Article

Linking Empowering Leadership and Employee Creativity: The Influence of Psychological Empowerment, Intrinsic Motivation, and Creative Process Engagement

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Synthesizing theories of leadership, empowerment, and creativity, this research built and tested a theoretical model linking empowering leadership with creativity via several intervening variables. Using survey data from professional employees and their supervisors in a large information technology company in China, we found that, as anticipated, empowering leadership positively affected psychological empowerment, which in turn influenced both intrinsic motivation and creative process engagement. These latter two variables then had a positive influence on creativity. Empowerment role identity moderated the link between empowering leadership and psychological empowerment, whereas leader encouragement of creativity moderated the connection between psychological empowerment and creative process engagement.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Employees' motivation to engage in complicated work and creative efforts effectively increases in a supportive workplace, facilitating their pleasure and job satisfaction (Jiang and Yang, 2015;Ali et al., 2020a). In addition, this environment gives assistance and feedback in the quest for creative and optimum solutions (Zhang and Bartol, 2010). According to Hu et al. (2018), servant leadership impacts the outcomes of creative thinking in employees. ...
... Prior literature s previously emphasized the necessity of understanding the process that ultimately leads to innovative research solutions on employee creativity (Abdelmotaleb et al., 2018;Cheng and Yang, 2019). In empirical research, it has been shown that employees are more creative when they are actively involved in the creative process (Zhang and Bartol, 2010). Based on these results, we hypothesized that employees' creativity would improve if they were more engaged in the creative process. ...
... Creative process engagement was assessed using an 11-items scale (α = 0.92) by Zhang and Bartol (2010). For example, "I spend a lot of time looking for the essence of the problem. ...
Article
Full-text available
Grounding on social exchange theory and using the creative process engagement as a lens, this article study investigates the influence of servant leadership on employee creativity. In addition, the research examines the role of knowledge sharing in the link between servant leadership and employee creativity. Time lag method was used to collect the data from 242 employees and 57 managers employed in Chinese publicly listed companies. The data collection was divided into two parts. The subordinates were asked to rate servant leadership, their creative process engagement behavior, and knowledge sharing. The supervisors were asked to rate their associates regarding employee creativity. According to the results, employees creative process engagement behaviors mediated servant leadership and employees’ creativity. In addition, the link between servant leadership and employees’ creativity was strengthened by knowledge sharing. A detailed model is also provided, highlighting the significance of leadership, work engagement, knowledge sharing in fostering employee creativity in the Asian environment.
... Second, the path of how leaders' empathy influences employees' emotional exhaustion is unclear (Vachon and Lynam, 2016). Some researchers argued that empathy, as a kind of emotive and psychological factor, must empower employees with a strong feeling of identification and encouragement to facilitate their positive behavior and capabilities, thus reducing their distress and then relieving emotional exhaustion (Wright and Cropanzano, 1998;Zhang and Bartol, 2010), as suggested by self-determination theory (Gagne and Deci, 2005). Therefore, by including cognitions regarding the meaning, personal competence, self-determination, and impact of work (Spreitzer, 1995), psychological empowerment is a motivational construct with integrative and active orientation and reflects intrinsic task motivation, which is a vital inhibitor of employees' emotional exhaustion (Seibert et al., 2011;Hill et al., 2014). ...
... We chose China as the research context because it has been experiencing economic transformation and restructuring and showing prosperity in new venture creation (Burt, 2019), especially in the high-tech industry. As a representative of an emerging economy, more high-tech new venture creations in China are not only witnessing the economic vigor but also bringing fierce challenges and pressure for entrepreneurs, who interact with their employees closely to motivate their survival and development (Zhang and Bartol, 2010;Prashantham et al., 2020). Therefore, we decided to collect data from the Yangtze River Delta Area (including three provinces, i.e., Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Anhui), which is the most developed and prosperous district in China with a very high birth rate of high-tech new ventures. ...
... We controlled for employees' age, gender (1 = male, 0 = female), education (1 = bachelor or above, 0 = below bachelor), and tenure (years worked with the organization) because these factors reflect the level of experience and knowledge and their emotional conditions when employees face setbacks (Zhang and Bartol, 2010;Seibert et al., 2011). Further, we also controlled for entrepreneurs' managerial experience (1 = yes, 0 = no) which can influence how they behave in their daily management, especially how they can affect employees' psychology and emotions when they are under strain (Van Laethem et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing upon upper echelons and self-determination theories, we hypothesize and test a mediating process linking entrepreneurs’ empathy to employees‘ emotional exhaustion and the moderating role of psychological empowerment. Based on a dyadic-survey study of entrepreneurs and their employees in high-tech new ventures in China, we conducted the empirical test by using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and found that entrepreneurs’ empathy has a negative effect on employees‘ emotional exhaustion, and psychological empowerment not only partially mediates the relationship between entrepreneurs’ empathy and employees‘ emotional exhaustion but also positively moderates the above relationship. This study frames an integrative perspective of emotions and psychologies and sheds a nuanced understanding of the mechanisms linking empathy with emotional exhaustion. Limitations and future directions are addressed.
... Added to this, in acknowledgement of research demonstrating that leadership has a bearing on creative behavior (Zhang & Bartol, 2010), we spotlight leader-manager exchange (LMX), which has been suggested to play a facilitative role (Pan et al., 2012;Qu et al., 2017). ...
... Employee creativity was measured using four items from Baer and Oldham (2006). Similar to previous research, supervisor assessment was adopted (Chae & Choi, 2019;Zhang & Bartol, 2010) where the supervisor evaluated whether his/her subordinate "often comes up with creative solutions to problems at work," "suggests many creative ideas that might improve working conditions at the organization," ...
... Gender, age, and organizational tenure are associated with social status, which may influence employees' motivation to engage in creative efforts (Chae & Choi, 2019). Education can positively affect creativity because it reflects an individual's knowledge in a task domain (Zhang & Bartol, 2010), hence we controlled for it (1 = "middle school and below," 2 = "high school or vocational training," 3 = "3-year undergraduate degree," 4 = "4-year undergraduate degree," 5 = "masters," and 6 = "doctorate"). ...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between extrinsic rewards and creativity has been subject to ongoing debate within the human resource management and creativity literatures. More research on the mechanisms and boundary conditions has been called for. In this study, using 187 employee‐supervisor dyads in an electronics manufacturing company, we investigated how and when creativity‐contingent extrinsic rewards (CER) may foster creativity among manufacturing employees. Drawing on self‐determination theory, we hypothesized, and found that employee intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between CER and employee creativity. This relationship was the strongest when employees rated their leader‐member exchange (LMX) as high. The findings reveal the important role of CER in guiding manufacturing employees' intrinsic motivation and stimulating creativity. The identification of LMX as a moderator uncovers crucial boundary conditions of this relationship. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Existing studies have shown that, at the individual level, empowering leadership has a significant impact on employees' psychological empowerment, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and innovation behavior (Lin and Ling, 2016). At the group or team level, empowering leadership has a significant impact on knowledge sharing, team learning, team creativity, and team performance (Pearce, 2002;Zhang and Bartol, 2010;Xuey and Liang, 2011). At the organizational level, empowering leadership has a positive impact on enterprise performance and subordinate behavior. ...
... First, this study verifies that leading by example has a significant positive impact on organizational psychological ownership and job psychological ownership. Such conclusion and Li et al. (2018) and Jiang et al. (2019) the research results of similar, they confirmed that the empowering leadership through measures such as leading by example, highlights the meaningfulness of work (Ahearne et al., 2005), participation in decision-making (Zhang and Bartol, 2010), provides employees with a great degree of autonomy (Ahearne et al., 2005), make the employee's individual career development and work ability get promoted, so as to improve employees' work and the sense of belonging to an organization, gradually formed to organizational and job psychological ownership. Hence, strengthening leading by example will help to enhance employees' enthusiasm for the job and sense of ownership of the organization (Wu et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article studies the influence of leading by example on organizational psychological ownership and job psychological ownership. This article further introduces the mediating mechanism of organizational identification and the regulating mechanism of Leader–member Exchange (LMX). This study investigated 312 personnel from eight property management enterprises in East, Northwest, Northeast, and central China. This study adopts a quantitative research method, using survey data of project managers, team leaders, and managers of Property management projects in China. The data were collected by questionnaire survey. In terms of data analysis, AMOS 21.0 software was used to conduct structural equation modeling (SEM) using the maximum likelihood method to test direct and indirect effects. SPSS 25.0 software was used to test the moderating effect by multilevel regression analysis with the maximum variance method. Use these two methods to analyze the whole theoretical framework. The results established all assumed relationships. In this article, leading by example, one of the important dimensions of empowering leadership is studied as a new leadership style, and the predictive effect of leading by example on organizational psychological ownership and job psychological ownership is verified. This finding further verifies the influence mechanism and boundary conditions of empowering leadership in different dimensions. It is found that organizational identification has different mediating effects on leading by example and organizational psychological ownership and job psychological ownership. The moderating effect of LMX also further indicates that under the influence of Confucian pan-family culture, the leader's exemplary behavior with higher authority has a stronger influence on employees' organizational identification, organizational psychological ownership, and job psychological ownership. Their relationship is deeply influenced by the culture of China's unique organizational Circle Culture.
... The delegative style, where the leader gives team members freedom to make their own decisions, is also referred in the literature as the empowering style (Yukl, 2002;Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Research on this style indicates that it tends to increase both satisfaction and performance of team members (Amundsen & Martinsen, 2015;Vecchio et al., 2010). ...
... However, positive effects on performance appear to occur in the long term and with highexperience teams (Lorinkova et al., 2013;Martin et al., 2013;Yun et al., 2005). Previous research also indicates that this style increases proactive behaviors (Martin et al., 2013) and creativity (Zhang & Bartol, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace, 8 (4). https://commons.erau.edu/ijaaa/vol8/iss4/2
... The delegative style, where the leader gives team members freedom to make their own decisions, is also referred in the literature as the empowering style (Yukl, 2002;Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Research on this style indicates that it tends to increase both satisfaction and performance of team members (Amundsen & Martinsen, 2015;Vecchio et al., 2010). ...
... However, positive effects on performance appear to occur in the long term and with highexperience teams (Lorinkova et al., 2013;Martin et al., 2013;Yun et al., 2005). Previous research also indicates that this style increases proactive behaviors (Martin et al., 2013) and creativity (Zhang & Bartol, 2010). ...
... As a consequence of empowering leadership, positive psychological states are fostered in employees, influencing their motivation, their work attitudes, like proactive behaviors, and their performance. [16][17][18][19] Performance behaviors like citizenship behavior and creativity are stimulated. 20 The latest one is particularly evident when employees present high organizational-based self-esteem and have access to resources. ...
... Literature relating leadership to work motivation is scarce and looks at motivation as a dichotomous variable: intrinsic or extrinsic, not considering its degree of internalization. 16,[60][61][62] Studies are even more scarce when seeking associations between specifically empowering leadership, toxic leadership, and self-determination theory. Chen, Sharma, Edinger, Shapiro, and Farh demonstrated the motivator effect of empowering leadership and the demotivating effect of conflicting relationships in teams by verifying the role of team members' motivational states in innovation, teamwork, and turnover intention. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The present study aims to verify the association between two opposing models of leadership, toxic and empowering, and the different dimensions of work motivation. Participants and methods: Three questionnaires (Toxic Leadership Scale, Empowering Leadership Questionnaire, and Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale) were applied to 408 workers. Cluster analysis was performed. Results: Cluster analysis produced eight clusters based on the different configurations of leadership dimensions, namely coercive, centralizer, false paternalistic, toxic role model, coach, narcissistic-empowering, toxic, and empowering. Those clusters relate differently to work motivation dimensions. Conclusion: The profiles with higher scores in empowering leadership dimensions are more generally related to autonomous regulation (identified and intrinsic work motivation). The profiles with higher toxic leadership dimensions are more related to amotivation and controlled regulation (extrinsic work motivation). One profile stood out: the narcissistic-empowering profile that combines high scores in narcissistic leadership and empowering leadership dimensions. This profile unexpectedly relates significantly to autonomous regulation. This study contributed to the knowledge of the work motivation dimensions concerning empowerment and toxic leadership. Therefore, it contributes to deepening the nomological network of the concepts and providing inputs to human resource processes suitable to improving the organizational results and the workers' quality of life.
... When employees are engaged, they become proactive, show initiative, persist in the face of difficulties, effectively collaborate with others, and invest energy in their work (Leiter and Bakker, 2010). These behaviors are particularly relevant to innovative activities (Amabile, 1988;Zhang and Bartol, 2010;Chang et al., 2013). Numerous studies have demonstrated that employee engagement is related to innovative behavior (Agarwal, 2014;Gorgievski et al., 2014;Chen and Huang, 2016;Kim and Park, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzed learning agility, employee engagement, perceived organizational support (POS), and innovative behavior related to the development of innovative environment and the mental and psychological health of employees. A substantial body of research has examined the antecedents of innovative behavior of employees in their work environment, but our current understanding of how learning and motivational aspects of employees synthetically influence the innovative behavior remains incomplete. To address this gap, we developed and tested a moderated mediation model of the relationship between learning agility and employee engagement, POS, and innovative behavior. Following the job-demand resource model, componential theory, and social exchange theory, our postulated model predicted that the mediating effect of employee engagement on the relationship between learning agility and innovative behavior would be moderated by POS. The result of the analysis of the data on 331 corporate employees in South Korea supported this model. Specifically, learning agility was related to innovative behavior, while employee engagement mediated the relationship between learning agility and innovative behavior; POS strengthened the positive effect of learning agility on innovative behavior via employee engagement. We also discuss the implications of the results, future direction, and limitations of this study based on these findings.
... First, the culture of equal inclusion of different stakeholders (Maak & Pless, 2006). When followers believe that decision makers have a tendency to involve them in the decision-making process and listen to their voices and suggestions regarding organizational sustainability (Pless, 2007;Stander & Coxen, 2017), this gives them a sense of control over their work conditions, which consequently increases their propensity to feel that they possess the target of ownership (Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Second, responsible leadership characteristics typically involve giving weight to the meaningfulness of followers' work (Zhou & Zhou, 2019), which leads them to be more involved and knowledgeable about work conditions and leadership expectations (Jiang et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a growing interest in the organizational and individual factors that affect employees green behaviors. However, it is necessary to examine their interactive effect in order to help clarify the mechanism by which such behaviors are developed and how they could be better reinforced. To address this issue, we have developed and tested a dynamic model of the interactions among responsible leadership, psychological ownership, and green moral identity in predicting employees green behavior. Empirical data were collected from 292 employees working in one of the holding companies, Egypt. The results support the hypothesized model, in which responsible leadership is a significant predictor of employees green behaviors. Moreover, it was found that psychological ownership significantly mediates the relationship between responsible leadership and such behaviors, while green moral identity significantly moderated that relationship. The theoretical and managerial implications of results are discussed. Primarly, organizations should reinforce leaders’ sense of commitment toward protecting the environment. In turn, leaders should instil the concept of environmentalism as a continuous way of life in workplace culture.
... Members will increase effort towards a shared vision when the logic of the process and the feasibility of the approach are clarified. Organizational drift is one of greatest barriers to empowerment, 90 and is characterized by failure to make alignment a priority, lack of ownership of alignment processes, the tendency towards continually increasing organizational complexity, and "box-checking" accountability procedures. 91 To offset these negative consequences, organizations should select team members and configure teams based on similar personal values, which makes the commitment to a shared vision and the internalization of organizational alignment efforts more likely. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Leaders shape organizational culture via its responsible and deliberate perpetuation, the navigation of cultural ambiguity and flawed basic underlying assumptions, and enhancing members’ ability to successfully navigate culture change. These are focal areas where both empowerment and fit are particularly useful in shaping organizational culture in desirable ways as both a team-level and organizational-level leader. Shaping the structures that create or reinforce psychological characteristics of empowerment do not just reflect transformational leadership, they drive a healthier culture through healthier teams. Similarly, paying attention to and promoting person-group fit within the team has a direct impact at the level of espoused beliefs and values, and an indirect impact on the other levels, which research suggests will yield both higher commitment and better performance. To the degree that these initiatives represent organizational culture change, the theories also predict individuals will find these changes deeply unsettling. Psychological safety is a primary dimension of empowerment where team leaders can be particularly effective at leading this change for their members. Finally, at the top of the hierarchy, an organizational-level leader has tremendous responsibility and opportunity. They can deliberately reinforce the above, while also attending to person-organization fit and reinforcing empowerment concepts and goal alignment throughout the organizational hierarchy in a way uniquely suited to leaders at the organizational level.
... In challenging economic circumstances, Ukrainian energy sector companies do not have an opportunity to use complex methods to enhance the activities of communicationsphere employees and to take full advantage of applying the material approaches for this activation. This is not only a Ukrainian problem, as described in detail in [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. Therefore, in these unstable conditions, energy companies should focus on non-material methods defining the individual development programs for certain groups of communication system employees. ...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, companies in the energy sector are focus on sustainable growth, although they face many challenges, including the peculiarities of their operations. One of the features of companies in the energy sector is the need for effective communication with the media and the public. This is of paramount importance due to the current trends and challenges in the energy sector, the market requirements and the low level of development in such companies. The object of this study invovles the employees of the communication departments of energy sector companies, while the subject is the intensification of their activities based on the use of motivational tools. The authors chose the tools of the game theory, which is a game that the company and employees of the project team engage in when implementing information and communication projects. The study developed a method for motivating the employees of communication departments, which based on the game theory, allows the formation of many possible parameters of the optimal structure of fixed and commission remuneration payments for the employees to maximize their utility, depending on the propensity or unwillingness of these employees to take risks, which contributes to the development of staff motivation tools. This method was applied to the activities of several Ukrainian energy companies. The proposed approach differs from the existing ones based on the opportunity to intensify the activity of the employees of the communication departments, taking into account their willingness to take risks in each case, and will increase the interest of such personnel in the effective implementation of each stage of the information and communication project, better meet the needs of the end-users and ultimately affect the sustainable growth of energy companies.
... Note that this scale was also chosen to examine the effect of leader-follower actual (dis)similarity on their individual perceptions of "deep-level" (dis)similarity, which was found significantly related leader-member exchange (Kacmar, 2009). 66 Followers' questionnaire had 92 items also including transformational and (Wang & Howell, 2010) and empowering leadership style (Zhang & Bartol, 2010), loyalty to supervisor (dedication, identification and internationalization) (Z. X. , satisfaction with leader (Scarpello & Vandenberg, 1987), trusting beliefs (integrity) (Mayer & Davis, 1999). ...
Thesis
Implications of (dis)similar ethics positions in leader-follower dyads are explored in this thesis. The aim of this research was to extend Ethics position theory by a leader-follower dyadic model knowledge, which was deduced in line with four major managerial dyadic (Leader-member exchange, Interdependence, Similarity-attraction and Person-supervisor and-environment fit) theories and available empirical evidence. The research design considered assessment of common perspectives, partners' relationship quality (LMX), ethical leadership, and promotability as suitable workplace phenomena reflecting partners' interaction. The quantitative empirical survey data (N = 160 dyads, resp., N = 320 unique participants) were collected within a single organization in Slovakia and all scales passed the reliability check. Dyadic data collected was consequently processed in Rstudio with statistical tools Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and Dyadic Response Surface Analysis. All empirical findings have exploratory research quality. Idealism was found to be a stronger predictor of outcomes studied, while relativism was found to shape more partners' roles and individual hierarchical positions. Subsequently, partners' relationship quality perceptions were differed with role and personality dimension; idealism influenced partners' relationship qualities the way, that perceived relationship quality by one partner increased on cost of perceived relationship quality by another one due to their (dis)similarity, while (dis)similarity in relativism related to partners' conflict avoidance due to similar ethics positions. Furthermore, partners' interdependence in idealism was generally stronger than in relativism. Also, actor effects were generally stronger than partner effects, except in one case; followers' perceptions of ethical leadership were found to be predominantly driven by leaders' degree of idealism. Surprisingly, the similarity-attraction effect was not identified. Instead, signs of similarity-repulsion, dissimilarity-repulsion, and evidence for dissimilarity-attraction effects were found. Besides, the alignment between perception of (dis)similarity in attitudes and actually assessed (dis)similarity in ethics potions was found only in the case of leaders' common perspective and followers' promotability, and that only in the case of their (dis)similarity in idealism. Building on (dis)similarity results, it was analogically proposed that these research results have person-supervisor and-environment (mis)fit implications. For the case of Ethics position theory development, it was proposed that the bias-accuracy ratio in partners' mutual perceptions, estimated as the actor-partner effect ratio, relates to individuals' internal-external attribution tendencies. Moreover, it was proposed that partners' degrees of idealism could predict leaders' ethical behavior towards followers. Despite theoretical limitation of exploratory findings, small differences in partners' degrees of idealism and relatively weaker correlations relativism had with other concepts, this thesis provides novel insight into leader-follower dyadic moral diversity and workplace dynamics.
... Sustainable leadership enhances the organizational learning and well-being of internal stakeholders (Iqbal and Ahmad, 2020). Responsible and empowering treatment of staff increases both motivation and creativity within the institution (Zhang and Bartol, 2010), with participative approaches and networking leading to a more effective addressing of sustainability challenges (Ferdig, 2007). Metcalf and Benn (2013) confirm that leadership for sustainability requires the ability to navigate through complexity, think through multifaceted problems and to engage groups in dynamic adaptive organizational change. ...
Purpose The implementation of sustainability-related policies at universities has been marked by a greater sense of urgency in recent years. Despite this emerging trend, it is still unclear which leadership processes, at which levels and which theoretical concepts encourage sustainable transitions within universities. Design/methodology/approach This study aims to offer a systematic literature review of the existing literature on sustainability-related leadership processes, levels and theories that encourage the transformation of universities, aimed at providing guidance on this topic; uncovering gaps in the literature; and finding new paths for future research. Findings Leadership processes in the context of sustainability-related transitions have been approached in a rather fragmented way in the literature, and the scientific field would benefit from more in-depth and longitudinal studies. In total, this study identifies 95 processes that are related to 17 aspects of universities’ transitions. Research limitations/implications The various leadership levels are involved in transition processes at different stages. The theories of distributed and sustainability leadership seem to be the most frequently used theories in the literature. Practical implications Structuring and defining leadership processes, levels and theories can lead to a better understanding of the dynamics of the transition process and, in a broader sense, of the process of sustainability integration in higher education. A better knowledge of how such a transition develops could contribute to the enhancement of existing sustainable development strategy and policy. Originality/value By focusing on an underresearched topic through a theoretical perspective of leadership theories, this study contributes to literature pertaining to leadership levels and processes involved in sustainability transitions of universities.
... Only when employees perceive the improvement of the leader's authorization level, and such leadership behavior affects their work significance, autonomy, work influence, and self-efficacy, can employee behavior change. The higher the level of psychological authorization, the stronger the psychological return of employees to the organization, and the better the promotion effect on employees' behavior (Tsui et al., 1997;Song et al., 2009;Zhang and Bartol, 2010). Through investigation and analysis of 377 MBA students, JiaTao HUANG found that psychological authorization leads to positive behaviors in employees, and employees with solid cognition of authorization are more likely to show positive behaviors than other employees (Jiatao, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
High-quality faculties are the fundamental guarantee to achieving the connotation development of higher education. Hence, performing university faculties determines the quality of teaching and the level of talent cultivation. Facing the change in teaching demand and environment, faculties need to change their working methods spontaneously to achieve high-level performance. Relevant empirical studies have shown that empowering leadership positively affects adaptive performance. However, some researchers have found that leadership effectiveness even has a negative effect. There may be two reasons for the inconsistency in the effectiveness of empowering leadership: (1) There is a lack of in-depth research on the effectiveness of empowering leadership and employees’ performance in existing studies, and the exploration of its theoretical mechanism should be enriched. (2) The effectiveness of empowering leadership may be subject to the conditions of the individual’s characteristics of the empowering. Therefore, the mechanism of empowering leadership on faculties’ adaptive performance still needs to be further explored. This study explores the impact of empowering leadership on adaptive performance. Based on Social Exchange Theory and Psychology Empowerment theory, this study explores the mediating role of the leadership-member exchange relationship and psychological empowerment in the relationship between them. According to Regulatory Focus Theory, the moderating role of promotion focus and prevent focus was studied. We adopted questionnaire survey data including 292 individuals in Changchun, Shijiazhuang, and other cities; STATA 15 was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results showed that: (1) Empowering leadership was significantly and positively related to adaptive performance. (2) Leader-member exchange relationship and psychological empowerment play a mediating chain role in empowering leadership and adaptive performance; empowering leadership promotes psychology empowerment by enhancing the leadership-member exchange relationship, enhancing their adaptive performance. (3) Promotion focus positively regulates the relationship between psychological empowerment and adaptive performance. Individuals with a promotion focus have a significant positive impact on adaptive performance. Individuals with preventing focus do not weaken the positive impact of psychological empowerment on adaptive performance.
... In this way, the employees will probably develop an attitude of knowledge sharing and will lead their firm to endeavor successful ventures and stay competitive (Rousseau, 2004;Kremer et al., 2019). The employees with the psychological contract are voluntarily involved in skill-developing activities, have a high potential to gain new knowledge, develop knowledge-sharing attitude, and intend to improve their critical thinking skills (Zhang and Bartol, 2010); this ultimately improves their creative performance (Liao and Chen, 2018). Knowledge sharing is a fundamental tool that encompasses various knowledge management activities through which employees can effectively apply the knowledge and enhance their creative performance, which enables the firms to achieve a sustainable competitive edge (Runco, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 has had a huge impact on workers and workplaces across the world while putting regular work practices into disarray. Apart from the obvious effects of COVID-19, the pandemic is anticipated to have a variety of social–psychological, health-related, and economic implications for individuals at work. Despite extensive research on psychological contracts and knowledge sharing, these domains of pedagogic endeavor have received relatively little attention in the context of employee creativity subjected to the boundary conditions of the organization’s socialization and work-related curiosity. This study investigates, empirically, the role of psychological contracts in escalating employee creativity through knowledge sharing by considering the moderating role of an organization’s socialization and work-related curiosity. The response received from 372 employees of the manufacturing sector has been investigated and analyzed through Smart PLS software. The results have revealed that knowledge sharing is mediating the relationship between psychological contract and employee creative performance, whereas the moderators significantly moderate the relationships between psychological contract and knowledge sharing and between knowledge sharing and employee creative performance accordingly. It has also been depicted that the moderating impact shown by both moderators is significantly high.
... First, the culture of equal inclusion of different stakeholders (Maak & Pless, 2006). When followers believe that decision makers have a tendency to involve them in the decision-making process and listen to their voices and suggestions regarding organizational sustainability (Pless, 2007;Stander & Coxen, 2017), this gives them a sense of control over their work conditions, which consequently increases their propensity to feel that they possess the target of ownership (Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Second, responsible leadership characteristics typically involve giving weight to the meaningfulness of followers' work (Zhou & Zhou, 2019), which leads them to be more involved and knowledgeable about work conditions and leadership expectations (Jiang et al., 2019). ...
... The influence of leadership style on employees' innovative behavior is a classic and important research topic in academia and practice (Lu et al., 2021). Leadership style is an important factor affecting employees' innovative behavior (Zhang and Bartol, 2010). Previous studies have focused on the impact of a single type of leadership style on employees' innovative behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Employee innovation is the key to enhancing the core competitiveness of an enterprise, and leadership style plays an important role in stimulating employees' innovative behavior. This study explores the impact of unique ambidextrous leadership in the Chinese context, authoritarian-benevolent leadership, on employees' innovative behavior from the perspective of employees' psychological perception, based on research data from 430 employees of companies with direct leaders. Based on the configuration theory, using the fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis method, the configuration analysis was carried out by taking authoritarian-benevolent ambidextrous leadership and employees' psychological perception as the influencing factors and obtained five configurations of high-level employees' innovative behavior. The results show that the combination of individualized care, understanding, and forgiving of benevolent leadership and Shang-yan of authoritarian leadership can effectively stimulate employees' innovative behavior. Juan-Chiuan leadership is not conducive to employees' innovative behavior. Employees' high psychological safety and low uncertainty are important conditions for promoting employee innovation. In this study, the four dimensions of authoritarian-benevolent leadership and the psychological perceptions of employees are discussed in combination, and the paths of motivating employees to innovate actively are obtained. It is hoped that it can provide certain ideas for leaders to promote employee innovation.
... Schaufeli et al. [43] asserted that employees with high work engagement have perseverance and really like challenging work. Zhang and Bartol [72] show that high work engagement encourages individuals to be flexible and diligent, seek new methods of problem-solving, and realize new ideas enthusiastically. Thus, H5: Work engagement has a positive and significant effect on knowledge sharing H6: Work engagement has a positive and significant effect on innovative work behavior ...
Article
Full-text available
This study, in detail, aims to explore and examine the effect of (1) transactional leadership on knowledge sharing, work engagement, and innovative work behavior; (2) knowledge sharing on innovative work behavior; (3) work engagement on knowledge sharing and innovative work behavior; and (4) knowledge sharing and work engagement in mediating the relationship between transactional leadership and innovative work behavior. The population in this study includes line managers, supervisors, and functional staff working in four stone milling companies in Central Java, Indonesia. This research is quantitative in nature, where the research data that has been collected will be processed and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) based on SmartPLS 3.0 version. By analyzing 107 respondents, the results of this study conclude that (1) transactional leadership has a significant effect on knowledge sharing and work engagement, but not on innovative work behavior; (2) work engagement not only has a significant effect on knowledge sharing but also on innovative work behavior; (3) knowledge sharing has a significant effect on innovative work behavior; and (4) knowledge sharing and work engagement fully mediates the relationship between transactional leadership and innovative work behavior. This study gives a comprehensive understanding that knowledge sharing and work engagement become essential variables in linking transactional leadership and innovative work behavior.
... Thus, these studies demonstrate that creativity is influenced by personal factors (called intrinsic) and external factors arising from the environment (call extraneous). Among the first, personal motivation will encourage us to solve the task, and cultural and social background will engage us more or less in the task (Zhang and Bartol 2010;Binnewies and Wörnlein 2011;Schepers and Van Den Berg 2007). However, the environment is also composed of elements, stimuli we do not control and which might be non-relevant for the creativity task. ...
... The importance of shared leadership, also called the participatory management style (Laihonen, 2015), emerged in the 2000s. Now the goals of management were viewed more as empowering the employees, emphasizing mutual confidence, and enhancing the autonomy and meaningfulness of work by sharing decision-making with individual workers and selforganizing production units or teams (Lee et al., 2014;Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Indeed, in empirical studies, shared leadership has been found to enhance employees' autonomy and the 8 opportunities to enrich and craft their work both on a daily basis and in the long run (Mäkikangas et al., 2016;Wrzesniewski & Dutton, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
In an era of emerging service work robotization, this article investigates how workers perceive job diversity in robotized work, and how those perceptions relate to job satisfaction and the perceived meaningfulness of a job. The study used a nationwide Quality of Work Life survey (QWLS) data collected in Finland in 2018 (N = 4110), and its subsample of salary earners working in a robotized workplace at the time of the study (n = 535). The data were analyzed using a correlative cross-sectional study design, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and OLS regression analysis. Against a common belief and previous studies, the findings show that intrinsic job satisfaction at work is on the average lower in robotized workplaces than in nonrobotized workplaces. The aggregate higher job satisfaction and perceived meaningfulness of work were mostly associated with perceived task diversity depending on whether, or how extensively, the employee worked with robots. The study contributes to the scientific robotization discussions with unique empirical evidence of job diversity and well-being. Moreover, the study produces information for working life, organizations, and change management by disclosing the importance of maintaining job diversity in and after implementing technological changes.
... performance outcomes from the working staff (Adobor, 2004;Hayati et al., 2014;Malik et al., 2017). Others reached the same end by using leadership by empowerment that encompasses a manager's ability to build the capabilities of employees, through sharing, passing and delegating broader powers to subordinates (Chen et al., 2011;Martin et al., 2013;X. Zhang & Bartol, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Non-Equity Public-Private Joint Ventures (NE-PPJVs) are one of the pervasive forms of Public-Private Partnerships in sovereign industries of emerging economies. They entail a state-international business relationship to extract and develop mineral reserves. The complexities in governing the partnership transcend the contractual agreement due to the tightness of the organizational form, and the state biased hierarchal structure within three core exchanges: the management-staff exchange, the inter-organisational exchange and the intra-organisational exchange. Research has shown that several non- contractual factors may influence and drive the governance and performance of a wide range of PPPs. However, which factors are linked to the core exchanges of tight partnerships remains unclear. Building on the concepts of, principal-agent theory, and network governance, this article addresses the relational and managerial performance factors influencing the governance of NE-PPJVs in emerging economies. Qualitative empirical data was gathered by interviewing public and private senior executives in the field. The findings identified seven factors within the three core exchanges of the partnership. Such findings corroborated with the overarching tenants of the New Public Governance.
... Tierney et al. add that an employee works part-time, full time or is temporary. Zhang et al. (2010) in their study of empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement examined the different types of employees. These include: fixedterm employees, seasonal employees, casual and parttime employees and employees on probationary and trial periods. ...
... As a result of the research, Kossek et al. (2011) show that executive support has a direct positive effect on employee creativity. By examining the impact of executive support on employee creativity, it helps to explain the role of executive in enhancing employee creativity, including in terms of providing an appropriate environment (Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Executive and creativity therefore seem to be inextricably linked (Castro et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
El propósito de este estudio era analizar las relaciones entre las variables de orientación alos objetivos de aprendizaje, orientación a los objetivos de rendimiento, apoyo ejecutivo,eficacia creativa del equipo y rendimiento del desarrollo de nuevos servicios. En el marcodel propósito de la investigación, se realizó un estudio con 592 empleados que trabajabanen organizaciones que operaban en el sector de la producción. Se utilizaron los programas IBM SPSS 25 e IBM SPSS AMOS de forma incremental, y se evaluaron y analizaron losdatos adquiridos. Como resultado del análisis, se destaca que las organizaciones deben darimportancia al aprendizaje y al rendimiento especialmente por sus efectos positivos. Dadoque la investigación se realiza sobre los empleados del sector de la producción, abarca unsector específico en un ámbito concreto. Los resultados de la investigación son aplicables alapoyo ejecutivo y al rendimiento de las empresas del sector de la producción para que seanmás eficaces. La investigación es original en cuanto a la evaluación de la orientación a losobjetivos de aprendizaje y la orientación a los objetivos de rendimiento en las empresas delsector de la producción.
... Empowering leadership refers to a leadership style that shares power with staff by emphasizing the value of working, providing greater decision-making autonomy, expressing optimism about staff 's high performance, and removing barriers to performance (Zhang and Bartol, 2010). Facing the complex and changeable external environment, the organizational structure of enterprises is changing to a flattening in order to improve the adaptability of enterprises. ...
Article
Full-text available
Leadership styles, especially empowering leadership, affect the psychological relationship between employees and organizations, and then affect employees’ positive behavior in the organization. In this research, we studied the effects of empowering leadership and psychological distance on employees’ pro-environmental behavior and explored the mechanism of green organizational climate (GOC). By adopting correlation analysis, statistical analysis, and regression analysis, we conducted a multisource field study of 873 valid employee questionnaires to verify our theoretical model. The results showed that empowering leadership had a significant positive impact on psychological distance and employees’ pro-environmental behavior; and psychological distance played a partly intermediation role in the relationship between empowering leadership and employees’ pro-environmental behavior. Moreover, GOC can promote employees’ pro-environmental behavior, but it cannot regulate between psychological distance and employees’ pro-environmental behavior. The findings obtained some intriguing insights that could help to better guide employees toward pro-environmental behavior.
... In addition, numerous empirical studies have employed creative personality as a representative and vital personal factor to explain an individual's creativity (Hammond et al., 2011;Zhou & Hoever, 2014). Studies have also found that individuals with creative personalities persist in formulating problem-focused responses to the challenges that emerge during their work and ultimately produce creative ideas (Somech & Drach-Zahavy, 2013;Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Additionally, in education research, researchers have found positive relations between students' creative personality and their creativity . ...
... Interestingly, this study's insights are in line with the earlier studies in domain and verdicts that destructive leadership behaviors bring negative consequences for individuals (Neves and Schyns, 2018). Notably, such findings validate previous studies suggesting that leadership influences follower outcomes through different underlying processes (Zhang and Bartol, 2010;Zhang et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Utilizing the conservation of resources theory, this study investigates serial mediation of facades of conformity and depression between exploitative leadership and absenteeism. A total of 211 education sector employees using the convenient sampling technique took part in the survey with data collected in a time-lagged research design. Findings of the study reveal that facades of conformity and depression mediate the independent paths and play a serial mediating role between EL and absenteeism path. This study suggests that EL works as a workplace stressor, under which employees try to protect their valuable resources from further loss in the form of facades of conformity, in doing so, it leads to depression; thus, employees ultimately use absenteeism as an active coping strategy to cope with workplace stressors.
... Interestingly, this study's insights are in line with the earlier studies in domain and verdicts that destructive leadership behaviors bring negative consequences for individuals (Neves and Schyns, 2018). Notably, such findings validate previous studies suggesting that leadership influences follower outcomes through different underlying processes (Zhang and Bartol, 2010;Zhang et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Utilizing the conservation of resources theory, this study investigates serial mediation of facades of conformity and depression between exploitative leadership and absenteeism. A total of 211 education sector employees using the convenient sampling technique took part in the survey with data collected in a time-lagged research design. Findings of the study reveal that facades of conformity and depression mediate the independent paths and play a serial mediating role between EL and absenteeism path. This study suggests that EL works as a workplace stressor, under which employees try to protect their valuable resources from further loss in the form of facades of conformity, in doing so, it leads to depression; thus, employees ultimately use absenteeism as an active coping strategy to cope with workplace stressors.
... Creativity interventions that seek to foster a creative organisational climate also remove some of the perceived hurdles to being creative. One hurdle is the actual and perceived effort and resources needed to be creative (de Jong & Den Hartog, 2007;Shalley & Gilson, 2004;Zhang & Bartol, 2010). One way to nudge for creativity is therefore to allocate time and resources for people to be creative. ...
Chapter
Creativity is recognised through subjective social judgements which are determined by our implicit theories and evaluation criteria. Nudges can be applied to shape, suppress, and activate our various implicit theories and evaluation criteria. We can be primed to seek out creativity, countering our (e.g., teachers, managers, decision-makers) natural bias against novelty. Well-placed reminders can invoke our professed desire for creativity, closing any intention-action gap. While it is a relatively new concept, nudges are at the core of many existing creativity interventions. We argue that a conscious effort to design and test nudge-type creativity interventions will lead to the development of potentially more effective interventions.
... We control for variables including age, gender, tenure, and job type, which have been found to be significantly related to employee creative performance (Zhang and Bartol, 2010;Harris et al., 2014). Specifically, age is measured in years. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the interplay among proactive personality, leader creativity expectations, and role clarity in stimulating employee creativity based on the theoretical frameworks of role theory. Questionnaires were distributed to obtain 290 leader-employee dyads from China to examine hypotheses via conditional process analysis. The results show that proactive personality has a positive effect on employee creativity, leader creativity expectations did not play a significant moderating role on the relationship between proactive personality and employee creativity. The interaction between leader creativity expectations and role clarity has a significant moderating effect on the relationship between proactive personality and employee creativity. These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical significance.
... In the prior literature, OCB has been acknowledged as a beneficial practice to organizations (Gilmore, Hu, Wei, Tetrick, & Zaccaro, 2013). According to Zhang and Bartol (2010), OCB assists workers in offering ground-breaking ideas to coworkers; however, Vessey et al. (2014) believe that OCB assists workers in making creative recommendations to coworkers. As they work their way through the organization's social structure, citizenship behaviors may also operate as a catalyst for innovation, influencing others' behavior in a favorable manner conducive to spontaneous acts of invention, both directly and covertly (Turnipseed, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This research mainly aims to test the impact of two leadership styles (ethical and servant leadership) on employee creativity; and to determine whether organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) mediates the relationships between them. Design/methodology/approach The paper relied on a quantitative research approach with a sample of 213 staff from public universities in the United Arab Emirates. In this paper, the partial least square approach (PLS-SEM) was employed in order to verify the proposed hypotheses. Findings The outcomes confirmed that OCB has a positive impact on employee creativity. Additionally, the findings indicated that ethical leadership positively affected OCB and employee creativity. It was also confirmed that servant leadership has a significant positive impact on OCB and employee creativity. Finally, the findings revealed that OCB fully mediates the linkages among servant and ethical leadership and employee creativity. Originality/value This paper acknowledges the existing gaps in the prior literature, and enables us to understand clearly about the significance of ethical as well as servant leadership in affecting employee creativity via OCB as a mediator.
Article
This study aims to examine an integrated research model of employee empowerment from the perspectives of managers (the empowering) and employees (the empowered) with a newly proposed construct, empowerment disparity that captures a difference in employees' perception of empowerment within a team. A multilevel analysis was conducted using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to test the hypotheses using a matched sample of 286 restaurant employees along with 51 managers and 2129 customers from five tourist cities in Thailand. The findings show that psychological empowerment and the psychological contract have a positive effect on customers' assessment of interaction quality, and empowerment disparity moderates the links between a manager's empowering behavior and psychological empowerment, and psychological empowerment and the psychological contract. The theoretical and managerial implications suggested by the findings are provided for researchers and practitioners.
Article
The theoretical concept of innovative work behavior (IWB) has achieved substantial consideration from academicians across the globe starting with the second half of the last century. More recent, for about three decades, researchers have become concerned with more concrete organizational implications towards the innovative work behavior. Therefore, they directed their attention to organizational factors that might influence innovative behavior and to the relationship between multiple organizational aspects and innovative work behavior. Employees’ behavior at work is a key component for organizational success. Consequently, employees’ innovative spirit plays a critical role in the performance of their companies. The current paper has two purposes. First, to do a key literature review on innovative work behavior as part of the general concept of innovation by highlighting the theoretical aspects from international literature. Second, to present an analysis on the topic of innovation for the top 10 multinational companies in automobile industry taking into consideration three components: the mission statement, core values and dedicated innovation section declared on their official global websites.
This study proposes and tests a typology of domain knowledge and team creativity by empirically assessing the effects of varying levels of domain knowledge on the creative outcomes of the team members. Two separate studies were conducted to address this inquiry. Study one aimed at determining the level of domain knowledge of each team member in the teams. Eleven groups comprising of thirty-three business students designed eleven advertisements for the products of their own choices. Utilizing the situation judgment test and the grade earned in the advertising course, four teams were formed comprising two balanced and two imbalanced domain knowledge teams. To test the hypotheses of the study, these teams were asked to develop a print advertisement for Nescafe for the summer season (Study Two). Upon creativity assessment of the final ads by twenty-six independent creative personnel in a total of seven advertising agencies in Pakistan, the results revealed that a balanced team with low domain knowledge outperformed the other balanced team with high domain knowledge. Further, unexpectedly, one of the imbalanced domain knowledge teams also outperformed the balanced high domain knowledge team. The study in the light of extant literature presents worthwhile implications for academia and practitioners.
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate the relationship between empowering leadership and employee creativity and the mediating roles of work engagement and knowledge sharing in this relationship. Design/methodology/approach Using the results of a survey of 302 knowledge workers from a leading telecommunications company in South Korea, the relationships among the variables empowering leadership, work engagement and knowledge sharing on employee creativity were analyzed using conducted confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. This study conducted bootstrap analyses to test the mediating effects. Findings Empowering leadership was positively and significantly associated with work engagement and knowledge sharing. Work engagement was significantly related to knowledge sharing and employee creativity. In turn, knowledge sharing was significantly associated with employee creativity. The direct effect of empowering leadership on employee creativity was nonsignificant, but this study found a significant indirect effect of empowering leadership on employee creativity via the significant mediating roles of work engagement and knowledge sharing. Originality/value This study introduced empowering leadership that may work for knowledge workers who create new ideas by analyzing data from the knowledge workers’ perceptions of their leaders in the workplace. The intuitive linkage between work engagement and knowledge sharing was empirically verified in this study. This study’s findings and implications provide direction for knowledge workers and how their managers should support employees’ work environment and activities.
Article
Job-crafting behavior has been found to be positively related to many organizational outcomes. This paper studied the relationship between individuals' promotion focus and job crafting via the mediating role of psychological empowerment. We collected data from 447 employees of two Internet companies in China using a survey consisting of items from scales validated in prior studies. We found that employees' promotion focus was related to their job crafting, and that psychological empowerment partially mediated this relationship. Our findings provide a reference for how to initiate employees' job crafting. We present the theoretical and practical implications of our findings and discuss future research directions.
Article
Purpose This study aims to investigate the influence of responsible leadership on employee duty orientation in the manufacturing sector of Ghana by using job satisfaction as a mediating variable. Design/methodology/approach This study relied on the quantitative approach and explanatory research design for the execution. This study gathered data from 325 employees across three manufacturing firms and applied the partial least squares structural equation modelling technique to test hypotheses. Findings This study established that responsible leadership had significant positive relationship with duty orientation and job satisfaction. The findings further disclosed that job satisfaction was positively related to duty orientation. This study provided evidence that job satisfaction serves as a mechanism through which responsible leadership could influence duty orientation. Practical implications This study recommends that for manufacturing firms to enhance job satisfaction, which will eventually lead to employees’ demonstrating duty orientation, the employers and relevant stakeholders such as board of directors and shareholders should emphasise responsible leadership traits among various managers and supervisors. Originality/value This study contributes to knowledge in a novel research area. It adds to empirical evidence by highlighting the possible variables that may influence employees to engage in duty orientation.
Article
Full-text available
Creative industries emphasize human creativity and intellectual abilities. Studies found that most organizations in China’s creative sector failed to establish appropriate motivation strategies that are conducive to creative performance. This study is a cross-disciplinary study, which investigated the organizations’ management and designers’ behaviour in China’s creative industries with mixed methods to answer the research questions. The results lead to a deeper understanding of designers’ needs for motivation and a tangible motivation model for business management to imply. A conceptual framework has been developed as the basis of this research. 41 in-depth interviews were conducted for collecting information about the current motivation methods in China’s creative industries, and their effectiveness. These interviews also revealed the actual needs of designers through finding out their preferred motivators. 396 valid online questionnaires were received from managers and designers to further measure the perceived priorities of the motivators found in the in-depth interviews. The results indicated the current motivation methods focused on extrinsic motivators, while designers in China valued both extrinsic motivators like monetary rewards and intrinsic motivators like recognition. It also revealed the current management strategies are less effective in motivating designers. It discovered that management strategies in China’s creative industries lack awareness about their designers’ needs. This investigation leads to the discussion about the immature ecosystem of the creative industries in China and its influence on their development. This research is an original study that enriched knowledge of the creative behaviour, which identified the key motivators of designers in China and formed a model as advice to the management and policy-makers in creative industries. They can also benefit from this understanding and gain a better insight into motivating creative employees through appropriate motivation strategies.
Purpose This study aims to investigate the intellectual structure of leadership research in the hospitality industry through citation, co-citation and heat map analysis. Design/methodology/approach Systematic bibliometric mapping was done using citation and co-citation analysis. This study covered journals from 1985 to 2020. Findings After reviewing 172 published articles with 10,276 citations, results identified five main clusters. Practical implications Hospitality managers can choose certain qualities (i.e. charisma, individualized consideration) or use servant leadership characteristics (i.e. selflessness) to direct employees toward more discretionary behavior. Originality/value Former holistic studies on leadership applied different approaches, such as review studies (i.e. systematic review and meta-analysis) or evaluative studies (e.g. productivity measures). It mainly focused on extending the understanding of different leadership types in tourism and hospitality. Nevertheless, relational studies (e.g. citation analysis, bibliographic analysis) remained untouched.
Article
This study tests the positive effects of empowering leadership (ELSH) under boundary conditions in the hospitality industry. We propose the existence of an interactive process through which ELSH behaviors interact with employees’ personality type to condition their engagement, which in turn influences their extra-role service behavior. We use data from 294 employees and structural equation modeling. The results show that the interaction of ELSH with employees’ independent and interdependent personality is negatively related to their engagement. This decrease in engagement is then reflected in decreased extra-role service behaviors due to the positive relationship between engagement and extra-role service. These findings suggest that self-construal is a significant boundary condition capable of changing the positive relationship between ELSH and engagement to a negative one. Not considering this relationship when establishing a leadership strategy such as ELSH in the hospitality context could render efforts to achieve the goal of high-quality service ineffective.
Article
As a healthcare ICT4D solution, mobile health (mHealth) can potentially improve users' well‐being during pandemics, especially in developing countries with limited healthcare resources. Recent ICT4D research reveals that providing end‐users with access to ICT is insufficient for improving well‐being and, thus, understanding how mHealth empowers end‐users to enhance well‐being against stressful events is important. However, prior research has rarely discussed the issue of empowerment in the domain of mHealth or the context of major disruptive events. This paper contributes to the literature by conceptualizing the psychological empowerment of mHealth users (PEMU) and investigating its nomological network during pandemics. Drawing upon theories of psychological empowerment and event characteristics, we developed a research model and tested it through a mixed‐methods investigation, containing a quantitative study with 602 Chinese mHealth users during COVID‐19 and a follow‐up qualitative study of 326 online articles and reviews. We found that PEMU, driven by three technological characteristics (perceived response efficacy, ease of use, and mHealth quality), affects well‐being through both (a) a stress‐buffering effect, which counterbalances the detrimental, stress‐increasing effects of event criticality and disruption, and (b) a vitality‐stimulating effect, which is intensified by event criticality. These findings have important implications for ICT4D research and practice.
Chapter
For enterprises, the essence of innovation competition is the competition of employees’ creativity. Organizational climate is a key factor affecting employee creativity, and organizational justice is an important part of organizational climate. To explore the effects of organizational justice on knowledge employees’ creativity, 220 questionnaire data were collected from knowledge employees in Changchun and Chengdu. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and hierarchical regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between organizational justice and knowledge employees’ creativity. Results show that organizational justice has a positive impact on knowledge employees’ creativity, and organizational commitment mediated the positive relationship between organizational justice and knowledge employees’ creativity. Furthermore, based on social cognitive theories and interactive perspective, creativity self-efficacy was found playing as a moderator in the relationship between organizational commitment and knowledge employees’ creativity. The research not only provides theoretical contributions to the influence mechanism of organizational justice on the creativity of knowledge employees, but also offers some management implications for organizations.
Article
Purpose The research linking organizational change-oriented activities with employee voice behavior is still in its initial stages. This study aims to contribute to this line of research by proposing felt obligation for constructive change, an underlying mechanism through which supervisory delegation enhances teachers’ voice behavior. Design/methodology/approach This study tested the interactive effect of felt obligation for constructive change and voice climate on teachers’ voice behavior. The proposed model is supported by proactive motivation theory which states that environmental factors lead to motivational states which further result in employee proactive behaviors. In this study, 415 teachers with their 74 supervisors (head of departments) from educational institutes completed the surveys. Structural equation modeling was used to find the results. Findings The results supported the mediation and moderation hypotheses, which proved that felt obligation for constructive change mediates the relationship between supervisory delegation and teachers’ voice behavior, and voice climate moderates the relationship between felt obligation for constructive change and teacher voice behavior. Practical implications This paper will provide an insight to the practitioners about the role of supervisory delegation for engagement in employee voice. This paper will also help managers understand that the workplace effectiveness can be enhanced by creating opportunities for employees to voice their concern. Originality/value This study recommends that head of departments at the workplace should cultivate an environment that is conducive for their faculty for engaging in voice behavior for improved functioning of educational institutes. Findings provide an insightful approach on organizational strategies in the form of supervisory delegation to trigger voice behavior among employees to meet the uncertainty of the ever-changing business environment.
Article
Traumatic life experiences occur when individuals experience life-threatening or other similarly dis-stressful events in life. Much literature discussed the negative implications of traumatic life experiences. I argue, in contrast, that individuals can also demonstrate resilience toward traumatic life experiences by performing creatively at work in some situations. Drawing from positive organizational scholarship and a sensemaking perspective, I propose a conceptual model to examine the processes and conditions that help employees engage in work creativity activities while they are coping with traumatic incidents in another aspect of life. Importantly, I contend that this engagement can enable employees to bring creative insight to work, develop a resilient self-concept, and shape the future organizational discourse on trauma and resilience. The proposed model contributes to a better understanding of employees’ work creativity as a constructive response to traumatic experiences and provides directions for positive organizational changes that support these responses.
Chapter
In this rapidly changing knowledge-based economy, employees’ creativity and learning commitment have become crucial for lifelong employability in many work contexts. As a result, more research has been dedicated to examining how leadership behaviour may effectively impact on employees’ motivation to bring out these desirable work outcomes. Psychological empowerment, as an individual’s internal work motivation, is vital for understanding how individual employees respond and participate in their work roles to achieve optimal work performance. In our current study, we examined the predictive relationships among perceived leader empowering behaviour, psychological empowerment (in terms of its four dimensions: meaning, competence, autonomy, and impact) and three work-related outcomes (in terms of job satisfaction, creativity, and learning commitment). A convenience sample of 144 employees in Singapore provided consent to take part in this study voluntarily. Results indicated that perceived leader empowering behaviour positively predicted psychological empowerment. Psychological empowerment partially mediated between perceived leader empowering behaviour and the three work-related outcomes. The current study provides empirical evidence for understanding empowerment of employees in the Singapore work context. It highlights the importance of understanding how empowering leadership may positively affect employees’ psychological empowerment. This awareness could enable organisation leaders and human resource practitioners to work towards cultivating an empowering work climate to promote employees’ effectiveness, commitment and well-being at work.
Article
Their positive potential often diminishes or even turns negative when antecedents of creativity are taken too far. Despite empirical evidence supporting such curvilinear effects on important outcomes of creative work at the individual and team levels, their theorizing remains rather incomplete, with more attention being paid to explaining the curves’ upward rather than downward slopes. By developing a multilevel antecedent-benefit-cost (ABC) framework that synthesizes 120 quantitative-empirical studies on curvilinear effects, this review guides creativity and innovation literature toward conceptual clarity and methodological precision across levels. This is important because the cost-related mechanisms of certain antecedents are still not well understood.
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore how information technology (IT) companies that provide professional information systems/IT solutions to business clients can enhance employees’ service innovation performance. Design/methodology/approach Self-reported data were collected from 251 employees over two periods, along with their supervisor-reported data. The model was tested using structural equation modeling. Findings Employees’ engagement fully mediates the impact of innovative self-efficacy and social identification on service innovation performance. Employees’ customer orientation and feeling trusted both strengthen the transformation of service innovation engagement into service innovation performance. However, IT employees’ embeddedness, unexpectedly, significantly weakens the link between engagement and performance in business-to-business (B2B) service innovation contexts. Research limitations/implications The sample was collected in Taiwan, where the IT industry is dominant and employees’ values and team interactions are influenced by Chinese culture. Data drawn from a single industry, involving a particular culture, limit claims of external validity. Practical implications Managers can encourage participative decision-making, or hold official platforms where peers and clients can exchange ideas, leading to higher levels of feeling trusted and customer orientation, which both strengthen the link between service innovation engagement and performance. Moreover, highly embedded members can easily discuss novel ideas with team members and obtain improvement-oriented feedback, which ensures highly embedded members can keep focusing on service innovation. Originality/value This study provides a more nuanced picture of predictive factors for individual innovation behavior in B2B service innovation contexts in which employees provide business clients with professional, innovative IT solutions through team-based projects.
Article
Research shows servant leadership has a strong positive impact on employees and the businesses they run. Over 300 peer-reviewed articles support the myriad benefits including increased profit, improved work climate, and enhanced employee wellbeing and productivity. Servant leaders are knowledgeable, ethical people who bring value to organizations and the people they serve by developing followers via prioritizing work needs, demonstrating concern for growth, empowering them, and showing sensitivity to personal concerns. Through this, servant leaders encourage followers to contribute to organizational goals, develop a sense of belonging, and grow in confidence in their work and leadership skills leading to increased happiness, health, and productivity. Servant leadership also uniquely involves a concern for the community. Our research shows that leaders have the least confidence in this most distinguishing aspect of servant leadership. We offer 32 practical ideas on implementing servant leadership with special attention to the community component to assist readers in developing this valuable leadership style.
Article
Purpose This study investigates the link between diversity in management and CEO positions and firm innovation. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect that women and ethnic diversity in management and CEO positions have on the development of outstanding innovation in firms. Design/methodology/approach This paper conducts an empirical analysis to investigate these relationships over time using a large panel database of 1,345 publicly US traded firms. Findings Results revealed that gender and ethnic diversity at all levels of management exhibited a robust positive association with superior innovation competence. This finding remains robust when alternative proxies for innovation are employed. In contrast, the authors found that women and ethnic minorities at the CEO level had no significant influence. Originality/value Considering an output measure of innovation, the authors explore the effect of gender and ethnic minority groups in management positions as well as at the CEO level, rather than focusing only on top management teams or board of directors. The authors offer new practical insights regarding the manager selection process that are also useful to support public policy initiatives.
Article
Employees have always striven for a sense of empowerment while employers endeavor to forge a more proactive workforce that will strengthen organizations. However, the possible link between empowerment and proactivity, as well as the influence of other factors, has seldom been explored. This study fills this gap by examining how humble leadership can help employees with empowerment role identity to further strengthen their vitality and ultimately elicit proactive behavior. Using data collected from a sample of 326 employee-supervisor dyads in the information and communications technology (ICT) industry in China, we argue that employees’ vitality mediates the positive correlation between their empowerment role identity and proactive behavior. In light of the Johnson-Neyman technique, this study further indicates that the relationship between empowerment role identity and employee vitality is significantly positive when humble leadership is rated above 5.195 on a 7-point Likert scale; however, this relationship turns negative when humble leadership drops below 1.429. Thus, humble leadership moderates the mediating role that vitality plays in helping employees with empowerment needs to achieve greater proactivity. These findings deepen our understanding of how subordinates with relatively high power demands and enthusiasm can be effectively motivated in the workplace.
Article
Full-text available
The dimensionality of the original Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) and a revision were investigated. Factor analyses of two data sets identified six dimensions underlying the original JDS. Five of the factors correspond to the pattern expected for the JDS items; the sixth was identified as a measurement artifact. Five of the JDS items were subsequently rewritten to eliminate the artifact. The revised survey was administered to employees of a printing company (N = 134) and the a priori five-factor solution was obtained with no artifact factor. Scale–factor correlations were also computed. The resulting coefficients suggest that the revised JDS scales are measuring their underlying constructs with reasonable accuracy. As a result of the measurement artifact in the original JDS, it is recommended that the revised JDS should be used in future research concerned with task characteristics. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
I propose a model in which I describe the way individuals experience timelessness by becoming engrossed in attractive work activities, the contextual conditions that facilitate or hinder that process, and the effects of timelessness on the creativity of organizational members. Building upon multidisciplinary perspectives, I suggest that timelessness is a constellation of four experiences: a feeling of immersion, a recognition of time distortion. a sense of mastery, and a sense of transcendence.
Article
Full-text available
Employees in many jobs encounter novel, ill-defined problems, and finding creative solutions to these problems may be the critical factor that allows their organization to maintain a competitive advantage. Solving problems creatively requires extensive and effortful cognitive processing. This requirement is magnified further by the complex, ambiguous situations in which most organizational problems occur. Employees must define and construct a problem, search and retrieve problem-relevant information, and generate and evaluate a diverse set of alternative solutions. Creativity necessitates that all these activities are completed effectively. It is unlikely, therefore, that creative outcomes will be realized without a large degree of support from organizations and organizational leaders. To provide this support, leaders must understand the cognitive requirements of creative problem solving. To this end, this article reviews the cognitive processes underlying creative problem solving and suggests avenues through which organizational leaders can facilitate these processes in an effort to enhance the creative problem solving of their employees.
Article
Full-text available
A number of researchers have provided phenomenological characterization of the logical and intuitive modes of problem solving. In an effort to delve into more detailed analyses of the formal criteria for distinguishing between logical and intuitive modes of problem solving, this paper reports the development of independent subscales for measurement of each of these two modes. Preliminary results from a sample of 535 respondents suggest two factorially independent subscales. These were interpreted as describing quite accurately the two postulated classifications as advanced above. Findings suggest the subscales warrant additional examination in other samples and settings. Practical implications are discussed, including those for researching the area of person-job fit/misfit.
Article
Full-text available
Afield study was conducted to investigate changes in the importance of project critical success factors across four stages in the project life cycle. A total of 408 project managers or project team members cur-rently involved in a project responded to the questionnaire. Ridge regression analysis was performed on the initially derived ten critical success factors, reducing the final number of critical success factors to eight. A stepwise regression was then done on the critical success factors at each of the four stages in the project life cycle. Results indi-cated that the relative importance of several of the criticalfactors change significantly based on life cycle stages.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the paradoxical role of the external leaders of self-managing work teams. Observation, interviews, group elicitations, and a literature search were used to identify salient leader behaviors in a medium-sized manufacturing plant that had been operating for several years under a system of self-managing work teams. A self-management leadership questionnaire was developed to measure the 21 leader behaviors identified. Correlations with overall leadership-effectiveness ratings generally indicated that the external leaders' most important behaviors are those that facilitate the team's self-management through self-observation, self-evaluation, and self-reinforcement. The study suggests that there is a legitimate role for external leaders of self-managing work teams but that it differs from traditional and participative leadership roles.
Article
Full-text available
The authors would like to thank James McGregor Burns, Robert J. House, James (Jerry) Hunt and Ken G. Smith for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this manuscript. Craig L. Pearce and Henry P. Sims Jr participated in studies one, two and three; Eugene Schnell and Ken A. Smith participated in study one; Gail Ball and Linda Tevino participated in study two; Jonathan F. Cox participated in study three.
Article
Full-text available
Social psychologists currently conceptualize self as composed of many parts; often they visualize the parts as organized hierarchically by differences in salience or psychological centrality. We ask whether these concepts are equivalent, overlapping, or independent, and whether one concept ''works'' better in an identity theory context. Models relating commitment to role relations to salience and centrality, and salience and centrality to time spent in role, are estimated for four roles and identities related to university students. Results show that identity salience and centrality are independent for some roles, but overlap for others. When they are independent, both are predicted by commitment and both predict time in role, although salience ''works'' somewhat better in these terms. When they overlap, considerable commonality is present in the variance of time in role they explain. Salience again links somewhat better to commitment and time in role, but centrality again contributes to explaining time in role. This study considers when salience and centrality overlap in impact and when they do not, but no clear answer is at hand. Until an answer is available, researchers would be well advised to incorporate both salience and centrality into their designs.
Article
Full-text available
We employed a multilevel research design to examine the effects of employees' resistance to empowerment. Survey responses were obtained from 637 customer service engineers who worked in 121 empowered teams. At the team level of analysis, resistance to empowerment climate related negatively to customer satisfaction as mediated by transition processes. In addition, resistance to empowerment climate evidenced an indirect relation with team performance via team action processes. At the individual level of analysis, employees' resistance to empowerment related negatively to their job satisfaction. Moreover, a cross-level relation was evidenced whereby team-level resistance to empowerment climate related negatively to job satisfaction, beyond that accounted for by the individual-level effects, as partially mediated by team interpersonal processes. Results are discussed in terms of the multilevel manner in which employees' resistance to empowerment can undermine organizational design changes.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the interactive effects of 3 contextual variables (feedback valence, feedback style, and task autonomy) on creative performance. Data were collected from participants who performed a role-playing task in a laboratory setting ( N = 210). Results demonstrated that the 3 contextual variables interacted to affect creative performance such that individuals who received positive feedback delivered in an informational style, and who worked in a high task autonomy work environment, generated the most creative ideas. This 3-way interaction held regardless of the participants' differences in achievement orientation. Implications of these results for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A longitudinal study was conducted of transformational leadership and the performance of project groups in three industrial research and development organizations. As hypothesized, transformational leadership predicted higher project quality and budget/schedule performance ratings at time I and one-year later at time 2. A moderator effect was hypothesized and found for type of research and development work. Here, transformational leadership was a stronger predictor of project quality ratings for research projects than for development projects. Initiating structure, however was a stronger predictor of project quality ratings for development projects than for research projects. Theoretical and methodological issues for transformational leadership research in professional organizations are discussed.
Article
Examined the conditions under which the imposition of an extrinsic constraint upon performance of an activity can lead to decrements in creativity. 95 female undergraduates worked on an art activity either with or without the expectation of external evaluation. In addition, Ss were asked to focus on either the creative or the technical aspects of the activity or they were given no specific focus. Finally, some Ss expecting evaluation were given explicit instructions on how to make their artworks. As predicted, Ss in the evaluation groups produced artworks significantly lower on judged creativity than did Ss in the nonevaluation control groups. The only evaluation group for which this pattern was reversed had received explicit instructions on how to make artworks that would be judged creative. A possible reconciliation of these 2 disparate results is proposed, and practical implications are discussed. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
The article focuses on a comment on a previous article concerning multilevel models of organizational creativity and the writers' response. It states that the original article raises critical issues concerning the definition of creativity and suggests that creativity should be defined in respect to creative actions and outcomes as this has methodological and conceptual advantages that can assist in future research. It mentions that the article should not have been dismissal of previous research and instead could utilize that research by recasting the empirical research within a holistic description focusing on individual thought and action. The authors response defends their position and states that theories can have the virtue of generalizability, simplicity, and accuracy.
Article
Social and contextual factors have been theorized to significantly influence creative performance. This research examined effects of three factors on individual creativity and productivity: coaction, expected evaluation, and goal setting. Study 1 indicated that high levels of creativity occurred when individuals worked alone, and productivity was high when they worked alone under no expectation of evaluation. Study 2 found the highest creativity occurred when individuals had a creativity goal and worked alone under expected evaluation. Productivity was low when people worked alone or were assigned a creativity goal. Implications of these results for models of creativity and managing creativity at work are discussed.
Article
We examined relations between creative performance and the extent to which employees received support for creativity from both work (supervisors/coworkers) and nonwork (family/friends) sources. We also examined whether (1) employees' mood states mediated the support-creativity relations and (2) creative personality characteristics moderated these relations. Results demonstrated that work and nonwork support made significant, independent contributions to creative performance. Positive mood mediated these relations, and employees with less creative personalities responded most positively to nonwork support.
Article
Using data from two different firms, this study tested a new construct, creative selfefficacy, tapping employees' beliefs that they can be creative in their work roles. Results support the discriminant validity of the construct and indicate that job tenure, job self-efficacy, supervisor behavior, and job complexity contribute to creative efficacy beliefs. Creative self-efficacy also predicted creative performance beyond the predictive effects of job self-efficacy. Differences in results between white-collar and blue-collar samples suggest considerations for both theory and practice.
Article
This research examined predictors and consequences of delegation. Participants were 44 supervisors and 198 claims adjusters employed in 19 branch offices of a large insurance company. Delegation was operationally defined as the dollar level of authority exercised by adjusters to settle claims. Results indicated that supervisors' perceptions of subordinates, the volume of supervisors' workloads, and the importance of decisions were significant predictors of delegation. In addition, subordinates' job competence and congruence between supervisors' and subordinates' goals moderated the effects of delegation on subordinates' job performance. Neither supervisors' personalities or predispositions to share authority nor subordinates' satisfaction were significantly related to delegation. Implications of the findings for research on participative decision making and leadership are discussed.
Article
This study focused on the conditions under which job dissatisfaction will lead to creativity as an expression of voice. We theorized that useful feedback from coworkers, coworker helping and support, and perceived organizational support for creativity would each interact with job dissatisfaction and continuance commitment (commitment motivated by necessity) to result in creativity. In a sample of 149 employees, as hypothesized, employees with high job dissatisfaction exhibited the highest creativity when continuance commitment was high and when (1) useful feedback from coworkers, or (2) coworker helping and support, or (3) perceived organizational support for creativity was high.
Article
We examined the antecedents, consequences, and mediational role of team empowerment using 111 work teams in four organizations. The results indicated that the actions of external leaders, the production/service responsibilities given to teams, team-based human resources policies, and the social structure of teams all worked to enhance employee team empowerment experiences. More empowered teams were also more productive and proactive than less empowered teams and had higher levels of customer service, job satisfaction, and organizational and team commitment.[ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Article
Using a field survey of 461 self-managing work team members in four countries, we examined: (1) whether employee resistance to such teams mediated the relationships between employee cultural values and job attitudes and (2) whether the value-resistance relationships were stronger in some countries than in others. Results show that resistance mediated the cultural value-job attitude relationships, sometimes fully and sometimes partially, depending on which type of resistance (to teams or to self-management) and which type of cultural value was being examined. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Article
Among the many traditions of research on "identity," two somewhat different yet strongly related strands of identity theory have developed. The first, reflected in the work of Stryker and colleagues, focuses on the linkages of social structures with identities. The second, reflected in the work of Burke and colleagues, focuses on the internal process of self-verification. In the present paper we review each of these strands and then discuss ways in which the two relate to and complement one another. Each provides a context for the other: the relation of social structures to identities influences the process of self-verification, while the process of self-verification creates and sustains social structures. The paper concludes with examples of potentially useful applications of identity theory to other arenas of social psychology, and with a discussion of challenges that identity theory must meet to provide a clear understanding of the relation between self and society.
Article
This article presents a cognitive model of empowerment. Here, empowerment is defined as increased intrinsic task motivation, and our subsequent model identifies four cognitions (task assessments) as the basis for worker empowerment: sense of impact, competence, meaningfulness, and choice. Adopting an interpretive perspective, we have used the model also to describe cognitive processes through which workers reach these conclusions. Central to the processes we describe are workers' interpretive styles and global beliefs. Both preliminary evidence for the model and general implications for research are discussed.
Article
In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
Article
One of the great virtues of structural equation models is that they permit the quantification of causal and noncausal sources of statistical relationship. The present article discusses efficient matrix methods of computation for effect decomposition and extends these methods to models with unstandardized variables and to nonrecursive models. An appendix includes a computer program, written in APL, which implements the techniques described in the article.
Article
Prior research suggests that both transformational leadership and anonymity may affect creativity in groups using group decision support systems to generate ideas. A laboratory study examined effects of high and low levels of transformational leadership on group creativity under anonymous and identified electronic brainstorming conditions. Four measures of group creativity were used: fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration (Torrance, 1965). Results indicated that groups working under higher levels of transformational leadership generated more idea elaborations and original solutions than groups working under lower levels of transformational leadership. Anonymous groups were more flexible in generating ideas than identified groups. Results also indicated a significant Leadership Style x Anonymity interaction for flexibility.
Article
Over the course of his career, Guilford produced a remarkable body of research on creative thought. Today, this research is remembered primarily for its articulation of the notion that divergent thinking plays a key role in creative thought. However, a number of other capacities relevant to understanding creative thought were identified in the course of this research effort. In this article, I review this research program as a whole with special reference to those capacities that warrant more attention in current studies of creativity. Implications for current research are discussed.
Article
This paper proposes that the receipt of negotiating latitude and support for self-worth from superiors empowers subordinates by increasing their perceptions of control. Subordinates reciprocate by performing in accordance with supervisory preferences. Additionally, superiors who utilize empowering leadership practices are predicted to be viewed as fair by subordinates. The results from the analysis of data collected from 92 superior-subordinate dyads support these hypotheses. The implications of empowerment for management are discussed.
Article
This article considers single sample approximations for the cross-validation coefficient in the analysis of covariance structures. An adjustment for predictive validity which may be employed in conjunction with any correctly specified discrepancy function is suggested. In the case of maximum likelihood estimation under normality assumptions the coefficient obtained is a simple linear function of the Akaike Information Criterion. Results of a random sampling experiment are reported.
Article
The foundation for a model of motivational synergy is presented. Building upon but going beyond previous conceptualizations, the model outlines the ways in which intrinsic motivation (which arises from the intrinsic value of the work for the individual) might interact with extrinsic motivation (which arises from the desire to obtain outcomes that are apart from the work itself). In a modification of the prevailing psychological view that extrinsic motivation undermines intrinsic motivation, this conceptualization proposes that certain types of extrinsic motivation can combine synergistically with intrinsic motivation, particularly when initial levels of intrinsic motivation are high. Such synergistic motivational combinations should lead to high levels of employee satisfaction and performance. Two mechanisms are proposed for these combinations: extrinsics in service of intrinsics, and the motivation-work cycle match. Personality and work-environment influences on motivation are discussed, and implications are outlined for management practice and management development.
Article
Social stress can be understood by incorporating interruption theory as developed in research on stress into a model of identity processes drawn from identity theory. From this perspective, social stress results from interruption of the feedback loop that maintains identity processes. I discuss four mechanisms of interruption of identity processes: broken identity loops, interference between identity systems, over-controlled identity systems, and the invocation of episodic identities. Each of these four mechanisms is associated with conditions known to produce feelings of distress. Finally, I discuss how personal evaluation relates to identity processes and distress, and how distress, can lead to changes in identity.
Article
The study examined the Pygmalion process for creativity among 140 R&D employees. Results generally supported the Pygmalion model. Supervisors holding higher expectations for employee creativity were perceived by employees as behaving more supportively of creativity. The effects of these behaviors on employee creative self-efficacy were mediated by employee view of creativity expectations. Creative self-efficacy mediated the effects of supervisor expectations, supervisor behaviors, and employee view, on creative performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Article
Despite increasing attention on the topic of empowerment, our understanding of the construct and its underlying processes remains limited. This article addresses these shortcomings by providing an analytical treatment of the construct and by integrating the diverse approaches to empowerment found in both the management and psychology literatures. In addition, the authors identify certain antecedent conditions of powerlessness and practices that have been hypothesized to empower subordinates.
Article
Dominant approaches to the study of helping behavior are characterized by an empirical focus on temporally isolated acts of helping with little concern either for social structure or for interactional history. We suggest that Mead's conceptualization of role offers a unique theoretical basis for incorporating dimensions of both social structure and history. This conceptualization of role also points to certain circumstances in which role and person merge; the extent of role-person merger has direct implications for action. We hypothesized that the degree of merger between person and a particular role, that of a blood donor, is both distinct from and compensatory to more traditional variables such as social and personal norms in its influence on blood donation behavior. We examine this suggestion empirically using a sample of 658 blood donors. Support was found for the three specific predictions derived from this general hypothesis. This approach illustrates the importance of conceptualizing helping behavior as role behavior, facilitating incorporation of both social structural and historical characteristics of such behavior.
Article
Based on a four-factor leadership typology, this theoretical chapter proposes four alternative models to investigate how collaborative capital moderates the relationships between leadership and innovation. Beyerlein, Beyerlein, and Kennedy (2004) define collaborative capital as “how well people work together toward shared goals and outcomes.” In this chapter, we focus on empowerment as an important manifestation of collaborative capital. That is, first, empowerment enhances collaboration across vertical hierarchical lines through sharing of decision-making authority. Also, since empowerment is typically implemented as a team form of organizational structure, empowered teams enhance collaboration through the process of decentralized team decision-making. Thus, the accumulation of successful empowerment and the qualities of empowered team member represent the collaborative capital. Specifically, the models suggest that empowerment may function as a partial mediator, or as a moderator, or as both, in the basic relationship between transformational leadership and innovation. In addition, although transformational leadership and empowering leadership elicit different attitudes and behaviors of team members that may facilitate innovation, the interactions between these outcomes will maximize the effects of leadership on innovation. The implications of these observations and the possible directions for future research are discussed.
Article
The performance of 94 groups on 13 different open-ended tasks was studied. At the individual-team-member level, domain knowledge and performance-relevant behavioral measures of the three components of Amabile's (1983, 1996) theory of individual creativity related in predicted ways to individual differences. Support was found for new "cross-level" processes, labeled "team creativity-relevant processes." At the group level, these processes moderated the relationship between aggregated individual creativity and group creativity.
Article
A set of hypotheses based on emerging theory on high-involvement systems describes expected relationships between social structural characteristics at the level of the work unit (perceptions of role ambiguity, span of control, sociopolitical support, access to information and resources, and work unit climate) and feelings of empowerment. The hypotheses are examined with data on a sample of middle managers from diverse units of a Fortune 50 organization. A work unit with little role ambiguity, strong sociopolitical support, access to information, and a participative unit climate is found to be associated with managerial perceptions of empowerment, as is working for a boss who has a wide span of control.
Article
This article systematically reviews and integrates empirical research that has examined the personal and contextual characteristics that enhance or stifle employee creativity in the workplace. Based on our review, we discuss possible determinants of employee creativity that have received little research attention, describe several areas where substantial challenges and unanswered questions remain, present a number of new research directions for theory building, and identify methodological improvements needed in future studies of creativity in organizations.
Article
The present study integrated a number of streams of research on the antecedents of innovation to develop and test a model of individual innovative behavior. Hypothesizing that leadership, individual problem-solving style, and work group relations affect innovative behavior directly and indirectly through their influence on perceptions of the climate for innovation, we used structural equation analysis to test the parameters of the proposed model simultaneously and also explored the moderating effect of task characteristics. The model explained approximately 37 percent of the variance in innovative behavior. Task type moderated the relationship between leader role expectations and innovative behavior.
Article
This study examined the independent and joint contributions of employees' creativity-relevant personal characteristics and three characteristics of the organizational context - job complexity, supportive supervision, and controlling supervision - to three indicators of employees' creative performance: patent disclosures written, contributions to an organization suggestion program, and supervisory ratings of creativity. Participants (171 employees from two manufacturing facilities) produced the most creative work when they had appropriate creativity-relevant characteristics, worked on complex, challenging jobs, and were supervised in a supportive, noncontrolling fashion.
Article
Using surveys and interview data this research examines teams’ engagement in creative processes. Results of cluster analysis indicated that the more creative teams were those that perceived that their tasks required high levels of creativity, were working on jobs with high task interdependence, were high on shared goals, valued participative problem-solving, and had a climate supportive of creativity. In addition, members of the more creative teams spent more time socializing with each other and had moderate amounts of organizational tenure. Implications for management are discussed.
Article
We describe the development and validation of a new instrument, KEYS: Assessing the Climate for Creativity, designed to assess perceived stimulants and obstacles to creativity in organizational work environments. The KEYS scales have acceptable factor structures, internal consistencies, test-retest reliabilities, and preliminary convergent and discriminant validity. A construct validity study shows that perceived work environments, as assessed by the KEYS scales, discriminate between high-creativity projects and low-creativity projects; certain scales discriminate more strongly and consistently than others. We discuss the utility of this tool for research and practice.
Article
72 members of the college community who identified themselves as actively involved in creative writing participated in individual laboratory sessions, in which they were asked to write 2 brief poems, to investigate the hypothesis that intrinsic motivation is conducive to creativity and extrinsic motivation is detrimental. In the present study, intrinsic motivation was defined as resulting from an S's interest in and enjoyment of writing for its own sake, while extrinsic motivation was defined as resulting from the external things obtained by writing (e.g., rewards, approval). Ss were divided into approximately equal groups that were designated as intrinsic-orientation, extrinsic-orientation, and control conditions. Before writing the 2nd poem, Ss in the intrinsic-orientation condition completed a questionnaire on intrinsic reasons for being involved in writing, and Ss in the extrinsic-orientation condition completed a questionnaire on extrinsic reasons. Ss in the control condition were not given a questionnaire on reasons for writing. Results indicate that, although there were no initial differences between conditions on prior involvement in writing or on creativity of the 1st poems written, there were significant differences in the creativity of the poems written after the experimental manipulations. Poems written under an extrinsic orientation were significantly less creative than those written in the other 2 conditions. Implications for social-psychological and individual-difference conceptions of creativity are discussed. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A 3-factor (3 × 3 × 2), between-Ss design was used to investigate effects of productivity goals (difficult, do your best, or no goals), creativity goals (difficult, do your best, or no goals), and personal discretion (high or low) on 2 dependent variables: creativity and productivity. High levels of creativity and productivity were obtained when either a do-your-best creativity goal and difficult productivity goal or a difficult creativity goal and difficult productivity goal were assigned, suggesting that 2 different types of goals can be assigned without reducing performance on either dimension. Creativity was lowest in 3 conditions: (a) difficult productivity goal and no creativity goal, (b) do-your-best productivity goal and no creativity goal, and (c) no creativity goal and low personal discretion. These results indicate that when individuals are given a productivity goal or low personal discretion and no creativity goal, creativity decreases. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Using a sample of 290 employees and their supervisors from 46 Korean companies, we found that (1) transformational leadership was positively related to follower creativity, (2) followers' "conservation", a value, moderated that relationship, and (3) intrinsic motivation mediated the contribution of the interaction of transformational leadership and conservation and partially mediated the contribution of transformational leadership to creativity. We discuss implications of these results for research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)