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Abstract

Executive Overview Performance feedback is an important part of many organizational interventions. Managers typically assume that providing employees with feedback about their performance makes it more likely that performance on the job will be improved. Despite the prevalence of feedback mechanisms in management interventions, however, feedback is not always as effective as is typically assumed. In this article, we present specific conditions under which feedback might be less effective, or even harmful. We then discuss the implications of our results and model for designing of interventions aimed at improving performance, and focus more narrowly on 360-degree appraisal systems. After arguing that these systems typically have design characteristics that reduce effectiveness, we conclude with recommendations for improving their effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for systematic evaluations of feedback interventions.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
... These studies suggest that feedback in virtual teams can foster team processes (e.g., team learning, Peñarroja et al., 2015), improve team cognition (e.g., shared mental models, Ellwart et al., 2015), and team performance (Jung et al., 2010). What is still puzzling though is that the general feedback literature also suggests that under some conditions, feedback is less beneficial or even harmful (DeNisi & Kluger, 2000;Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). Therefore, uncovering feedback characteristics that work best and minimize harm is equally important. ...
... The second largest outcome category in terms of positive effects were team outputs (k = 14, all of which referred to team performance in terms of e.g., decision quality, error rate). However, contrary to Gabelica et al.'s (2012) review, there were also several negative effects, which is more consistent with mixed findings from the general feedback literature (e.g., DeNisi & Kluger, 2000;Kluger & DeNisi, 1996;Lurie & Swaminathan, 2009). Ten studies found negative effects on some dependent variables; most of these were team performance. ...
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Feedback is a cornerstone of human development. Not surprisingly, it plays a vital role in team development. However, the literature examining the specific role of feedback in virtual team effectiveness remains scattered. To improve our understanding of feedback in virtual teams, we identified 59 studies that examine how different feedback characteristics (content, source, and level) impact virtual team effectiveness. Our findings suggest that virtual teams benefit particularly from feedback that (a) combines performance-related information with information on team processes and/or psychological states, (b) stems from an objective source, and (c) targets the team as a whole. By integrating the existing knowledge, we point researchers in the direction of the most pressing research needs, as well as the practices that are most likely to pay off when designing feedback interventions in virtual teams.
... The results of research showed that competency, work-job fit and work-engagement have a significant influence on performance at the workers district government in the Province of Bali. Findings from this study supporttheoretical statement of [15] who says that if competence, work-job fit and work-engagement increase, the employee performance will increase and emeperical study from [9], [43] who revealed that competency, work-job fit and work-engagement have significant influence on performance. The findings of this study gives implication that an increase in employee perormance at the district governments in the Province of Bali can be done by improving the competency work-job fit and work-engagement. ...
... The results of this study confirm theoretical statement of [19], [20] who revealed that if the employees work-engagement inrease, the employee's performance willalso inrease. On the other hand, the study results also supported the research findings emprical of [43], [23] who concluded thatwork-engagement has a significant influence on employee performance. Work-engagement can be improved by providing opportunities for employees to develop employee job involvement, and statisfisian in organization. ...
... For instance, any positive performance effects of invasiveness may only be observed when considered in combination with the synchronicity of feedback. Highly invasive EPM may be able to capture performance behaviors in great detail and specificity, but these benefits may be lost if feedback is not timely (DeNisi & Kluger, 2000;Lechermeier & Fassnacht, 2018). ...
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Electronic performance monitoring (EPM), or the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to employee job performance, is a now ubiquitous work practice. We conducted a comprehensive meta‐analysis of the effects of EPM on workers (K = 94 independent samples, N = 23,461). Results provide no evidence that EPM improves worker performance. Moreover, findings indicate that the presence of EPM is associated with increased worker stress, regardless of the characteristics of monitoring. Findings also demonstrate that organizations that monitor more transparently and less invasively can expect more positive attitudes from workers. Overall, results highlight that even as advances in technology make possible a variety of ways to monitor workers, organizations must continue to consider the psychological component of work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... 360-degree feedback is usually introduced as a development tool to allow the organization time to adjust and gain trust in the system (Nystrom, 2001). More recently, (Denisi & Kluger, 2000)reports that usage of 360-degree feedback for administrative purpose has increased from 30% to 50%. This shows that the importance of 360 degree appraisal is increasing day by day for fair and accurate information. ...
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Performance management is the management activity through which an institution ensures that employees are working effectively and efficiently towards achievement of institutional goal. To ensure that, performance appraisal i.e. evaluating employee’s current or past performance relative to the standard set by institution, is carried on. The data obtained from appraisal is used to take decision of promotion, salary, training and development and for other purposes too. The appraisal is generally done using different appraisal methods or tools like graphic rating method, essay method, critical incident method MBO, 360° appraisal method etc. MBO is now one of the most used a popular tool which is used as appraisal tool, motivational technique as well as planning and control device. Likewise, 360 degree appraisal method is another popular method which is gaining popularity nowadays where all round feedback is taken from all the staffs around the staff going to be appraised. Whatever the method is used, if the appraisal is carried on properly by minimizing common problems like biasness, unclear standards, halo effects etc., any institution can achieve goal through motivated staff with good working environment.
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Bu çalışmada her işletme için önemli bir yer teşkil eden performans, performans ölçme ve değerlendirme kavramları incelenmiştir. Öncelikle Web of Science veri tabanında bir literatür taraması yapılmış, ardından performans, performans ölçümü ve değerlendirmesi kavramları teorik olarak incelenmiş; performans değerlendirme yaklaşımları ele alınmıştır. Literatür taraması sonucunda işletme literatüründe çok fazla yer bulmadığı tespit edilen, performans değerlendirme yöntemleri içinde modern yöntemlerden biri olan 360 derece performans değerlendirme sistemi ayrıntılı olarak incelenmiş ve bu konu hakkında genel bir çerçeve oluşturulmaya çalışılmıştır. Sonuç olarak; 360 derece performans değerlendirme sisteminin performans sorunlarına tek başına ve doğrudan bir çözüm getiremeyeceği saptanmıştır. Ancak bu sistem özenle hazırlanıp doğru bir şekilde uygulandığında klasik performans değerlendirme yöntemlerinin neden olduğu, işletmelerin bireyi mekanik bir üretim materyali gibi görme eğiliminden uzaklaştırarak, “insan” olarak görme eğilimine yönelttiği bir gerçektir.
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Patients are becoming more involved in healthcare, however, their involvement in postgraduate medical education (PGME) is often less prominent. We provide insight into patients’ and residents’ perspectives regarding possible topics for patient feedback, to increase its use and effectiveness in PGME. Semi-structured interviews with 20 purposefully sampled patients were done and 15 residents filled out a fully qualitative questionnaire. The sample size was not calculated as we aimed for data sufficiency. Content analysis was inspired by grounded theory. Topics mentioned by patients and residents were communication skills and communication of medical knowledge. While patients find organizational matters and personal aspects important topics, residents do not. Patients intend to provide feedback on task-, process-, and self-level, whereas residents do not wish to receive feedback on self-level. Topics mentioned by patients corresponded with various CanMEDS roles, that is, communicator, collaborator, professional, and leader. Feedback directed on task- and process-level would be of residents’ interest, including feedback on the physician-patient relationship and communication of medical knowledge. Patient feedback should not only focus on communication skills but also on other CanMEDS roles. To provide effective feedback and ensure that it remains at the level that enhances residents’ learning, patients should avoid giving feedback on self-level.
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This study aims to provide new insights on the boundary condition effects of human resource (HR) strength, based on the covariation principle of the attribution theory and job demand resource model. HR strength is defined as the features of an HR system that send signals to employees, allowing them to understand the desired responses and behaviors in the relationship between performance appraisal quality (PAQ) (clarity, regularity and openness) and employees' proficient, adaptive and proactive performance. Additionally, employees' religiosity is examined as a boundary condition of the effect of perceived HR strength. The findings of a two‐wave, multi‐actor study (N = 391 employees and 61 managers) highlight that the relationship between PAQ and employee performance is strongest when it is embedded within a strong HR system (perceived HR strength) and low religiosity, or within low perceived HR strength and high religiosity conditions.
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Internal quality assurance (IQA) is one of the core support systems on which schools in the health professions rely to ensure the quality of their educational processes. Through IQA they demonstrate being in control of their educational quality to accrediting bodies and continuously improve and enhance their educational programmes. Although its need is acknowledged by all stakeholders, creating a system of quality assurance has often led to establishing a 'tick-box' exercise overly focusing on quality control while neglecting quality improvement and enhancement. This AMEE Guide uses the concept of quality culture to describe the various dimensions that need to be addressed to move beyond the tick-box exercise. Quality culture can be defined as an organisational culture which consists of a structural/managerial aspect and a cultural/psychological aspect. As such this AMEE Guide addresses tools and processes to further an educational quality culture while also addressing ways in which individual and collective awareness of and commitment to educational quality can be fostered. By using cases within health professions education of both formal and informal learning settings, examples will be provided of how the diverse dimensions of a quality culture can be addressed in practice.
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Employee surveys are often used to support organizational development (OD), and particularly the follow-up process after surveys, including action planning, is important. Nevertheless, this process is oftentimes neglected in practice, and research on it is limited as well. In this article, we first define the employee survey follow-up process and differentiate it from other common feedback practices. Second, we develop a comprehensive conceptual framework that integrates the relevant variables of this process. Third, we describe the methods and results of a systematic review that synthesizes the literature on the follow-up process based on the conceptual framework with the purpose of discussing remaining research gaps. Overall, this paper contributes to a better understanding of the organizational and human factors that affect this process. This is useful for practitioners, as it provides guidance for the successful implementation of this human resource practice. For example, research suggests that it is important to enable managers as change agents and to provide them with sufficient resources.
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