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YouTube: Online Video and Participatory Culture

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Abstract

YouTube is one of the most well-known and widely discussed sites of participatory media in the contemporary online environment, and it is the first genuinely mass-popular platform for user-created video. In this timely and comprehensive introduction to how YouTube is being used and why it matters, Burgess and Green discuss the ways that it relates to wider transformations in culture, society and the economy.----- The book critically examines the public debates surrounding the site, demonstrating how it is central to struggles for authority and control in the new media environment. Drawing on a range of theoretical sources and empirical research, the authors discuss how YouTube is being used by the media industries, by audiences and amateur producers, and by particular communities of interest, and the ways in which these uses challenge existing ideas about cultural ‘production’ and ‘consumption’.----- Rich with concrete examples and featuring specially commissioned chapters by Henry Jenkins and John Hartley, the book is essential reading for anyone interested in the contemporary and future implications of online media. It will be particularly valuable for students and scholars in media, communication and cultural studies.

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... YouTube is one of the most successful example among all. Not only has YouTube become one of the most popular website among all categories, but it has also given birth to many internet celebrities that have more than several tens-ofthousand followers while making millions of dollars from their fame and popular videos [1]. These internet celebrities are sometimes called YouTubers because they obtained their celebrity status from YouTube. ...
... YouTube's website was officially launched by three former PayPal employees in 2005 with the original goal to remove the technical barriers non-experts faced when sharing videos on the web [1]. It gradually became the biggest video and music consumption and sharing platform in the world and created the participatory culture around it [1]. ...
... YouTube's website was officially launched by three former PayPal employees in 2005 with the original goal to remove the technical barriers non-experts faced when sharing videos on the web [1]. It gradually became the biggest video and music consumption and sharing platform in the world and created the participatory culture around it [1]. As one of the most popular social media, YouTube gave birth to a new breed of influential figures, YouTuber. ...
Chapter
Due to the influence of the global pandemic, online and distance learning has replaced traditional classroom and face-to-face interaction so students can continue learning. Internet mediated self-directed learning also climbed to a new height and foreign language learning from YouTube video is a very popular learning method for many. Furthermore, YouTube videos can supplement cross-cultural knowledge for foreign language (FL) learners, which is a critical yet hard to develop ability for FL teachers. However, unlike for FL textbooks, the cross-cultural elements have not been examined thoroughly for YouTube videos. Therefore, this study analyzed the most subscribed and watched Japanese Chinese-as-FL YouTuber, “Lee Sisters ch”, which is also the official representative of HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi) test. We selected 30 most watched videos and analyzed their contents according to Chastain’s Big ‘C’ small ‘c’ culture framework. The result showed 86.67% of the most popular 30 videos covered topics about culture: 23.33% of the videos were related to big ‘C’ culture and 63.33% were about small ‘c’ culture. Similar to earlier researches on FL textbooks, “Literature” was the main theme of big ‘C’. On the other hand, “Everyday living” was the most frequent small ‘c’ topic, which is a unique phenomenon for YouTube FL channels. Furthermore, not only did the portion of big ‘C’ and small ‘c’ cultures match the suggestions of FL scholars, the language used in all videos were also mainly in Japanese that fit the needs of Japanese CFL learners. It is concluded YouTube video may be suitable to learn cross-cultural knowledge for FL learner, especially for Japanese students.KeywordsYouTuberChinese-as-Foreign-Language (CFL)Japanese learnerCross-cultural competenceContent analysis
... With YouTube, we have the giant cinema screen at our fingertips (Stokel-Walker, 2019). While the platform gives multiple content options ranging from clips of TV shows and movies to brand promotions, Burgess & Green (2018) uncovered that user-generated content is consumed the most. Few oddballs and backbenchers started producing and uploading these videos to entertain, express and relax after their daily routines. ...
... The most consumed content tends to be entertainment (40%), followed by channels producing music tracks (20%) and subsequently sports (10%) and sports channels (10%). This wide variety of content available on the platform suggests that YouTube has become par with the mass media (Burgess & Green, 2018). To monetise this opportunity, content creators, called YouTubers on this platform, as registered users enrol in the YouTube Partner Program, which allows YouTube to run ads in the middle of their videos. ...
... The social media evolution has made content creators branch out in their approach. Burgess & Green (2018) state that creators have started adopting "cross-platform" strategies. They now publish their content across platforms such as Snapchat, Instagram, Facebook and Twitter. ...
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YouTube was one of the first platforms fuelling every layperson's dream to get a taste of stardom. Standing true to its promise, it exposed everyone to content creation and every aspect of fame that comes with content creation. The good, the bad, and the ugly side of the online platform involve the trolls and hate comments on the online platforms. It was eventually noticed that the trolling phenomena are shaping up biasedly and follow gender inequality recently. The online trolls are severe and ugly, especially for female content creators. The comments were harsh, demeaning and sometimes vindictive. Looking at this aspect of gender-specific trolling, the study aimed to explore and understand the trolling and nature of the trolls that female YouTubers encounter day-today. A qualitative approach was used to comprehend the argument. In-depth interviews were conducted with female content creators on YouTube. The YouTubers considered for the study were first selected by reviewing their content and their number of followers. Later they were connected individually to participate in the study. A total of fifteen female YouTubers were interviewed across different genres of beauty, lifestyle, entertainment and art. The study further dissected these female Youtubers' trolling and backlash experiences and their effect on their content output. These YouTubers have been actively using the tools provided by the platform to block out the negativity from their channels. At the same time, they have realised that it may not be easy to cut the hate comments and trolls out entirely. The conversation highlighted the impact and severity of trolls and their efforts to refocus their energies and attention on improving and creating better quality. The study will act as a reference point for future feminist scholars across disciplines and further explore online trolling phenomena.
... Founded in 2005, the site has become one of the most visited places online, third after Google and Facebook (3); amongst social media platforms, YouTube is a close second behind Facebook -77% of all internet consumers have a Facebook account, while 63% regularly check YouTube to view and/or upload content (Khan 2017). The platform, founded in 2005, has quickly evolved from a quirky place comprised of mostly "home movie" type videos -"dogs, cats, and kids"to one that encompasses a "continent" of videos from global commercial business interests as well as videos displaying sophisticated user-generated content from laypersons (Burgess and Green 2009, Pelle and Vonderau 2009, Strangelove 2010. Burgess and Baym (2020) elaborate: ...
... Video sharing defined. Although YouTube was the first video sharing SNS to appear, the term "video sharing" includes all sites that have some form of digital videos as the main uploaded content, the majority of which is user-generated by non-corporate members of the general public (Burgess and Green 2009). Van Dijck explains that the term "video sharing" was first: ...
... For creating and sharing digital content on the Web, the above features epitomized a radical departure from what was possible on earlier video sharing sites. Online communities quickly formed on and around YouTubes, including those focused on music and music making activities (Burgess and Green, 2009). ...
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Situating past and present practices historically is necessary to imagine future possibilities in music teaching and learning. In this chapter, I discuss YouTube's rise to and consider its current place as the most prominent social media actor/video sharing platform in music education theory, research, and practice. This examination includes a contextualization of YouTube and its role in online community formation, a survey of seminal YouTube music learning and teaching literature from music education and communication scholars, and a discussion of three key social media theories to position research on video sharing in the larger "ecosystem" of branded networks. I use these three theories to illustrate what they "look like" in practice through examining YouTube and TikTok video sharing sea shanty phenomenon, "The Wellerman" and end the chapter with implications that video sharing and video sharing platforms have for music education practice. As music education moves through the 21 st century, understanding context, research, and theories of digital video media is a key component for school music teachers to sustain and grow thoughtful relevant practice.
... YouTube, which was created in 2005, is the largest video-sharing website worldwide and is watched by over 2 billion users each day. At present, YouTube contains over 1 billion hours of video (11,12). However, as is well known, many YouTube videos are not subjected to peer-reviewing and lack quality control. ...
... For each of these elements, the videos were scored 1 point (briefly introduced) or 2 points (introduced in detail), while 0 points were given if the videos did not contain any of the abovementioned elements (19). The sum of the GQS score and content score could be 1-15, and relevant videos were divided into three qualitative groups based on their sum score: "low" [1][2][3][4][5][6], "moderate" [7][8][9][10][11], or "excellent" [12][13][14][15]. The included videos were analyzed and scored in routine practice by two independent researchers (Qiuling Zhao and Xiuliang Qiu), who are clinical pharmacists with a working knowledge of ibrutinib. ...
... Based on the characteristics of videos, most videos were classified as academic conference (n=61, 61.62%), followed by physician remarks (n=30, 30.3%), popular science (n=4, 4.04%) and others (n=4, 4.04%). The interquartile ranges of the GQS, content, total, and DISCERN scores of the included videos were 3 [3-5], 6 [4][5][6][7], 9 [7][8][9][10][11][12], and 3 [2][3], respectively. The basic data for inter-rater reliability is shown in Table 2. ...
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Background: Ibrutinib, one Food and Drug Administration-approved, orally available, small-molecule Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, is an effective targeted therapy for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). YouTube is increasingly used for health purposes. However, videos for ibrutinib on YouTube have not been previously evaluated. This study assessed the accuracy and quality of YouTube videos on ibrutinib, to better understand the information shown on a dominant media platform. Methods: The first 150 video results returned by the YouTube search engine in response to the keyword "ibrutinib" were included (up to June 27, 2022). Typically used predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to screen the videos based on our needs. A 5-point Global Quality Scale (GQS) determined whether the videos would be useful to patients or not, and the quality of content was analyzed by five content-specific items. The quality of the included videos was classified as "low", "moderate", or "excellent" according to GQS and content score. The median and interquartile range were used to describe the values and Kruskal-Wallis test were used in the analysis. Results: A total of 99 videos with a median of 237 views met the inclusion criteria. The videos were categorized into educational videos (n=6, 6.07%), personal experience and blog (n=3, 3.03%) and interviews videos (n=90, 90.9%). Almost half of the videos were classified as moderate (n=51, 51.51%), followed by excellent (n=25, 25.26%) and low (n=23, 23.23%). Between the groups, no statistically significant differences were observed in the numbers of dislikes, comments, posted days, percentage positivity and viewing rate (P>0.05). There were marked differences in the length, likes, views, viewers' interaction and likeability (P<0.05). Conclusions: YouTube could be an effective source for different groups of people to obtain helpful information about ibrutinib. The physicians, pharmacists, nurses and healthcare organizations should prepare and upload more comprehensible and reliable videos with evidence-based information.
... YouTube became the most commonly used social media platform in the US in 2019 [6]. The culture of "vernacular creativity" encourages YouTubers to share videos that interest viewers and engage them in online communities [11]. As one of the top video categories, knowledge and how-to videos allow viewers to obtain information in various topics [42] and build informal mentorship [18]. ...
... YouTube is known as a video-sharing platform of vernacular content and grassroots creativity [11]. The "participatory culture" on YouTube allows ordinary people to create and circulate personally meaningful, everyday, and popular video content [11]. ...
... YouTube is known as a video-sharing platform of vernacular content and grassroots creativity [11]. The "participatory culture" on YouTube allows ordinary people to create and circulate personally meaningful, everyday, and popular video content [11]. In contrast to platforms based on friending and networking, YouTubers upload interesting video content and establish online communities with the viewers [15,63,68]. ...
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Drug addiction has become one of the most severe worldwide social problems. Recent research has examined utilizing social media to support addiction recovery and the problematic use of social media for selling drugs and glamorizing drug use. Prior studies have focused on textual and networking-based social media such as Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit, but there is limited understanding of how video-based platforms like YouTube allow creators to share drug addiction-related videos and discourse about addiction problems. This work performs a content analysis of 387 drug-addiction-related videos collected from YouTube. The grounded-theory approach based on the health-emergency framework identifies how drug-addiction videos discourse the addiction-related risk, blame, urgency, praise, and solution. Video viewership and comments are also compared between the emerged video themes. Results suggest YouTubers educate others about drug addiction, disclose personal experiences, and advocate for addiction prevention and recovery. Based on our findings, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of using video-sharing to prevent and educate drug addiction.
... Concurrently, state governors provided updates and guidelines to their constituencies by using regular briefings [5,6]. General press and social-media influencers based their communications on official press releases but also contributed to fostering an environment of misinformation that could have increased social tensions and discriminatory behaviors [7][8][9]. People have especially used social media to seek health information and social support during the pandemic and to share updated information related to COVID-19 [10,11]. ...
... Effective communication between leadership and the public, in terms of transparency and confidence, is essential to manage public health crises since communication is the basis of trust, thereby influencing individuals' and communities' compliance with the recommended behaviors [7][8][9]12,14,15]. Moreover, the tone or sentiment of a message is a key factor which could influence the perception of transparency and confidence [16,17]. ...
Article
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Objectives This study examines the contents of official communication from United States governors’ offices related to the COVID-19 pandemic to assess patterns in communication and to determine if they correlate with trends for COVID cases and deaths. Methods We collected text data for all COVID-19 related press releases between March 1 and December 31, 2020 from the US governors’ office websites in all 50 states. An automated parsing and sentiment analyzer assessed descriptive statistics and trends in tone, including positivity and negativity. Results We included a total of 7,720 press releases in this study. We found that both positive and negative sentiments were homogenous across states at the beginning of the pandemic but became heterogeneous as the pandemic evolved. The same trend applied to the frequency and tone of press releases. Sentiments across states were overall positive with a small level of negativity. We observed a reactive official communication to the evolution of the number of COVID-19 cases rather than responsive or preventive. Conclusions The findings of both positivity and negativity in press communications suggest that the effect of discounted importance was present in official communications. Our findings support a state-dependent optimal communication frequency and tone, agreeing with the curvilinear communication model of organizational theory and implying that feedback cycles between government officials and public response should be shortened to rapidly maximize communication efficacy during the pandemic. Future research should identify and evaluate the drivers of the large differences in communication tone across states and validate the reactive characteristics of COVID-19 official communications.
... In addition, information overload in social media has been associated with higher depressive symp toms overtime (Matthes et al., 2020). On the other hand, depression is often associated with social withdrawal (Girard et al., 2014), hence it is possible that individuals with high depressive symptomatology tend to use YouTube more in comparison with other platforms, as it encourages less interactive involvement (Burgess & Green, 2009). ...
Article
Background Social media use has vastly increased during the past few years, especially among young adults. Studies examining the relationship of social media use with mental health have yielded mixed findings. Additionally, such studies are extremely limited in Greece. The present study aimed to investigate the association between social media use, depressive symptoms and self-esteem among Greek young adults. Method A total of 654 individuals (50.5% male) aged 18-30 years (Μ = 23.62, SD = 2.71) completed self-reported questionnaires regarding social media use, depressive symptoms and self-esteem. Results Increased daily use of YouTube (more than five hours) showed a significant association with higher depressive symptomatology, b = 2.99, 95% CI [.78, 5.20], p = .008, while daily use of Facebook between two and five hours was related to significantly higher self-esteem, b = 1.61, 95% CI [.78, 2.44], p < .001, after adjusting for participants’ gender, age, educational level and employment status. The association of increased daily use of YouTube with depressive symptoms was more pronounced in males than in females. Moreover, self-reported active use of Facebook and Instagram were linked with significantly lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem compared to passive involvement. Conclusion The results suggest that social media use is closely related to self-esteem and depressive symptomatology in young adults. These findings may contribute to a deeper clinical understanding of the association between electronic social networking and mental health.
... Además, las funcionalidades y las prácticas de los usuarios y de los influencers en el ámbito digital se han adaptado a la necesidad de parecer perfectos, centrándose cada vez más en el uso de filtros, la mejora de la imagen y la manipulación digital para parecer más cercanos a estos ideales en medidas corporales, color de piel, ojos y cabello, entre otros factores. Mientras tanto, el mismo entorno digital que ha contribuido a definir lo que es aceptable en términos de rasgos estéticos se ha convertido en un contexto primordial para la creación y difusión de una gran variedad de contenidos relacionados con este sector (Burgess y Green, 2018). ...
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Introducción: La presente investigación profundiza en la posible influencia de factores poco estudiados en la interacción que despiertan los vídeos de YouTube sobre dietas milagro, dado el potencial riesgo de salud pública que pueden suponer los consejos que ofrecen, especialmente para la población joven. Metodología: Se analizaron los 50 vídeos más vistos sobre dietas rápidas subidos entre enero de 2020 y junio de 2021 en español y en inglés. A través de un análisis de contenido cuantitativo se estudió la influencia de variables sobre la relación con la audiencia y la presencia en cámara, la expresión de emociones y la descripción y análisis de la dieta o producto sobre la interacción y consumo del video. Resultados: Los factores estudiados no tienen apenas efecto, como tampoco lo tuvo el idioma, en las cifras de visionados, comentarios, likes, dislikes y compartidos. Discusión: Lo anterior se interpreta como señal de un consumo acrítico e irreflexivo, lo que podría suponer riesgos si la audiencia sigue dietas o consume productos que puedan suponer un riesgo para la salud. Conclusiones: El trabajo aspiraba a abrir nuevas vías de análisis de contenidos de salud en YouTube poniendo el foco en características de los vídeos menos estudiadas en la literatura previa. A pesar de los escasos efectos observados, se plantea la necesidad de seguir abordando factores como las emociones transmitidas, el tipo de información utilizada o la actitud hacia los productos o dietas tratados.
... La sociedad nunca ha aparecido más bella, estandarizada y filtrada. Mientras tanto, el mismo entorno digital que ha contribuido a definir lo que es aceptable en términos de rasgos estéticos se ha convertido en un contexto primordial para la creación y difusión de una variedad de contenidos relacionados con este sector (Burgess y Green, 2018). ...
Article
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La presente investigación busca conocer la calidad de los vídeos de YouTube sobre dietas milagro y la interacción que generan, sobre todo dado el potencial riesgo que pueden suponer para los espectadores que sigan sus consejos en caso de que estos puedan resultar nocivos. Para ello se analizaron 50 vídeos en español e inglés, siendo estos los más vistos en la categoría de dietas rápidas. A través de un análisis de contenido cuantitativo y cualitativo, se evaluó la calidad y la credibilidad transmitida en ellos, así como los efectos de estas dos características sobre la interacción. Los resultados sugieren que la calidad de estos contenidos en ocasiones es muy reducida, con frecuentes alusiones a «productos milagro» y con recomendaciones sin base científica o sin garantía de funcionamiento, e incluso con indicaciones engañosas y consejos perjudiciales para la salud. Sin embargo, la presencia de información equilibrada, la alusión a fuentes fiables, la inclusión de expertos en la materia, la mención de cualificaciones o la formación previa influyen en un mayor volumen de interacciones positivas, mientras que la información sesgada o el uso de fuentes poco fiables se correlaciona con una menor cantidad de interacciones. En general, se comprobó que los vídeos que apuestan por elementos de calidad no lo hacen de manera aislada, mientras que aquellos que recurren a estrategias incorrectas también tienden a hacerlo en varias dimensiones. Todo esto demuestra que, aunque la exposición a estas grabaciones es muy elevada y la calidad resulta, en general, reducida, la inclusión en ellos de elementos de confianza repercute positivamente en la interacción con la audiencia
... Furthermore, the functionalities and practices of users and influencers in the digital realm have adapted to the need to appear perfect, focusing more and more on the use of filters, image enhancement, and digital manipulation to appear more close to these ideals in body measurements, skin color, eyes, and hair, among other factors. Meanwhile, the same digital environment that has helped define what is acceptable in terms of aesthetic features has become a primary context for the creation and dissemination of a wide variety of content related to this sector (Burgess and Green, 2018). ...
Article
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RESUMEN Introducción: La presente investigación profundiza en la posible influencia de factores poco estudiados en la interacción que despiertan los vídeos de YouTube sobre dietas milagro, dado el potencial riesgo de salud pública que pueden suponer los consejos que ofrecen, especialmente para la población joven. Metodología: Se analizaron los 50 vídeos más vistos sobre dietas rápidas subidos entre enero de 2020 y junio de 2021 en español y en inglés. A través de un análisis de contenido cuantitativo se estudió la influencia de variables sobre la relación con la audiencia y la presencia en cámara, la expresión de emociones y la descripción y análisis de la dieta o producto sobre la interacción y consumo del video. Resultados: Los factores estudiados no tienen apenas efecto, como tampoco lo tuvo el idioma, en las cifras de visionados, comentarios, likes, dislikes y compartidos. Discusión: Lo anterior se interpreta como señal de un consumo acrítico e irreflexivo, lo que podría suponer riesgos si la audiencia sigue RLCS, Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 80, 475-494 [Research] https://www. dietas o consume productos que puedan suponer un riesgo para la salud. Conclusiones: El trabajo aspiraba a abrir nuevas vías de análisis de contenidos de salud en YouTube poniendo el foco en características de los vídeos menos estudiadas en la literatura previa. A pesar de los escasos efectos observados, se plantea la necesidad de seguir abordando factores como las emociones transmitidas, el tipo de información utilizada o la actitud hacia los productos o dietas tratados. ABSTRACT Introduction: This research focuses on the possible influence of little-studied factors in the interaction aroused by YouTube videos on miracle diets, given the potential public health risk that the advice they offer may pose, especially for the young population. Methodology: The 50 most viewed videos on miracle diets posted between January 2020 and June 2021 in Spanish and English were analyzed. Through a quantitative content analysis, the influence of variables related to the relationship with the audience and the presence on camera, the expression of emotions and the description and analysis of the diet or product on the interaction and consumption of the video was studied. Results: The studied factors have hardly any effect, nor did the language of the video, on the numbers of views, comments, likes, dislikes and shares. Discussion: The above is interpreted as a sign of uncritical and thoughtless consumption, which could pose risks if the audience follows diets or consumes products that may pose a health risk. Conclusions: The work aspired to open new ways of analyzing health content on YouTube, focusing on characteristics of the videos less studied in the previous literature. Despite the few effects observed, there is a need to continue addressing factors such as the emotions transmitted, the type of information used or the attitude towards the products or diets treated.
... selecting and using strong and relevant keywords by placing them at the beginning of the title and thus creating a front-loaded title; using title case (capitalizing every content word in the title) or uppercase (using all caps throughout the title); including lists and numbers in the form of digits; limiting the number of characters to under 60 (in some sources, 66 or 70) characters including the spaces; using "How to" in the title (Baird, Sehl, 2020;Becker, 2019;Bedrina, 2020;Lockwood, 2018;Velumani, 2020). However, titles within the computer-mediated electronic discourse of the YouTube platform do not occur on their own, or even alongside predominantly linguistic content as is typically the case in the printed medium or the digital medium of search engine result pages, online newspapers, magazines and web pages (Snickars & Vonderau, 2009, Benson, 2017, Burgess & Green, 2018. Instead, they are always accompanied by (or, rather, considering the priority of the audio-visual medium on this website, accompanying) the videos themselves and the so-called "thumbnails", or, images which serve various functions ranging from signaling what the video will be about to enticing viewers to click by being purposefully ambiguous or problematic. ...
Article
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The present article offers to take a look at the specific role of video titles and their unique organizational and structuring function within the unique multimodal universe of the YouTube video sharing platform. For the purpose of examining and illustrating this, the Good Mythical Morning (n.d.a) YouTube channel will serve as a testing field. This particular channel has been chosen, first of all, due to its remarkable success and popularity-it boasts 17.2 million subscribers and 7,524,
... It is now easier than ever to connect globally, sharing music, ideas and conceptsthe globalisation of musical culture could be a paper in itself, but here I will merely touch on the suggestion that sharing creativity across the world has never been easier (Burgess and Green, 2009;Gibson, Luckman and Willoughby-Smith, 2010). ...
Article
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Article Info. Abstract One of the most pervasive messages about group music-making is its ability to contribute to social unity and cultural bonding. The notion of COVID-19 as a vehicle for cultural change is currently being examined in detail, particularly the development of improved digital platforms and the widespread globalism of music. The impact of community music-making in Western cultures has been extensively reported; for example, it has been shown to boost confidence, improve social skills and bring together communities. Much research has been done into the practice of using technology in the classroom, such as the inclusion of electronic keyboards and digital audio workstation (DAW) software, though success here has depended on teachers and learners sharing the same space and time to access necessary technology. In contrast, the potential and limitations of virtual, online music-making across widespread geographical locations are relatively new. It is clear that group music-making can play a key role in maintaining social unity and assuaging societal pain, and, in this extraordinary time, online alternatives can offer some form of coherence and opportunity.
... There are many types of video content on YouTube. According to Jean Burgess and Joshua Green [1], they can be categorized into two types, namely video content that originates from amateur users (user-created content) and that originates from traditional media institutions. Users in the user-created content group dominate, and the majority are video bloggers (around 40%). ...
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The internet, including social media, has been developing rapidly in line with the growth of the changing social situation. One example is the YouTube video platform. The use of internet technology has also penetrated the business world. The popularity of YouTube has enabled content creators (Youtubers) to use this app or social media to promote themselves. Bayu Skak is one of the Youtubers who has managed to make a living by producing videos, even reaching the big screen and television. One of his monumental works is Mesoh which uses features of East Javanese dialect. This study used a qualitative approach, supplemented by a narrative analysis. Primary data were obtained through visual and audio observations, and secondary data from desk research. The results demonstrated that the use of East Javanese vocabulary and dialect in the Mesoh work is an attribute of Bayu Skak’s personal ethics and serves to increase his popularity as a Youtuber and in film and television media. This personal ethics has become a personal mark of Bayu Skak which is an attraction for the public. Keywords: attribute, personal ethics, Bayu Skak, Mesoh
... The focus on video creation as an educational method has increased significantly in the last decade [17]. One of the factors is a paradigm shift in video usage (nowadays, students of almost all ages use advanced digital video tools to create their digital videos and publish them to others) [7]. YouTube and social networking services (SNS) have evolved video beyond TV broadcasting and movies. ...
Chapter
This paper discusses the design of online video co-creation workshop for ESD (education for sustainable development). Our research team designed and practiced a workshop program for 112 Japanese high school students from July to November 2020. This workshop program aims for high school students to acquire abilities, attitudes, and key competencies emphasized in ESD through co-creating short videos promoting SDGs activity. Focusing on the four teams that were particularly effective from the quantitative data of the workshop, we will analyze the work process of those teams and summarize the design recommendations for the video co-creation workshop. This research explores the possibility of online video co-creation as an ESD method and contributes to sustainable ESD research even in the era of COVID-19.KeywordsEducation for sustainable developmentCompetenciesWorkshop designStudent-generated videoOnline education
... Production qualities and performative strategies also speak to audience connection on YouTube. For example, YouTubers directly address the audience by looking into the camera at eye-level, a production feature that has been shown to increase perceived intimacy and build a sense of community among viewers (Burgess & Green, 2009). Rihl and Wegener (2019) found that attachment to YouTubers stemmed more from the YouTubers' perceived authenticity than any other measured variable, whereas Ko and Wu (2017) found that selfdisclosure, similarity, expertise, and likability all predicted the likelihood of audiences perceiving YouTubers as close others. ...
... Journalistic genres such as broadcast news can be characterized by recognizable similarities in style, content, discourse forms, and tone such as a "talking head" broadcaster who speaks in melodic tone. Similarly, YouTube vlogging constructs a range of genres through conventions in style, content, discourse forms, and tone (Burgess & Green, 2018). These often include filming with at-home backdrops such as on the bed or in the living room, addressing the audience directly, and introducing the video comedically. ...
... As discussed by the authors, responsible images would allow companies to and Li, 2013). Platforms such as Facebook (Ellison, Steinfield and Lampe, 2007), Twitter (Kwak, Lee, Park and Moon, 2010) and Youtube (Burgess and Green, 2013), for instance, have been largely employed as powerful communication environments for the advertising of products and services, as well as for their free evaluation by customers (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy and Silvestre, 2011). As an immediate response to the augmenting influence of these transferring mechanisms, firms have enhanced their communication efforts with consumers in such contexts (Gu and Ye, 2014) as, apart from issues related to their intrinsic political power (Shirky, 2011), or the use of novel and responsive technologies (Murthy and Gross, 2017), the increased relevance of social media seems to reflect changes in how users interact with it. ...
Thesis
The association of firms to crimes, condemnable management practices, operational difficulties and / or fails carried out by their partners suggests that negative events occurred in a firm (i.e. source firm) hold the potential to negatively affect others. As firms’ direct and indirect relationships with their partners become less obvious, supply chain risks (March and Shapira, 1987) must be reconsidered to account for this contemporary and possibly hazardous prospect. In addressing this issue, the present dissertation investigates the impacts of negative corporate events to supply chain partners. Throughout three individual but interconnected articles, empirical evidence suggest that beyond the interruption of physical flows, unfavorable circumstances may not be restricted to firms originating them, spreading across their networks. More specifically, based on the premises of the Efficient Market Hypothesis (Fama, Fisher, Jensen and Roll, 1969; Fama, 1970; Jensen, 1978), the utilization of the event study method (Fama, 1970; Brown and Warner, 1980) allowed the demonstration of negative reactions from investors of supply chain partners upon the disclosure of adverse news. In referring to these outcomes, the concept of supply chain contamination is here defined as “the dissemination of negative events through supply chains, negatively affecting not only the market value of customers and suppliers (possibly that of customers of customers and suppliers of suppliers and so on), as well as potentially other dimensions such as corporate reputations, for instance” (Fracarolli Nunes, 2018: 581).Initial theorization of this process is also proposed. The mechanics leading a company to be affected by events originated out of its organizational borders is portrayed in the concept of the inertial effect, illustrated in the image of “the waves caused by a stone that hits the water previously rested” (Fracarolli Nunes and Lee Park, 2016: 292). Within the reasoning of unintended or unanticipated consequences (Merton, 1936), the occurrence of supply chain contamination through the inertial effect is considered a collateral effect. From the intersection of the literatures on supply chain management and the Stakeholder Theory, a new conceptual model is developed. Building on the idea that stakeholders stand for any individual, entity or group that shall either affect or be affected by the operations of a company (Freeman, 1984), the empirical demonstration that investors of a supply chain partner must be affected (i.e. collateral effect) by negative events occurred in or caused by a source firm (i.e. supply chain contamination through the inertial effect), allows the proposition of the concept of incidental stakeholders, here defined as “stakeholders of stakeholders, which, as such, may not be aware of their links with other companies, or even not consciously willing to take the risks associated with such a subsidiary connection” (Fracarolli Nunes, 2019: 4). In this sense, the investigation of 30 cases classified in 5 distinct categories (environmental disaster, corporate social and environmental irresponsibilities, operational failure, corporate fraud and corruption) is expected to offer new perspectives on the structural risks associated to supply chains. Along with the theoretical discussions, practical utilizations are approached, as well as avenues for future inquiries.
... As the fastest growing web service of recent years, YouTube now ranks third behind Google and Facebook in measurements of web traffc. YouTube has also attracted academic interest in an emerging literature that tends to view it as a technological, media or cultural phenomenon (Burgess and Green 2009;Kavoori 2011;Lovink and Niederer 2008;Snickars and Vonderau 2009;Strangelove 2010). On the face of it, YouTube is a website where people watch videos, and not a 'text'. ...
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... Here, we use the term "feeling of attraction" to describe the fact that audience members feel attracted to media figures. YouTubers are present on and attract their community on different platforms (Berryman & Kavka, 2017;Burgess & Green, 2018). As a result, audience members have multiple opportunities to interact with them and experience parasocial and even social encounters. ...
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YouTube is a popular social media platform that fosters the development of social bonds between viewers and YouTubers called parasocial relationships (PSR). These relationships might be associated with both viewer characteristics, such as social anxiety, and YouTuber video characteristics, such as self-disclosure. Additionally, PSR might be associated with the level of addiction to the platform. Data from 370 college students were extracted from a previous study and 360 videos of 72 YouTubers were coded to (a) explore the different dimensions of PSR and (b) examine a mediation model of YouTube addiction. The results support the existence of three PSR dimensions. The results also showed that PSR dimensions were associated with both viewers’ social anxiety and YouTubers’ evaluative self-disclosure. One PSR dimension was positively associated with YouTube addiction. This study encourages the development of qualitative studies to more precisely identify the different facets of PSR with social media figures.
... YouTube is the most popular video-based platform; it serves as an aggregator and distributor by collecting, promoting, and providing content to users [29]. YouTube provides tools that allow search and social interaction as well as an up-to-date list of the most popular videos and automated recommendations [30]. ...
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This study investigated the determinants of digital music success in South Korea. We identified information sources and factors that may influence the consumption of digital music, including song and artist factors, record label and distributor influence factors, promotional media influence factors, and electronic word of mouth (e-WOM). The analysis was conducted using music download data and ranking chart data from a major music platform. First, we found that traditional promotional media, such as the number of television or radio exposures and appearances in an audition program, significantly affected the success of music. Second, regarding social promotional media factors, promotional videos on YouTube mainly affected short-term success, whereas Twitter mentions showed an increasing influence over time. Third, an artist with a long career positively affected a song's early success, while frequent song releases had a negative impact. Our results offer marketers insights into promoting digital music in this new era.
... Over the past two decades, YouTube [23] and Facebook [24] have grown considerably. Indeed, YouTube and Facebook have reached a larger audience than any other social platform since 2019 [25]. ...
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Practical demands and academic challenges have both contributed to making sentiment analysis a thriving area of research. Given that a great deal of sentiment analysis work is performed on social media communications, where text frequently ignores the rules of grammar and spelling, pre-processing techniques are required to clean the data. Pre-processing is also required to normalise the text before undertaking the analysis, as social media is inundated with abbreviations, emoticons, emojis, truncated sentences, and slang. While pre-processing has been widely discussed in the literature, and it is considered indispensable, recommendations for best practice have not been conclusive. Thus, we have reviewed the available research on the subject and evaluated various combinations of pre-processing components quantitatively. We have focused on the case of Twitter sentiment analysis, as Twitter has proved to be an important source of publicly accessible data. We have also assessed the effectiveness of different combinations of pre-processing components for the overall accuracy of a couple of off-the-shelf tools and one algorithm implemented by us. Our results confirm that the order of the pre-processing components matters and significantly improves the performance of naïve Bayes classifiers. We also confirm that lemmatisation is useful for enhancing the performance of an index, but it does not notably improve the quality of sentiment analysis.
... YouTube menunjukkan bagaimana kisah new media yang berubah dengan perdebatan jauh tentang peran media dan budaya populer di masyarakat (Burgess & Green, 2018 ...
Article
New media menciptakan ruang yang terintegrasi untuk mengakses informasi maupun bersosialisasi. Sebagai bagian dari new media, YouTube menyediakan berbagai informasi yang dapat diakses secara mudah dan cepat. YouTube dapat digunakan tidak hanya untuk keperluan hiburan namun juga dapat memberikan edukasi kepada publik. Lapas Perempuan Kelas IIB Yogyakarta merupakan salah satu lembaga pemerintah yang juga menggunakan YouTube untuk edukasi bencana. Selama pandemi COVID-19, pihak lapas membatasi mobilisasi narapidana. Pihak lapas melakukan edukasi bencana dengan memutarkan video dari YouTube untuk menghadapi bahaya bencana di masa depan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kontribusi new media untuk edukasi bencana di lapas. Peneliti melakukan studi kasus di Lapas Perempuan Kelas IIB Yogyakarta dengan melibatkan staf lapas sebagai informan penelitian. Informan dalam penelitian ini merupakan staf lapas, perwakilan yang dianggap mengetahui dan terlibat secara langsung dalam sistem pemasyarakatan. Jenis data yang digunakan adalah kualitatif meliputi data primer dan sekunder. Peneliti melakukan wawancara, observasi, dan studi dokumen untuk mengumpulkan data-data yang diperlukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa new media sangat berkontribusi di lapas karena menyajikan berbagai informasi terkait dengan kebencanaan. Lapas Perempuan Kelas IIB Yogyakarta memiliki keterbatasan selama penyelenggaraan edukasi bencana. New media menjadi solusi alternatif bagi pihak lapas untuk tetap menyelenggarakan edukasi bencana kepada narapidana.Kata Kunci : New Media, Youtube, Edukasi Bencana
... Shakargy (2020), exploring the revolution in the means of production of poetry in the digital era, argues that the internet allows novice poets to undermine traditional hierarchies in the industry because they no longer have to find a publisher to publish their poems. Similarly, platforms like YouTube afford the production and distribution of audiovisual materials while requiring very few material resources (Burgess & Green, 2013). However, there is still a significant difference between a homemade YouTube video and a television show's professional production. ...
Thesis
Peace is usually studied through nation-states operating in the international system, but recently, peace scholars have underscored the need to research peace as a part of everyday life. I argue that communication scholars should join the new conversation about everyday peace. I discuss major peace theories in broadcast and digital media that either replicate the state-centered approach or struggle to find ways to reach reconciliation. Nevertheless, I argue that communication scholars are well equipped to study everyday peace by focusing on mediatized manifestations of everyday life in popular culture and digital platforms. I demonstrate my claim by analyzing visual and sonic manifestations of everyday peace in Israel/Palestine. I investigate two Israeli television shows, Fauda and Arab Labor, focusing on Jewish and Palestinian men who try to pass members of the other community. Their identity work proves that national and ethnic identities are not stable but remain in flux, undermining Zionism which strives to silo Jews and Palestinians into separate categories. Nevertheless, Fauda and Arab Labor do not prescribe easy solutions to the conflict in their plots. Instead, they allow characters to work through the hardships of the conflict and its implications in their everyday lives. I study the texts of both television shows, illuminating the power of fiction to discuss taboo subjects at the core of the conflict. Moreover, I analyze the production of both shows. Based on interviews with creative workers, I contend that making quality TV is in itself a form of peacemaking because it brings Jews and Palestinian together, galvanizing them to process trauma and explore possible connections between the two communities. I study the sonic expression of everyday peace through a second case study — Border Gone, a digital activist project publishing stories of ordinary Palestinians from Gaza in Hebrew online. I trace the project’s evolution, which initially centered around translating stories written by young adults with the help of hundreds of Israeli volunteers. The stories reveal the humanity of Palestinians, undermining the Zionist perception that all Palestinians are terrorists. Ultimately, Border Gone transformed into an independent news outlet; the managing team was resolved to provide the appropriate political context to Palestinian stories, showcasing how the Israeli occupation of Gaza affects everyday lives. I conducted interviews with Border Gone’s managing team, and with members of its volunteers’ community. I analyze posts appearing on the project’s Facebook page and investigate the various comments uploaded to the page between December 2019-May 2021. May 2021 marked the peak of the project’s operation during a devastating war in Gaza. During the war, I joined the project’s managing team, conducting a participant observation on its news reporting process using the transcripts of a WhatsApp group where we communicated with each other. I conclude that Border Gone affords nonreciprocal listening to Palestinian stories, wherein Jews educate themselves about the reality of Palestinian life without expecting the other side to do the same. The stories captivate Israeli listeners and encourage them to engage in meaningful solidarity by insisting on lively descriptions of Palestinian experiences. Border Gone, as well as Fauda and Arab Labor, prove that peace is possible between Jews and Palestinians who use media to write and tell stories of everyday peace; moreover, media making draws members of these communities close, helping them process the horrors of violent conflict together.
... Every minute, four hundred hours of videos are published on YouTube, eight of them uploaded in Mexico (César, 2017). Consequently, YouTube's cultural role goes far beyond being a video storage and publishing platform: it is a central communication medium that produces different contemporary cultural types (Burgess & Green, 2018). For this reason, the company requires a complex algorithm system to organize, manage, and recommend information. ...
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This study addresses the experiences of young Mexican users with YouTube’s recommendation algorithms. It seeks to determine if they are subordinated to algorithmic governance or if, on the contrary, they are capable of developing some tactics to resist algorithmic power through their agency. It uses a qualitative methodology based on focus groups and shows that users are not entirely subordinated to the platforms. Their possibilities of agency vary depending on the different technological appropriations of the platform, the intuitive theories about the ways in which these operate, the ability to dodge algorithmic distortions, and the resources to evaluate the quality of the information offered. As a result, the study identifies the specific skills that constitute algorithmic literacy.
... La función cultural de YouTube va mucho más allá de ser una plataforma de publicación y almacenamiento de videos. Es un medio de comunicación central que produce diferentes tipos culturales contemporáneos (Burgess & Green, 2018). Por cada minuto se suben a YouTube 400 horas de video, de las cuales 8 se suben en México (César, 2017). ...
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Este estudio aborda las experiencias de jóvenes usuarios mexicanos con los algoritmos de recomendación de la plataforma YouTube. Busca determinar si se encuentran subordinados a la gobernanza algorítmica o si, por el contrario, son capaces de desarrollar algunas tácticas para resistir las lógicas del poder algorítmico a través de su propia agencia. Utiliza una metodología cualitativa centrada en grupos de enfoque. Evidencia que los usuarios no se subordinan completamente a las plataformas, y que sus posibilidades de agenciamiento varían en función de sus diferentes modos de apropiación tecnológica, las teorías intuitivas acerca de su funcionamiento, la capacidad para evadir las distorsiones algorítmicas, y los recursos para evaluar la calidad de la información ofertada. Como resultado del análisis, se han identificado las habilidades específicas que constituyen la literacidad algorítmica.
... Çünkü YouTube'da popüler olan kullanıcı yaratımlı videolar toplumun fikirlerini, tutumlarını ve duygularını şekillendirirler (Mir ve Rehman, 2013). YouTube'da popüler olan ve vlogger olarak da adlandırılan kullanıcılar artık YouTube'u bir iş girişimi olarak görmekte ve bu platformdan para kazanma yoluna gitmektedirler (Burgess ve Green, 2009). YouTube, bu platforma içerik üretenlerin para kazanabilmesi için YouTube İş Ortağı Programı'nı oluşturmuştur ve bu programa başvurusu onaylananlar şu şekillerde para kazanabilirler (YouTube Yardım, b.t.): ...
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Bu bölümde, YouTube’da oldukça aktif olan etkileyici kişilerin tüketicileri ne şekillerde etkileyebileceği ve bu etkinin pazarlamada nasıl kullanılabileceği incelenmektedir. Bu amaçla, öncelikle sosyal medya, kullanıcı yaratımlı içerik ve bu içeriğin pazarlama açısından önemine değinilmiştir. Ardından YouTube ve YouTube’daki etkileyici kişilerin pazarlamada nasıl kullanılabileceğine yer verilmiştir. Son olarak, YouTube’daki etkileyici kişilerin videolarının tüketici satın alma niyetine etkisine dair bir araştırmanın bulgularına yer verilmiştir.
... El análisis de los audiovisuales alojados en la plataforma YouTube ha concitado el interés de la comunidad científica, especialmente en los últimos años (Marques & Sedeño, 2017;Burgess & Green, 2018;Muñoz-Pico, 2021;García-Jiménez et al., 2022). Este hecho no resulta sorprendente puesto que en el siglo XXI se mantiene la tendencia, ya instaurada en el siglo pasado, que se define por un claro predominio de la cultura audiovisual. ...
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Esta investigación analiza las pautas de comunicación visual de los vídeos publicados, en castellano, por niños y adolescentes youtubers. Se ha estudiado el contenido de 300 vídeos de hasta 15 minutos de youtubers de entre 11 y 17 años con más de 1 millón de seguidores, lo que les convierte en macro influencers. El estudio confirma que el empleo de los recursos audiovisuales y la escena que se muestra mediante la combinación de encuadres y ángulos de la toma configura el estilo de los canales, si bien los youtubers alternan en sus canales otras producciones que se alejan de su fórmula habitual. También, se ha observado diferencias de género, aunque no por edad. En definitiva, nos situamos ante un elaborado proceso de edición con el propósito de realizar una producción audiovisual dinámica con vistas a agradar al público destinatario. Abstract. This research analyses the visual communication patterns of videos published in Spanish by kids and adolescents youtubers. The content of 300 videos (up to 15 minutes) by youtubers aged between 11 and 17 and with more than 1 million followers, becoming influencers, was studied. The research confirms that the use of audiovisual resources and the scene shown through the combination of frames and shot angles shapes the style of the channels, although the youtubers alternate other productions in their channels that deviate from their usual format. Gender differences have also been observed, although not in terms of age. In short, it is an elaborate editing process with the aim of making a dynamic audiovisual production in order to please the target audience.
... YouTube debuted in 2005 but quickly rose to become a top social media platform (Burgess & Green, 2018). YouTube, closely followed by Facebook, is US adults' social media platform of choice with 73% using YouTube and 90% of 18-24 year-olds using YouTube in a 2019 survey conducted by Pew Research (Auxier, Anderson, & Kumar, 2019). ...
Chapter
Think tanks organize at the nexus of business, government, and academia to influence public policy. These organizations take three distinct working forms that utilize different research and communication styles to target different audiences as routes to influence. Traditionally they targeted elite actors such as legislators and executive branch agencies with lengthy scholarly treatises. But with the advent of social media, they can readily extend their reach directly to the voting public. In this chapter, we compare data on the research output and social media footprint of the prototypical organizations that inspired mimesis for each form - the Brookings Institution (a “university without students”), the RAND Corporation (a “contract organization”), and the Heritage Foundation (an “advocacy organization”). We examine their distributions of research output as well as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter activity. Heritage attracts large numbers of followers for postings across platforms. RAND lagged in timing and frequency of platform use. All three increasingly utilize these media with rapidly expanding reach. Content analysis of tweets using the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) reveals different routes to persuasion. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that the newer forms of advocacy organization rely more on peripheral routes to influence while the two traditional forms stress central routes to persuasion grounded in a logical argument. Systematic differences in social media use indicate the need for additional research directed at fully understanding the impact of emotion- driven communications in facilitating the rapid formation of highly energized social movements (e.g. COVID-19 anti-shutdown protests and Black Lives Matter).
Chapter
Famous video bloggers (vloggers) on YouTube can develop large audiences, which can be related to the gaining of audience engagement (AE), manifested by the viewers’ participation and consumption on YouTube. Studies have unveiled vloggers’ behaviors for engaging audiences, or audience engagement behaviors (AEBs), in their videos, including interacting with viewers via comments, disclosing self-information, giving rewards, and offering other information. Meanwhile, video blogs (vlogs) are produced under “vlogging context” - situational elements involved in vlog production. Studies have shown the effect of context on the content of online media. However, while it can be argued that context can affect vlog content produced, the contextual factors that may shape vloggers’ AEBs within the content have not been explicitly explored. This research aims to propose contextual factors that can condition vloggers’ AEBs on YouTube. A qualitative case study on three popular vloggers was implemented. A thematic analysis was performed on sampled vloggers’ videos to identify contextual factors that can condition the three vloggers’ AEBs. The results propose that personal, environmental, and medium context are three main contextual factors that condition the three vloggers’ AEBs. This research argues that how vloggers’ AEBs are presented to the audience depends on their vlogging context. It expands the understanding of YouTube vloggers or similar streaming media creators’ practices for AE by considering the role of context.
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The contemporary world goes through a fundamental change with the acceleration of processes and events, which has had an impact on the interactions between people and the ways in which we represent ourselves. Even if it has become easier to travel abroad, to meet and interact with people globally, through new technologies and modes of transport, our recent times have also seen tensions and prejudices growing within social and cultural in-groups and between out-groups. In this context, this paper aims to emphasize the importance of intercultural communication in crafting a global future. Too often in the literature about interculturality, the experience of living abroad is presented as an interculturalizing experience by itself. However, this research, based on a critical approach to interculturality, highlights the fact that international mobility is important but not sufficient to develop intercultural competences. Drawing on research about transnational cultural practices and global cultural connectivity, this paper will present the results of a case study on French people living in South Korea who produce videos on Youtube where they broadcast themselves but also frequently introduce South Korean-related topics to their French audience. Using both a critical intercultural communication approach and a media discourse analysis, I analyze how these French Youtubers broadcast themselves and represent their experiences of living abroad. The study shows that despite trying to engage in an intercultural perspective with their host country, their videos contribute, even implicitly, to reinforce several cultural stereotypes.
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In order to show how Sami music videos voice a Northern minority culture on the global and digital arena of YouTube, this article brings together and interconnects the promotion of the Sami people in and through Sami YouTube music videos from Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The videos were selected from a corpus created through a netnographic search and were analyzed using Elleström’s model for communication. The findings related to the comments connected to the videos show both primary and secondary chains of communication, sometimes intersecting, and addressing both in- and out-groups through multimodal means. Finally, the analysis of the presemiotic and semiotic resources of the videos brings to the fore the stories told: of the forgotten history, the exploitation of the land and the resistance thereof, the place of symbolical myths in contemporary society, and the need to hold onto dreams and love.
Article
While an image may be worth a thousand words, a meme can be worth much more. From politics to videos, games to social media, memes are an integral part of today’s online communication and content production in the paradigm of participation culture that is prevalent on the internet and in society. By looking at memes as a socially constructed and intertextual discourse which represents different voices, perspectives, and creative insights, these cultural units are also a reflection of how cybercommunities think about, circulate, and imbue content with meaning in their everyday lives. Among many varieties of meme categories, music plays an important role in the production and consolidation of this online dimension, especially on YouTube and other social media. From rock to classical music, most music genres are featured either in static or audiovisual memes, except for one (large) period of music that is commonly referred to as ‘modern’ music. Despite niche and specialised meme pages, groups and forums related to contemporary music, this broad category is quite overlooked by YouTube compilations, social media featuring classical music, and other online spaces, thus mixing and confusing repertoires and stereotypes. With recurrent tropes regarding gender, power, and aesthetics that can be found either in pages dedicated to western contemporary art music and on other generalised platforms labelling it as ‘ugly’, ‘male’ or ‘white’, this paper aims to examine how the musical dimension affects the production of music memes and related online content, thus analysing its role in popular culture today and how cybercommunities—with or without audiovisual literacy—relate to and spread this (musical) phenomenon.
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This article analyses videos of men talking about and documenting their lack and growth of hair via Finasteride and Minoxidil. We explore these male self-representational videos on YouTube as a specific form of self-tracking enabled by the camera within a specific platformed environment. We argue that the camera is not solely a tool, but rather an aesthetic practice with performative effects. In other words, self-tracking must be understood as always already entangled in and inseparable from mediating and aesthetic processes. The article then outlines the main characteristics of self-tracking videos as a self-representational audio-visual genre, defining them as momental videos and longitudinal videos. It is our claim that these defining characteristics constitute the central aesthetic principles of Finasteride and Minoxidil self-tracking videos, but that they are also applicable to other forms of videos preoccupied with representing and tracking transformation.
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The role of YouTube videos is becoming gradually important in providing information about recent political and societal topics across the globe. This study attempts to address the empirical gap of audience perception related to the perception of the US Army that left Afghanistan with the sudden uprising from the Taliban in August 2021. This situation resulted in the Taliban emirates taking over the presidential palace in Kabul. This qualitative research used thematic analysis to determine the audience perception related to the US retreat from Afghanistan which is rather sparse in the past year. Researchers developed a research question which is 'What are the audiences' perception of the Taliban's takeover?'. To arrive at our result, we analyzed a total of 493 comments in the course of two months from August until October 2021 in order to determine the audience perception on the takeover. The result in the study discovered three themes namely humanities, politics and condemnation-all of which answered the research question developed. The concluding section of this paper provides recommendations to concerned parties, including the government, Indian media, and society, about the rise of Islamophobia in India.
Article
This thesis is a corpus linguistic investigation of the language used by young German speakers online, examining lexical, morphological, orthographic, and syntactic features and changes in language use over time. The study analyses the language in the Nottinghamer Korpus deutscher YouTube‐Sprache ("Nottingham corpus of German YouTube language", or NottDeuYTSch corpus), one of the first large corpora of German‐language comments taken from the videosharing website YouTube, and built specifically for this project. The metadatarich corpus comprises c.33 million tokens from more than 3 million comments posted underneath videos uploaded by mainstream German‐language youthorientated YouTube channels from 2008‐2018. The NottDeuYTSch corpus was created to enable corpus linguistic approaches to studying digital German youth language (Jugendsprache), having identified the need for more specialised web corpora (see Barbaresi 2019). The methodology for compiling the corpus is described in detail in the thesis to facilitate future construction of web corpora. The thesis is situated at the intersection of Computer‐Mediated Communication (CMC) and youth language, which have been important areas of sociolinguistic scholarship since the 1980s, and explores what we can learn from a corpus‐driven, longitudinal approach to (online) youth language. To do so, the thesis uses corpus linguistic methods to analyse three main areas: 1. Lexical trends and the morphology of polysemous lexical items. For this purpose, the analysis focuses on geil, one of the most iconic and productive words in youth language, and presents a longitudinal analysis, demonstrating that usage of geil has decreased, and identifies lexical items that have emerged as potential replacements. Additionally, geil is used to analyse innovative morphological productiveness, demonstrating how different senses of geil are used as a base lexeme or affixoid in compounding and derivation. 2. Syntactic developments. The novel grammaticalization of several subordinating conjunctions into both coordinating conjunctions and discourse markers is examined. The investigation is supported by statistical analyses that demonstrate an increase in the use of non‐standard syntax over the timeframe of the corpus and compares the results with other corpora of written language. 3. Orthography and the metacommunicative features of digital writing. This iii iv analysis identifies orthographic features and strategies in the corpus, e.g. the repetition of certain emoji, and develops a holistic framework to study metacommunicative functions, such as the communication of illocutionary force, information structure, or the expression of identities. The framework unifies previous research that had focused on individual features, integrating a wide range of metacommunicative strategies within a single, robust system of analysis. By using qualitative and computational analytical frameworks within corpus linguistic methods, the thesis identifies emergent linguistic features in digital youth language in German and sheds further light on lexical and morphosyntactic changes and trends in the language of young people over the period 2008‐2018. The study has also further developed and augmented existing analytical frameworks to widen the scope of their application to orthographic features associated with digital writing.
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In the age of multiple screens, online video streaming has in the 2010s and present become the most significant way of consuming television content in mainland China. Among all the available content provided by Chinese streaming services, English-language television series stands out as an imported audio-visual product that is mainly distributed and circulated on the internet rather than television channels due to relevant media industry regulations and policies. Prior to landing on online streaming services as its legal distribution platform, English-language television series initially engendered its local audience base via informal distribution means, such as pirated DVDs and file-sharing and downloading websites; yet some of these informal services still exist in a grey area, since the content library formal streaming services possess is largely restricted in terms of size. From the perspective of media industry studies, this thesis deals with both formal and informal distribution platforms with a focus on formal distribution practices and the mechanisms behind them, which involve cultural, political and economic factors. This thesis first examines the streaming services themselves, studying distribution practices for American and British television series to understand the logic behind the localization of the business practices surrounding transnational television and to illustrate the features streaming services adopt to cater to online audiences based on local streaming consumption habits. The thesis then investigates how the current distribution pattern has been constructed by state supervision through cultural policies and censorship and by the historically dynamic relationship between formal distribution and informal distribution. I argue that the localized online distribution of English-language television series in mainland China is the result of the interplay among distributors’ business practices, Chinese authorities’ regulatory practices and Chinese viewers’ consumption habits and viewer practices. Putting the thesis in a global context, I contend that the development of online streaming technologies has created distinctive forms of media consumption in mainland China. Within the specific local political environment, the localized distribution pattern of transnational television content represents part of China’s response to the global television trade.
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How to cite this article / Standard reference Díaz-Lucena, A., Álvarez Monzoncillo, J. y Mora de la Torre, V. (2022). YouTube and the new direction of the Spanish press. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 80, 47-67 https://www. RESUMEN Introducción: La presencia del vídeo en la prensa española ha ido adquiriendo en estos últimos años una importancia creciente. La audiencia más joven empatiza mejor con el vídeo que, además, aporta nuevos ingresos, fundamentales para sostener un negocio en claro declive. Las inversiones en creación de contenido para ser distribuido en las redes sociales han crecido de forma considerable en todas las rotativas. Por otro lado, la plataforma de distribución dominante, tanto por su potencial como por su flexibilidad, sigue siendo YouTube, puesto que permite abrir canales específicos. Mediante la cuan-tificación de los vídeos distribuidos en YouTube por los diarios El País, El Mundo, La Vanguardia, El Español, elDiario.es y El HuffPost, y del volumen de sus visualizaciones, así como a través de entrevistas a algunos de los responsables de negocio de los mismos, y un análisis comparado con otros doce diarios internacionales de gran relevancia (Le Monde, Le Parisien, Figaro Live, Bild, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ), Corriere della Sera, La Repubblica, The Guardian, The Guardian News, The Times y Sunday Times, The Washington Post y The New York Times), se deducen las estrategias de las cabeceras, las tendencias del mercado de la información y la importancia que está adquiriendo el vídeo para la supervivencia de las empresas periodísticas. Concluimos que el desarrollo de las redes sociales se ha vuelto un impulsor de la innovación en los modelos de negocio del sector. ABSTRACT The presence of vídeo in the Spanish press has been acquiring a growing importance in recent years. Younger audiences empathise better with vídeo, which also brings in new income, essential to sustain a business in clear decline. Investments in creating content to be distributed on social networks have grown considerably in all newspapers. On the other hand, the dominant distribution platform, both due to its potential and its flexibility, is still YouTube, since it allows specific channels to be opened. By quantifying the vídeos distributed on YouTube by the newspapers El País, El Mundo, La Vanguardia, El Español, elDiario.es and El HuffPost, and the volume of their views, as well as through personal RLCS, Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 80, 47-66 [Research] https://www.
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The participatory use of moving images on the Internet, e.g. on YouTube (Fuchs 2014; McMullan 2020), is one of the major trends in recent media history. YouTube is the undisputed leader of the distribution channels and in the top range of social media, although TikTok is becoming increasingly popular (MPFS 2020a, 2020b). In addition to explicitly entertainment-oriented music, comedy and how-to videos, young people use videos that impart knowledge or deal with political topics. It has already been proven that knowledge can be conveyed via YouTube and users are motivated by interest-based learning. There are also numerous offerings that are primarily geared towards entertainment, but nonetheless motivate users in a casual, rather emotional and sometimes unintentional manner to further explore certain topics. This article offers a specific example of the effects this process can have on young people watching YouTube Videos that seem primarily focused on entertainment. The presented study is based on data collected in 2019 and explains which participatory strategies for imparting knowledge via entertaining YouTube formats can be effective. The findings of this study are of fundamental importance, especially considering the COVID-19 pandemic. Remote interaction, communication, and learning have resulted in a more solitary media usage that raised new questions regarding participatory culture and learning. Can entertainment formats be part of blended learning and thus contribute to imparting knowledge despite school closures, a lack of social exchange opportunities and increased media use (in the sense of media as a window to the world for locked-down people)?
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