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Gambling Patterns and Problems of Gamblers on Licensed and Unlicensed Sites in France

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In 2010 France enacted a law to regulate supply and consumption of online gambling. Its primary aim was to protect citizens from gambling-related harm. This study aims to assess differences in gambling patterns and related harm between online gamblers who use licensed versus unlicensed sites. Participants (N = 3860) completed a self-administered online survey on gambling practices. Pairwise logistic regressions examined the association between the legal statuses of gambling sites people patronized and demographic variables and gambling types. Multivariate logistic regression models explored associations between gambling patterns and related problems according to the legal status of sites people have gambled on. Overall, 53.7 % of online gamblers report gambling exclusively on licensed sites. Those who bet on regulated activities on unlicensed sites, versus licensed sites, are more likely to be female, younger, less educated, inactive in the labor market and are more likely to perceive their financial situation to be difficult. Gambling on unlicensed sites is associated with more intense gambling patterns and more gambling-related problems compared to licensed sites. Findings demonstrate that gambling activities carried out on state licensed sites are associated with less overall harm to gamblers. Implications of these findings on future policy are discussed and prospective research directions are outlined.
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... Moreover, cryptocurrency traders and offshore gamblers share similar demographic characteristics, such as being male and young. 3,6,9,18,19 We investigated whether cryptocurrency trading predicts gambling problems over time. We were mostly interested in the changes over time within individuals (i.e. ...
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Objectives Cryptocurrency trading has gained popularity over the last few years. Trading is facilitated by online platforms that enable 24/7 trading. Cryptocurrency trading is potentially attractive to gamblers, and it may increase their gambling problems. Furthermore, cryptocurrency trading might be a particularly harmful activity for those gambling offshore. We investigated whether cryptocurrency trading predicts excessive gambling over time. We also analyzed how cryptocurrency trading combined with offshore gambling is associated with excessive gambling. Study design This was a population-based longitudinal survey study. Methods We surveyed a sample of Finnish people aged 18–75 years (N = 1022, 51.27% male) at three time points in 6-month intervals: April 2021 (T1), October to November 2021 (T2), and April to May 2022 (T3). Of the original T1 respondents, 66.80% took part in T2 and T3. Outcome measure was excessive gambling using the Problem Gambling Severity Index, and the predictor was cryptocurrency trading. We adjusted models for onshore and offshore gambling online, excessive gaming (Internet Gaming Disorder Test), excessive internet use (Compulsive Internet Use Scale), excessive alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), and sociodemographic background factors. We used multilevel regression models to investigate within-person and between-person effects. Results Cryptocurrency trading has increased in popularity over time. Within-person changes in cryptocurrency trading predicted increased excessive gambling. Excessive gambling was also generally more common among cryptocurrency traders. The full model that was adjusted for the number of confounding factors showed that cryptocurrency trading had a within-person effect on excessive gambling. Of the confounding factors, offshore online gambling, excessive gaming, and excessive internet use had within-person effects on excessive gambling. Offshore and onshore online gamblers and excessive gamers showed more excessive gambling than others. Those participants who were both cryptocurrency traders and offshore gamblers showed significantly higher rate of excessive gambling than others. Conclusions Cryptocurrency trading is a risky activity and associated with a higher rate of excessive gambling over time. Such activity is especially risky among offshore online gamblers, who could view cryptocurrency trading as another form of gambling or as a way to make money for gambling. Policymakers and counselors should be aware of the risks of cryptocurrency trading.
... En France en 2015, près de la moitié des joueurs de site reconnaissent s'adonner à leur passe-temps favori en faisant usage des sites illégaux (10) . Pourtant, ces sites sont davantage fréquentés par des joueurs en difficulté, notamment car ils n'appliquent pas des mesures de protection (p. ...
... Adherents of licensing systems claim that high channelling rates will help governments achieve their goals (Boendermaker et al., 2015;Gulbrandsen, 2015;Haucap, 2017). A French survey supports this view, indicating that licensed games are associated with less harm overall to gamblers than unlicensed games (Costes et al., 2016). The transferability of this study's result to other countries, is, however, uncertain. ...
Chapter
The forms of regulatory interventions in the gambling market differ across countries, but two main types are distinguishable. One is a monopoly regime in which national governments carry the activities directly through companies fully controlled by the State (i.e., Finland, Norway). The other is a licence-based system in which private companies are allowed to operate in the market under public concessions or licences (i.e., Spain, Italy).In licensed markets, gambling companies are often multinational firms with holding, sub-holding and several controlled subsidiaries operating worldwide. States have not any direct or indirect participation as shareholders in these companies. Instead, they must seek financial capitals from the market. As a consequence, some of these multinational groups are listed, others are controlled by private international hedge funds and almost all are financed by private financial institutions, making the financial sector one of the main stakeholders of the gambling industry.This paper describes the corporate structure of multinational gambling groups on the Italian market with a focus on the direct and indirect participation of the financial sector. The main critical implications of the relationship between gambling companies and financial institutions include a lack of transparency and a great lobbying power that can be used to influence the regulator.
... This important economic burden and negative social consequence for people who gamble and for society has led to several studies better assessing this problem, in particular through the use of proxy indicators such as income derived from gambling or gross gambling revenue (Costes et al., 2016). However, use of monetary indicators in research has led to widely varying estimations, most likely due to the different hypotheses and underlying methodology adopted in different studies. ...
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... [10,11] show some support for this statement; [12][13][14] do not). It has been suggested that licensed regimes may be more effective in preventing harms despite increased availability, as licensing allows regulating otherwise unregulated offshore provision and a wider implementation of the so-called 'responsible gambling' tools [15]. ...
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... Gambling is a widespread social activity worldwide and nearly all national surveys conclude that there are more gamblers than non-gamblers (5). For example, 74% of the French population reported having gambled in their lifetime (6). In a majority of cases, gambling remains social gambling, but problem gambling (PG) can emerge (5). ...
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... De plus, de nombreuses recherches ont été menées sur les machines à sous. Ce type de JHA en ligne n'est pas légal en France et bien que de nombreux Français s'y adonnent et présentent plus de problèmes liées à leur activité de jeu (Costes, Eroukmanoff, & Monson, 2015), il est essentiel de mener plus de recherches sur les paris sportifs, hippiques et le poker en milieu écologique. ...
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