Article

Chemical composition of virgin olive oil "Empeltre" variety from the Bajo Aragón region

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Abstract

The variability of the parameters of chemical composition of virgin olive oil, "Empeltre" variety, in 472 samples coming from the Bajo Aragón region, in three seasons 1996/97,1997/98 y 1998/99 was studied in this work. The free acidity, peroxide values, ultraviolet absorbances, fatty acid composition, sterolic composition and the level of waxes and polyphenols were analized. Considering their chemical composition, the majority of the analysed oils are of great quality. The oils of the 1997/98 season differ more from those of other seasons, having been affected by the attack of the Dacus oleae, which gave a higger acidity level, raising the peroxides and the waxes as well. The sterolic composition was also affected. The "Empeltre" variety from the Bajo Aragón region shows high values of Delta7 stigmastenol, which in many cases exceed the maximum value of the European Union Commission Regulation.

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... This variation was related to location (eastern vs. western foothills), and to the use of pest control: in Bet Dagan there is no pest control for the olive fly (Dacus oleae), whereas fly traps are used in Assera. Thus, olive fly infection increased the iodine value in the Bet Dagan samples (Gracia Gómez, 2001). Nevertheless, a few samples in Bet Dagan (at a low level of ripeness) had low iodine values due to the chemical and enzymatic reactions introduced by the olive fly infection, resulting in holes in the fruit and additional chemical materials (Hmidat, 2007). ...
... All values were in the range of virgin olive oil (Codex Alimentarius, 2001) except for two samples from Bet Dagan which showed a higher refractive index. These two samples also had higher peroxide and iodine values due to olive fly infection (Gracia Gómez, 2001). 3. Acidity. ...
... The use of fly traps in Assera prevents olive fly infection. Olive fly infection leads to higher Δ7 stigmastenol content (Gracia Gómez, 2001), which dehydrates to form higher amounts of stigmastadiene (Bortolomeazzi et al., 2000). ...
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... Stigmasterol is related to various parameters of the quality of virgin olive oil. High levels correlate with high acidity and low organoleptic quality 40 . The analysed samples presented low levels of stigmasterol, which is indicative that the oil came from healthy fruits and not obtained by systems of forcing 41 . ...
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