Article

Effects of Profuse Sweating Induced by Exercise on Urinary Uric Acid Excretion in a Hot Environment

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Abstract

In order to determine whether exercise-induced profuse sweating could reduce urinary uric acid excretion, we simulated badminton players training and measured their uric acid in urine, sweat and blood during the training period. Thirteen male volunteers who were well-trained badminton players were recruited in this study. On the first 2 days and the last 2 days of the study period none of the subjects engaged in any intense exercise-or activity-inducing profuse sweat, but they accepted routine training 2h per day during the middle 3 days. The results show that mean serum urate levels of thirteen volunteers rose significantly on day 4, when the concentrations increased by 18.2% over day 2 (P<0.05). The mean ten-hour urinary uric acid excretion of seven volunteers on the 3 training days was significantly less at 178.5μmol/day and 118.3μmol/day than those on the preceding and subsequent days of the training days, respectively (P<0.05). Furthermore, for six volunteers, the mean ratio of clearance of uric acid to creatinine was 6.6% on day 2, which significantly decreased to 5.4% on day 4 (P<0.05). It is concluded profuse sweating exercise results in a decrease of urinary uric acid excretion amounts and leads to increased serum uric acid after the exercise. We suggest that persons who take vigorous exercise or are exposed to hot environments need drinking enough fluids to prevent dehydration and maintain adequate urinary output. People with profuse sweat after rigorous exercise are recommended taking sports drinks containing abundant sodium in order to decrease serum uric acid.

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... In addition, a Korean cohort study (4) showed that subjects who were sedentary for ≥10 hours a day were more likely to develop HUA than subjects who were sedentary for <5 hours a day. However, several small clinical trials have found that physical exercise does not have a positive effect on SUA levels (19)(20)(21)(22). At present, there is no uniform standard for exercise dose and intensity to prevent or treat HUA (23)(24)(25). ...
... However, another study showed that 12 weeks of strength training increased the SUA of patients with type 2 diabetes (P <0.001) (37). The study by Li-Ling Huang et al. (20) showed that the SUA level of professional athletes was significantly increased after short-term high-intensity training (P <0.05). The mechanism may be reduced uric acid excretion after highintensity exercise, which in turn leads to an increase in SUA. ...
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Background Hyperuricemia (HUA) is a metabolic disease by purine metabolism disorders. It is a risk factor for many chronic diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Studies have shown that exercise can effectively reduce serum uric acid (SUA), but the optimal exercise dose, intensity, and mode of exercise for improving HUA have not been verified in clinical studies. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effect of different exercise intensities in improving SUA of patients with HUA. Methods and Analysis A randomized, single-blind, parallel controlled trial will be conducted in this study. 186 HUA patients who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly divided into a 1:1:1 ratio (1): control group (2), low-intensity exercise group (brisk walking, 57-63% maximum heart rate, 150 min/week, 12 months), and (3) moderate-intensity exercise group (jogging, 64-76% maximum heart rate, 150 min/week, 12 months). The three groups of subjects will receive the same health education and prohibition of high-purine diet during the intervention period. The primary outcomes will be SUA concentration, SUA concentration change (mg/dL), SUA change rate (%), and the proportion of HUA patients. Secondary outcomes will include anthropometric parameters (body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, BMI); physiological indicators (blood pressure, grip, vital capacity, maximum oxygen); biochemical indicators (blood lipid, blood sugar, liver enzyme, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen). Each group of patients will go through an assessment at baseline, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months. Discussion This study will evaluate the effect of 12-month low-intensity exercise and moderate-intensity exercise on HUA patients. We hypothesize that both low-intensity and moderate-intensity exercise would improve HUA as compared with no-exercise control, and that moderate-intensity exercise would be more effective than low-intensity exercise in improving HUA. These results can provide a basis for the current physical activity guidelines for HUA’s healthy lifestyle management. Ethics and Dissemination This study has been approved by the Ethical Review Committee of the Shanghai University of Sport (approval number: 102772020RT005). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants or their guardians. The authors intend to submit the study findings to peer-reviewed journals or academic conferences to be published. Clinical Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, identifier ChiCTR2100042643.
... 35,36 another mechanism for reducing oxidative stress is due to exercise adaptation, which increases the expression of the gene of antioxidant enzymes and reduces the need for uric acid as an antioxidant, reducing its synthesis and concentration. [37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] contradictory results may be due to differences in the physiological conditions of the participants, health, duration, type and intensity of exercise, and nutritional status. ...
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