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The effects of incivility on nursing education



Incivility in the population has become of great interest within the past decade, particularly in the wake of the school massacre in Columbine and the recent movie theatre mass murder in Aurora, Colorado. While citizens struggle to make sense of these violent behaviors, higher education officials are perhaps most vested in exploring the causes, displays, and solutions to uncivil behavior among both faculty and students. The effects of incivility, whether classified as minor disruptions or major violence, may affect the student nurse and impede his or her progress and ability to become an empathic nurse, which is a goal of nursing education. Academic incivility may contribute to bullying in the workplace, which has been identified as a cause of attrition and contributes to the national nursing shortage. This article describes the effects of uncivil behavior on nursing faculty and students and the effect this may have on the nursing workforce.
Open Journal of Nursing, 2013, 3, 178-181 OJN Published Online June 2013 (
The effects of incivility on nursing education
Amy Schaeffer
Shepherd Univeristy, Shepherdstown, USA
Received 31 March 2013; revised 30 April 2013; accepted 15 May 2013
Copyright © 2013 Amy Schaeffer. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Incivility in the population has become of great inter-
est within the past decade, particularly in the wake of
the school massacre in Columbine and the recent mo-
vie theatre mass murder in Aurora, Colorado. While
citizens struggle to make sense of these violent beha-
viors, higher education officials are perhaps most vest-
ed in exploring the causes, displays, and solutions to
uncivil behavior among both faculty and students.
The effects of incivility, whether classified as minor
disruptions or major violence, may affect the student
nurse and impede his or her progress and ability to
become an empathic nurse, which is a goal of nursing
education. Academic incivility may contribute to bul-
lying in the workplace, which has been identified as a
cause of attrition and contributes to the national nurs-
ing shortage. This article describes the effects of un-
civil behavior on nursing faculty and students and the
effect this may have on the nursing workforce.
Keywords: Incivility
The ability to foster an atmosphere of civility on college
campus is often elusive [1]. Clark and Springer describe
“civility” as being polite, respectful and decent. On the
contrary, “uncivil” behavior is identified as speech or
action that is disrespectful or rude and may range from
insulting remarks and verbal abuse to explosive, violent
behavior [1]. In academia, this can be construed as any
behavior which disrupts or impedes the learning envi-
ronment. The causes of this type of behavior have been
attributed to cultural and societal norms, such as increased
traffic, noise, crowding and crime [2]. In a cultural con-
text, many believe that anger is unavoidable, an instinc-
tive drive, and uncontrollable, thus excusing the behavior
when it occurs [2]. According to Thomas, it is common-
place to see inappropriate anger displayed in popular
culture, such as television, music, movies, and video
games, and aggressive role models who seem to have
little or no penalties, even for violent acts much outside
the scope of acceptable, legal behavior. It is with little
surprise that violence seems to be increasing on college
campuses, as well as all aspects of uncivil behavior [2].
Maladaptive anger behavior is a significant problem in
nursing education that not only interferes with student-
faculty relationships, but also is significantly disruptive
to student learning and desire to learn.
Generational divides further compound this problem,
with most Generation X and Y students being described
as “self-absorbed generations of slackers who have a
short attention span and a lack of work ethic” [2]. While
this is certainly a subjective generalization and not true
of all students, it is a phenomenon which contributes to
student and faculty expectations, hostility, anger, and
maladaptive expression of that anger.
Behaviors most commonly cited by faculty in Clark
and Springer’s 2008 survey, which included 324 nursing
students, were “making disparaging groans”, making sar-
castic remarks or gestures, not paying attention in class,
cheating on examinations, using cell phones during class,
and dominating class discussions [3].
According to Clark and Springer, the frequency and
intensity of student incivility has increased to include
verbal abuse such as name calling, yelling at faculty or
other students, and even engaging in physical contact.
Due to the increase in the frequency and severity of these
incidents, it is important to examine how this affects
nursing education and those who provide and partake in
it. Nursing faculty is vulnerable to the effects of student
incivility as well, ranging from rudeness to actual physi-
cal assault and loss of life [4]. Clark and Springer (2007)
list various ways that they encounter incivility, most of
them being non-physically violent but considered uncivil
nonetheless: arriving to class late, leaving class early,
refusing to answer questions, rudely contesting test an-
swers, and being unprepared for class. These factors have
A. Schaeffer / Open Journal of Nursing 3 (2013) 178-181 179
been shown to significantly invoke anxiety, self-doubt,
and anger in nursing faculty [2].
While many factors related to academic incivility have
been cited, including desensitization to violence via me-
dia, inadequate secondary school education, and absent
or inadequate parenting, the faculty has rarely viewed
themselves as a source of conflict [5]. This is of great
interest because according to a study conducted by JM
Hall (2004), nursing faculty themselves may create a
situation that dehumanizes nursing students, leading to
student defensiveness, anxiety, and inability to moderate
angry feelings. Clark’s 2007 study identified factors that
led to student perception of faculty incivility, which in-
cluded behaviors that resulted in three themes: 1) the be-
littling and demeaning nature in which the faculty ad-
dresses students; 2) student favoritism including being
treated subjectively; and 3) the pressure to conform to
faculty demands that are not within the student’s capabil-
ity. According to Clark, students also reported that in-
timidation over time tended to cause actual psychological
and physiological symptoms, including anxiety, depres-
sion, gastro-intestinal distress, mood disorders, and other
physical ailments. Uncivil behavior by nursing faculty is
morally distressing and confusing to students, who are
taught through curriculum that nursing is a profession
that is founded on the principle of caring [5].
Clark’s 2008 study was a qualitative research that que-
ried insight from students on faculty incivility and ap-
plied the concept of Rankism, which she defined as “the
abuse of power and rank to disadvantage another”. Clark
asserts that achieving rank and position within academia
is a legitimate, expected goal of higher education; how-
ever, the abuse of rank by faculty and administrators
cause catastrophic problems that undermine the mission
of nursing schools. Rankism is a prejudicial concept that
can be compared to racism, sexism, and ageism, where a
more powerful group uses their power to an unfair ad-
In the phenomenological Clark study, students who
were subjected to uncivil behaviors by faculty described
their experiences and encounters in various ways, all of
them with emotional intensity, and some of the encoun-
ters had been years before. Clark asserts that some stu-
dents described psychological symptoms that included
feeling hopeless, helpless, or emotionally traumatized.
Information ascertained from the students reveal that
they felt powerless to combat the faculty’s uncivil be-
havior, as they felt they may be penalized for speaking
out against such behaviors [5].
Clark utilized Robert Fuller’s concept of Rankism to
suggest ideas that may promote dignitarian values. The
suggestions for combating the phenomenon of Rankism
include “breaking the taboo”: recognize that rank is an
issue, talk about it openly, and listen to the thoughts and
feelings of others. Fuller also called for a need for trans-
parency, as secrecy, favoritism, and suspicion tend to
accompany Rankism. Fuller advocated for a program or
organization that facilitated questions and protected
those who dissented. In this manner, nursing faculty can
role model behavior that teaches respectful social dissent,
and honor concepts of cultural awareness, tolerance, and
non-discriminatory practice. Clark’s work using Fuller’s
concept on Rankism also suggests that delegation be in-
digenous in every nursing program so as to distribute
power and prevent situations in which one authority of
higher rank holds all the power.
In 2004, Clark studied 36 nursing faculty and 467
nursing students in a survey on the areas of student and
faculty incivility. All participants completed the incivil-
ity in nursing survey, which included demographic data
and utilized quantitative measures as well as qualitative
measures. Instruments were used that were derived from
the University Center for Survey Research. The author-
developed questionnaire was reviewed by faculty for
content validity. The quantitative measure reviewed un-
civil behaviors and the degree to which they were con-
sidered to be uncivil. The survey listen sixteen uncivil
behaviors, in which respondents used a Likert scale to
categorize the degree as to which behaviors were uncivil,
as well as the frequency in which they had experienced
the uncivil behaviors within the past month.
The student behaviors reported to be most uncivil by
both faculty and students was cheating on examinations
and quizzes, using cell phones in class, holding distract-
ing conversations, marking sarcastic or inappropriate re-
marks, sleeping in class, and refusing to answer direct
questions [1].
This study also queried students and faculty on faculty
behaviors that were considered uncivil. Reported by 295
students was the behavior “Belittling, taunting, sarcasm,
humiliation, intimidation or profanity” as the top uncivil
behavior displayed by nursing faculty. 222 students re-
ported “being cold or unapproachable” as an uncivil be-
According to Clark & Springer, faculty and student
perceptions were compared to see if they viewed the
same things as being uncivil by using a row-mean-score
test from epidemiology. The findings were that some
behaviors were viewed differently by staff and faculty.
Interestingly, faculty was less likely than other students
to view student behavior as uncivil. Particular behaviors
about which faculty members and student perceptions
differed included students acting apathetic or bored (p <
0.01), students making disapproving or sarcastic groans
(p < 0.01), and students arriving late to class (p < 0.05).
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
A. Schaeffer / Open Journal of Nursing 3 (2013) 178-181
In this study, the survey was used to determine the de-
gree as to which students and faculty perceived incivility
to be a problem. The majority (61.5%) of respondents,
both faculty and students, considered it to be a moderate
problem. The study concluded that uncivil encounters
have a pervasive negative academic setting and not only
disrupt the learning environment, but also leave students
unprepared to enter a workforce that is fraught with po-
tential for disputes and conflict [1].
Academic dishonesty has been identified by both fac-
ulty and students as “student incivility” [6]. According to
Kolanko, Clark, & Henirch, et al., as many as 70 to 95
percent of students have engaged in intentional practices
of deception that involves another’s work. The finding of
unethical classroom behaviors being related to unethical
clinical behavior is disturbing and incongruent with the
ethical practices in which the profession of nursing is
founded upon [6]. The most frequent unethical clinical
findings included infringement of patient confidentiality,
taking medical equipment home for personal use, and do-
cumentation of medications or treatments that were not
Cultural differences have been cited as causes of per-
ception of incivility as well [6]. The authors propose that
students who have immigrated from developing coun-
tries where “collective thought” is the norm may have
difficulty understanding the concept of plagiarism. The
authors conclude that as faculty encounter these types of
behaviors that are not acceptable in our academic society,
they need to be corrected respectively and in a non-pu-
nitive manner [6].
Although incivility is a problem that seems to be hap-
pening more and more throughout the United States, ac-
cording to Kolanko, Clark, & Heinrich, et al., very little
research exists related to faculty experiences with uncivil
student behaviors. However, the concept of Bullying is a
thoroughly studied phenomenon, and one that occurs in
nursing schools as regularly as any other academic insti-
tution. This may include direct bullying, such as verbal
or physical aggression, or more covert, indirect bullying,
such as passive aggressive behaviors and social isolation
from a group [6]. The results of bullying are widespread
and often long term, including physiological symptoms,
anxiety, nightmares, lowered self-esteem, and use of al-
cohol or drugs to cope. This may contribute to nursing
school attrition rates as well, whether the bullying is be-
ing done by faculty or students; many victims simply
cannot face going back into a bullying situation and
don’t have the resources to combat bullying. The authors
suggest that nursing faculty have frank discussions with
nursing students regarding bullying and policies that en-
force consequences for bullying.
Faculty incivility plays a major role in contributing to
student incivility [6]. Consequences of faculty incivility
were identified as impairment of the mentoring role that
faculty have an obligation to provide, problematic learn-
ing environments, increased potential for violence, and
increased stress in students’ personal relationships with
family and friends [6]. This creates a complex dynamic
in which students find themselves resisting and not learn-
ing, and faculty finds themselves disciplining instead of
mentoring. It is difficult for higher-level learning to take
place when such external and internal stressors exist. In
Clark’s study, students offered suggestions for combat-
ing the problem of faculty incivility, including enforcing
a campus code of conduct, having zero tolerance policies,
and creating an environment where respectful discourse,
dissent and discussion is welcomed [6].
This article addressed the issue of collegial incivility
as well, which the authors believe to play a part in all
other types of academic incivility. While collegial inci-
vilities may be causing faculty to resign and leave their
positions, there is little research to support this theory [6].
During a plenary session, nurse faculty were asked to
recall a time in which a colleague, administrator, or sub-
ordinate did or said something to make the faculty mem-
ber feel belittled, marginalized, or dismissed. Approxi-
mately 25% of the audience (261 faculty members) had
“mean girl” stories to tell, which included things such as
name-calling, relational aggression, or social exclusion.
The authors concluded that while there is a wealth of
information available in the literature on elementary and
secondary education, very little research has been done
on student nurse or student faculty bullying, and this
topic is timely and ripe for further research [6]. Nursing
faculty is a vulnerable population due to the effects of
student incivility [4]. The authors propose that while
nursing faculty is not typically viewed as a vulnerable
population, those who teach are susceptible to psycho-
logical, physical, and emotional harm [4]. The authors
identified student incivility, aggression and bullying,
horizontal violence, and abuse of power by administra-
tors as some of the incivilities that nursing faculty face.
Dal Pezzo and Jett concluded that the emotional toll on
nursing faculty was significant: reported trouble sleeping,
anxiety, low self-esteem, poor morale, absenteeism, and
depression. When conflict or tension among peers be-
comes unbearable, faculty may choose to leave academia,
which is a very serious issue considering the lack of
available nursing faculty in the United States [4].
While academic integrity has been cited as a major
student incivility, it is surprising to realize that discus-
sions about academic integrity are minimal, particularly
given that the profession of nursing is one that is founded
upon the expectations of trust, honesty, respect, integrity,
and responsibility [7]. According to the authors, 253
nursing students were studied for trends in cheating. The
survey was a questionnaire with a yes/no response, as
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
A. Schaeffer / Open Journal of Nursing 3 (2013) 178-181
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
well as open ended questions asking how students cheat
[7]. More than 75 percent of students admitted to cheat-
ing, including using “cheat sheets”, copying from an-
other student’s test answers, writing on body parts, and
whispering answers. This study points to a very serious
problem of lack of personal integrity, while personal in-
tegrity is held as a hallmark of nursing. It would seem a
logical assumption that those who would cheat during
their academic career may continue this behavior into
their working lives [7].
Smith and Schaffer (1995) studied positive and nega-
tive relationships between nursing faculty and students
and how it affected the learning experience. Their meth-
odology included a sample of two groups: 34 second se-
mester senior students and 12 faculties from two nursing
schools in the Midwest. The six problems posed in the
mixed survey included inconsistent grading, late paper
policies, disagreement about amount of clinical supervi-
sion needed, how student complaints were handled, un-
expected low grade in clinical, and students’ “covering
up” for a classmate’s incomplete nursing care [8]. The
survey revealed that the most common problem for stu-
dents was inconsistent grading (70.6%). Students also
reflected twice as many barriers to ethical action (mean =
16) as did faculty (mean = 6.92). This may reflect their
developmental status or is a result of their feeling of de-
creased power [8]. The implications of this study high-
light the need for both students and faculty to be sensi-
tive to identifying and reacting to ethical situations, as
well as to incorporate more of the “caring” aspect of
nursing into the education of the nursing profession. At-
tention must be given to barriers which prevent faculty
and students from addressing these concerns [8].
While incivility is not a new problem in nursing educa-
tion, it is an issue that has not been thoroughly re-
searched [8]. Gaps in the literature still exist, including
the relationship between unethical or uncivil behavior in
the classroom and uncivil behavior in the professional
nursing role once the student has graduated.
Current research to date has established that incivility
in nursing education is a major distraction to higher learn-
ing levels, may contribute to psycho-social problems,
physiological ailments, and is a major cause of both nurs-
ing student and nursing faculty attrition. Nursing student
and faculty attrition is of special concern as there is a
shortage of both registered nurses and nursing faculty in
the United States, and it is projected by experts to grow
larger in the next decade. Further research is needed to
discover ways to combat and prevent incivility in nursing
education, in order to provide our population with the
reputable qualities that the nursing profession holds.
[1] Clark, C.M. and Springer, P.J. (2007). Incivility in nurs-
ing education: A descriptive study on definitions and
prevalence. Journal of nursing education, 47, 7-14.
[2] Thomas, S.P. (2003) Handling anger in the student-tea-
cher relationship. Nursing Education Perspectives, 24, 17-
[3] Clark, C.M. and Springer, P.J. (2007) Thoughts on inci-
vility: Student and faculty perceptions of uncivil behavior
in nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28
[4] Dalpezzo, N. and Jett, K. (2010) Nursing faculty: A vul-
nerable population. Journal of Nursing Education, 49,
132-135. doi:10.3928/01484834-20090915-04
[5] Clark, C.M. (2008) Student perspectives on faculty inci-
vility in nursing education: An application for the concept
of Rankism. Nursing Outlook, 56, 4-8.
[6] Kolanko, K.M., Clark, C., Heinrich, K.T., Olive, D., Se-
rembus, J.F. and Sifford, K.S. (2006) Academic dishon-
esty, bullying, incivility, and violence: Difficult challenges
facing nurse educators. Nursing Education Perspectives,
27, 34-42.
[7] Tippitt, M., Ard, N., Kline, J., Tilghman, J., Chamberlain,
J. and Meagher, P. (2009) Creating environments that
foster academic integrity. Nursing Education Perspec-
tives, 30, 239-244.
[8] Schmitz, K. and Schaffer, M. (1995) Ethical problems en-
countered in the teaching of nursing: Student and faculty
perceptions. Journal of Nursing Education, 34, 42-44.
... According to Schaeffer, the primary goal of nursing education is educating emphatic nurses [15]. However, incivility, either with significant or minor effects on students, hampers their progress and their ability in becoming an emphatic nurse [15,16]. ...
... According to Schaeffer, the primary goal of nursing education is educating emphatic nurses [15]. However, incivility, either with significant or minor effects on students, hampers their progress and their ability in becoming an emphatic nurse [15,16]. In fact, today's students are tomorrow's colleagues. ...
... If the developed strategies aim at reducing incivility, improving the teaching-learning environment, improving postbellum faculty-student relations, and promoting a culture of civility in nursing education, investigating incivility is of paramount importance [11,20]. Moreover, incivility has been construed as the main reason for the attrition of nursing students and nursing faculty [15]. Thus, given the importance of civil behaviors in improving individual, team, and organizational performance, the importance of investigating strategies for improving civil behaviors among nursing students to prepare them to meet the future of their job [21], and given the necessity of conducting more studies to scrutinize students' perception of faculty incivility [22], the present study aimed to determine the importance and prevalence of faculty incivility from nursing students' perspective. ...
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Background: Little evidence exists concerning students' perception of faculty incivility. Given the growing trend of incivility and the stressful nature of these behaviors, the present study aimed to investigate the level and frequency of faculty incivility as perceived by nursing students. Methods: A stratified random sample of 178 students from four nursing faculties of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences participated in the present cross-sectional study. The Incivility in Nursing Education-Revised Survey, consisting of 24 items, was used to investigate the prevalence and frequency of faculty incivility, and the mean and frequency of each item was calculated separately. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics (chi-square, independent t-test and analysis of variance), and the significance level was set at 0.05. Results: Most of the participants were single, did not live in a dormitory, and ranged in age from 19 to 23. From their perspective, disrespect, physical threat, property damage, and physical violence were of paramount importance. 61.8% of them argued that they had "sometimes" and "always" experienced "unfair assessment" during the last year. Creating codes of behavior, enhancing awareness of civility, and developing and implementing policies for managing incivility were proposed as the most important strategies for improving civility. Conclusion: Faculty members should be prepared for establishing friendly and respectful relationships, effective teaching, and applying a reality-based assessment. Identifying different and prevalent kinds of faculty incivility and making faculty members aware of them paves the way for faculty members to rethink their performance.
... This is particularly prevalent in relation to students who are more vulnerable to this type of behaviour, whilst attempting to grow confidence and gain competence, and being relatively powerless in their roles, resulting in many considering leaving the profession early in their careers (Bowllan, 2015). For those that do not leave the profession, the long-term impact of the experience of bullying or other similar behaviors during practical placements can be learnt incivility, thereby impacting the students' capacity to develop empathy and empathetic relationships which are crucial to nursing (Schaeffer, 2013). Some authors indicate that uncivil behaviour is increasing in higher education (Cahyadi et al., 2021; and more specifically in nursing education settings (Authement, 2016;Bowllan, 2015;Clark et al., 2021), further compounding negative experiences of students and exacerbating attrition from the profession. ...
... Academic incivility is disruptive and interferes with the students' learning experience (Clark & Springer, 2010). In particular, anger that is maladaptive remains an issue in nursing academia, interfering with student's relationships with academics as well as having a negative impact on their capacity to learn (Schaeffer, 2013). ...
... Academic incivility by students is a challenging issue in nursing education around Western countries [6,21,22] as well as oriental countries [1,4,23]. Incivility is not just about a particular behavior; it has implications in various contexts, and its impact can be vast and serious. ...
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Background Student academic incivility is a serious problem in nursing education because it negatively influences the learning process, wellbeing of faculty members, and faculty–student relationships. The aim of this study was to explore nursing faculty experiences related to student incivility in nursing education. Methods We used an exploratory qualitative methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 14 nursing faculty members working at 11 nursing universities in South Korea. A qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results The six themes that emerged from the faculty experiences were nursing student indifference to teachers’ expectations; ignoring behavioral standards in school life; differing responses to uncivil student behavior; self-reflection as a nursing educator; negative impact on faculty in a nursing education context; and awareness of civility in a nursing education context. Conclusion Dealing with student academic incivility in nursing education is one of the most challenging tasks for faculty members, and it should be managed to provide a comfortable learning environment. The present study delineated the uncivil behavior experienced by the faculty and their negative effects in the educational context and suggested alternatives to manage student incivility and foster a positive educational environment through the eyes of the faculty. The findings of this study suggest an evidence-based direction for fostering a culture of civility in nursing schools.
... Academic incivility is also associated with maltreatment or intimidation in a work environment because today's undergraduate nurses become future registered nurses and nurse educators. Furthermore, nursing students and new graduate nurses' attrition which are connected to dearth of nursing workforce are equally linked with incivility (Schaeffer, 2013). ...
Background In nursing programs, incivility can be a main issue affecting future registered nurses, and this may threaten patient safety. Nursing faculty play an important role in this scenario to reduce incivility. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess incivility among nursing faculty in different countries. Method This descriptive (cross-sectional) study was conducted to assess the extent of incivility among nursing faculty by using Incivility in Nursing Education-Revised tool and a non-probability (convenience) sampling method was used. Three hundred ninety-five nursing faculty in 10 countries distributed in four continents participated in this study. Results The results indicated that levels of incivility among participants in different countries were significantly different. Also, there was a significant difference (F = 9.313, P value = 0.000) among the nursing faculty concerning the behaviours that have been rated as disruptive. Furthermore, there was a significant difference (F = 6.392, P value = 0.000) among participants regarding uncivil behaviours that have occurred during the past 12 months. Conclusion Regular assessments are needed to highlight uncivil behaviours and reduce them by making policies and rules in order to enhance academic achievement in nursing education.
... However, greater than 60 percent of the nursing schools specified that the shortage of faculty was the reason qualified applicants were not accepted into entry-level baccalaureate nursing programs. These shortages are predicted to only grow larger in the next decade [19]. ...
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Background: Self-leadership has emerged as a leadership style that could be used to achieve successful performance for individuals and organisations, including higher education institutions. It is, however, not known how nurse educators perceive their self-leadership practices. Objective: To describe the self-leadership practices of nurse educators at nursing education institutions. Methods: This article reports the quantitative phase of a broader exploratory, descriptive, sequential mixed-method design study conducted with conveniently selected nurse educators (n=265) in two provinces in South Africa. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Constructs found to be valid for self-leadership practices were autonomy-supportive environment, continuing professional development, role modelling, and shared leadership. Respondents perceived themselves to be engaged in self-leadership practices. The Cronbach alpha coefficient indicated the internal consistency of the constructs. Conclusion: Educational institutions should create environments that support autonomy and role modelling to facilitate the engagement of nurse educators in self-leadership practices.
Background Incivility in nursing education can negatively affect the academic achievement. As there is no tool in Arabic to assess incivility among nursing students, there is a need for a valid and reliable tool. Purpose This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the Incivility in Nursing Education- Revised (INE-R) survey. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in four universities in Iraq using a convenience sampling strategy. A translated Arabic version of the INE-R was used to assess its validity and reliability. Results Three hundred eighty-nine surveys were included in the analysis. The contrast validity was confirmed by using Exploratory Factor Analysis. The internal consistency was tested using Cronbach’s alpha, which showed the result of 0.87. Conclusion The Arabic version of the Incivility in Nursing Education- Revised is a valid and reliable scale. This scale can be used in Arab countries to assess incivility in nursing education.
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Introduction: Undesirable behaviors are one of the challenges faced by nursing instructors and the coping strategies are also of great importance. The present study was conducted with the aim of investigating the frequency of nursing students’ undesirable behaviors and confrontation strategies in the view of instructors. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2017-2018. The study population consisted of all instructors at the Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, who entered the study census. To collect data, a demographic questionnaire and an undesirable behaviors questionnaire in the classroom including Undesirable behaviors and undesirable behaviors' management strategies were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics using SPSS ver 16 software by descriptive statically tests (Distribution, mean and standard deviation). Results: Physical attack(66%), offensive comments(52%), and sending messages with bad content to instructors(46%) were considered serious. Undesirable behaviors such as using a cellphone(34%), sigh/yawning(18%) and sending short messages, mobile phone rings, out-of-the-clock conversations, and inappropriate clothing(12%) had the highest incidence. The most common strategies used by instructors to manage with students' undesirable behaviors include student-specific conversations(28%), waivers(16%), addressing the whole class(12%), and student displacement(12%). Conclusion: Based on undesirable behaviors specified by instructors, legislating about using cell phone, class timing and uniforms of students in the first session can be helpful. Also, considering the undesirable behaviors and identified strategies, conducting classroom and thought management courses is recommended for familiarization with other strategies for managing undesirable behaviors in specific situations.
Background: Incivility toward nursing students in the clinical setting has been reported. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there was a difference between English as second language (ESL) and non-ESL nursing students’ perceptions of staff nurse incivility. Method: The Uncivil Clinical Behavior in Nursing Education Tool and the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism/Collectivism Scale were used to collect data. A final sample of 975 surveys was analyzed. Results: Exclusionary behaviors, total incivility, and vertical collectivism were significantly different between ESL and non-ESL students. However, the effect size of the finding was small. Time in the program, age, and gender were significant predictors of incivility. Conclusion: Although ESL status did not influence exclusionary behaviors, vertical collectivism, or student perceptions of staff nurse incivility, it may be predicted by time in the program, age, and gender.
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This article follows the sequence of the panel presentation, which began with a comprehensive review of the literature on academic dishonesty, followed by a discussion of low-and high-tech forms of cheating used by students. We addressed the need to process social information correctly and develop positive and acceptable social skills needed for professional development, and we discussed bullying, issues of incivility among faculty members, and the troublesome practice known as "mean girl games." Our names are presented alongside our contributions, but all of us answered questions and participated in the lively discussion that took place at the Summit.
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Evidence suggests that incivility on American college campuses, ranging from insulting remarks and verbal abuse to violence, is a serious and growing concern. Faculty and students are often unsure how to address these behaviors. Therefore, 32 (88.9%) nursing faculty and 324 (69.4%) nursing students at one university completed a survey to gather their perceptions of student and faculty behaviors that may be considered uncivil. Student behaviors most frequently reported as uncivil by faculty included making disapproving groans, making sarcastic remarks or gestures, not paying attention in class, dominating class discussions, using cell phones during class, and cheating on examinations. The majority of faculty reported that uncivil student behaviors occurred rarely or sometimes. Examples of faculty behaviors considered uncivil by students included canceling class without warning, being unprepared for class, not allowing open discussion, being disinterested or cold, belittling or taunting students, delivering fast-paced lectures, and not being available outside of class. Students perceived incivility as a moderate problem in the nursing academic environment. It is imperative that nurse educators help students and faculty cope effectively with these behaviors; the authors discuss strategies to do so.
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Faculty members complain about the rise of uncivil behavior in their students, and students voice similar complaints about faculty. Using an interpretive qualitative method for research, this study examined student and faculty perceptions of incivility in nursing education, possible causes of incivility, and potential remedies. Narrative analysis yielded the following categories: in-class disruption by students, out-of-class disruption by students, uncivil faculty behaviors, and possible causes of incivility in nursing education. The authors argue that further research is needed to increase awareness and understanding about academic incivility, its impact, and its psychological and social consequences.
Nursing faculty are seldom viewed as a vulnerable population, yet those who teach nursing are susceptible to physical, psychological, and emotional harm from students, peers, and administrators. Such harm can arise from uncivil or dangerous encounters with students, horizontal violence from colleagues, and abuse of power by administrators. Although faculty vulnerability is a serious issue, strategies exist that can minimize the problem.
A number of studies related to academic dishonesty within the nursing student population have been published; however, little has been written in the nursing literature regarding academic integrity and means of promoting this value. In addition to the many short-term solutions to prevent cheating and dissuade academic misconduct that are offered, solutions that promote long-term affective changes underlying the acquisition of academic integrity are needed. This article provides a context for discussions related to academic integrity, explores issues facing faculty when dealing with this challenge, and offers short-term and long-term strategies for creating environments that foster academic integrity.
Educators across the nation are voicing concern about increases in student incivility, anger, and violence. This article explores causes, manifestations, and consequences of nursing students' anger. Recommendations are offered to faculty for dealing with angry and potentially violent students.
Incivility in nursing education is an emergent problem and one that seriously disrupts the teaching-learning environment and often results in conflicted and stressful student/faculty relationships. Nursing faculty who demonstrate positive, respectful behaviors, encourage similar behaviors from their students. Conversely, faculty who are aloof, disinterested, and demeaning may invoke hostility. The author conducted a phenomenological study to examine nursing students' perceptions of faculty incivility and its impact on the students. Students identified 3 main themes of faculty incivility: (1) faculty behaving in demeaning and belittling ways, (2) treating students unfairly and subjectively, and (3) pressuring students to conform to unreasonable faculty demands. In all cases, students felt powerlessness to address the problem and described faculty arrogance and abuse of power (rankism) as primary contributors to the problem. This article describes nursing students' perceptions of faculty incivility and interprets them in the context of Fuller's concept of rankism. Understanding how rankism impacts nursing education may provide insight into developing preventative strategies to produce a healthier teaching-learning environment and to improve relationships between students and faculty.