Article

Social Research to Test Ideas

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Article
Full-text available
The year 2020 was bad but it was not the worst year in human history. From 1348’s Plague, to 1644’s collapse of Ming Dynasty and Thirty Years War of Europe, to 1919’s Spanish Flu, to 1944’s Holocaust and World War II, we have witnessed worse and have lost millions more (Berhnhardt, 2021).
Chapter
Mit der Auswertung und Analyse von Daten verfolgt der Forscher das allgemeine Ziel, Beweismaterial zu sammeln, das geeignet ist, zu Einsichten in kausale Prozesse zu führen. Das vorliegende Kapitel behandelt einleitend einige der mit diesen Prozessen verknüpften Problemkomplexe und zeigt dann, wie die Theorie zum Verständnis von Kausalzusammenhängen beitragen kann. In den daran anschließenden Abschnitten wenden wir unsere Aufmerksamkeit der Analyse von Beziehungen zwischen drei Variablen zu. (Verfahren zur Ein- und Zwei-Variablen-Analyse wurden ja bereits in Kapitel XIII besprochen.) Wenn man von einer Situation ausgeht, in der zwischen zwei Variablen ein Zusammenhang besteht, und der Forscher dann eine dritte Variable als Kontrollvariable einführt, dann kann dies verschiedene Folgen haben. Diese verschiedenen Möglichkeiten werden anhand einer Anzahl von Beispielen veranschaulicht.
Article
Full-text available
Draft final version of the chapter to be published end of 2009 or beginning of 2010
Article
Full-text available
This document presents an attempt to build a theoretical framework for the spatial analysis of social facts, derived from Tobler's first law of geography ('Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things') and Blau's theory of macro sociology and multilevel structural analysis. At individual level four basic times of position and interaction are defined (geographical/sociological and discrete/continuous). It is then necessary to discuss the effects of scale aggregation and time dynamics on the elementary levels of position and interaction. This part is illustrated by examples about airflows between world cities in 2000 and euro coins diffusion across borders between 2002 and 2007.
Article
Mathematical applications in sociology have a history dating back at least to the seventeenth century, but have been hampered in their development by critical problems of measurement and adequate theory. Recent developments in ‘non‐metric’ measurement and representation are summarized, by reference to typical sociological problems. Social relational structures are best mapped on to topological and especially graph‐theoretic structures, and a model for analysis of marriage rules and a stochastic model for the description and explanation of large social systems are presented and examined for their utility for sociological analyses.
Article
Except perhaps for a few diehards, no sociologist today would think of conducting a large-scale empirical investigation of numerical data without a firm grasp of statistical methods—or at least a graduate assistant who has such a grasp. The old polemics about statistics in social research have died away and are now lost to view under a blizzard of statistical findings in journal articles and books. Asked to date the period when statistical analysis really ‘took over’ in social research, most sociologists would probably put the date around i960, when large computers and efficient programs became widely available. But the date of widespread adoption is perhaps not as significant as the date on which the leaders in the field became convinced of the desirability of using powerful statistical methods in the analysis of standardized data.
Article
L'influence du contexte universitaire sur le liberalisme-conservatisme de l'etudiant est examine en utilisant un questionnaire qui fut administre aux etudiants de premiere et de troisieme annee. Une proportion plus importante d'etudiants de troisieme annee possedent une mentalite liberale par rapport a ceux premiere annee. Cette relation demeure constante lorsque l'ensemble des facteurs sous-jacents au liberalisme sont determines par des techniques empi-riques et tenus constants par des tableaux a double entree. Dans une large mesure les hypotheses reliees a l'engagement dans les affaires universitaires de meme que le processus par lequel on acquiert une mentalite liberale a l'uni-versite sont mis a l'essai et verifies. C'est ainsi qu'on suggere un cadre conceptuel rajeuni afin d'orienter les nouvelles recherches dans ce domaine. University influence on student liberalism-conservatism is studied by means of questionnaires distributed to first- and third-year students. A larger percentage of third-year students are found to be relatively liberal and this relationship persists when the set of background factors most closely related to liberalism is empirically selected and held constant by cross tabulation. Hypotheses related to university involvement and the process of acquiring a more liberal attitude at university are tested and confirmed for the most part. A revised theoretical framework is presented as a possible basis for further research.
Article
The effect of employment growth on internal migration depends on corresponding adjustments of the local housing market. If employment growth in a geographical area is accompanied by a sharp increase in housing prices, the net outcome may be net out-migration rather than migration gain. In the present paper, this concept is tested using statistical data available for 47 prefectures in Japan. The analysis covers the two five-year periods of 1983–87 and 1988–92, and confirms that the use of a combined representation of employment and housing variables makes it possible to improve considerably the performance of an empirical migration model. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Social theorists have thought of economic-rational migration as a requisite of modern society which leads to the dispersion of kin and weakening of kin ties. Census data on State Economic Areas and survey data on migration from a small community are used to examine economic and kinship influences on migration at the micro- and macro-levels. The macro-level data show a “rational” pattern of migrant dispersion. However, the microlevel data show an extensive tendency, especially among working-class migrants, to follow the paths of siblings and other kin predominantly because of the information they supply on working and living conditions. Thus, at the micro-level, migration is a blend of rational concerns about work and reliance on kin in finding it. Numerous small kinshipbased chain migration streams flow to a variety of destinations, producing a macro-level pattern of dispersion that appears rational and that meets the migration requisite of modern society.
Article
Using biographical data from what we call a focused sample of 36 elite women, the conjugal power structure of their parental families is examined to assess its impact upon the development of political women. The results revealed that the mothers of elite political women scored higher on indices of independence both within the family structure and outside the home than did the mothers of elite nonpolitical women. The fathers of the elite political women tended to show more respect and love for their wives than did the fathers of the elite nonpolitical women. The fathers of elite political women also tended to view their work as interesting and fun rather than as just a job. The elite political women were also less likely to have brothers, particularly older brothers, than the nonpolitical women. This finding suggests that female involvement in politics is not necessarily derived from cross-sex-role preferences. The study suggests that in terms of political socialization, the father's behavior and achievements are not as critical for his daughter as they are for his son. Their importance for the daughter must be filtered through the effect the father and his behavior have on the mother and the sex-role ideology held by the family.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the empirical accuracy of the Cornell mobility model. Migration is formulated as a stochastic process governed by non-stationary probabilities: during a given interval of time, an individual is presumed to undergo a risk of migrating that decreases as he continues to reside in the same community. The major hypothesis, then, is that a person’s propensity to move declines as his duration of residence increases. A secondary hypothesis proposes that age interacts with this relationship. Longitudinal data (5,000 residential histories from the Netherlands system of population registers) were analyzed and translated into prospective probabilities that are age- and duration-specific. Both hypotheses were substantiated. Specifically, the relationship is negative, curvilinear, and varies significantly by age. To facilitate simulation analysis of the model, the relationships found in the data are summarized in a set of logarithmic prediction equations. The findings of this paper underscore the fundamental limitation of stationary probability models in portraying migration and suggest that the non-stationary alternative is a more accurate formulation. More generally, processes of change which bear only a formal resemblance to migration (for example, brand switching or attitudinal change) may be governed by a principle of cumulative stability too. The evidence warrants further inquiry into the applicability of the model to other social processes where inertialike factors operate.
Article
This investigation form part of an international about the facilitative role of school management regarding the emergence of immigrant children at schools The purpose of this study is to determine how selected school communities respond to their role with regards to the management and facilitation of immigrant learners in schools. In order to accomplish this, both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Descriptive survey techniques were applied on the basis of their flexibility. Questionaires, informal discourse, formal interviews and the case study were utilised to establish the opinions, attitudes, preferences and perceptions of communities regarding the immigration of learners. This was done against the backdrop of an extensive and comprehensive literature review. Throughout the study an attempt was made to remain as faithful as possible to the facts through empirical research, and to minimise prejudice, stereotyping and preferences through using rational thinking. Internal testing was used to ensure validity and reliability. According to the current research, the responses regarding migration by learners are very diverse. The responses are realised within the following contexts: accessibility or inaccessibility of schools, culture, politics, ideology, ethnicity, religion, language and even racial classification. Although geographical location is not a significant factor, social stratification patterns as well as the status play a role in this regard. The researcher concludes that the targeted school communities still lack the expertise, experience and ability to handle, facilitate and settle issues relating to multi-cultural diversity. Research findings show that this state of affairs is largely due to a lack of undestanding of transformation in the school context as well as regarding the implementation and execution of this transformation. Thesis (MEd (Education Policy Studies))--University of Stellenbosch, 2005.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.