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Perceived prosocial impact, perceived situational constraints, and proactive work behavior: Looking at two distinct affective pathways

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Abstract

This paper examines the role of affect as a linking mechanism between experiences at work (perceived prosocial impact and situational constraints) and two distinct components of proactive work behavior (issue identification and implementation). Based on a dual-tuning perspective, we argue that both positive affect and negative affect can be beneficial for proactive work behavior. Multi-level path analysis using daily-survey data from 153 employees showed that perceived prosocial impact predicted positive affect and that situational constraints as a typical hindrance stressor predicted negative affect. Negative affect, in turn, predicted issue identification, and positive affect predicted implementation. Overall, our study suggests that both positive and negative affects can be valuable in the organizational context by contributing to distinct components of proactive behavior. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Furthermore, studies have revealed a positive relation between an energizing affective-motivational state of mind (Schaufeli et al., 2002) and proactivity (e.g., Salanova and Schaufeli, 2008;Schmitt et al., 2016). Similarly, other research has found that positive affect is positively related to proactive behavior (Fay and Sonnentag, 2012), including day-level taking charge behavior (Fritz and Sonnentag, 2009), task proactivity (Bindl et al., 2012), and issue implementation (Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015). Based on these indications, in the present research, we therefore hypothesized that: ...
... Empirical support for our assumption that employees high in PFI are likely to refrain from showing proactive behavior even when they feel energized to do so stems from a qualitative study conducted by Bindl (2019). While positive and negative discrete emotions can motivate proactivity Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015), Bindl (2019) found that fear is a key discrete emotion that can thwart the implementation of a proactive behavior by someone initially motivated so to perform. For example, employees may not proactively implement a change because of their anxiety about the reaction, such as disapproval, this could evoke from others (Bindl, 2019). ...
... Third, by considering a moderating variable, our findings extend research on the link between positive affect and workrelated proactivity (Fritz and Sonnentag, 2009;Bindl et al., 2012;Fay and Sonnentag, 2012;Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015;Binyamin and Brender-Ilan, 2018). In the only previous study examining a moderator in the link between work-related vitality and proactivity, Schmitt et al. (2017) showed that the positive relation between vitality, measured in the morning, and end-of-day voice behavior was stronger among employees who reported being confident about succeeding in their job tasks. ...
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Proactive behavior has emerged as a key component in contemporary views of individual work performance. Hence, a central question in the literature is how to enhance employees' proactive behavior. We investigated whether the more that employees experience a sense of vitality (i.e., energizing positive affect), the more likely they are to show proactive behavior at work, and whether this applies only to employees with a low personal fear of invalidity [(PFI) i.e., the inclination to be apprehensive about the risks/negative consequences of making errors]. Experimental (N = 354) and cross-sectional field (N = 85) studies provided consistent evidence for a positive relation between employees' sense of vitality at work and their self-rated proactivity. The predicted moderation effect was observed only for manager-rated proactivity. We conclude that feeling energized in the workplace is not necessarily associated with observable proactive behavior. It is only when employees experiencing a sense of vitality at work are not prone to fearing the risks/negative consequences of making errors that they are more likely to show observable proactive behavior in an organization.
... Proactive work behavior is a process (e.g. Bindl et al., 2012;Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015) whereby individuals recognize potential problems or opportunities in their work environment and self-initiate change to bring about a better future work situation (Parker and Collins, 2010: 636). Proactive work behavior has generally been conceptualized as a relatively autonomous set of actions performed by individuals and is promoted by individual or job characteristics (e.g. ...
... First, in proactive goal generation, under one's own volition, one creates a goal to bring about a new and different future by changing the self and/or the environment. Second, proactive goal-striving involves the behavioral and psychological mechanisms by which individuals seek to accomplish proactive goals and reflect on their outcomes (see also Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015, who similarly distinguish between issue identification and issue implementation). ...
... Problem recognition and ownership. Similar to anticipation (Grant and Ashford, 2008), issue identification (Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015) and envisioning of a better future (Bindl et al., 2012;, employees at BigPower identified problems that had implications for ongoing work processes and decided to take action to address them (depicted on the left side of Figure 1). Importantly, these problems were not one-off incidents but rather long-standing, perpetuated patterns that represented concerns to work processes in general. ...
Article
Proactive work behaviors are self-initiated, future-focused actions aimed at bringing about changes to work processes in organizations. Such behaviors occur within the social context of work. The extant literature that has focused on the role of social context for proactivity has focused on social context as an overall input or output of proactivity. However, in this paper we argue that the process of engaging in proactive work behavior (proactive goal striving) may also be a function of the social context it occurs in. Based on qualitative data from 39 call center employees in an energy-supply company, we find that in a context characterized by standardized work procedures, proactive goal striving can occur through a proactivity routine- a socially constructed and accepted pattern of action by which employees initiate and achieve changes to work processes, with the support of managers and colleagues. Our findings point to the need to view proactive work behaviors at a higher level of analysis than the individual in order to identify shared routines for engaging in proactivity, as well as how multiple actors coordinate their efforts in the process of achieving individually-generated proactive goals.
... Moreover, although a large body of research has established that positive affect, that is, pleasant feelings at work, are important for work-related proactivity (Bindl et al., 2012;Den Hartog and Belschak, 2007;Fay and Sonnentag, 2012;Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015), evidence on the role of negative feelings for proactivity remains mixed. Existing research suggests the role of negative affect may vary greatly from positive or negative, to nonsignificant, associations with work-related proactivity (e.g., Den Hartog and Belschak, 2007); or it may be relevant for some parts of the process of engaging in proactivity but not for others (Bindl et al., 2012;Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015). ...
... Moreover, although a large body of research has established that positive affect, that is, pleasant feelings at work, are important for work-related proactivity (Bindl et al., 2012;Den Hartog and Belschak, 2007;Fay and Sonnentag, 2012;Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015), evidence on the role of negative feelings for proactivity remains mixed. Existing research suggests the role of negative affect may vary greatly from positive or negative, to nonsignificant, associations with work-related proactivity (e.g., Den Hartog and Belschak, 2007); or it may be relevant for some parts of the process of engaging in proactivity but not for others (Bindl et al., 2012;Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015). Research is now needed that provides an in-depth investigation of how and why affect, including negative affect, is important in the process of engaging in proactivity, to develop more differentiated theory on the role of affect for proactivity. ...
... Affect refers to "consciously accessible feelings" (Fredrickson, 2001: 218). Research suggests employees who experience positive affect, such as feeling excited, enthused, and inspired, at work are more likely to engage in work-related proactivity (Bindl et al., 2012;Den Hartog and Belschak, 2007;Fay and Sonnentag, 2012;Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015). ...
Article
Organizations benefit from proactive employees who initiate improvements at work. Although evidence suggests happy employees are more likely to become proactive, the emotional journeys employees take during the process of making things happen, and their implications for future proactivity at work, remain unclear. To develop an understanding of patterns of emotions in the process of proactivity, I conducted a qualitative study based on 92 proactivity episodes by employees and their managers in the service center of a multinational organization. Findings, through the lens of narrative, indicate emotional journeys in proactivity took different forms. First, a proactivity-as-frustration narrative captured individuals’ emotional patterns of proactivity as a consistently unpleasant action when initiated and seen through. Second, a proactivity-as-threat narrative captured instances of proactivity that derailed at the onset, due to feelings of fear. Third, a proactivity-as-growth narrative, although initially characterized by negative emotions, gave way to feelings such as excitement, joy, and pride in the process, as well as to sustained motivation to engage in proactivity. Overall, findings of this research show that as employees embark in showing initiative in their organization, they are set on different emotional paths that, in turn, likely impact their future willingness to become proactive at work.
... It further suggests spiral effects of teachers' emotion regulation strategies on their emotions, as well as on their burnout and job satisfaction. The research includes a daily diary survey, which enables the exploration of daily dynamics of emotions and their regulation strategies, while assessing time precedence of their daily changes, and is thus often used to infer causal effects of one variable on the other (e.g., Author et al., 2014;Author et al., 2016;Author et al., 2013;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015;West & Hepworth, 1991). To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first quantitative, integrative study of the daily dynamics of teachers' emotions, emotion regulation strategies (including surface acting and deep acting), and teachers' burnout. ...
... Specifically, this method enables evaluating the effect of daily fluctuations in the independent variable on daily changes in the dependent variable. Such effect may imply that changes in the dependent variable are a result, at least to some extent, of the changes in the independent variable (Author et al., 2016;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015;West & Hepworth, 1991). In the present study, we chose to use this method in order to examine the causal effects of daily positive and negative emotional experiences on teachers' daily use of deep and surface acting during the workday, and vice versa, in order to examine the study hypotheses. ...
... The research hypotheses pertaining to daily effects were examined using two-level HLM analyses. This kind of analysis is considered appropriate for diary studies because it takes into account the joint variance of different responses of the same participant (e.g., Author et al., 2016;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). In the present study, the daily responses were nested within participants, so that level 1 represented the day level and level 2 represented the participant level. ...
Article
Based on the "broaden and build" theory of positive emotions, we explored daily dynamics of teachers’ emotions and their regulation, expecting positive emotions to promote teachers' use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies, and trigger upward spirals leading to further use of these strategies and increased teacher well-being. Negative emotions were expected to have opposite effects. Sixty-two teachers completed daily measures of emotions, emotion regulation, burnout, and job satisfaction during 10 workdays. Results supported direct and cyclic effects of surface acting, indicated positive effects of deep acting, and suggested that emotion regulation strategies underlie effects of emotions on satisfaction and burnout.
... Perceived prosocial impact refers to the experience of benefiting others (Grant, 2007(Grant, , 2008, for instance by helping a coworker. Perceived prosocial impact at work is a positive affective experience as it relates to positive affect during the workday (Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015) and to a positive view on one's work during evening hours (Sonnentag & Grant, 2012). ...
... We assessed momentary activated negative and positive affect at bedtime as well as in the next morning, using items from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988). We focused on activated affect (instead of deactivated affect), because the work experiences to which work-related conversations most strongly should refer to (i.e., social conflicts, perceived prosocial impact) were found be linked to activated negative affect (Ilies, Johnson, et al., 2011) and activated positive affect (Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015), respectively. ...
... To limit participant burden, we followed earlier studies (e.g., Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015) and measured affect with a reduced set of items. Specifically, we assessed negative affect with five items ("distressed", "upset", "nervous", "jittery", "afraid") and positive affect with six items ("active", "interested", "excited", "strong", "inspired", "alert"). ...
Article
Talking about work during leisure time is an important part of employees’ daily life and represents a behavioural pathway connecting work and home. However, past research has not paid much attention to this phenomenon of sharing work experiences during after-work hours, its possible antecedents and consequences. In the present study, we examine how interpersonal work experiences (i.e. social conflicts and perceived prosocial impact) are associated with work-related conversations during after-work hours, and how work-related conversations, in turn, are associated with affect at bedtime and in the next morning. A daily diary study with three measurement occasions per day over five consecutive workdays (N = 144 employees) showed that negative work-related conversations during after-work hours were directly related to negative affect at bedtime and indirectly related to negative affect in the next morning. Positive work-related conversations were directly related to positive affect in the next morning. Moreover, perceived prosocial impact and positive work-related conversations during after work hours were negatively related to negative affect at bedtime. Our results suggest that employees actively shape their work-home boundaries by talking about work during after-work hours which show both beneficial and harmful associations with subsequent affective states.
... Because motivedriven affect regulation emphasizes employees' agency at work, we expect motivated affect regulation to shape this active type of performance. Moreover, a considerable body of research has identified the importance of positive affect in driving proactivity (Bindl et al., 2012;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). Therefore, we expect motivated affect regulation to also be important in driving employees to take charge at work. ...
... Theoretically speaking, positive mood helps create the energy resources needed to generate better ideas for change, foster perseverance, and sustain the pursuit of proactive action (Clore, 1994;Ilies & Judge, 2005). In line with our arguments, past studies indicate that positive affect, such as feelings of enthusiasm, predicts greater proactivity at work (Bindl et al., 2012;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). ...
... Additionally, achievement-oriented motives at work have been linked to higher effort and, in turn, to a range of positive performance-related outcomes in the workplace (Lang et al., 2012). Particularly, task-related affect regulation should positively predict individuals' perceived affect-regulation success-and, in turn, performance-related outcomes (overall job performance and taking charge)-because of the functional role of positive (rather than negative) affect (Frijda, 1988;Levenson, 1999) in driving efforts to increase overall job performance (Barsade & Gibson, 2007;Brief & Weiss, 2002) as well as taking charge at work (Bindl et al., 2012;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). Thus, we hypothesize the following: ...
Article
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Affect regulation matters in organizations, but research has predominantly focused on how employees regulate their feelings. Here, we investigate the motives for why employees regulate their feelings. We assess employees’ engagement in affect regulation based on distinct motives and investigate their implications for performance‐related outcomes. We develop a framework and measure for distinct types of motivated affect regulation at work, comprising hedonic affect regulation (motive to feel better), task‐related affect regulation (motive to reach an achievement‐related goal), and social affect regulation (motive to get along with others). Study 1 (N = 621 employees) indicated each type of motivated affect regulation was distinct from the others. In Study 2 (N = 80 employees; n = 821 observations), in line with our theorizing, hedonic and task‐related affect regulation were both positively associated with performance‐related outcomes via perceived affect‐regulation success. In addition, the link between task‐related affect regulation and perceived affect‐regulation success was strongest for those individuals who habitually engage in deep acting. By contrast, social affect regulation did not predict perceived affect‐regulation success or performance‐related outcomes. Understanding why employees choose to manage their feelings advances insights on individual motives in employee behavior and provides new avenues for improving performance outcomes in organizations.
... This idea is empirically supported by longitudinal studies which show that job stressors and situational constraints at work increase proactivity [13,14]. On the other hand, studies suggest that more general negative affect states (not linked to a specific goal) only relate to thinking about proactivity, not to implementing proactive behavior [9,10,15]. There thus seems to be a difference between quite specific, goal directed affective triggers and more general, core negative affect. ...
... Proactivity scholars thus call for experimental research [22]. Second, the reversed link (does proactivity change affect?) has hardly been examined, but see [15] for an exception). Finally, most studies use self-rated proactivity measures to investigate the relationship between affect and proactive behavior. ...
... Like proactivity's link with positive affect, the proposed and studied relationships between negative affect and proactivity to date are also primarily based on target-and task specific negative emotions. Negative affect regarding stressors at work is assumed to influence proactivity because such feelings activate people to change the status quo [10,13,14,15]. When people are frustrated about constraints, for example, an inefficient filing system at their work, they can proactively prevent the future reoccurrence of this frustration by inventing a new system. ...
Article
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Proactive people take initiative when others do not and persist in improving their environment or themselves. Although scholars assume that how we feel influences how proactive we are, there is no experimental research yet to support this. This experiment therefore tests whether positive and negative affect influence proactive behavior and additionally investigates whether engaging in proactivity also has affective consequences. While current theory proposes that positive affect enhances proactive behavior by stimulating broad-flexible thinking, we argue that negative affect should make people proactive through stimulating systematic-persistent thinking. Furthermore, we propose that proactive behavior increases subsequent positive affect rather than positive affect increasing proactive behavior. Last, we hypothesize that affective causes and consequences of proactive behavior are different for people who are rarely proactive (trait-passive-reactive individuals) and people who are often proactive (trait-proactive individuals). We pre-tested 180 participants on trait-proactivity. In the lab, we manipulated affect (negative/positive/neutral), measured proactive behavior in a team interaction task, and repeatedly measured participants' affective experiences and physiological activation. Results showed that the link between affect and proactive behavior differed depending on participants' trait-proactivity. First, positive affect made trait-proactive individuals less proactive, whereas negative affect made passive-reactive individuals more proactive. Second, passive-reactive individuals reported decreased negative affect after engaging in proactivity, whereas proactive individuals reported increased positive affect. These results suggest that proactive behavior can serve an affect regulation purpose, which is different for trait proactive individuals (up regulating positive affect) than for trait passive-reactive individuals (down regulating negative affect). These results are limited to core affect (feeling pleasant or unpleasant) and do not apply to specific emotions (feeling proud or anxious), and they are limited to short term and successful proactive behavior and do not apply to more long term, or unsuccessful proactive behavior.
... As the results speak against work overload as a mediator between daily proactivity and bedtime fatigue, what, then, is the underlying mechanism? Theories on proactivity have argued that it is a non-routine behavior that requires, to some extent, the setting of a goal, planning, monitoring of behavior, and feedback seeking (Frese & Fay, 2001); an assumption that is well confirmed (Bindl, Parker, Totterdell, & Hagger-Johnson, 2012;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). In particular, the non-routine nature of proactivity entails a cognitive demand that may produce the tiring effect of proactivity. ...
... In particular, the non-routine nature of proactivity entails a cognitive demand that may produce the tiring effect of proactivity. Employing fine-grained measures that permit capturing the action process constituting proactivity will help to shed more light on the processes proposed (Bindl et al., 2012;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). ...
Article
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The benefit of proactive work behaviors for performance-related outcomes has been well established. However, this approach to studying proactivity has not yet acknowledged its potential implications for the actor’s well-being. Drawing on the fact that resources at work are limited and that the workplace is a social system characterized by interdependencies, we proposed that daily proactivity could have a negative effect on daily well-being. We furthermore proposed that this effect should be mediated by work overload and negative affect. We conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) to test the potential negative effects of proactivity on daily well-being. Data was collected across 3 consecutive work days. During several daily measurement occasions, participants reported proactivity, work overload, negative affect, and fatigue. They also provided 4 saliva samples per day, from which cortisol was assayed. Based on the 4 samples, a measure of daily cortisol output was produced. Multilevel analyses showed that daily proactivity was positively associated with higher daily cortisol output. The positive association of daily proactivity with bedtime fatigue was marginally significant. There was no support for a mediating effect of work overload and negative affect. Implications for theory-building on the proactivity–well-being link are discussed.
... While narrowed thought-action repertoires' common to high-activation negative moods contain some creative benefits, they mainly are limited to the incubation stages of creative tasks Nijstad, De Dreu, Rietzschel, & Baas, 2010) such as issue identification (Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). Reduced creative fluency and flexibility limits an individual's range of novel solutions for the generation, exploration, championing, and implementation of innovative ideas (De Jong & Den Hartog, 2010;Janssen, 2000;Scott & Bruce, 1994). ...
... High-activation negative moods might have a positive effect on innovative behavior since they drive action (Russell, 2003). This may be particularly beneficial for the initiation of innovative behavior (Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015) and for tasks that require convergent processes (i.e., idea evaluation: Bledow et al., 2009). Notwithstanding, we did not discover any evidence to indicate that high-activation negative moods played a dynamic role in influencing innovative behavior when applying an affective-shift model (Bledow, Schmitt, Frese, & Kühnel, 2011). ...
Article
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This study investigates the antecedents of an entrepreneur’s day-level innovative behavior. Drawing on 2,420 data points from a 10-day experience sampling study with 121 entrepreneurs, we find that sleep quality is a precursor to an entrepreneur’s subsequent innovative behavior, in accordance with the effort-recovery model. Moreover, sleep quality is positively related to high-activation positive moods (e.g., enthusiastic, inspired) and negatively related to high-activation negative moods (e.g., tension, anxiety). Our multilevel structural equation model indicates that high-activation positive moods mediate the relationship between sleep quality and innovative behavior on a given day. These results are relevant for managing entrepreneurial performance.
... With the increasingly complex and uncertain nature of the contemporary workplace, employees' Proactive Work Behaviors (PWBs) have played significant roles in business success (Sonnentag and Starzyk 2015). For example, scholars have found the positive effects of PWBs on both individual-(e.g., sense of competence, career success, and positive affect) (Cha et al. 2017;Sonnentag and Starzyk 2015;Wu et al. 2018) and organizational-level outcomes (e.g., job performance and organizational effectiveness) (Mallin et al. 2014;Raub and Liao 2012). ...
... With the increasingly complex and uncertain nature of the contemporary workplace, employees' Proactive Work Behaviors (PWBs) have played significant roles in business success (Sonnentag and Starzyk 2015). For example, scholars have found the positive effects of PWBs on both individual-(e.g., sense of competence, career success, and positive affect) (Cha et al. 2017;Sonnentag and Starzyk 2015;Wu et al. 2018) and organizational-level outcomes (e.g., job performance and organizational effectiveness) (Mallin et al. 2014;Raub and Liao 2012). Therefore, a great deal of empirical research has been conducted to identify predictors of PWBs. ...
Article
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This study examined the relationship between work ethic and proactive work behaviors by focusing on the moderating roles of education and party affiliation. The theoretical model was tested using data collected from employees in China. Analyses of 746 usable questionnaires collected at two phrases were used to empirically test the relationship between the work ethic and proactive work behaviors. The relationship between work ethic and proactive work behaviors was more pronounced for those with lower education. It was also founded that the work ethic had a significantly stronger positive influence on proactive work behaviors among non-Party members than among the Chinese Communist Party members. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of this study, future research directions and limitations at the end of this article.
... In fact, little is known about the exact time frames in which stressors' effects unfold (e.g., Frese & Zapf, 1988). Although daily diary studies have largely enriched our knowledge on antecedents of PWBs (e.g., Ohly & Fritz, 2010;Prem et al., 2018;Sonnentag, 2003;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015), it has been discussed that their time frame might be too short to detect the effects of some stressors on PWB (Fritz & Sonnentag, 2009). For this reason, we seek to extend the time frames previously investigated and study fluctuations of time pressure and PWB at the week-level over a period of three consecutive work weeks. ...
... fficient levels of within-person variance across weeks to investigate their fluctuation over time (see Table 1). These figures correspond to the proportions of within-person variability reported in daily diary studies that used the same measures for time pressure (e.g., Ohly & Fritz, 2010, 1-ICC = .36) and PWB (Fritz & Sonnentag, 2009, 1-ICC = .28;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015, average 1-ICC = .48). Thus, we modelled time pressure and PWB as Level 1 (within-person) variables. At Level 2 (between-person), we controlled for age, gender, tenure, and holding a supervisory position. In line with recommendations for centring (Enders & Tofighi, 2007), predictors at Level 1 were person-mean centred to separate within ...
Article
Recent research on proactive work behaviours (PWBs) pointed out that these behaviours can have negative consequences for the proactive individual. We add to this perspective by showing that PWBs may be a source of strain at work and result in elevated time pressure. Challenging the view of time pressure as a challenge stressor, we hypothesize that over the course of work weeks, time pressure will result in less (rather than more) PWB. We investigate these reciprocal effects as within‐person, week‐level fluctuations of time pressure and PWB based on experience sampling data (N = 52 participants, k = 274 observations). Over the course of three consecutive work weeks, results show a positive lagged effect of PWB in the first week on experiencing time pressure in the second week; in turn, time pressure in the second week had a negative lagged effect on PWB in the third week. Results further suggest that PWB is lowest in work weeks of low time pressure when following a week of high time pressure, indicating a conservation of resources interpretation of the results. Practitioner points • Above and beyond the many positive effects of employees’ proactive work behaviour (PWB), organizations need to be aware that these behaviours can have costs for employees, for example, in increasing their experience of time pressure. • Over consecutive work weeks, time pressure seems to impede rather than facilitate employees’ PWBs. • When work weeks characterized by high time pressure were followed by work weeks of low time pressure, employees used the latter to ‘recharge their batteries’ instead of engaging in more PWB.
... According to the emotionfocused coping process (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984), employees with positive emotions would be more willing to increase their efforts to fulfill task performances or engagement in helping behaviors. Indeed, numerous studies in previous research support the argument that people who experienced positive emotions were inclined to be more actively engaged in improving their task performance (e.g., Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015) or contextual performance (e.g., Rodell and Judge, 2009). Specifically, Sonnentag and Starzyk (2015) argued that the positive emotional states triggered by challenge stressors would stimulate employees' behaviors of implementation, which was viewed as a positive predictor of task performance. ...
... Indeed, numerous studies in previous research support the argument that people who experienced positive emotions were inclined to be more actively engaged in improving their task performance (e.g., Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015) or contextual performance (e.g., Rodell and Judge, 2009). Specifically, Sonnentag and Starzyk (2015) argued that the positive emotional states triggered by challenge stressors would stimulate employees' behaviors of implementation, which was viewed as a positive predictor of task performance. In addition, Rodell and Judge (2009) posit that employees who experienced positive emotions were more likely to help others at work and behave in more collaborative ways toward organizational goals and developments, which is labeled as contextual performance. ...
Article
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By combining the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions ( Fredrickson, 2001 ) and the transactional theory of stress ( Lazarus and Folkman, 1984 ), this study examines how challenge demands (i.e., task complexity and time pressure) have dual effects on employees’ job performance through the mediating effects of positive and negative emotions. We collected data from 414 employees from three firms located in China, including two hi-tech firms and one financial firm. The results indicated that challenge demands (i.e., task complexity and time pressure) have an overall positive effect on employees’ job performance (i.e., task performance and contextual performance) by offsetting positive indirect effects with negative indirect effects. The theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.
... Previous research in the working context found favourable effects of perceived prosocial impact on positive affect (Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015;Sonnentag and Grant, 2012). Positive affect is defined as a state characterised by being "enthusiastic, active, and alert" (Watson et al., 1988(Watson et al., , p. 1063. ...
... As prior empirical evidence revealed considerable within-person variability considering the processes relevant to our assumptions (Kronenwett and Rigotti, 2020;Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015), and due to our interest in inter-and intra-individual processes, we specify our hypotheses at both the within-and the between-person levels. More precisely, we assume that on days on which leaders have shown more LMX behaviours, they report an enhanced perception of their competence and higher positive affect at the end of the workday (withinperson level). ...
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Purpose Drawing from the conservation of resources theory and the success resource model of job stress, the authors investigated the role of leader behaviours in the context of leader-member exchanges (LMXs) as a driver of leaders' job-related well-being and recovery. Specifically, they hypothesised positive affect and perceived competence as potential mechanisms enhancing leaders' job satisfaction and psychological detachment. Design/methodology/approach Daily diary data were collected from 85 leaders over five consecutive working days (376 daily observations) and analysed using multilevel path analyses. Findings Leader LMX behaviours were positively associated with leaders' positive affect and perceived competence at work at the person and day levels. Additionally, results provided support for most of the assumed indirect effects of leader LMX behaviours on leaders' job satisfaction and psychological detachment via positive affect and perceived competence. Practical implications Leadership development activities should raise leaders' awareness of the relevance of resourceful interactions with followers for leaders' own well-being. Organisations should create a working environment that facilitates high-quality exchanges amongst their members. The current trend towards increasing digital and less face-to-face collaboration may pose a risk to this important resource source for leaders. Originality/value These findings emphasise the day-to-day variation in leadership behaviours and that leaders' engagement in high-quality leader-follower interactions has the potential to stimulate a resource-building process for the benefit of leaders themselves.
... These findings appear to be robust; for example, Bindl et al (2012) found that highly activated and positive mood was positively associated with several aspects of the proactivity process -including envisioning, planning, executing, and reflecting on proactive behaviour. Other notable studies have found that feelings of state positive affect increased the time spent on proactive tasks at work (Fay and Sonnentag, 2012) and whether employees implement ideas at work (Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015). Furthermore, employees' state positive affect stemming from leader behaviour can increase the extent to which employees speak up and take initiative at work (Lin et al, 2016;Liu et al, 2017). ...
... We explore this theme further in the Discussion section. 2 As a final step to our model tests, we ran several robustness checks. First, to rule out possible serial dependence or time trends (e.g., Judge & Ilies, 2004;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015;To, Fisher, Ashkanasy, & Rowe, 2012), we reran the model tests controlling for lagged (day Ϫ1) endogenous variables as well as a time index representing day of data collection. All results of our hypotheses tests remained the same when including these additional control variables. ...
Article
Does planning for a particular workday help employees perform better than on other days they fail to plan? We investigate this question by identifying 2 distinct types of daily work planning to explain why and when planning improves employees’ daily performance. The first type is time management planning (TMP)—creating task lists, prioritizing tasks, and determining how and when to perform them. We propose that TMP enhances employees’ performance by increasing their work engagement, but that these positive effects are weakened when employees face many interruptions in their day. The second type is contingent planning (CP) in which employees anticipate possible interruptions in their work and plan for them. We propose that CP helps employees stay engaged and perform well despite frequent interruptions. We investigate these hypotheses using a 2-week experience-sampling study. Our findings indicate that TMP’s positive effects are conditioned upon the amount of interruptions, but CP has positive effects that are not influenced by the level of interruptions. Through this study, we help inform workers of the different planning methods they can use to increase their daily motivation and performance in dynamic work environments.
... Helpers' time and resource availability to offer help as well as their experience receiving requests for help and actually providing help vary daily (e.g., Glomb et al., 2011;Koopman et al., 2016;Lanaj, Johnson, & Wang, 2016;Trougakos, Beal, Cheng, Hideg, & Zweig, 2015). Our other focal variables (receipt of gratitude, perceived prosocial impact, and work engagement) also vary daily (e.g., Lam, Wan, Roussin, 2016;Sonnentag, 2003;Sonnentag & Grant, 2012;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015;Spence et al., 2014). ...
Article
Although gratitude is a key phenomenon that bridges helping with its outcomes, how and why helping relates to receipt of gratitude and its relation with helper’s eudaimonic well-being have unfortunately been overlooked in organizational research. The purpose of this study is to unravel how helpers successfully connect to others and their work via receipt of gratitude. To do so, we distinguish different circumstances of helping—reactive helping (i.e., providing help when requested) versus proactive helping (i.e., providing help without being asked)—and examine their unique effect on the gratitude received by helpers, which, in turn, has downstream implications for helpers’ perceived prosocial impact and work engagement the following day. Using daily experience sampling (Study 1) and critical incident (Study 2) methods, we found that reactive helping is more likely to be linked to receipt of gratitude than proactive helping. Receipt of gratitude, in turn, is associated with increases in perceived prosocial impact and work engagement the following day. Our study contributes to the helping literature by identifying receipt of gratitude as a novel mechanism that links helping to helper well-being, by distinguishing proactive and reactive helping, and by highlighting eudaimonic well-being as an outcome of helping for helpers.
... We tested the construct validity of all the substantive day-level variables with a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis using Mplus 8.0 (Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). We compared a five-factor model (end-of-workday vitality, end-of workday anxiety, perceived competence, proactive work behavior and detachment) with all items loading on the respective factors with alternative models. ...
Article
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Proactive behavior (self-initiated and future-oriented actions to bring about change) has largely positive consequences for organizationally-oriented outcomes such as job performance. Yet, the outcomes of proactivity from a well-being perspective have not been clearly considered. Drawing on self-determination theory and the stressor-detachment model, we propose two distinct paths by which proactivity affects individuals' daily well-being. The first path is an energy-generating pathway in which daily proactive behavior enhances end-of-workday vitality via perceived competence. The second is a strain pathway in which daily proactive behavior generates anxiety at work, which undermines the process of detachment from work. We argue that these pathways are shaped by the extent to which supervisors are prone to blaming employees for their mistakes (punitive supervision). We tested this model using a sample of 94 employees who completed surveys three times a day for between 5 to 7 days. Our multilevel analyses provide support for the proposed dual-pathway model and suggest differential well-being outcomes of daily proactive work behavior. Overall, when an individual behaves proactively at work, they are more likely to experience higher levels of daily perceived competence and vitality. However, these positive effects can exist in parallel with daily negative effects on end-of-work day anxiety, and hence bed-time detachment, but only when the supervisor is perceived to be punitive about mistakes.
... Ortony et al., 1988). On the one hand, when peers respond with positive emotions, such as enthusiasm and excitement, they are more likely to prosocially behave towards implementing the intended changes (Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015). On the other hand, when peers respond by expressing their negative emotions, such as stress or disagreements, proactive employees are more likely to trigger 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 P e e r R e v i e w V e r s i o n 11 anti-social behavior from peers or even decrease their peers' action tendencies to participate in the proactive effort (Johnson and Connelly, 2014). ...
Article
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Team member proactivity refers to self-starting, future-directed behavior to change a team’s situation or the way a team works. While previous studies have shown that individuals generally benefit from their proactivity, few studies have explored how others in a team experience it. This is important as the way peers perceive team member proactivity could be critical for the initiative to be effective. We conducted a 5-month in-depth study to uncover how peers from three self-managing agile teams react to instances of team member proactivity. Our findings suggest a process model of team member proactivity, in which we show that peers react at two distinct moments during proactive episodes. Depending on its perceived success and whether peers directed their reaction to the proactive employee or at their initiative, peer reactions unfolded in four different pathways: by (1) belittling the proactive team member, (2) criticizing the proactivity initiative, (3) supporting the proactive initiative, or (4) admiring the proactive team member. We explain how and why these reactions are formed by showcasing their cognitive, affective, and behavioral evaluations. Our findings contribute to the proactivity literature, provide a process perspective for understanding how peers perceive proactivity, and present implications for sustaining proactivity in teams.
... On each workday, the daily survey started with measures of employees' state positive affect and state negative affect at the end of the work. To keep the daily surveys short, we followed previous research (Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015) and assessed state positive affect at the end of the work with six items and state negative affect with five items from the German version (Krohne, Egloff, Kohlmann, & Tausch, 1996) of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale . All state affect items were presented in randomized order. ...
Article
Building on the affective events theory framework, we argue for voice as affect-relevant action and investigate the affective consequences of voice in meetings within persons. We administered daily surveys over one workweek to examine how suggestion-focused and problem-focused voice in meetings relate to state positive and state negative affect at work. Our analyses are based on the data of 124 employees reporting on 224 meetings. Employees’ problem-focused voice in meetings was associated with a decrease in employees’ state negative affect at the end of the next workday. Employees’ suggestion- focused voice, however, was not associated with an increase in employees’ state positive affect at the end of the next workday. Future studies should investigate boundary conditions that might change the affective consequences of employees’ voice in meetings.
... Third, we contribute to research on affect at work (Beal & Ghandour, 2011;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). Research in organizational behavior described the role of information and communication technology (ICT) in organizations (Gephart, 2002;Mazmanian, 2013), but has rarely linked aspects of ICT use to affect at work. ...
Article
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Being constantly connected to others via e-mail and other online messages is increasingly typical for many employees. In this paper, we develop and test a model that specifies how interruptions by online messages relate to negative and positive affect. We hypothesize that perceived interruptions by online messages predict state negative affect via time pressure and that perceived interruptions predict state positive affect via responsiveness to these online messages and perceived task accomplishment. A daily survey study with 174 employees (a total of 811 day-level observations) provided support for our hypotheses at the between-person and within-person level. In addition, perceived interruptions showed a negative direct association with perceived task accomplishment. Our study highlights the importance of being responsive to online messages and shows that addressing only the negative effects of perceived interruptions does not suffice to understand the full impact of interruptions by online messages in modern jobs.
... Control variables. To account for possible confounding effects in line with previous research on well-being and proactivity at work (e.g., Bindl, Parker, Totterdell, & HaggerJohnson, 2012;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015), we controlled for participants' gender, age, and their jobs' hierarchical rank (as indicated by the number of reports individuals had). Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics, internal consistencies, and zero-order correlations for the major variables. ...
Article
Employees often self-initiate changes to their jobs, a process referred to as job crafting, yet we know little about why and how they initiate such changes. In this paper, we introduce and test an extended framework for job crafting, incorporating individuals’ needs and regulatory focus. Our theoretical model posits that individual needs provide employees with the motivation to engage in distinct job-crafting strategies—task, relationship, skill, and cognitive crafting—and that work-related regulatory focus will be associated with promotion- or prevention-oriented forms of these strategies. Across three independent studies and using distinct research designs (Study 1: N = 421 employees; Study 2: N = 144, using experience sampling data; Study 3: N = 388, using a lagged study design), our findings suggest that distinct job-crafting strategies, and their promotion- and prevention-oriented forms, can be meaningfully distinguished and that individual needs (for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) at work differentially shape job-crafting strategies. We also find that promotion- and prevention-oriented forms of job-crafting vary in their relationship with innovative work performance, and we find partial support for work-related regulatory focus strengthening the indirect effect of individual needs on innovative work performance via corresponding forms of job crafting. Our findings suggest that both individual needs and work-related regulatory focus are related to why and how employees will choose to craft their jobs, as well as to the consequences job crafting will have in organizations.
... Finally, the results of the present study showed that work beliefs did not moderate the relationship between negative attitudes towards work interruptions and psychosomatic complaints as well as between negative attitudes to work interruptions and general health and wellbeing. Previous research has argued that situational constraints including hassles due to interruptions at work can predict negative affect and proactive behaviour that brings change to an organization (Baethge & Rigotti, 2013;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). In our study, it is likely that negative affect might influence employees' negative attitudes to interruptions regardless of work beliefs which, in turn, influenced general health and psychosomatic complaints. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to explore the moderating effects of work beliefs in the relationship between work interruptions and general health, wellbeing and reports of psychosomatic symptoms. Self-report data were gathered from 310 employees from different occupational sectors. Results revealed that beliefs in hard work and morality ethic moderated the positive appraisal of work interruptions and acted as protective factors on impaired general health and wellbeing. The relationship was stronger among employees who endorsed strong beliefs in hard work and did not have regard for morality/ethics as a value. Likewise, beliefs in delay of gratification and morality/ethics moderated positive appraisal of work interruptions and reduced psychosomatic complaints. More specifically, the relationship was stronger among employees who had strong belief in the values of delayed gratification and weaker morality/ethics. These findings indicate that organisations should adopt work ideology or practices focused on work values particularly of hard work, delay of gratification and conformity to morality as protective factors that reduce the impact of work interruptions on employees’ general health and wellbeing.
... A nascent body of work suggests an important link may exist between proactive work engagement and well-being during later adulthood (Schooler, Mulatu, & Oates, 2004). Investigation of proactive engagement also requires reconsidering the relations between affect and motivation (Bindl, Parker, Totterdell, & Hagger-Johnson, 2012: Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015. ...
Article
Work motivation is a topic of crucial importance to the success of organizations and societies and the well-being of individuals. We organize the work motivation literature over the last century using a meta-framework that clusters theories, findings, and advances in the field according to their primary focus on (a) motives, traits, and motivation orientations (content); (b) features of the job, work role, and broader environment (context); or (c) the mechanisms and processes involved in choice and striving (process). Our integrative review reveals major achievements in the field, including more precise mapping of the psychological inputs and operations involved in motivation and broadened conceptions of the work environment. Cross-cutting trends over the last century include the primacy of goals, the importance of goal striving processes, and a more nuanced conceptualization of work motivation as a dynamic, goal-directed, resource allocation process that unfolds over the related variables of time, experience, and place. Across the field, advances in methodology and measurement have improved the match between theory and research. Ten promising directions for future research are described and field experiments are suggested as a useful means of bridging the research–practice gap.
... We assessed end-of-workday state negative affect with negative affect items from the PANAS . To keep the survey reasonable short, we used a subset of five items ("distressed," "upset," "irritable," "nervous," "jittery"), as done in earlier research (Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). Participants were asked to report how they felt "now" on a 5-point Likert scale with 1 ϭ not at all to 5 ϭ very much. ...
Article
This study examines illegitimate tasks as a specific type of job stressors. Illegitimate tasks comprise unreasonable and unnecessary tasks and refer to inappropriate task assignments that go beyond an employee’s role requirements. Building on the stressor-detachment model, we hypothesized that illegitimate tasks experienced during the day predict high negative affect and low self-esteem at the end of the workday, which in turn should predict poor psychological detachment from work during evening hours, resulting in sustained high levels of negative affect and low self-esteem at bedtime. Over the course of 1 workweek, 137 employees completed daily surveys at the end of the workday and at bedtime (total of 567 days). Multilevel path modeling revealed a distinct pattern of findings at the day and the person level. At the day level, unnecessary tasks predicted high negative affect and low self-esteem at the end of the workday, with low self-esteem predicting poor psychological detachment from work during afterwork hours. Poor psychological detachment predicted a further increase in negative affect and a decrease in self-esteem over evening hours. At the between-person level, unreasonable tasks were related to high negative affect and low self-esteem at the end of the workday, with negative affect being related to poor psychological detachment from work. Overall, the findings demonstrate that illegitimate tasks are associated with unfavorable states at the end of the workday and are indirectly related to poor psychological detachment from work, undermining recovery from the stressful events experienced at work.
... Nonetheless, although negative affect seems less important than positive affect for the implementation of proactive behavior, it may still help identify potential issues in the workplace on a given work day: negative affect, in fact, may signal the employee that the current situation is problematic and remedial action needs to be taken (Schwarz, 1990). In an attempt to answer this research question, Sonnentag and Starzyk (2015) considered how positive and activated negative moods in the morning influence different aspects of proactive behaviors (issue identification versus the actual implementation of proactive goals) in the afternoon. Analyses of diary survey data from 153 employees showed that while activated negative moods (e.g., feeling distressed, upset, irritable) predicted the identification of issues, activated positive moods ( e.g., feeling active, interested, excited) predicted the actual implementation of proactive goals in the afternoon. ...
... More specifically, such violation may be manifested as the feelings such as betrayal, anger, and frustration, the negative emotion of PCV can lead to employees' attitudinal and behavioral reactions (Priesemuth & Taylor, 2016). Prior studies have found that organizations could impact employees' attitudes and behaviors by changing their emotional reactions (Abdelmotaleb & Saha, 2020;Shao, Zhou, & Gao, 2019a;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). The discrepancy model of PCV further suggests that PCV will also influence employees' attitudes and behaviors when some factors cause feelings of difference between expectation and reality (Turnley & Feldman, 1999). ...
Article
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This study explores the impact of socially responsible human resource management (SR-HRM) on the turnover intention by exploring the effects of psychological contract violation (PCV) and moral identity. Using a sample of 284 employees in China, we found that PCV mediated the negative relationship between SR-HRM and turnover intention. Moral identity moderated the direct effect of PCV on turnover intention as well as the indirect effect of SR-HRM on turnover intention via PCV, such that both the direct and indirect effects were stronger for employees with a low level of moral identity compared to those with the high level of moral identity. Findings from this study provide a greater understanding of the internal mechanisms and boundary conditions of SR-HRM that affect turnover intentions. Study findings also provide guidance to organizations seeking to reduce employee turnover.
... A nascent body of work suggests an important link may exist between proactive work engagement and well-being during later adulthood (Schooler, Mulatu, & Oates, 2004 ). Investigation of proactive engagement also requires reconsidering the relations between affect and motivation (Bindl, Parker, Totterdell, & Hagger-Johnson, 2012: Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). Although most theories of work motivation accord affect a service role in motivation, there is a growing literature using blended approaches to the study of motives (e.g., personal initiative ) and affective states (e.g., flow). ...
Article
Full-text available
... Moreover, some research suggests that both positive and negative affect can contribute to proactive behaviour (Den Hartog and Belschak, 2007;Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015). Theoretical work has argued that intense negative emotions, such as anger and fear, can motivate proactive behaviour by signalling a need for change of current circumstances (Lebel, 2017). ...
Chapter
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The goal of this chapter is to address the potential affective consequences of proactive personality and behaviour. In the following sections, I first briefly introduce the notion of employee affect, including emotions, moods, and trait affectivity. Second, I describe a conceptual model on the proximal consequences of (change in) proactive personality and behaviour (that is, positive changes in the self and/or work environment), more distal psychological consequences (that is, changes in resources, need satisfaction, goal progress), and, eventually, different affective consequences. I also outline the role of potential boundary conditions of the effects of proactivity on affective consequences, including individual and contextual demands, resources, and barriers, as well as individual differences in trait affectivity. Third, I describe differences between a within-person perspective (that is, change in proactive behaviour and affective experiences over time) and a between-person perspective (that is, individual differences in proactive behaviour and affective experiences). Fourth, I review existing empirical studies that have examined affective consequences of different forms of proactivity. Finally, I conclude the chapter with several suggestions for future research.
... In addition, researchers must decide if they want to control for the outcome variable on the previous day. Although it makes sense to take autocorrelations into account (Beal, 2015), in many ESM studies, control variables assessed on the same day have more predictive power than control variables from the previous day (Gabriel, Koopman, Rosen, & Johnson, 2018;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). ...
Article
In the organizational sciences, scholars are increasingly using experience sampling methods (ESM) to answer questions tied to intra-individual, dynamic phenomenon. However, employing this method to answer organizational research questions comes with a number of complex—and often difficult—decisions surrounding: (1) how the implementation of ESM can advance or elucidate prior between-person theorizing at the within-person level of analysis; (2) how scholars should effectively and efficiently assess within-person constructs; and (3) analytic concerns regarding the proper modeling of interdependent assessments and trends, while controlling for potentially confounding factors. The current paper addresses these challenges via a panel of seven researchers who are familiar with not only implementing this methodology, but also familiar with related theoretical and analytic challenges in this domain. The current paper provides timely, actionable insights aimed towards addressing several complex issues that scholars often face when implementing ESM in their research.
... The studies show that on days when employees experience a higher level of job stressors than they normally do, they respond with negative affective reactions such as negative activation or fatigue (Pindek, Arvan, & Spector, 2018). For instance, research showed that day-specific job demands (Rodell & Judge, 2009), day-specific hindrances (e.g., organizational constraints; Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015), and day-specific interpersonal stressors (e.g., customer mistreatment; Liu et al., 2017) predict negative affective states over the course of the workday. Overall, this research shows that when employees are facing job stressors, their strain levels increase and their affective states are impaired rather quickly. ...
Article
Job stressors such as time pressure, organizational constraints, and interpersonal conflicts matter for individual well-being within organizations, both at the day level and over longer periods of time. Recovery-enhancing processes such as psychological detachment from work during nonwork time, physical exercise, and sleep have the potential to protect well-being. Although the experience of job stressors calls for effective recovery processes, empirical research shows that recovery processes actually are impaired when job stressors are high (recovery paradox). This article presents explanations for the recovery paradox, discusses moderating factors, and suggests avenues for future research.
... This would be beneficial for the wide variety of approaches and techniques that may be found in the corporate sector that are essential to enhancing individual efficiency in job organization. Individual job performance can be described as what people do or acts that play a role and lead to an organization's objectives (Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). ...
... The first examines day-level predictors with regard to employees' work experiences. Specifically, researchers found that job control (Ohly & Fritz, 2010), job stressors such as time pressure (e.g., Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015), and employees' daily affective experiences (e.g., Bissing-Olson, Iyer, Fielding, & Zacher, 2013) relate to daily proactive behavior. The second stream, still in its infancy, investigates the role of employees' experiences after work (i.e., off-job experiences) on their next-day proactive behavior. ...
Article
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Drawing on conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) and the model of proactive motivation (Parker, Bindl, & Strauss, 2010), this research employs experience sampling methods to examine how employees' off-job experiences during the evening relate to their proactive behavior at work the next day. A multilevel path analysis of data from 183 employees across 10 workdays indicated that various types of off-job experiences in the evening had differential effects on daily proactive behavior during the subsequent workday, and the psychological mechanisms underlying these varied relationships were distinct. Specifically, off-job mastery in the evening related positively to next-morning high-activated positive affect and role breadth self-efficacy, off-job agency in the evening related positively to next-morning role breadth self-efficacy and desire for control, and off-job hassles in the evening related negatively to next-morning high-activated positive affect; next-morning high-activated positive affect, role breadth self-efficacy, and desire for control, in turn, predicted next-day proactive behavior. Off-job relaxation in the evening related positively to next-morning low-activated positive affect, and off-job detachment in the evening had a decreasingly positive curvilinear relationship with next-morning low-activated positive affect. However, as expected, these two types of off-job experiences and lowactivated positive affect did not relate to next-day proactive behavior.
... Experiencing subjective prosocial achievement after successfully helping others can, for example, relieve a helper's negative affective state that is caused by witnessing another person's problem (Piliavin et al., 1981). Positive effects on a helper's own well-being have also been reported with regard to reduced blood pressure (Piferi & Lawler, 2006), greater happiness (Aknin et al., 2013), increased positive affect (e.g., Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015), and accelerated recovery from depression (Brown et al., 2008). ...
Article
Achievements at work play important roles with regard to employees’ well-being and health. Based on conservation of resources theory, the success-resource model and self-determination theory, this paper investigates how subjective occupational achievement experiences (task-related and prosocial) relate to employees’ psychological well-being (i.e., depressivity). We hypothesize differential mediating effects via the satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Over a course of four consecutive weeks, 260 employees provided weekly diary data (942 observations) that were analysed using multilevel structural equation modelling. At the within-persons level, results showed that relatedness need satisfaction mediated the negative relationship between prosocial achievement experiences and depressivity, while competence need satisfaction mediated the negative relationship between task-related achievement experiences and depressivity. This study contributes to the research proposing achievement experiences as a beneficial resource in the health promotion process and reinforces the call to differentiate between the satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
... We also followed recommendations to control for temporal variation in our variables, which can be an alternate explanation for observed relationships (e.g., Beal & Ghandour, 2011;Beal & Weiss, 2003). Specifically, we controlled for linear trends by including a variable ranging from 1 to 5 for the day of the week (e.g., Lim et al., 2018;Rosen et al., 2016), and another one ranging from 1 to 15 for study day (e.g., Lanaj et al., 2016;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). We also controlled for weekly cyclical trends by including the sine and cosine of the above weekday variable with a period of one week (Beal & Ghandour, 2011;Gabriel et al., 2019b). ...
Article
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Work intrusions—unexpected interruptions by other people that interrupt ongoing work, bringing it to a temporary halt—are common in today’s workplaces. Prior research has focused on the task-based aspect of work intrusions and largely cast intrusions as events that harm employee well-being in general, and job satisfaction in particular. We suggest that apart from their task-based aspect, work intrusions also involve a social aspect—interaction with the interrupter—that can have beneficial effects for interrupted employees’ well-being. Using self-regulation theory, we hypothesize that while work intrusions’ self-regulatory demands of switching tasks, addressing the intrusion, and resuming the original task can deplete self-regulatory resources, interaction with the interrupter can simultaneously fulfill one’s need for belongingness. Self-regulatory resource depletion and belongingness are hypothesized to mediate the negative and positive effects of work intrusions onto job satisfaction respectively, with belongingness further buffering the negative effect of self-regulatory resource depletion on job satisfaction. Results of our 3-week experience sampling study with 111 participants supported these hypotheses at the within-individual level, even as we included stress as an alternate mediator. Overall, by extending our focus onto the social component of work intrusions, and modeling the mechanisms that transmit the dark- and the bright-side effects of work intrusions onto job satisfaction simultaneously, we provide a balanced view of this workplace phenomenon. In the process, we challenge the consensus that work intrusions harm job satisfaction by explaining why and when intrusions may also boost job satisfaction, thus extending the recent research on work intrusions’ positive effects.
... We tested the construct validity of our variables with a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using Mplus 8.0, following the procedure outlined by Sonnentag and Starzyk (2015). Given that all our hypotheses pertain to within-level relationships, all variables were person-mean centered (thus removing all the variance at the between level). ...
Article
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Although proactive behavior is an important determinant of individual work performance, its consequences for employee well-being and other personal outcomes have been largely neglected. In this study, we adopted a within-person perspective to investigate how taking charge behavior (a form of proactivity) affects employees' life outside of work by examining when and how it impacts on their ability to detach and recover from work. Drawing upon resource drain theory, we hypothesized that taking charge has the potential to undermine the process of detachment and recovery from work by draining personal resources. However, based on self-determination theory, we identified autonomous motivation as an essential boundary condition, such that the negative effects of taking charge on detachment and recovery via resource drain occur only when daily autonomous motivation is low. We tested this model on a sample of 77 managers, who provided daily survey data 3 times per day over 5 consecutive working days. Our analyses showed that daily taking charge behavior was negatively related to detachment in the evening, via resource drain, only on days in which people reported low autonomous motivation at work. However, this conditional effect of taking charge did not reach through to next morning recovery. No negative effects of daily taking charge on detachment were observed when people had high autonomous motivation. Overall, these findings suggest that, under some motivational conditions, proactivity can consume resources and interfere with the process of detachment. We offer practical advice for how organizations might encourage proactive behavior while minimizing its drawbacks. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... The importance of both positive and negative high arousal affective experiences has been suggested by past research (Den Hartog & Belschak, 2007;Fay & Sonnentag, 2002;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). For example, in a four-wave longitudinal study by Fay and Sonnentag (2002), the authors showed that not only activated positive affect, but also stress (i.e., activated negative affect) can lead to greater proactive behavior. ...
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Only recently has research started to examine relationships between proactive behavior and employee well-being. Investigating these relationships is important for understanding the effects of proactivity at work, and whether proactivity leads to an increase or a decrease in well-being. In this study, we investigated day-level effects of proactive behavior on four indicators of occupational well-being (i.e., activated positive and negative affect, emotional work engagement and fatigue). Moreover, based on theorizing on “wise proactivity,” we examined organizational tenure and emotion regulation as moderators of these effects. In total, N = 71 employees participated in a daily diary study with two measurements per day for ten consecutive working days. Results revealed that emotion regulation interacted with daily proactive behavior to predict daily emotional work fatigue, such that the effect of proactive behavior on emotional work fatigue was only positive for employees with low (vs. high) emotion regulation. Supplementary analyses examining reverse effects of occupational well-being on proactive behavior showed that organizational tenure interacted with daily activated positive and negative affect in predicting proactive behavior. For employees with lower (vs. higher) organizational tenure only, both activated positive and negative affect were negatively associated with proactive behavior. Overall, our findings contribute to the growing body of research on proactive behavior and well-being by demonstrating reciprocal and conditional day-level relationships among these variables.
... First, by blending proactivity and image discrepancy theories, we advance a critical qualification of extant research. Contrary to previous work, we demonstrate that simply being motivated to help beneficiaries may not always be positively related to employee proactivity (cf., Grant & Sumanth, 2009;Lam & Mayer, 2014;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). In highly visible contexts, such as law enforcement and firefighting, in which employees are frequently portrayed in the media and actively rely on community support, perceiving that the public oversimplifies employees' jobs weakens the prosocial motivation-proactivity link. ...
... To examine if participants' workdays had been similar across the five experimental conditions, we assessed three work-situation variables in Study 2. In order to include both negative and positive experiences, we focused on quantitative demands, organizational constraints, and perceived prosocial impact. Earlier research has shown that quantitative demands (Ilies et al., 2010), organizational constraints (Rodell and Judge, 2009), and perceived prosocial impact (Sonnentag and Starzyk, 2015) are highly relevant for employee affect at work. Specifically, we assessed day-specific quantitative demands with three items based on the time-pressure measure developed by Semmer (1984;Zapf, 1993; sample item: "Today I was required to work fast"; ...
Article
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Previous correlational studies have shown that both psychological detachment from work and positively thinking about work during non-work time are associated with favorable affective states. In our research we integrate these contradictory findings and add more rigor to detachment research by using an experimental design. In two experimental studies conducted in the laboratory, we manipulated two different kinds of detachment from work (thinking about a hobby; explicit detachment instruction) and three different kinds of thinking about work (thinking negatively, thinking positively, thinking in an unspecific way) by short written instructions. Results show that both detachment strategies lead to a reduction in negative affect (in both studies) and to an increase in positive affect (in one study). The effect of detachment was particularly strong when it was contrasted with thinking negatively about work and when end-of-workday negative affect was high. In some of the comparisons, the affective benefits of positively thinking about work were stronger than those of psychological detachment from work. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that detachment from work as well as positive thinking improves subsequent affect, highlighting the causality underlying the association between psychological detachment from work – as a core recovery experience – and subsequent affective states.
... The importance of both positive and negative high arousal affective experiences has been suggested by past research (Den Hartog & Belschak, 2007;Fay & Sonnentag, 2002;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015). For example, in a four-wave longitudinal study by Fay and Sonnentag (2002), the authors showed that not only activated positive affect, but also stress (i.e., activated negative affect) can lead to greater proactive behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research has recently started to examine relationships between proactive behavior and employee well-being. Investigating these relationships is important to understand the effects of proactive behavior at work, and whether proactive behavior leads to an increase or a decrease in well-being. In this daily-diary study, we investigated effects of proactive behavior on within-day changes in four indicators of occupational well-being (i.e., activated positive and negative affect, emotional work engagement and fatigue). Moreover, based on the meta-concept of wise proactivity, which suggests that proactive behavior may lead to either favorable or unfavorable consequences depending on certain boundary conditions, we examined organizational tenure and emotion regulation skills as moderators of these effects. In total, N = 71 employees participated in a daily-diary study with two measurements per day for ten consecutive working days. Results showed that emotion regulation skills interacted with proactive behavior to predict within-day changes in emotional work fatigue, such that the effect of proactive behavior on emotional work fatigue was only positive for employees with low (vs. high) emotion regulation skills. Supplementary analyses examining reverse effects of occupational well-being on proactive behavior showed that organizational tenure interacted with activated positive and negative affect in predicting within-day changes in proactive behavior. For employees with lower (vs. higher) organizational tenure, both activated positive and negative affect were negatively associated with proactive behavior. Overall, our findings contribute to the growing body of research on proactive behavior and well-being by demonstrating reciprocal and conditional day-level relationships among these variables.
... 14). Negative mood valence encourages individuals to consider how the current situation might be improved (Schwarz, 1990;Sonnentag & Starzyk, 2015) and a general concern for others (Forgas, 2013). As individuals' moods become more negative, they are likely to be more pessimistic about the future success of the team and might critically view their teammate's current performance (c.f., Moylan, 2000). ...
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The study focuses on optimal functioning at work and occupational well-being of employees, which are maintained by two processes: health impairment and motivation. These processes can be mediated by job-related affect. Affect is a function of valence and arousal and it is a core and proximal component of occupational well-being. Job-related affect is a response to excessive demands and insufficient resources (esteem, job promotion and job security). Furthermore, it can be the first signal of positive or negative change in distal dimensions of occupational well-being, job burnout and work engagement. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two groups: police officers (n = 414) and a heterogenic group of employees (n = 271). In addition, a two-wave design with an average time-lag of 5 weeks was established in a further heterogenic group of employees (n = 151). The findings of the study show that employees experience more positive than negative affect during work. Low arousal affect is dominant. Moreover, low arousal affect, both positive and negative, is correlated with opposite valence twice as strongly as high arousal affect is. Additionally, positive affect can undo the immediate consequences of negative affect now and in the future. Furthermore, positive affect can foster positive affect in the future and can then undo the consequences of negative affect. The last rule applies only to low arousal affect. The three affective profiles – positive, negative and mixed – are related to different levels of job burnout and work engagement. The main result indicates that affect mediates the relationship between work characteristics and distal components of occupational well-being. Low arousal affect mediates between work characteristics and two components of burnout (exhaustion and disengagement), while high arousal positive affect accompanied by low arousal negative affect mediates between organizational resources and three components of work engagement (vigour, dedication and absorption). The relationships between the ratio of positive to negative affect and the energetic component of job burnout (exhaustion) and work engagement (vigour) were curvilinear. Up to a certain point, higher values of positive to negative affect at work were associated with lower burnout, but beyond this point the relationship was reversed; namely, it resulted in higher job burnout. Similarly, up to a certain point, higher values of positive to negative affect at work increased vigour, but beyond the inflection point the relationship was reversed and the result was reduced vigour. However, the relationship between work characteristics and distal, energetic dimensions of well-being was still linear. In contrast, the ratio of positive to negative affect is in a linear relationship with disengagement (health protection in the face of loss of resources), dedication and absorption (enhancing motivation). This means that the ratio of positive to negative affect decreases disengagement and fosters dedication and absorption. Theoretical contribution indicates that both valence and arousal of affect are important for understanding the processes of deterioration, protection and growth of health in hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives. Practical implementation can reveal how managers can better develop the potential of employees to improve their health and growth. http://pg.edu.pl/wydawnictwo/katalog?p_p_id=1_WAR_espeoproxyportlet&p_p_lifecycle=0&p_p_col_id=column-1&p_p_col_count=1&action=/inventory/book/522
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Proactive people take initiative when others do not and persist in improving their environment or themselves. Although scholars assume that how we feel influences how proactive we are, there is no experimental research yet to support this. This experiment therefore tests whether positive and negative affect influence proactive behavior and additionally investigates whether engaging in proactivity also has affective consequences. While current theory proposes that positive affect enhances proactivity by stimulating broad-flexible thinking, we argue that negative affect should make people proactive through stimulating systematic-persistent thinking. Furthermore, we propose that proactivity increases subsequent positive affect rather than positive affect increasing proactivity. Last, we hypothesize that affective causes and consequences of proactivity are different for people who are rarely proactive (trait-passive-reactive individuals) and people who are often proactive (trait-proactive individuals). We pre-tested 180 participants on trait-proactivity. In the lab, we manipulated affect (negative/positive/neutral), measured proactive behavior in a team interaction task, and repeatedly measured participants’ affective experiences and physiological activation. Results showed that the link between affect and proactive behavior differed depending on participants’ trait-proactivity. First, positive affect made trait-proactive individuals less proactive, whereas negative affect made passive-reactive individuals more proactive. Second, passive-reactive individuals reported decreased negative affect after engaging in proactivity, whereas proactive individuals reported increased positive affect. These results suggest that proactive behavior can serve an affect regulation purpose, which is different for trait proactive individuals (up regulating positive affect) than for trait passive-reactive individuals (down regulating negative affect). These results are limited to core affect (feeling pleasant or unpleasant) and do not apply to specific emotions (feeling proud or anxious), and they are limited to short term and successful proactive behavior and do not apply to more long term, or unsuccessful proactive behavior.
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This study aims to develop a theoretical model of the determinants of workplace deviant behaviour among Malaysia hotel employees. From our extensive reviews, we found that organisational-related factors are potential in predicting hotel employee’s deviant behaviour. We established that organisational justice, trust in management, work autonomy, organisational constraint and organisational ethical climate as the organisational-related factors potential to influence deviant behaviour. Practical involvements of HR professionals were recommended to support organisation in eradicating deviant behaviour at workplace.
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The influence of constraints (i.e., barriers or limitations) on creativity has drawn attention from various fields but has largely yielded conflicting findings. Some studies suggest constraints may have a positive impact on creativity while others find a negative impact. In an effort to clarify this debate and provide direction for future efforts, this meta‐analysis examined the relationship between constraints and creativity. Using a sample of 111 published and unpublished studies, a series of random‐effects meta‐regression models and subgroup analyses were conducted and identified a significant positive relationship between constraints and creativity. Moderator analyses confirmed the relationship differed substantially depending on the constraint type, study design, funding status, and creativity operationalization and measurement. These findings suggest that constraints may not be detrimental to creativity, despite prior assumptions. Findings further suggest that constraint type may be less influential than typically assumed. Instead, methodological artifacts provide a better explanation for the varying existing findings in how constraints benefit or hinder creativity. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Relational resources are now recognized as significant factors in workplaces and increasing attention is being given to the motivational impact of giving, in addition to receiving social support. Our study builds on this work to determine the role of such relational mechanisms in work engagement, a concept that simultaneously captures drive and well-being. Data from 182 midwives from two maternity hospitals revealed a best-fit model where perceived supervisor support, social support from peers, prosocial impact on others and autonomy explained 52 percent of variance in work engagement. Perceived prosocial impact acted as a significant partial mediator between autonomy and work engagement. This study provides evidence for the importance of perceived prosocial impact and the role of immediate supervisors in facilitating work engagement in midwifery. Results highlight the value of relational resources and suggest their explicit inclusion in current models of work engagement.
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In this study, we investigated a neglected form of extrarole behavior called taking charge and sought to understand factors that motivate employees to engage in this activity. Taking charge is discretionary behavior intended to effect organizationally functional change. We obtained both self-report and coworker data for 275 white-collar employees from different organizations. Taking charge, as reported by coworkers, related to felt responsibility, self-efficacy, and perceptions of top management openness. These results expand current understanding of extrarole behavior and suggest ways in which organizations can motivate employees to go beyond the boundaries of their jobs to bring about positive change.
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Emphasizing differences in activation as well as valence, six studies across a range of situations examined relations between types of job-related core affect and 13 self-reported work behaviours. A theory-based measure of affect was developed, and its four-quadrant structure was found to be supported across studies. Also consistent with hypotheses, high-activation pleasant affect was more strongly correlated with positive behaviours than were low-activation pleasant feelings, and those associations tended to be greatest for discretionary behaviours in contrast to routine task proficiency. Additionally as predicted, unpleasant job-related affects that had low rather than high activation were more strongly linked to the negative work behaviours examined. Theory and practice would benefit from greater differentiation between affects and between behaviours.
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This article explores the role of within-person fluctuations in employees' daily surface acting and subsequent personal energy resources in the performance of organizational citizenship behaviors directed toward other individuals in the workplace (OCBI). Drawing on ego depletion theory (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000), we develop a resource-based model in which surface acting is negatively associated with daily OCBIs through the depletion of resources manifested in end-of-day exhaustion. Further integrating ego depletion theory, we consider the role of employees' baseline personal resource pool, as indicated by chronic exhaustion, as a critical between-person moderator of these within-person relationships. Using an experience-sampling methodology to test this model, we found that surface acting was indirectly related to coworker ratings of OCBI through the experience of exhaustion. We further found that chronic levels of exhaustion exacerbated the influence of surface acting on employees' end-of-day exhaustion. These findings demonstrate the importance of employees' regulatory resource pool for combating depletion and maintaining important work behaviors. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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The overall goal of the meta‐analytic review of the most frequently studied proactivity concepts—personal initiative, proactive personality, taking charge, and voice—was cleaning up the number and overlap of proactivity constructs and examining their construct validity. We provide a unifying framework for proactivity theory and a nomological net. We studied 163 independent samples (N= 36,079). The meta‐analysis found high correlations between proactive personality and personal initiative/personality. Further, there were strong relationships between voice, taking charge, and personal initiative/behavior. For construct clean‐up, we suggest that the two proactive personality constructs can be taken as functionally equivalent and that this is also true to some extent for the three proactive behavior constructs—the latter signify proactive behavior. All proactive concepts showed clear correlations with performance (from .13 to .34 depending upon construct and objectivity level of performance). However, the proactive personality concepts were also highly correlated with the Big Five personality factors and showed very low to no incremental validity for work performance; this is contradictory to prior meta‐analyses on proactive personality and is discussed in detail. In contrast, proactive behavior scales (personal initiative/behavior, taking charge, and voice) predicted job performance well above and beyond personality.
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We argue that creativity is influenced by the dynamic interplay of positive and negative affect: High creativity results if a person experiences an episode of negative affect that is followed by a decrease in negative affect and an increase in positive affect, a process referred to as an “affective shift.” An experience-sampling study with 102 full-time employees provided support for the hypotheses. An experimental study with 80 students underlined the proposed causal effect of an affective shift on creativity. We discuss practical implications for facilitating creativity in organizations.
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Recently, Pfeffer (2010) called for a better understanding of the human dimension of sustainability. Responding to this call, we explore how individuals sustain an important human resource-their own energy-at work. Specifically, we focus on strategies that employees use at work to sustain their energy. Our findings show that the most commonly used strategies (e.g., switching to another task or browsing the Internet) are not associated with higher levels of human energy at work. Rather, strategies related to learning, to the meaning of one's work, and to positive workplace relationships were most strongly related to employees' energy.
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Using experience-sampling methodology, we examined within-individual relationships among emotional labor, negative and positive affective states, and work withdrawal, as well as the moderating role of gender. Fifty-eight bus drivers completed two daily surveys over a two-week period, producing 415 matched surveys. Results of hierarchical linear models revealed that affective states worsened when employees engaged in surface acting but improved when they engaged in deep acting. Surface acting was positively associated with work withdrawal, and state negative affect mediated this relationship. Results also revealed moderating effects of gender: the within-individual relationships were stronger for females than for males.
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When does giving lead to happiness? Here, we present two studies demonstrating that the emotional benefits of spending money on others (prosocial spending) are unleashed when givers are aware of their positive impact. In Study 1, an experiment using real charitable appeals, giving more money to charity led to higher levels of happiness only when participants gave to causes that explained how these funds are used to make a difference in the life of a recipient. In Study 2, participants were asked to reflect upon a time they spent money on themselves or on others in a way that either had a positive impact or had no impact. Participants who recalled a time they spent on others that had a positive impact were happiest. Together, these results suggest that highlighting the impact of prosocial spending can increase the emotional rewards of giving.
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The authors aimed to clarify the similarities, differences, and interrelationships among multiple types of proactive behavior. Factor analyses of managers’ self-ratings (N = 622) showed concepts were distinct from each other but related via a higher-order structure. Three higher-order proactive behavior categories were identified—proactive work behavior, proactive strategic behavior, and proactive person-environment fit behavior—each corresponding to behaviors aimed at bringing about change in the internal organization (e.g., voice), the fit between the organization and its environment (e.g., issue selling), and the fit between the individual and the organization (e.g., feedback seeking), respectively. Further analyses on a subsample (n = 319) showed similarities and differences in the antecedents of these behaviors.
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The stress-oriented job analysis instrument ISTA was applied to a sample of 232 office jobs to analyse the impact of new technologies on the stressor-strain relationship. Scales measuring work content (complexity of work, variety), stressors (time pressure, organizational problems, interruptions, concentration necessities, social stressors), and resources (control at work, control over time) were developed and demonstrated desirable scale characteristics. The results showed positive correlations between stressors and psychological dysfunctioning (psychosomatic complaints, irritation). Computer work was associated with a decrease of work stressors, but also with decreased job content. Work places using different software systems (word processing, specialist, spreadsheet, and graphic programs) manifested different characteristics regarding work content, stressors, and resources. For example, when working with word processors, most stressors occurred at a medium daily computer work time. This indicates that strategies of work design which involve computer and non-computer work have to be used carefully.
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Proactivity is a type of goal-directed work behavior in which individuals actively take charge of situations to bring about future change in themselves or their organization. In this chapter, we draw on goal-regulation research to review conceptual and empirical evidence that elucidates some of the complex links of affective experience and employee proactivity. We identify the different ways in which affective experience influences different stages of proactivity, including employees’ efforts in setting a proactive goal (envisioning), preparing to implement their proactive goal (planning), implementing their proactive goal (enacting), and engaging in learning from their proactive goal process (reflecting). Overall, our review suggests an important, positive role of high-activated positive trait affectivity and moods in motivating proactivity across multiple goal stages, as compared to low-activated positive affectivity and moods. The role of negative affect is mixed, and likely depends on both its valence and the stage of proactivity that is being considered. We identify a lack of research on the role of discrete emotions for employee proactivity. We discuss future avenues for research, particularly the roles of intra- and inter-personal emotion regulation for proactivity and of affective embeddedness of proactive processes in the social environment of organizations.
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Factor-analytic evidence has led most psychologists to describe affect as a set of dimensions, such as displeasure, distress, depression, excitement, and so on, with each dimension varying independently of the others. However, there is other evidence that rather than being independent, these affective dimensions are interrelated in a highly systematic fashion. The evidence suggests that these interrelationships can be represented by a spatial model in which affective concepts fall in a circle in the following order: pleasure (0), excitement (45), arousal (90), distress (135), displeasure (180), depression (225), sleepiness (270), and relaxation (315). This model was offered both as a way psychologists can represent the structure of affective experience, as assessed through self-report, and as a representation of the cognitive structure that laymen utilize in conceptualizing affect. Supportive evidence was obtained by scaling 28 emotion-denoting adjectives in 4 different ways: R. T. Ross's (1938) technique for a circular ordering of variables, a multidimensional scaling procedure based on perceived similarity among the terms, a unidimensional scaling on hypothesized pleasure–displeasure and degree-of-arousal dimensions, and a principal-components analysis of 343 Ss' self-reports of their current affective states. (70 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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conceptual and empirical perspectives on the relationship between helping and coping are presented presents empirical evidence on the nature and degree of helping by individuals presumed to be exposed to stress, including siblings of children with disabilities and elderly persons / show that contrary to stereotypes of people presumed to be under stress, many such people do help others despite their own troubles [describes] the results of two of my own emerging field studies, the results of which, when taken in combination with evidence presented in the first section, should increase the plausibility that helping serves as an effective coping mechanism (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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reviews research on the impact of affective states on evaluative judgments, presenting evidence that is difficult to reconcile with the assumption that emotional influences on social judgment are mediated by selective recall from memory / rather, the presented research suggests that individuals frequently use their affective state at the time of judgment as a piece of information that may bear on the judgmental task, according to a "how do I feel about it" heuristic extends the informative-functions assumption to research on affective influences on decision making and problem solving, suggesting that affective states may influence the choice of processing strategies / specifically it is argued that negative affective states, which inform the organism that its current situation is problematic, foster the use of effortful, detail oriented, analytical processing strategies, whereas positive affective states foster the use of less effortful heuristic strategies (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated, in 2 experiments, whether judgments of happiness and satisfaction with one's life are influenced by mood at the time of judgment. In Exp I, moods were induced by asking 61 undergraduates for vivid descriptions of a recent happy or sad event in their lives. In Exp II, moods were induced by interviewing 84 participants on sunny or rainy days. In both experiments, Ss reported more happiness and satisfaction with their life as a whole when in a good mood than when in a bad mood. However, the negative impact of bad moods was eliminated when Ss were induced to attribute their present feelings to transient external sources irrelevant to the evaluation of their lives; but Ss who were in a good mood were not affected by misattribution manipulations. The data suggest that (a) people use their momentary affective states in making judgments of how happy and satisfied they are with their lives in general and (b) people in unpleasant affective states are more likely to search for and use information to explain their state than are people in pleasant affective states. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The question of how affect arises and what affect indicates is examined from a feedback-based viewpoint on self-regulation. Using the analogy of action control as the attempt to diminish distance to a goal, a second feedback system is postulated that senses and regulates the rate at which the action-guiding system is functioning. This second system is seen as responsible for affect. Implications of these assertions and issues that arise from them are addressed in the remainder of the article. Several issues relate to the emotion model itself; others concern the relation between negative emotion and disengagement from goals. Relations to 3 other emotion theories are also addressed. The authors conclude that this view on affect is a useful supplement to other theories and that the concept of emotion is easily assimilated to feedback models of self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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D. Watson and A. Tellegen (1985) proposed a "consensual" structure of affect based on J. A. Russell's (1980) circumplex. The authors' review of the literature indicates that this 2-factor model captures robust structural properties of self-rated mood. Nevertheless, the evidence also indicates that the circumplex does not fit the data closely and needs to be refined. Most notably, the model's dimensions are not entirely independent; moreover, with the exception of Pleasantness–Unpleasantness, they are not completely bipolar. More generally, the data suggest a model that falls somewhere between classic simple structure and a true circumplex. The authors then examine two of the dimensions imbedded in this structure, which they label Negative Activation (NA) and Positive Activation (PA). The authors argue that PA and NA represent the subjective components of broader biobehavioral systems of approach and withdrawal, respectively. The authors conclude by demonstrating how this framework helps to clarify various affect-related phenomena, including circadian rhythms, sleep, and the mood disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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to establish a general theory of work behavior, one must begin with the concept of action / action is goal-oriented behavior that is organized in specific ways by goals, information integration, plans, and feedback and can be regulated consciously or via routines / describe general [German] theory along these lines / this is quite a different theory from the typical American theories in industrial and organizational psychology (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Current approaches to work stress do not address in detail the mental processes by which work events cause unpleasant affect. We propose a cognitive account that incorporates: (1) the distinction between controlled and automatic information processing; (2) the categorization of emotionally relevant stimuli; (3) the role of mental models in coping choice; (4) the enactment of beneficial job conditions through coping; and (5) reciprocal influences between cognition and affect. We conclude by discussing how this account can help explain a range of findings in the work stress literature and how a cognitive approach to work stress informs practice.
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Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization.
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Executive Overview Interest in and research about affect in organizations have expanded dramatically in recent years. This article reviews what we know about affect in organizations, focusing on how employees' moods, emotions, and dispositional affect influence critical organizational outcomes such as job performance, decision making, creativity, turnover, prosocial behavior, teamwork, negotiation, and leadership. This review highlights pervasive and consistent effects, showing the importance of affect in shaping a wide variety of organizational behaviors, the knowledge of which is critical for researchers, managers, and employees. CEO wanted to cut our budget by 6%! Jerry's voice had an edge to it, and I could tell that my explanations about the budget were not going to solve this one. Would he ex-plode? Would he blame me? Worse, would he threaten to quit? I could feel the good mood I had started with this morning rapidly disappearing. The insistent brittleness in his voice made me feel defensive and I was starting to get angry myself. I needed to decide what to do next, but I was having trouble remembering the rationale for the raise. I felt like yelling at him. That, I told myself, cannot happen. I need to keep it under control. . .I'm the boss here, remember? He's watching how I act. I need to figure out how I want to deal with his anger—and mine. . .
Chapter
Psychosocial stressors at work represent a ubiquitous and multifaceted phenomenon (Lazarus, 1993); several theoretical frameworks predict that they affect employee attitudes and behaviors (Jex & Crossley 2005). Most past meta-analytical reviews of these relationships focused only on the linkages of role conflict and role ambiguity with job performance, none of them related to unpublished studies, and each included only a relatively small number of samples, casting doubt on their findings regarding the effect of possible moderators (e.g., Abramis, 1994, n = 18 for role ambiguity only; Fisher & Gitelson, 1983, n = 25, 22; Jackson & Schuler, 1985, n = 37, 24; Tubre & Collins, 2000, n = 74, 54 for the meta correlations of performance with role ambiguity and role conflict, respectively). All previous meta-analytical reviews found that a substantial amount of the variance in the corrected stressor-performance correlations remained unexplained and urged future researchers to identify variables that moderate this relationship (e.g., Tubre & Collins, 2000, p. 166).
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Self-determination theory maintains and has provided empirical support for the proposition that all human beings have fundamental psychological needs to be competent, autonomous, and related to others. Satisfaction of these basic needs facilitates people's autonomous motivation (i.e., acting with a sense of full endorsement and volition), whereas thwarting the needs promotes controlled motivation (i.e., feeling pressured to behave in particular ways) or being amotivated (i.e., lacking intentionality). Satisfying these basic needs and acting autonomously have been consistently shown to be associated with psychological health and effective performance. Social contexts within which people operate, however proximal (e.g., a family or workgroup) or distal (e.g., a cultural value or economic system), affect their need satisfaction and type of motivation, thus affecting their wellness and effectiveness. Social contexts also affect whether people's life goals or aspirations tend to be more intrinsic or more extrinsic, and that in turn affects important life outcomes.
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The question of how affect arises and what affect indicates is examined from a feedback-based viewpoint on self-regulation. Using the analogy of action control as the attempt to diminish distance to a goal, a second feedback system is postulated that senses and regulates the rate at which the action-guiding system is functioning. This second system is seen as responsible for affect. Implications of these assertions and issues that arise from them are addressed in the remainder of the article. Several issues relate to the emotion model itself; others concern the relation between negative emotion and disengagement from goals. Relations to 3 other emotion theories are also addressed. The authors conclude that this view on affect is a useful supplement to other theories and that the concept of emotion is easily assimilated to feedback models of self-regulation.
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We present a conceptual framework specifying the hypothesized influences of situational constraints on work outcomes and individual difference to work outcome associations. In addition to reviewing the relevant literature and discussing the implications for researchers and practitioners, we suggest a systematic program of needed research.
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Employees with a desire to help others provide benefits to their organization, clients, and fellow workers, but what do they get in return? We argue that the prosocial desire to help others is a basic human goal that matters to an individual’s happiness. We employ both longitudinal and cross-sectional data to demonstrate that work-related prosocial motivation is associated with higher subjective well-being, both in terms of current happiness and life satisfaction later in life. Cross-sectional data also suggest that perceived social impact (the belief that one’s job is making a difference) is even more important for happiness than the prosocial desire to help. The results show that the relationship between prosocial motivation and happiness is not limited to government employees, suggesting that in this aspect of altruistic behavior, public and private employees are not so different.
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Although both researchers and practitioners know that an employee’s performance varies over time within a job, this within-person performance variability is not well understood and in fact is often treated as error. In the current paper, we first identify the importance of a within-person approach to job performance and then review several extant theories of within-person performance variability that, despite vastly different foci, converge on the contention that job performance is dynamic rather than static. We compare and contrast the theories along several common metrics and thereby facilitate a discussion of commonalities, differences, and theory elaboration. In so doing, we identify important future research questions on within-person performance variability and methodological challenges in addressing these research questions. Finally, we highlight how the conventional practical implications articulated on the basis of a static, between-person perspective on job performance may need to be modified to account for the dynamic, within-person nature of performance.