated Random Hold-out) and compare the result among them. After assigning each player to the position we determine the best team squad according to formation plays (like 4-3-3 or 3-5-2) based on the rating of the player. Finally, to predict the skill of dribbling, we used four algorithms (linear regression, logistic regression, random forest and neural network). We got the best result by using random forest, where predictive accuracy was 99.9% by using 17 performance attributes.
... Contudo, essa vertente vem sofrendo críticas de diversos estudiosos, como Hans Lenk (1979) e Eric Dunning (1999), bem como do antropólogo brasileiro Roberto DaMatta (1982), para quem o esporte, em particular o futebol, dispõe de um lugar privilegiado na formação da identidade do Bra-sil. Além disso, pesquisadores como o medievalista Hilário Franco Júnior (2007) assinalam a forte ritualização presente no mundo esportivo atual, inclusive no futebol, entendido pelo autor como uma imitação da vida, metáfora sociológica, antropológica, religiosa, psicológica e linguística das relações sociais e do cotidiano. ...
... Rugby provides an ideal context to examine the justification of violence for two reasons. First, sport is a context of great potential to study consumers' acts of justification, since it is a context in which the civilizing tendencies of modernity can be effectively discarded or suspended, and where violence is never too far away (Dunning, 1999). Rugby is an intensively competitive, mock-combative, direct, physical sport where standards of violence are central and highly visible (Dunning & Sheard, 2005). ...
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Drawing on Butler’s theoretical background, research on the ethics of violence has focused on the importance of dominant society-wide schemes and norms in building individuals’ moral sense of violence. Studies explain how violence is normalized and made socially acceptable. In our analysis, we build on the pragmatic sociology of Boltanski and Thévenot that places particular importance on the fact that fairness must always be appreciated in situations and provide a “grammar” to describe competing normative approaches. Studying rugby, we show how the different market players (consumers, broadcasters, journalists) justify the violence that occurs during rugby matches. We contribute to the literature on the ethics of violence by providing a pragmatic understanding of violence. We contribute to the economies of worth by investigating violence in a regime of justice and justification work in a reality test (in contrast to a test of worth). This understanding of violence enables us to offer some recommendations to encourage more responsible justification work about violence.
... In relating hegemonic masculinity to football, ever since it was regulated through the creation of the English Football Association (FA) in 1863 it has been largely understood as a male institution. The demonstration of masculine characteristics, such as strength, power, authority, bravery, and toughness became synonymous with the game during the late nineteenth century as part of a 'masculine' rite of passage that was subsequently passed through generations of boys and men (Dunning, 1999). Conversely, feminine characteristics, such as, sensitivity, frailness, and the socially expected role to be a supportive spouse and caring mother meant that the popular belief was football was better suited to boys and men with the presence of women, particularly as players, viewed as a challenge to masculinity (Hargreaves, 1994). ...
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This article presents the responses of 1,432 male association football fans, collected via an online survey from March 2020 to April 2020, regarding their views on sexuality in women's football in the United Kingdom. The analysis focuses on two broad themes that emerged from the data: (1) the association of women footballers with masculinity and how they subsequently transgress the traditional characteristics of femininity; and (2) a reduced stigma surrounding sexuality in women's football given its lower profile in terms of coverage and the smaller number of fans in comparison to men's football. The article concludes by outlining how there is less homonegativity concerning sexuality in women's football in the United Kingdom, primarily because the heteromasculine position of male fans is not challenged, but fans also reaffirm the stereotypes and myths of nonheterosexual women playing a sport like football.
... Dies passierte wohl nicht zuletzt deshalb so erfolgreich, weil auf diese Art mit Norbert Elias ein großer deutscher Soziologe gleichsam symbolisch »heimgeholt« werden konnte und, was nicht vergessen werden sollte, innerhalb der internationalen Sportsoziologie (insbesondere der englischen, vgl. Dunning 1971Dunning , 1992Dunning , 1999Dunning/Sheard 1979;Elias/Dunning 1986) 3 das von Elias sich ableitende Paradigma eines der wichtigen vorstellt. Im letzten Jahrzehnt war zudem ein deutlicher Aufschwung von systemtheoretischen Ansätzen, orientiert am Werk Niklas Luhmanns, einem der einflussreichsten Theoretiker der deutschen Soziologie seit den 1960er Jahren, in der deutschen Sportforschung zu verzeichnen, dem vor allem Karl-Heinrich Bette den Weg bahnte (dessen Arbeiten allerdings bislang kaum eine nennenswerte Resonanz in der internationalen sportsoziologischen Forschungsgemeinde fanden) (vgl. ...
... Spor bir toplumda kadın ve erkek rollerinin desteklenmesi, farklılaşması ya da hangi sporu hangi cinsiyetten bireyin yapacağı gibi kişilerin kendilerini nasıl algıladıkları üzerine kimlik oluşumunda da etkin bir rol üstlenmektedir (Dunning, 1999;Coakley, 2004). ...
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2019 yılının son döneminde Çin’de Hubei eyaletine bağlı Wuhan kentinden tüm Dünya’ya yayılan Coronavirüs (Covid-19) salgını temas vedamlacıkyoluyla kolay bulaşması sebebiyle yüksek oranda ölüm riskinden dolayı ülkelerde sağlık, eğitim, ekonomik ve sosyal alanlarda sarsıcı etkisi ile birlikte büyük değişimlere sebep olmuştur. Bu pandemi sürecinden etkilenen sektörlerden biride şüphesiz spor platformlarıdır. Öyle ki bu süreçte uygulanan karantina uygulamaları Dünya çapında nasıl öğrenci ve öğretmenleri sınıflarından uzaklaştırdıysa, hem amatör hem de profesyonel sporcuları da spor alanlarından uzaklaştırmıştır. İnsanları eve mahkum eden zorunlu kısıtlamalar nedeniyle fiziksel hareket ve egzersiz düzeylerinin büyük oranda düş mesi (Yüce ve Muz 2021) ayrıca evde kalan bireylerin diyetlerinde değişiklik yaşanmasa bile hareketsizlikten dolayı harcanan kalorinin düş mesi akabinde kilo artışını da kaçınılmaz hale getirmektedir (Akyol ve ark 2020). Bu çalışmada ilk olarak COVID-19 pandemisi ile başlayan karantina günlerinde ortaya çıkan hareketsiz yaşamın organizma üzerindeki etkileri yeni oluşan literatür ışığında özetlenmiş ve evde gerçekleştirilebilecek egzersizlerin önemi üzerinde durularak tavsiyeler verilmeye çalışılmıştır. Sedanterlerde Evde
... capital c=1,   =0.3,   =0.3,   =0.1, ,   =0.9,   =0.1, =0.0, =0.1,   max =1,    =0.5,   =0.001,   =0.1, t=100. (Dunning, 1999 (Helbing, 2013;Vespignani, 2018 & Misuse,, ...
Article
Purpose The primary purpose of this study is to show and guide how to construct a large variety of behaviors in systems dynamic for sport science. Methods By applying a simple algorithm to networked agents, which could, conceivably, offer a straightforward way out of the complexity, computational mechanism which along with its dynamics (payoff, failure, and strategy) involved. Results The model starts with the probability that systemic risk potential such as failure spreads. Even in a very random structure commonly used in sports field, propagation of the potential is guaranteed by an arbitrary network property of a set of elements. Despite the intensive systemic potential, the opposite type of potential like absence of failure could also be driven when there has been a strong investment in protection through a heuristically evolved protection level. Conclusion The implementation still needs to be polished against what happens in the real sports world, but in general, applied conceptual principle and methodological techniques behind the network-agent based mechanisms could be useful for researchers those who need to use systemes dynamic to guard in sport science.
... The decontextualisation of landscapes (Sandell, 2011) can be seen as a process that is intertwined with the sportification of activities. Sportification (Dunning, 1999;Elias & Dunning, 1986;Guttman, 1978) is a widely used concept for explaining how sport has developed from being a ritual into becoming more specialised, rationalised, standardised, organised and quantified (Breivik, 2010;Fahlén, 2006;Goksøyr, 1988;Lippe, 2001;Pfister, 2007;Svensson & Sörlin, 2019). This is not least evident when it comes to arenas and playing fields. ...
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Environmental sustainability in sport is an increasingly important issue. In this paper, we want to highlight a specific phenomenon, namely artificially constructed landscapes and the outdoor sport activities that take place therein. More specifically, we are interested in the logics that govern peoples’ practice of sport in such artificial landscapes and what challenges with regards to environmental sustainability that follow from these logics. The purpose of this paper is to identify what individual athletes perceive as meaningful logics when practicing sport in artificial landscapes and to analyse and discuss potential environmental consequences of these logics. The sports we focus on are cross-country skiing and canoe slalom, two sports that historically have been dependent on specific geographies and contexts. We build on two research questions: What logics of practice govern individual athletes’ practice of sport in artificial landscapes? And what environmental challenges are potential consequences of the logics that are expressed by the athletes? Our findings indicate that the logic of performance is dominant for the sport practitioners who train in artificial landscapes, at the expense of perspectives such as nature experience and environmental sustainability. If performance is key, then the role of the training landscape is also first and foremost to present the best possible conditions for performance. But if the athlete/exerciser see their training as a means of experiencing nature, then other values than performance and comparability can become more important. When the environmental impact of individual athletes and of the artificial landscapes in which they do their training come under increased scrutiny, the role of logics of practice in the sport and movement culture needs further attention. Being aware of nature and the environment is also a logic that could be found meaningful in the process of making sports more sustainable.
... Against this backdrop is unsurprising that participation in early modern sport was made nearly or fully compulsory for young boys and was epitomized by celebrated violence (Dunning, 1999). Interestingly, in many education establishments, participation in sport often took precedence over classical or more academic studies (Crosset, 1990). ...
Chapter
Purpose: The aim of this chapter is to explore the relationship between contemporary sport, social media, digital technology, and sexuality and to explore the historical context of sport and sexuality, before then outlining the decline of homophobia in recent years. Despite this decline, social media is one area where we still see the manifestation of homophobia. Design/methodology/approach: This chapter synthesizes a range of academic literature to chart how – despite improving attitudes toward homosexuality in sport – abuse and discrimination is still prevalent on social media. Findings: Eric Anderson’s (2009) Inclusive Masculinity Theory has been the most useful theoretical apparatus to underpin the changing nature of sport, gender, and sexuality. While this has been used in a variety of sporting contexts, these are primarily focused on gay male athletes in the West. Accordingly, there is a gap in knowledge around the experiences of lesbian, bisexual, and trans athletes, as well as those outside of the Western context. Originality/value: Although there has been some literature to document discrimination on social media, very little focuses specifically on the manifestation of homophobia. Accordingly, this chapter provides an important contribution by being one of the first to tie together the literature on improved cultural attitudes toward homosexuality while simultaneously focusing on the prevalence of discrimination on social media.
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Singapore’s political struggles of the 1950s and 1960s, between a Chinese-educated, working-class left wing and a middle-class, English-educated faction, have not been completely eradicated but continue to cast a shadow over modern political developments. The moderate, English-educated faction achieved an important victory when it took over control of the People’s Action Party (PAP) in the early 1960s. However, the surprise ascendancy of the Workers’ Party (WP), under Low Thia Khiang, has seen a long-marginalized section of the Chinese-educated galvanize around a district, Hougang and Aljunied, and a Teochew-speaking charismatic but low-key individual in Mr Low. The WP’s ability to develop an enduring ‘brand’ over the 2006–2013 period surprised many commentators. By 2013 it had become Singapore’s second-strongest political force.
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The current year (2020) marks the thirtieth anniversary of Israel TV’s sports channel. In this article we discuss the role of the channel (now known by its trade name Sport 5), its functions, and its impact on the media and sports culture in Israel. Through extensive research, which includes interviews with the channel managers, editors, reporters, and directors, as well as observations on the channel’s news desk and studios, we analyze the overall impact of the channel on sports and beyond, in the cultural, global, and ethical realms
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Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis identitas Bonek yang terbangun melalui seni mural di jalanan kota Surabaya. Selama ini Bonek adalah stigma bagi fan Persebaya yang suka membuat onar, penampilan yang gahar, suka menjarah, dan berbagai stigma lain yang melekat. Artikel ini juga ditulis untuk mengetahui hal-hal yang tersampaikan melalui pesan yang tersembunyi di mural Bonek, termasuk bagaimana relasi kuasa yang dimunculkan melalui persepsi visual tersebut. Pada penelitian ini, konsep identitas yang digunakan adalah studi komunitas sebagaimana yang dilakukan oleh Anthony Cohen (1985). Sedangkan untuk membongkar relasi kuasa dalam mural menggunakan konsep perilaku suporter sepak bola menurut Spaaij (2008) yang sejalan dengan Michel Foucault (1991). Penelitian ini menyimpulkan mengenai bagaimana mural yang dihasilkan merepresentasikan Surabaya yang semakin padat serta tekanan hidup yang semakin berat, menjadikan Bonek yang sebagian besar kelas pekerja menyandarkan harapannya pada Persebaya. Persebaya adalah harga diri bagi Bonek. Mural Bonek bukanlah sebagai pencitraan mengenai Bonek yang berubah atau alih-alih memberi semangat pada Persebaya. Mural yang dibuat oleh Bonek menyiratkan tentang kelas sosial yang dipandang sebagai liyan dalam konstelasi masyarakat Surabaya yang berdaya menghadapi tekanan. Sebagus apapun usaha yang dilakukan Bonek untuk citra positifnya, tetap saja Bonek akan dipandang pilihan negatif namun di sisi lain membanggakan.
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Esta investigação científica procura compreender as Políticas Públicas de Promoção de Desporto Para Pessoas Com Deficiência formuladas pelos Municípios da Área Metropolitana de Lisboa, através do estudo de seis Municípios com relação direta a planos de água naturais e que partilham fronteiras. O estudo acompanha o objetivo de tornar o desporto num Direito de Todos. Metodologicamente utilizou-se uma abordagem qualitativa e interpretativa, tendo sido aplicado um modelo de análise que comportava indicadores de natureza estrutural, financeira, estratégica e intermunicipal. A recolha de dados realizou-se em 2017 e 2018, recorrendo à Análise Documental e Entrevista Guiada aos Responsáveis Municipais pelo Desporto. Estes Municípios disponibilizam um total de 27 atividades físicas e desportivas para Pessoas Com Deficiência, existindo 6 Programas e Ações Municipais na área do desporto específicas para a este público-alvo. As Instalações Desportivas existentes apresentam lacunas ao nível da adequabilidade às especificidades da prática deste público e ao nível quantitativo e geográfico. Concluiu-se que todos os Municípios analisados disponibilizam Oferta Desportiva específica para Pessoas Com Deficiência, tendo como principais objetivos o Desenvolvimento de Oferta Desportiva Específica e o Aumento do Número de Praticantes. As principais medidas adotadas são a Adequação das Infraestruturas Às Necessidades Deste Público, Concessão Direta de Oferta Desportiva ou por via do Desporto Escolar e a Organização de Eventos. Palavras-chave: Políticas Desportivas; Gestão Desportiva; Pessoas Com Deficiência.
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The study revisits the work of the Leicester School, highlighting the prominent figure of Eric Dunning, disciple of Norbert Elias and systematizer of the ideas of the German sociologist in England, leader in the process of constituting a sociology of modern sports in that country. In the poorly drawn lines that the freedom of the essayistic genre entails, we suggest that Dunning's position as Elias' apprentice soon becomes even and turns into a fruitful partnership. More: as a partner, he rises to the status of master himself, able to train new scholars and organize a series of collections together with his disciples. The broad theme provided by the focus of sports studies is restricted here to a specific agenda for analysis, namely the so-called phenomenon of hooliganism, to which Eric Dunning and his team devoted much of the analytical efforts of interpretation, reviewing assumptions of the first authors dedicated to the theme and carrying out a range of institutional collective research. These, in turn, led to the creation of theoretical and empirical references throughout the 1970s to 2000, with international repercussions among researchers focused on understanding not only British hooligans, but European ultras, Latin American barras, and Brazilian torcidas organizadas. If Dunning's theory and empiricism are not immune to criticism – as in the limit no scientific paradigm is –, in this text, the sociological, anthropological and historiographic contributions made by this admirable English intellectual are reiterated.
Chapter
This chapter reviews the six core concepts used in the book (actors, narrators, members, performers, influencers, and produsers) and demonstrates their usefulness and interrelatedness in a case study of contemporary sport. For example, many people are members of sports-related groups and communities, and sportspersons can be thought of as performers who must manage ‘impressions’ of themselves when engaged in both sporting and non-sporting activities. It then considers some potential limitations to the approach to human communication taken in the book and examines some alternative approaches. This chapter concludes by reiterating the book’s central argument that human interaction is the lifeblood of our world and that theories of communication, whatever their focus, must always return to the meaningful activities of embodied and situated human communicators.
Article
The paper focuses on the issue of intermedial references, the matters of conditions, necessity and relevance of their interpretation. It discusses the question of semantic value of an intermedial reference rather than of its aesthetic, pragmatic, modal or other aspects. It considers the lack of coherence between the theoretical propositions of intermedial studies, grounded in the studies of intertextuality, and the practice of analysis. In theory, every intermedial reference configures semantic dialogue between qualified media (configurations), thus requires conceptualisation. Yet, the practice of analysis reveals that some of them perform exclusively aesthetic function and invite to keep reception within the limits of perception. Therefore I make an attempt to define the criteria of textual request for conceptualisation/interpretation set up in a text as such. I propose to revise the relevant insights of different intertextual and semiotic approaches, to perform their revision, modification and extension, to articulate possible solution and exemplify it by filmic references to painting.
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У овој књизи аутори пишу о теорији спорта, теоантропоцентризму, теохуманизацији простора за физичко вјежбање, Васи Пелагићу, уметности и спорту, социологији....из садржаја књиге (прим.а)
Article
The main aim of this article is to consider the topicality of the theoretical achievements of the Leicester School, formed by the students and continuers of Norbert Elias’s ideas, with Eric Dunning at their head. The author presents the main theses on stadium hooliganism which Dunning and his team formulated on the basis of a socio-historical analysis. The English researchers connect the behaviour of football fans with their class origins, with patterns of ‘street’ socialization, with masculinism, and with violence constituting an important aspect of daily life. They show that the social environment from which the majority of hooligans originate has not been included in the broader stream of the civilizational process. Then the author, in describing Polish football fans, makes use of certain elements of Norbert Elias’s process sociology (constituting Dunning’s analytical tool). History shows that the sub-culture of football fans is ‘becoming civilized’, although not in a uniform manner. The concept of figuration could be a valuable analytical tool for describing the community of football fans, as it is not a society separated from the outside world, but remains in a specific interdependence with it. In the analysis, the dichotomy between ‘settlers’ and ‘outsiders’ is also helpful.
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Cilj sprovedenog istraživanja jeste sagledavanje fudbala u lancu navijačkog nasilja sa posebnim osvrtom na izveštavanje medija kao društvenih subjekata čiji je zadatak da podstiču ostale agense društva da ozbiljnije shvate problem i efikasnije reaguju na nasilno i huligansko ponašanje fudbalskih navijača. Povezivanjem teorijskih saznanja i empirijskih podataka, u radu su u okviru predmeta istraživanja u medijskom kontekstu sagledani primeri nasilja navijača na fudbalskim stadionima pre, za vreme i posle fudbalskih utakmica. Zaključuje se da se samo organizovanom društvenom akcijom svih agenasa, a posebno medija, može doći do rešenja problema nasilja i huliganizma.
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The present study seeks to examine the underrepresented transnational phenomenon of everyday verbal abuse in amateur football. Based on 34 semi-structured interviews with German and French amateur referees, a contrastive sociolinguistic model was developed which allows to identify type-specific influencing factors on the evaluation of verbal abuse. Although individual referee related characteristics have similar values across different types, especially the high intrinsic motivation, active communication, the disturbing influence of third parties, and the identification of alleged perpetrator groups, the comparative analysis shows that personal ambition, knowledge of rules, observed lingual behaviour, and the hierarchisation of verbal abuse based on its motivation have a significant influence on the evaluation of verbal abuse by German and French referees in amateur football. Due to the explorative nature of the non-representative sample, the present study is only an initial contribution to a better understanding of the phenomenon observed throughout Europe. It is therefore desirable that this study is followed by quantitatively oriented studies. Key words: verbal abuse, verbal devaluation, amateur football referee, Germany, France.
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Before coming out of the closet and publishing a series of successful gay novels, Patricia Nell Warren was known as Patricia Kilina, wife of a Ukrainian émigré writer George Tarnawsky. Her early poetry, written in Ukrainian, includes numerous references to non-traditional gender roles which she further explored in her anglophone novels. The Front Runner (1974) was published when Warren had already divorced her husband and came out of the closet. It was met with commercial success and became the first contemporary American bestseller about gay love. In this paper, I focus on the mixed reader-response of The Front Runner in the LGBTQ+ community, as well as the role of homophobia and misogyny in Patricia Nell Warren’s novel. I argue that The Front Runner provides readers with a thought-provoking literary representation of the changing social attitudes towards non-binary gender roles and non-heterosexuality right after Stonewall and before the AIDS epidemic.
Thesis
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Sociology of Sport, a subdiscipline of Sociology, developed from the 1960- 1970s mainly in Europe and North America. However, these discussions only entered Latin American territory from the 1980s onwards, through anthropological studies of football in Brazil and later in Argentina and other countries in the region. The studies of Sociology of Sport in Brazil and Chile were mapped in previous studies, contributing an analytical part of the state of knowledge of Sociology of Sport in Latin America. The present dissertation, in this sense, intends to offer an overview of the scientific production published on sports in Argentinean Physical Education and Sociology journals, based on the sociological approach. For this purpose, the following journals have been selected: Custiones de Sociología, Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes and Educación Física y Ciencia, since there is not yet a specific journal for the subdiscipline. To this end, specific methodological paths of content analysis will be taken, seeking the identification of the main agents, institutions that publish most about sport with the bias of sociological reflection in Argentine scientific journals, in addition to analyzing the articles in relation to the themes/objects, sports modalities, methods and most evident references in the texts published since the emergence of the selected journals until the year 2020. The data collected was entered into a spreadsheet and then into the Nvivo 12 Plus software so that the word cloud viewing tool could be used. From the results, it can be highlighted, first of all, that the studies focused on the Sociology of Sport in Argentina were linked to Anthropology, Sociology, Communication Sciences and Football. This scenario has changed little when analyzing the Argentinean authors who published in the journals investigated, in which the agents who published the most also have, in their majority, links with the Social Sciences and Humanities, specifically more linked to Sociology, Anthropology and Social Communication. The most studied modality identified as football, being approached essentially from the questions of identity, a characteristic also related to production that is mainly directed to the Argentine scenario -be it in a micro (regional) or macro (national) proportion. The most frequently used method was content analysis, but a large number of studies were identified that did not delineate a clear method, showing a certain incipiency in the development of these investigations. The most used references in the studies analyzed were from Argentine authors, with the presence of agents who inaugurated this subfield of studies in the country. Finally, it is concluded that, by basing ourselves on empirical data, it is possible to reflect on the Sociology of Sport in this context and how it has developed. We can consider that Sociology of Sport in Argentina is still a subfield under construction, but it has remained active with research groups, initiatives by professors to promote such research, and event organizations to approach the sport as a legitimate research object.
Book
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Resultados de pesquisa do Pronex-Juventude
Article
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This article highlights specific aspects of the relationship between Maradona and the People's Republic of China (PRC) to trace the development of the "one-athlete brand" in global sport and the construction of the "foreign" sports myth in China. These aspects include the aligned development of football in China and Maradona as an icon, manifested in the gap in the domestic space for Western athletic icons in China and Maradona's rise during the 1986 World Cup; the political identity and interpretation of Maradona as a supporter of communist and socialist regimes amidst China's opening and international integration; and the modern development of the Chinese sports machine and Maradona's corresponding stardom first as a player and then a coach. We assert that Maradona's extensive story not only included China, but even reflects the strong sociological and cultural implications seen in the profound changes in Chinese society beginning in the mid-1980s.
Chapter
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El artículo hace una revisión de literatura sobre profesores universitarios en Brasil, trazando caminos de análisis que vinculan herramientas teórico-metodológicas propuestas por Norbert Elías. Al seleccionar los textos para el análisis, se eligieron dos campos temáticos que involucran a los profesores en la universidad: aún lado, se encuentran los procesos históricos que denotan transformaciones y grupos significativos (SETTON, 5, 2018), y por otro, los procesos de formación desarrollados a partir de interdependencias entre per- sonas o grupos que participan en el ámbito educativo.
Book
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This book takes a close look at discrimination in football in order to illuminate our understanding of the interaction between sport and wider society, politics, and culture, particularly in terms of the (re)production of identity. It presents insightful and diverse international case studies, including the shadow of fascism in Italian football; fan activism against racism, sexism, and homophobia in US soccer; migrant football clubs in Germany; and the use of football club history in the teaching of antisemitism. Together, the cases demonstrate the damaging societal consequences of unchecked resentment and discrimination in football fan cultures as well as the potential for fan activism as a socio-positive force. This is a fascinating read for anybody with an interest in football or fandom, the sociology of sport, cultural studies, or political science. Pavel Brunssen is a PhD candidate at the Department of Germanic Languages and Literatures at the University of Michigan, USA, where he is also pursuing a graduate certificate in Judaic Studies at the Frankel Center for Judaic Studies. His main research interests include antisemitism and antigypsyism in European football fan cultures. In 2011, Pavel cofounded a magazine called Transparent, of which he was editor in chief until 2017, that focuses on the political aspects of soccer fan cultures.
Conference Paper
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The ways in which individuals develop temporal orientations that divide the flow of personal experience into the time zones of past, present or future influence decision making and action taking, in terms of dominant temporal orientation. Research so far has already highlighted the link between specific time orientations (mainly future) and a series of behaviors associated with health, risk taking or academic achievement. Although time perspective was investigated as a cognitive motivational concept with important implications on learning outcomes and behavior, there is little or no evidence concerning the e$ects of time perspective on work related achievement motivation. Similarly, albeit time perspective was studied in relation with other individual variables that might provide insights for a better understanding of its volitional nature (such as, locus of control, optimism/pessimism or self-determination), self-regulation was not yet considered. Based on these assumptions, the present study investigates the possible associations between di$erent time perspectives, selfregulation and achievement motivation. It was conducted using a survey method on a convenience sample of 67 MA students. Results show positive associations between future time perspective and self-regulation, and negative associations between present fatalist and self-regulation, respectively past negative and self-regulation. Likewise, achievement motivation seems to be positively related to future time perspective and negatively related to past negative and present fatalistic. Moreover, these correlations are supported at subscale level. The present findings advice for taking into account the way in which individuals assign the personal and social experiences to time frames, that help them give order, coherence and meaning in work settings. Since career, as well as schooling is by de#nition future-oriented, identifying the dominant time perspective and its relation to behaviors associated with planning and achieving one’s goals might help better understand career choices. Concurrently, since time perspective is associated with problematic behaviors, it could be included in the study of work related behaviors (counterproductive or organizational citizenship behaviors) along with self-regulation.
Article
The active function of football culture referring to the population’s politicization which comes out through self-identification and daily political behavior stands out in this paper. Considering the fact that football began to go beyond the pitch, the studies of sport fandom, economic consequences of international competitions, soft power in terms of stereotypes and state’s political influence have been being conducted since. This paper examines one of such processes that involves a larger part of the world's population at the global and local levels – which is an active support of the football club as a tool of identification and practice of a particular political determination of society. At the same time, the arguments for the indirect identification of a football club with the local authorities can be found here as well because not only does a club with a clear position become a prototype of the desired power, but it also turns to be a tool to fight with for this power. The aim of the article lays in a deep research of the mentioned process in society from various angles – from spatial (Sharon Zukin, John Bale), social (Eric Dunning, Erin Tarver) to historical and political one (David Goldblatt, Simon Cooper). The paper contains the evidence of football clubs being a source of collective and personal memory and of building self-identification and defining the «other» through the prism of fandom as well as examples of such politicization at the global and local levels. The practical part includes the case study of FC «Barcelona» and FC «Karpaty» on the basis of brief historical analysis and interviews with fans. The fact that football fandom is able to be directed into the political sphere which in turn leads to the socialization of individuals as well as to the intensification of their patriotism and separatism in daily life is also proved in the article. Hence, football clubs are an active factor in today's society at least due to their historically tied symbols, verbal and visual elements, spatial city objects and emotional significance for supporters. At the same time, the need for further research where both interdisciplinary approach and practical study of football fandom will be at the central focus is highly needed as well.
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