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Feedback effectiveness: Can 360-degree appraisals be improved?

Abstract

Executive Overview Performance feedback is an important part of many organizational interventions. Managers typically assume that providing employees with feedback about their performance makes it more likely that performance on the job will be improved. Despite the prevalence of feedback mechanisms in management interventions, however, feedback is not always as effective as is typically assumed. In this article, we present specific conditions under which feedback might be less effective, or even harmful. We then discuss the implications of our results and model for designing of interventions aimed at improving performance, and focus more narrowly on 360-degree appraisal systems. After arguing that these systems typically have design characteristics that reduce effectiveness, we conclude with recommendations for improving their effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for systematic evaluations of feedback interventions.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2000. All rights reserved.
... The results of research showed that competency, work-job fit and work-engagement have a significant influence on performance at the workers district government in the Province of Bali. Findings from this study supporttheoretical statement of [15] who says that if competence, work-job fit and work-engagement increase, the employee performance will increase and emeperical study from [9], [43] who revealed that competency, work-job fit and work-engagement have significant influence on performance. The findings of this study gives implication that an increase in employee perormance at the district governments in the Province of Bali can be done by improving the competency work-job fit and work-engagement. ...
... The results of this study confirm theoretical statement of [19], [20] who revealed that if the employees work-engagement inrease, the employee's performance willalso inrease. On the other hand, the study results also supported the research findings emprical of [43], [23] who concluded thatwork-engagement has a significant influence on employee performance. Work-engagement can be improved by providing opportunities for employees to develop employee job involvement, and statisfisian in organization. ...
... These studies suggest that feedback in virtual teams can foster team processes (e.g., team learning, Peñarroja et al., 2015), improve team cognition (e.g., shared mental models, Ellwart et al., 2015), and team performance (Jung et al., 2010). What is still puzzling though is that the general feedback literature also suggests that under some conditions, feedback is less beneficial or even harmful (DeNisi & Kluger, 2000;Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). Therefore, uncovering feedback characteristics that work best and minimize harm is equally important. ...
... The second largest outcome category in terms of positive effects were team outputs (k = 14, all of which referred to team performance in terms of e.g., decision quality, error rate). However, contrary to Gabelica et al.'s (2012) review, there were also several negative effects, which is more consistent with mixed findings from the general feedback literature (e.g., DeNisi & Kluger, 2000;Kluger & DeNisi, 1996;Lurie & Swaminathan, 2009). Ten studies found negative effects on some dependent variables; most of these were team performance. ...
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Feedback is a cornerstone of human development. Not surprisingly, it plays a vital role in team development. However, the literature examining the specific role of feedback in virtual team effectiveness remains scattered. To improve our understanding of feedback in virtual teams, we identified 59 studies that examine how different feedback characteristics (content, source, and level) impact virtual team effectiveness. Our findings suggest that virtual teams benefit particularly from feedback that (a) combines performance-related information with information on team processes and/or psychological states, (b) stems from an objective source, and (c) targets the team as a whole. By integrating the existing knowledge, we point researchers in the direction of the most pressing research needs, as well as the practices that are most likely to pay off when designing feedback interventions in virtual teams.
... For instance, any positive performance effects of invasiveness may only be observed when considered in combination with the synchronicity of feedback. Highly invasive EPM may be able to capture performance behaviors in great detail and specificity, but these benefits may be lost if feedback is not timely (DeNisi & Kluger, 2000;Lechermeier & Fassnacht, 2018). ...
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Electronic performance monitoring (EPM), or the use of technological means to observe, record, and analyze information that directly or indirectly relates to employee job performance, is a now ubiquitous work practice. We conducted a comprehensive meta‐analysis of the effects of EPM on workers (K = 94 independent samples, N = 23,461). Results provide no evidence that EPM improves worker performance. Moreover, findings indicate that the presence of EPM is associated with increased worker stress, regardless of the characteristics of monitoring. Findings also demonstrate that organizations that monitor more transparently and less invasively can expect more positive attitudes from workers. Overall, results highlight that even as advances in technology make possible a variety of ways to monitor workers, organizations must continue to consider the psychological component of work. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Employee surveys are often used to support organizational development (OD), and particularly the follow-up process after surveys, including action planning, is important. Nevertheless, this process is oftentimes neglected in practice, and research on it is limited as well. In this article, we first define the employee survey follow-up process and differentiate it from other common feedback practices. Second, we develop a comprehensive conceptual framework that integrates the relevant variables of this process. Third, we describe the methods and results of a systematic review that synthesizes the literature on the follow-up process based on the conceptual framework with the purpose of discussing remaining research gaps. Overall, this paper contributes to a better understanding of the organizational and human factors that affect this process. This is useful for practitioners, as it provides guidance for the successful implementation of this human resource practice. For example, research suggests that it is important to enable managers as change agents and to provide them with sufficient resources.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how firms can enhance feedback systems by studying the effects of offering junior auditors an opportunity to provide upward feedback and acknowledging their voice has been heard and will be considered for evaluation purposes. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a 2 × 1 + 1 (voice confirmation × opportunity + no opportunity) between-subjects experimental design that manipulated upward feedback opportunity (i.e., opportunity or no opportunity) and voice confirmation for those that do receive upward feedback opportunity (i.e., receive indication upward feedback was heard and will be considered or receive no indication upward feedback was heard). Within the no upward feedback opportunity condition participants did not have a chance to receive voice confirmation. Findings Through analysis of 117 upper-division undergraduate accounting students, the authors find the receipt of upward feedback opportunity and voice confirmation positively influence justice perceptions. Furthermore, the authors find interactional justice is positively associated with organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), negatively associated with counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and mediates the association between upward feedback voice confirmation and both OCB and CWB through indirect-only mediation. The authors also find distributive justice facilitates competitive and indirect-only mediation between upward feedback opportunity and OCB and CWB. Originality/value This is the first study to examine the influence of giving staff auditors the opportunity to provide upward feedback and informing upward feedback providers (e.g., staff) their voice has been heard and will be considered for evaluation purposes.
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