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Review of Fossil Fuels and Future Energy Technologies


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Fossil fuels production peaks, declines and depletions depend on their proved reserves, exploration and consumption rates. Worldwide proven oil, gas and coal reserves are 1,688 Billion barrels (Bb), 6,558 Trillion Cubic Feet (TCF) and 891 Billion tons (Bt) being consumed at rates of 0.092 Bb, 0.329 TCF and 7.89 BT per day, respectively. The oil, gas and coal reserves are increasing at the rate of 600 Million barrels (Mb), 400 Billion Cubic Feet (BCF) and 19.2 Giga Tons of Oil Equivalents (GTOE) per year. While the rate of annual increase in consumption of oil, gas and coal is 1.4Mb, 4.5BCF and 3.1 Million tons (Mt). Global annual energy demand of over 12 Billion Tons of Oil Equivalent (BTOE) results in the emission of 39.5 Giga tons of carbon dioxide (Gt-CO2), and the annual CO2 emission would increase up to 75 Gt-CO2 when future energy demand will rise to 24 to 25 BTOE. Oil, gas and coal may continue to exist for next several decades, yet the energy transition to low carbon intensity fuels is necessary to cope with rampant climate changes. Renewable and alternative energy sources hold key to the solution of twin problems, energy and climate change, with a high initial investment. Transition from fossil fuels to sustainable and renewable energy resources of 150 Petawatt hours (PWh) requires major investment and innovatory technologies. Perhaps CO2 and H2O based fuel systems would facilitate climate change and grand energy transition. An energy mix consisting of fossil fuels, hydrogen, bio-fuels, and renewable energy sources seems to be a good initiative. This paper reviews evidence of hydrocarbons decline scenarios and timelines of future energy technologies
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Review of fossil fuels and future energy technologies
N. Abas, A. Kalair, N. Khan *
Department of Electrical Engineering, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, H/Q Campus, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan
1. Introduction
Oil peaking is the point in time when the rate of petroleum extraction reaches its highest plateau (Laherre
`re, 2000). Based
on local oil and gas production peaking experience, prediction of King Hubbert in 1956 about the production of US oil fields
hitting the highest point in the 1960s, proved correct (Hubbert, 1956). Based on the successful prediction of indigenous oil
production peak (Hubbert, 1949), King Hubbert predicted global oil production to reach a peak plateau in 1995 (Hubbert,
1971), however, this timeline was extended due to subsequent oil discoveries (Hirsch, 2007). Global oil reserves were only
500 Bb in 1970 which were predicted to end by 1995 (Hubbert, 1971); yet due to new explorations, after two decades the
world had 900 Bb despite consumption of 600 Bb. Oil and gas reserves increase rates were 0.11 Mb and 7.4 trillion cubic
meter (TCM) per year in 2010 as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively (BP, 2014).
So far global oil, gas and coal reserves are steadily increasing without any immediate depletion threat in sight, yet fossil
fuels are finite resources. Despite climate change, population increase and inflation the living standards are rising over time.
Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
Article history:
Available online 31 March 2015
Oil peaking
Climate change
Energy crisis
Energy transition
Energy futures
Fossil fuels production peaks, declines and depletions depend on their proved reserves,
exploration and consumption rates. Worldwide proven oil, gas and coal reserves are
1688 billion barrels (Bb), 6558 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and 891 billion tons (Bt) being
consumed at rates of 0.092 Bb, 0.329 TCF and 7.89 BT per day, respectively. The oil, gas and
coal reserves are increasing at th e rate of 600 million barrels (Mb), 400 billion cubic feet
(BCF) and 19.2 Giga tons of oil equivalents (GTOE) per year. While the rate of annual
increase in consumption of oil, gas and coal is 1.4 Mb, 4.5 BCF and 3.1 million tons (Mt).
Global annual energy demand of over 12 billion tons of oil equivalent (BTOE) results in the
emission of 39.5 Giga tons of carbon dioxide (Gt-CO
), and the annual CO
emission would
increase up to 75 Gt-CO
when future energy demand will rise to 24–25 BTOE. Oil, gas and
coal may continue to exist for next several decades, yet the energy transition to low carbon
intensity fuels is necessary to cope with rampant climate [32_TD$DIFF]change. Renewable and
alternative energy sources hold key to the solution of twin problems, energy and climate
change, with a high initial investment. Transition from fossil fuels to sustainable and
renewable energy resources of 150 Petawatt hours (PWh) requires major investment and
innovatory technologies. Perhaps CO
and H
O based fuel systems would facilitate climate
change and grand energy transition. An energy mix consisting of fossil fuels, hydrogen,
bio-fuels, and renewable energy sources seems to be a good initiative. This paper reviews
evidence of hydrocarbons decline scenarios and timelines of future energy technologies.
ß2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +92 3006490048; fax: +92 03006490048.
E-mail address: (N. Khan).
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
journal homepage:
0016-3287/ß2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Human prosperity may substantially be attributed to the discovery and utilization of fossil fuels, the reserves of which,
though limited in nature, are increasing to date. Oil peaking has, no doubt, become an academic debate with no concurrence
to date (Cheney & Hawkes, 2007). The optimists believe that the planet earth has an abundant quantity of oil and its
production rate will rise to peak in 2100 at the rate of about 105 million barrels per day (Mbpd) and decline to 40 Mbpd by
2400 (Trendlines, 2012). However, the pessimists trust in the oil era is over (Heinberg, 2005); gas shall be peaking soon
(Darley, 2004) marking the end of the hydrocarbon age (Goodstein, 2005). According to pessimistic reports, the peak oil
occurred in 2009 at a production rate of 86 Mbpd and global oil production will decline to 40 Mbpd by 2050. A moderate view
holds that the oil production will peak in 2025 at the rate of 120 Mbpd but will decline to 40 Mbpd by 2115. The majority of
scientists argues that the world oil production has either peaked already or will be peaking in coming few years (Cohen, 2009;
Deffeyes, 2002; Simmons, 2007) while oil and gas professionals consider the oil peaking as no more a relevant topic now,
because it was conceived long ago (Chapman, 2014). The oil depletion scenario may be attributed to supply chain
disconnection due to the oil embargo in 1970s and decline in oil demand due to paradigm shift toward energy efficient cars,
electricity and gas heating in the late 1970s and early 1980s (Toth & Rogner, 2006). Energy experts have various opinions on
the decline rate after the occurrence of peak oil production between 2000 and 2030 with peak production rates varying from
75 to 120 Mbpd. The decline of oil production rate determines the actual decline profile. Several terms like ultimate, ultimate
resources (UR) and ultimate recoverable resources (URR) are used to describe total oil and gas reserves in the earth. Normally[33_TD$DIFF],
fossil fuel reserves are expressed by proved (1P), probable (2P) and possible (3P) reserves. Oil and gas resources are called
reserves, contingent resources and prospective resources. According to BP statistical review of world energy, proved world oil
reserves at the end of 2013 were 1687.9 Bb (BP, 2014). There will be peak oil in the near future, but experts are not aware of
the exact date (Andrews & Udall, 2003; EIA, 2013; Gail, 2012; Ho
¨k, 2010; Pedro & Pedro, 2009; Tea, 2008; Towler, 2014).
Environmentalists advise to minimize the use of fossil fuels due to their adverse effects on nature irrespective of repletion or
depletion. Environmentalists relate the peak production of oil and gas with peak emission of CO
, which is so far constantly
rising (402 ppm in 2014) (Aleklett, 2007). There is no chemical process which can clean ballooning volumes of CO
from the atmosphere. Energy experts have started thinking of sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling H
O and CO
renewable energy resources (Christopher, Sune, Mogens, & Klaus, 2011). CO
capture and sequestration (CCS) process may
help in converting CO
back into hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of H
O as it converted vegetation and dead animals into
fossil fuels over tens of millions of years in the past (Hu, Guild, & Suib, 2013). Meanwhile, using CO
as refrigerant may help
Fig. 1. Annual oil reserves increase rates from 1980 to 2013.
Fig. 2. Annual gas reserves increase rates from 1980 to 2013.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
mitigate climate change, as discussed in our preceding work (Abas & Khan, 2014; Nease & Adamsm, 2014). Solar, wind,
geothermal, wood, carbon dioxide and water are being examined to replace oil, but there is no apparent success to date. It is [34_TD$DIFF]in
time to explore new and efficient energy systems for the post-carbon era (Greer, 2009).
The fossil fuels account for about 86% of the global primary energy demand which is rising gradually. At present, oil, gas,
coal, renewable and alternative energy resources have a share of 36%, 27%, 23% and 14%, respectively, in the global energy
While solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and hydal accounts for 8% and nuclear power has a just 6% fragment. The situation
is likely to worsen after oil peak in 2015 at 30 Gb/year, gas in 2035 at 132 TCF/year and coal in 2052 at 4.5 GTOE/year (Maggio
& Cacciola, 2012). We are consuming fossil fuels at the rate of 0.001 Mb per second[35_TD$DIFF], producing 29 Gt of CO
per year out of
which hardly 6.8 Gt [36_TD$DIFF]gets absorbed in the natural [37_TD$DIFF]processes and the remaining 10.2 Gt [38_TD$DIFF]enters into the atmosphere (Bilanovic,
Angargatchew, Kroeger, & Shelef, 2009).
The world is producing oil, natural gas and coal at the rate of 87.4 Mb (11.92 MTOE), 329 BCF (8.225 MTOE) and 21.63 MT
(14.42 MTOE) per day, respectively. The global sum of oil, gas and coal production, in terms of equivalent oil yields at the rate
of 0.002933 Mb per second, is three times higher than the earlier claim of 0.001 Mb per second (Peter, 2007). Currently,
consumption of 87.4 Mb per day is likely to decline to 39 Mb by 2030. World hydrocarbons reserves, production rates and
depletion dates assuming no future discoveries are shown in Table 1.
Oil, gas and coal depletion dates, calculated on the basis of current reserves and production rates without including future
discoveries, are not defined as the reserves are on the rise today. The rate of rise is declining; therefore, ultimate depletion is
unsure. Independent reviews on oil, gas and coal depletion indicate that the decline in terminal fossil fuels will trigger food,
water and security crises (Friedrichs, 2010; Nel, 2008; Sorrell, Speirs, Bentley, Brandt, & Miller, 2010). Energy experts are
afraid of the rise in food price (Chen, Kuo, & Chen, 2010) and political instability (Igor, 2009) by fast depletion of oil in the
world market. Energy and food crises are likely to start decades before real end of hydrocarbons due to shortage [39_TD$DIFF]of electricity,
fuel and food. The production of oil increased from 77 to 85.6 Mb/day (2002–2009) followed by an increase in cost from
$26.18 to $149.67/barrel. The oil production cost may range from $20 to $25/barrel, but its price at fuel stations exceeds
$159/barrel due to processing and transport charges. Global natural growth rates will decline to 1.69% by 2025, 1.30% by
2035 and 1.19% by 2050. The renewable and alternative energy sources may cause variation in the effective global growth
rate from 1 to 2% in different countries. Coal and water based economies will be affected lesser compared to the imported oil
based economies (Waisman, Rozenberg, Sassi, & Hourcade, 2010). Energy experts forecast oil prices to be in the range of
$200/barrel by 2050 as shown in Fig. 3.
In 2008, oil prices suddenly went higher up to $149/barrel, which cannot be justified using any model. Such momentary
surges and sags may be attributed to geopolitical instabilities and circulating rumors. Actual oil prices dipped in 2009 from
Table 1
Global fossil fuel statistics based on proved reserves.
Fuels Total reserves Production/day End (date)
Oil 1.689 Tb 86.81 Mb 2066
Gas 6558 TCF 326 BCF 2068
Coal 891.531 BT 21.63 MT 2126
End dates may shift ahead after new discoveries.
Fig. 3. World oil prices and theoretical forecasts.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
$149 to $30/barrel for some time[40_TD$DIFF] and then rebounded again. The current plunge (2015) in oil process is being attributed to
fresh restoration of Libyan and Iraqi oil supplies. US oil production has become comparable to Saudi Arabia. Oversupply of oil
during global economic recession has led to decline in oil prices. This trend might continue up to 2017 until either shale oil
producers fail to compete or economic recovery starts accelerating. Economic benefits derived from the use of fossil fuels
have decreased death rates due to increase in health facilities. Economic expansion, climate change and population are the
lexis nexus today. Social scientists (Ehrlich, 1968) warned of the potential threat of population explosion due to spiraling
food, energy and security issues. Exponential population growth and rising energy demands are shown in Fig. 4 (Luiz & Lima,
According to statistical data of US Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the International Energy Agency (IEA), the
global power consumption, including transportation, industry, residential and commercial use is about 16–17 TW in
2006 with exponentially increasing trends.
Machines waste a lot more energy to produce 16–17 PW power due to 40–50% conversion efficiency. Total energy
reserves consist of fossils such as coal (290 ZJ), oil (57ZJ) and gas (30 ZJ); while the rest come from nuclear (uranium) and
solar energy as shown in Table 2.
Growing global population (200,000 persons per day) causes an exponential increase inenergy demand on limited fossil fuel
reserves. It is more painful to have many children dying with hunger and diseases than parenting lesser children. Over
650 childrendie with curablediseases, shortage offood and clean water everyyear in the Thar desertin Pakistan. In the Southern
Punjab and Northern regions, parents send their children to religious schools (Madrassas) due to fat fees of smart schools. If we
express the energy reserves in terms of time of the day, then currently we are experiencing dusk of oil, the high noon of gas,
forenoon of coal and dawn of renewable energy sources. The energy reserves in terms of time of day are shown in Fig. 5.
Fig. 4. Population and energy demand growth.
Fig. 5. Rise, peak and decline of energy sources.
Table 2
Natural energy resources available to humankind.
Source Sun Fossils Clathrates
Energy (J) [1_TD$DIFF]3.8 10
36 10
1.5 10
2.5 10
Energy (kWh) 1 10
10 10
4.17 10
694 10
Methane calathrates; conversion rate 1 kWh = 3.6 10
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
2. Twilight in deserts
Historically, the crude was used for street lighting in Mesopotamia in 5000BC. Vegetable oils were produced
commercially thousands of years ago. Conventional petroleum oil was discovered in 1859 during the industrial revolution.
Oil peaking discussion was investigated in the light of oil production rates (Aleklett et al., 2008), oil formation theories
(Tsatskin & Balaban, 2008), four stages (Ugo, 2009), seven suppositions basis (Sovacool, 2011) and long term forecasts (Mohr
& Evans, 2009). Proved global oil reserves were 1065.9 Bb in 1995, 1353.1 Bb in 2005 and 1688.5 Bb in 2014. Oil reserve’s
history indicates that it is rising at a low rate of 600 Mb/year as shown in Fig. 6.
King Hubert’s curve reflects a tentative picture of fossil fuels peaks, declines and depletions using normal distributions,
but the actual oil production decline profile would be similar to long tail natural lightning type events. The oil production
rate was 67.99 Mb/day in 1995, 82.107 Mb/day in 2005 and 87.365 Mb/day currently in 2014. The oil production rate is
increasing at a slow rate of 0.557 Mb/year as shown in Fig. 7.
The oil consumption rate was 70.364 Mb/day in 1995, 84.389 Mb/day in 2005 and 92.73 Mb/day currently in 2014. Oil
consumption is increasing steadily at a rate of 1.4 Mb/year as shown in Fig. 8.
Some 6.8% researchers believe that the oil production has already peaked before 2007 whereas 37.9% are of the opinion[41_TD$DIFF]
that the oil peaking [42_TD$DIFF]occured between 2008 and 2012, 34.5% believe it [43_TD$DIFF]peaked between 2012 and 2013, 0.1% guess it will
touch the peak between 2013 and 2022 while 20.7% claim it will peak in 2023 or later (Pedro & Pedro, 2011). A scatter plot of
individual [44_TD$DIFF]opinions on expected peak year for conventional oil extraction is shown in Fig. 9.
3. High noon for natural gas
Natural gas was used by the ancient Chinese to transform sea water into salt. Eternal natural gas fires emanating in
Azerbaijani and Persian regions were considered Holy Fires in ancient times. Natural gas is the second most popular fossil
Fig. 6. Proved global oil reserves variations with time.
Fig. 7. Global oil production variations for last 100 years.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
fuel yet it is subject to peak production, decline and depletion as oil (Bentley, 2008). Mankind started utilizing natural gas
soon after oil causing its peak to occur accordingly. Several studies have reviewed production and consumption trends of
global gas reserves (Laherre
`re, Perrodon, & Campbell, 1996) and forecast gas peak within decades of oil peak (Startzman &
Barrufet, 2004). Oil and gas experts predict the natural gas peaking time line within a decade of oil peaking. Global natural
gas demand is rising for space and water heating and electric power production primarily due to the high efficiency of gas
turbines (Al-Fattah & Startzman, 2000). Natural gas peaking may delay significantly due to the discovery of shale gas in many
countries (Garcia & Mohaghegh, 2004). Worldwide natural gas reserves were 120 TCF in 1995, 156.9 TCF in 2005 and
186.1 TCF in 2014. Global proved natural gas reserves are increasing over time at rate of 400 BCF/year as shown in Fig. 10.
Natural gas production rate was 204.5 BCF/day in 1995, 268.8 BCF/day in 2005 and 329.4 BCF/day in 2014. The gas
production rate has been increasing at a lower rate of 3.4 BCF/year as shown in Fig. 11.
Global gas consumption rate was estimated to be 206.4 BCF per day in 1995, the rate increased 30% in 2005 and reached at
328.4 BCF/day in 2014. At present, the annual consumption rate of gas is 4.5 BCF as shown in Fig. 12.
Global current natural gas production rate is 3.4 BCF/year which is quite lower than its increasing consumption rate of
4.5 BCF/year.We must reduce gas consumption rate to delay gas peaking. Americanshale gas[45_TD$DIFF] discoveryhas reduced natural gas
demand in the worldmarket (Al-Fattah,2005). Global ultimate natural gas reservesestimate may vary from 9500 to 15,400 TCF.
4. Forenoon for coal
Cole played a major role in getting the industrial revolution off the ground. Coal fired steam engines started the industrial
revolution, developing earlier rail system. Mankind has been using coal since millennia, yet it was taken as regular fuel after
the invention of steam engine. Steam engines were replaced by diesel and electric engines by the middle of the 20th century.
There are huge reserves of coal in various parts of the world. China (Lin & Liu, 2010; Tao & Li, 2007) and America (Ho
¨k and
Aleklett, 2009; Ho
¨k, Zittel, Schindler, & Aleklett, 2010) are the largest coal producers and consumers. Coal production and
Fig. 8. Word oil consumption rate in last 100 years.
Fig. 9. Reported peak oil production years.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
utilization would continue to increase due to decline and depletions of oil and gas in the future (Mohr & Evans, 2009). Coal
fired power plants produce 14–15 Gt of CO
every year which is 49–50% of global CO
emission. Global sum of anthracite,
bituminous, sub-bituminous and lignite coal reserves is 891.531 trillion tons[5_TD$DIFF]. In 1990, geologists discovered 189 billion tons
of coal in the Thar desert in Pakistan. Thar coal reserves were found during drilling holes for hand water pumps at the end of
Fig. 11. Natural gas production variations over time.
Fig. 12. Natural gas consumption rates over time.
Fig. 10. Variation of natural gas reserves over time.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
1980s. There might be yet many similar coal reserves in different developing countries. Global coal production rate was
2.867 GTOE in 2000, 3.548 GTOE in 2010 and is 3.901 GTOE in 2014. World coal production is increasing at a rate of
19.20 GTOE/year as shown in Fig. 13.
World coal consumption was 2.2146 GTOE in 1990, 2.3429 GTOE in 2000 and 2.9297 GTOE today in 2014. World coal
consumption rate has been rising at an average rate of 103 MTOE/year as shown in Fig. 14.
Global coal consumption rate of 103 MTOE/year is higher than global coal reserves increase rate of 19.2 MTOE/year. Thus,
coal is also subject to peak, decline and depletion (Patzek & Croft, 2010). Global ultimate coal reserves vary from 550 to
750 GTOE.
In the last decade, global total oil consumption rate was 4000 MTOE which is expected to decline to 1000 MTOE by
2050 due to depletion of most oil reserves. Global oil production has declined[6_TD$DIFF] to 26 Mb/day in 2010 which is likely to further
decline in coming decades. Natural gas production has increased from 2300 to 2750 MTOE during 2000 to 2010, and experts
believe this rate will[7_TD$DIFF] peak at 3200 MTOE in[8_TD$DIFF] 2025[46_TD$DIFF] then decline to 1300 MTOE by 2050.
Coal production has increased from 2400 in 2000 to 3450 MTOE in 2010 and is likely to peak at 3650 MTOE by 2035 and
decline to 2700 MTOE in 2050 and 1350MTOE by 2070 (Rutledge, 2011). Global renewable energy supply was 15 MTOE in
1990, 20 MTOE in 2000 and 45 MTOE in 2010 that is likely to increase to 200 MTOE by 2040 and 300 MTOE by 2050. Total
hydrocarbon demand was 10.70 GTOE in 2005 which is likely to be[47_TD$DIFF] more than 12 GTOE by [48_TD$DIFF]2015 [49_TD$DIFF]and 10[50_TD$DIFF]GTOE [39_TD$DIFF]by
2035. Worldwide gas fields, oil wells and coal mines supply 21 Gb/year (3.066 GTOE), 29 Gb/year (4.234 GTOE), and 27 Gb/
year (3.942 GTOE), respectively. Fossil fuel reserves are in a fixed quantity subject to decline in coming decades (Gavin &
Andrew, 2010).
Conventional oil and gas reserves may deplete in the second half of this century, yet it is not the final end of oil and gas
(Lynch, 1999). Even if the oil is going to peak or decline, it would not deplete in the next 50–60 years (Nick, Oliver, & David,
2010). Oil and gas depletion would be the next generation problem, not an immediate concern (Renato, 2011. Total
recoverable shale gas reserves amount to 7299 TCF. US hydrofracking has reduced natural gas prices in the world energy
Fig. 13. Worldwide coal production over time.
Fig. 14. World coal consumption rates over time.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
A grand energy transition (GET) is underway from solid to gas phase fuels (Robert, 2009). Gas phase fuels can directly be
ignited to run internal combustion engines. Inaccessible deep subsurface coal would be converted into water gas using
underground coal gasification (UCG) technique. Hydrogen, methane and water gas may be transported through the same
[51_TD$DIFF]pipeline [52_TD$DIFF]akin to composite AC/DC[10_TD$DIFF] transmission [53_TD$DIFF]system. World community currently uses 79–80% fossil fuels and 20–21%
renewable energy resources. The global community has a time period of five decades to increase renewable energy currently
from 20 to 50% by 2050 and 80% by 2100. The ultimate energy solution will come from innovatory cold or laser fusion
(Edward, 2010) that will continue to exist for long until any new energy source like heat, electricity and light will be
invented. Pessimistic notion that lack of energy would lead to the demise of the high-technology countries is a misleading
exaggeration which would never happen at all (Bockris, 2007). It is our experience that scarcities, shortages and wars
accelerate technological developments. For instance, coal to gas or oil conversion method was developed during WW-II
(Gavin & Andrew, 2010).
5. Dawn for innovatory energy technologies
Reviews on solar (Solangi, Islam, Saidur, Rahim, & Fayaz, 2011), wind (Herbert, Iniyanb, Sreevalsan, & Rajapandian, 2007),
hydrogen (Moriarty & Damon, 2009), Bioenergy (Faaij, 2006), artificial photosynthesis (Pearce, 2002), fission (Duffey, 2005)
and fusion (NAP, 2013) show that natural and artificial resources other than fossil fuels can meet world energy demand.
World energy resources surveys (WEC, 2010) show that hydrogen and nuclear (Shinzo, 2010) energies can play significant
role in addition to natural renewable energy sources. Solar [54_TD$DIFF]insolation [55_TD$DIFF]of 125–375 W/m
[12_TD$DIFF] is equivalent to [56_TD$DIFF]1.25–[57_TD$DIFF]3.37 kWh/m
day. An average photovoltaic panel, with 15% efficiency, may deliver [58_TD$DIFF]0.18–[59_TD$DIFF]0.5k Wh/m
/day[13_TD$DIFF]. The solar cell conversion
efficiency has steadily increased from 6% (1954) to 40% (2006) [60_TD$DIFF]during last 52 years. [61_TD$DIFF]Solar power generation capacity was
3.7 TWh (0.6 MTOE) in 2005, 30.5 TWh (6.9 MTOE) in 2010 and 124.8 TWh (28.2 MTOE) in 2013. Global installed
accumulative solar power generation capacities were negligible in 1995 which have now grown to over 177 GW today.
Installed capacity is limited by solar cell production rates[62_TD$DIFF].[63_TD$DIFF]Solar [64_TD$DIFF]power [65_TD$DIFF]capacity is rising at a rate yet of 37.76 GW/year as
shown in Fig. 15.
Theoretical wind power intensities vary from 80 to 9560 W/m
at a speed of 5–25 m/s.
Global wind resource varies from 55 to 1000 PWh/year (Manwell, Mcgowan, & Rogers, 2009). Wind energy [66_TD$DIFF]application for
[67_TD$DIFF]power [68_TD$DIFF]generation started five to six decades ago. Worldwide accumulative wind energy capacity was limited to 104.5 TWh
(9.4 MTOE) in 1995 which increased to 343.2 TWh (98.6 MTOE) in 2010 and 628.2 TWh (142.2 MTOE) in 2013. [69_TD$DIFF]Global
accumulated installed wind power capacity was 17.93 GW in 2000, 59.18 GW in 2005, 197.72 GW in 2010 and 319.91 GW in
2013. Global wind power capacity is increasing at a fast rate of 35.42 GW/year as shown in Fig. 16.
Worldwide accumulative geothermal energy capacity was limited to 230.3 TWh (52.1 MTOE) in 2003 which increased to
316.2 TWh (71.5 MTOE) in 2008 and to 481.3 TWh (108.9MTOE) in 2013. Worldwide accumulated installed geothermal
power capacity was 6.755 GW in 1995, 9.323 GW in 2005, 11.12GW in 2010 and 11.71 GW in 2013. Worldwide geothermal
power capacity is increasing at a slow rate of 0.348 GW/year as shown in Fig. 17.
Hydroelectricity is the second largest[16_TD$DIFF] source for power production. [70_TD$DIFF]Global accumulative hydroelectric capacity was[71_TD$DIFF]
limited to 922.8 TWh in 1965 which increased to 2487.7 TWh by 1995 and 3879.9 TWh [72_TD$DIFF]by 2014. Hydroelectricity of
3787 TWh replaces 855.8 MTOE. Developing Hydel power stations requires a large investment, but in the long run such
systems have the lowest operating cost. Hydropower capacity is increasing steadily at a rate of 97.9 TWh/year as shown in
Fig. 18.
Energy harvested from other renewable sources such as ocean tidal and wave power sources is also on constant rise.
Worldwide energy consumption using small scale renewable sources has been [73_TD$DIFF]only 5 TWh in 1965 [74_TD$DIFF]that increased to
1404 TWh in 2014. It is increasing steadily at the rate of 170 TWh/year as shown in Fig. 19.
Fig. 15. Worldwide accumulative installed solar power capacities over time.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
Population and economic growth quest for more electricity. Electric energy generation was 15.41 PWh in 2000,
18.33 PWh in 2005, 21.42 PWh in 2010 and 23.62 PWh now in 2014. Electric energy generation is increasing at a fast rate of
492 [75_TD$DIFF]TWh/year as shown in Fig. 20.
Fig. 16. Worldwide accumulative installed wind power capacities over time.
Fig. 17. Worldwide accumulative installed geothermal power capacities.
Fig. 18. Hydropower increase over times worldwide.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
Rampant power and energy demand is supplied by multiple sources. According to Campbell’s peak, [76_TD$DIFF]today 86% global
energy demand is being met by fossil fuels[77_TD$DIFF] only. Nuclear, hydro, geothermal, biomass and combined solar and wind supply 8,
2.7, 0.3, 2.8 and 0.2% of global energy demand[78_TD$DIFF] respectively. Primary energy consumption by fuels is shown in Table 3.
Oil, gas and coal would remain dominant energy sources in the coming decades. Nuclear energy was 8–9% of global
demand, but decreased to 4–5% after Fukushima Nuclear Catastrophe and surged again after resumption in 2014. Many
countries have stopped their under execution and future planned nuclear power projects. Nuclear energy was 25.7 TWh in
1965, 1482 TWh in 1985, 2761 TWh in 2005 and 2489 TWh (563.2 MTOE) in 2013. Nuclear energy is increasing at the rate of
14.6 TWh/year as shown in Fig. 21.
Biotechnology has made possible to convert biomass into gasoline. Biofuels are getting popular worldwide. Brazil has
long experience of using ethanol. In view of the food crisis, the biofuels technology faces some limitations. Worldwide total
biofuels production capacity was 142 kboe/day in 1990 which has now increased to 1387 kboe/day today in 2014. Global
biofuels production of 61.752 Mboe in 2013 replaced 1.237 MTOE in 2013. Biofuels are increasing worldwide at a rate of
75 Kobe/year as shown in Fig. 22.
Fig. 19. Energy obtained from other renewable energy sources.
Fig. 20. Worldwide accumulative electric energy over time.
Table 3
Primary energy consumption by fuels today.
Source 2012 (GTOE) 2013 (GTOE) 2014 (GTOE) % Share
Oil 4.1389 4.1851 4.2313 32.60
Gas 2.9863 3.0204 3.0545 23.53
Coal 3.7237 3.8267 3.9297 30.27
Nuclear 0.5599 0.5632 0.5665 4.36
Hydro 0.8336 0.8568 0.8800 6.78
Renewables 0.2408 0.2793 0.3178 2.45
Total 12.4832 12.7304 12.9798 100
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
Primary energy consumption consists of fossil fuels (86.40%) and renewable and alternative energy sources (13.60%).
Worldwide total primary energy consumption was 9.342 GTOE in 2000, 10.714 GTOE in 2005, 11.955 GTOE in 2010 and
12.730 GTOE in 2013. Total primary energy consumption is increasing at a rate of 243 MTOE/year as shown in Fig. 23.
The planet has a huge renewable resource, hundreds time more than our needs, which are awaiting to be harvested.
[79_TD$DIFF]Nature has 1700 TW wind, 6500TW photovoltaic[19_TD$DIFF] power potentials out of which we have yet harvested [80_TD$DIFF]350 GW [81_TD$DIFF]wind and
[82_TD$DIFF]150 GW[83_TD$DIFF] solar powers as shown in Fig. 24.
Global energy demands may be met with solar, wind and water watts (Jacobson & Deluchhi, 2011). World power demand
is hardly 17 TW per year, which can be supplied with sun or wind alone (Perez & Perez, 2009). Discovery of fusion and CO
based fuel would be the ultimate answer.
All fossil fuel reserves, known to humankind, are equal to 20 days’ sunshine. Renewable energy resources have the virtual
potential to supply thousands time more energy than the current global demand of 17.12 TW-year or 150 PWh (Omar,
Haitam, & Frede, 2014). The earth receives 89 PW solar energy. Sunshine, coal, uranium, petroleum, natural gas and wind are
the largest energy sources available to humankind. Abundant renewable energy sources and innovatory technologies, in
principle, can facilitate the gradual energy transition over the time.
6. Grand energy transition
The term ‘‘energy transition’’ refers to the paradigm shift of energy policy and sustainable system development by means
of renewable energy phasing out the fossil fuels. A sustainable energy system must be environmentally friendly and
economically viable. Significant energy transition policy [84_TD$DIFF]visions [85_TD$DIFF]include German 80–95% GHG emissions reduction by 2050,
Japanese nuclear phase out by 2040, French 60% GHG emissions reduction by 2040 and the Danish decision to increase wind
power share to 50% by 2020. The committee on transition to alternative vehicles and fuels in USA assessed the potential of
alternative fuels and GHG reduction for light duty vehicles (LDVs) fleet. LDVs are responsible for half of total USA’s petroleum
consumption and 17% GHG emissions. The study was aimed at reduction of petroleum consumption and GHG by 50 and 80%,
respectively, by the year 2050. The impact of highly efficient Internal Combustion Engines (ICE), expected to be available by
Fig. 21. Nuclear energy development over times.
Fig. 22. Global biofuels productions over time.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
next two decades, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Plug in Electric Vehicles ([86_TD$DIFF]PHEVs), Battery Electric Vehicles ([87_TD$DIFF]BHEVs), Fuel
Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) and Compressed Natural Gas Electric Vehicles ([88_TD$DIFF]CNGEVs) was incorporated in the future energy
mix fleet. The committee results show that high fractures cost ($2000–$3000) of hydrogen, biofuels and electric vehicles will
be a limiting factor as compared to current petroleum based vehicles ($530). Incorporating hydrogen, electricity and bio-
fuels options with 10% each in LDVs fleet would require 250,000 kg of platiuium, 28 GW of night time energy and 12 billion
gallons of gasoline per year. This entails an investment of $38 billion, $16–$42, $50–$70 billion to run the energy mix fleet
system (National Research Council[20_TD$DIFF], 2013).
Energy phases and forms had always been changing in human history. Energy phase has been transformed over time from
solids to liquids and gases and energy forms from high emissions and pollutions to low carbon clean technologies. On
environmental pollution, China and India in the 21st century, represent the true picture of Europe at the start of the 19th
century when coal powered industrial revolution took place.
Hydrogen has a huge market for heating, power generation and transport industries (Will, 2014). Fossil fuels produce 30–
31 Gt of CO
out of which half comes from coal power plants (Kathleen, 2014). Mitigation of CO
emissions is the basis of grand
energy transition which encompasses sustainable energy systems, access to clean energy, energy security, climate change and
food chain systems. The polluter pays principle type proposals [89_TD$DIFF]are good initiatives but [90_TD$DIFF]so [91_TD$DIFF]far taken as attuned to regional
idiosyncratic nuances. The first step should be reduction of CO
emissions, which would catapult the overall energy transition
process. Environmentalists believe that the idea of fighting climate change through climate engineering would not help
without reducing the use of fossil fuels irrespective of their earlier or later depletions (Ming, Renaud, Liu, & Caillot, 2014).
The challenges we face today are looming energy crisis and climate change. European energy transition [92_TD$DIFF]policy [93_TD$DIFF]shows
catching two birds with one renewable energy stone (Felix et al., 2014) and Swedish low carbon district heating attempt
(Lorenzo & Karin, 2014) are guidelines for others. Oil heating/cooling plants may be run by waste energy from industry,
power houses, fuel gases, biomass, geothermal and municipal waste. If carbon capture and storage facility is integrated with
coal, then it can also be used as primary fuel for district heating. Energy experts believe that drawing on CO
based business
Fig. 23. Total primary energy consumption over time.
Fig. 24. Global power potential and harvested energies.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
would solve climate change problem (Abas & Khan, 2014). Capturing, utilization and storage of CO
produced by combustion
of fossil fuels and its concentration in the atmosphere may attribute to use of fossil fuels [94_TD$DIFF]during energy transition period.
Energy efficiency requires a huge sum of $38 trillion amount to augment and renovate the energy infrastructures. Smart
grid (Gellings, 2009), energy conservation based negawatt (Gulbinas, Jain, & Taylor, 2014) approaches plead efficient use of
energy, but the experience has shown that increase in efficiency also increases energy demand by expansion of industries.
The decline of oil prices in January 2015 led to petrol crisis in Pakistan. The concept of infinite growth with finite fossil fuel
reserves seems obscure (Josh, Reiner, & Aseem, 2011). Oil, gas and coal are major sources of CO
emissions [95_TD$DIFF]forming 86% of [96_TD$DIFF]the
global fuel mix. Worldwide CO
emissions were only 11.746 Gt CO
in the 1970s, which increased to 20.34 Gt CO
in 1985,
23.485 Gt CO
in 1995, 29.479 Gt CO
in 2005 and [97_TD$DIFF]more than 35.72 Gt CO
today. CO
emissions due to burning fossil fuels
and biomasses are steadily increasing at a rate of 630 MTCO
/year as shown in Fig. 25.
There are several ways of optimizing the fuel mix by replacing some fossil fuels with renewable energies and enhancing
conversion efficiencies (John, 2007). Current halt in global warming trend may be attributed to exponential growth in
renewable, delay in 25th solar cycle and oceans’ CO
absorptions (Ernest, 2005). Energy experts correlate CO
peaking with fossil fuel peaking (Robert, 2008) and others relate it to human activities (Hui & Gabriel, 2005). A world
community of 7.2 billion persons emits[22_TD$DIFF] 2.63 Gt CO
/year which is easily absorbed by nearby trees and lakes. All power and
energy sources emit greenhouse gases, but fossil fuels have higher emissions compared to other sources. We use 86% fossil
fuels which is the major cause of rampant CO
emissions. Rate of rise in oil, gas and coal demands shows that the CO
emissions will continue to rise in future. Keeling curve of CO
records shows that the CO
concentrations in the air have
exceeded 400 ppm and rate of rise is yet increasing. The way we produce and consume energy would lead to high CO
concentrations and temperature rise. The world needs an urgent energy transition from high to low carbon fuels. Under
450 ppm Scenario, 65% CO
emissions are related to power generation, 16% to transport, 11% to industry, 4% to buildings and
4% to other sources (IEA, 2011).
The IEA believes the current total primary energy supply (TPES) of 12 BTOE may increase to 17 BTOE (22.6 TW) by
2035 under new policies and to 18.3 BTOE (24.3 TW) under the 450 scenarios (IEA, 2011), according to Shell TPES would
increase to 14.9 BTOE (19.8 TW) by 2035 and 21 BTOE (27.9 TW) by 2050 (Shell, 2009). European Commission perceives that
the TPES would increase to 22.3 BTOE (29.6 TW) by 2050 (EC, 2006). A recent Norwegian study claimed the TPES would
increase to 19.8 BTOE (26.3 TW) by 2035 and 24.5 BTOE (32.7 TW) by 2050 (Narbel & Hansen, 2014). Lighting load used to be
10% of residential electricity loads which declined to 5% after widespread use of energy saving lights. Experience has shown
that due to replacement factors the energy efficient lights had exhibited 6% rebound effect in Europe (Schleich, Mills, &
Dutschke, 2014).
The grand transition is a capital intensive venture as it takes $1600 billions to supply world energy demands today. It
would need $24 trillions to meet the new demands to appear in the future from 2014 to 2035. Power sector needs $16.37
trillions to upgrade transmission, distribution, power plants and renewable.
Oil, gas, coal, biofuels sectors need 13.67, 8.77, 1.034, 0.320trillion dollars,respectively. To make a successful transition from
2014 to 2035 it needs more than $8 trillion in efficiency of end user in residential, transport and energy sectors and over $40
trillion on fossil fuels (IEA, 2014). Due to low EROEI and the oil depletion stories, the investors suffer the leverage effect which
affects investment in the energy sectors (Ladislav, 2014). New global investments in oil and gas sector increased from 2004 to
2011but started decliningagain after2012 ([98_TD$DIFF]Ellabban,Abu-Rub & [99_TD$DIFF]Blaabjerg, 2014).The recent plungein oil prices hasdiscouraged
investment in oil and gas exploration. US shale oil producers are biting their nails [100_TD$DIFF]how to[101_TD$DIFF] compete the cheap crude oil.
Energy storage systems are key components of future sustainable energy systems. The potential benefits include seasonal
storage, frequency regulation, load flowing, voltage support, demand shifting, peak reduction, variable supply resource
Fig. 25. Annual CO
emissions by consuming fossil fuels worldwide.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
integration and waste heat utilization. The Pumped Storage Hydro (PSH), concentrated thermal storage, electric vehicles,
flywheels, Compress Air Energy Storage (CAES), super capacitor and hydrogen are successful practices which may be
incorporated [102_TD$DIFF]within the national grid. Currently, 99% of total global energy storage (140 GW) is based on PSH whilst rest 1%
includes a mix of battery, CAES, hydrogen and flywheel. Hydrogen storage has a broad potential with existing developed
storage system with a promising future of direct use in cars, fuel cells, ICEVs and for power production (European
Commission-Director General for Energy, 2012). To-date storage energy systems and their present phase of implementation
is expressed in Fig. 26.
Efficient energy storage systems are an integral part of future combined heat and power (CHP) smart grid utilities. Current
state-of-the-art solid, liquid and gas phase storage technologies are shown in Table 4.
Hydrogen and electricity are [103_TD$DIFF]energy [104_TD$DIFF]carriers [105_TD$DIFF]not [106_TD$DIFF]the [107_TD$DIFF]fuels. Laser ignited nuclear fusion was perceived as promising future,
but the failure of NIF experiment has overshadowed the design of artificial star on earth (NAP, 2013). Wind farms and solar
parks are prone to lightning attacks and 34% of damage to wind turbines are attributed to lightning strikes. Lightning may be
harnessed to support energy systems (Kozima, 1994) instead of destroying and damaging turbines, and killing humans
(Khan, Abas, & Kalair, 2014). A few experiments (Shindo, Aihara, Miki, & Suzuki, 1993; Xin, Jean, Cai, & Juan, 1995) were
carried out to harness lightning energies, like storm impeding wind turbines, but none of them could capture and store the
wild static charges. James Graham in MIT has demonstrated crowd farms akin to wind farms to convert human kinetic
energy into power at railway stations and airports.
Fig. 26. Maturity phases of future energy systems (Decourt & Debarre, 2013; Paksoy, 2013).
Table 4
Energy storage technologies (Decourt & Debarre, 2013; Paksoy, 2013).
Technology Location Output Efficiency
Initial investment
cost (USD/kW)
Primary application
PSH Supply Electricity 50–85 500–4600 Long-term
UTES Supply Thermal 50–90 3400–4500 Long-term storage
CAES Supply Electricity 27–70 500–1500 Long-term storage, arbitrage
Pit storage Supply Thermal 50–90 100–300 Medium temperature applications
Molten salts Supply Thermal 40–93 400–700 High-temperature applications
Batteries Supply,
Electricity 75–95 300–3500 Distributed/off-grid storage,
short-term storage
Thermochemical Supply,
Thermal 80–99 1000–3000 Low, medium, and high-temperature
Chemical-hydrogen storage Supply,
Electrical 22–50 500–750 Long-term storage
Flywheels T&D Electricity 90–95 130–500 Short-term storage
Supercapacitors T&D Electricity 90–95 130–515 Short-term storage
Superconducting magnetic
energy storage (SMES)
T&D Electricity 90–95 130–515 Short-term storage
Solid media storage Demand Thermal 50–90 500–3000 Medium temperature applications
Ice storage Demand Thermal 75–90 6000–15,000 Low-temperature applications
Hot water storage (residential) Demand Thermal 50–90 Negligible Medium temperature applications
Cold-water storage Demand Thermal 50–90 300–600 Low-temperature applications
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
We can grow hardwood forests to sequester CO
for several decades. Concrete houses need more energy for cooling in
summer and heating in winter compared to wooden buildings. Concrete has positive emissions during manufacturing but
negative after recycling (Wu, Xia, & Zhao, 2014).
Plastic decomposition to 12–20 molecules (diesel), 5–11 molecules (petrol) and 1–4 molecules (combustible gases) may
be a good start to reduce pollution as plastics take centuries to decompose and decay naturally. Glowing plants and long
fluorescence time phosphors are new interesting research areas to pursue. Piezoelectric roads, shoes, Jims and roadways may
be considered. To cope with rampant CO
we can capture, utilize and store CO
. Chemists and physicists are brainstorming
utilization of CO
as raw material for industrial products and fuels such as methane, water gas and acetylene. Synthetic
refrigerants may be replaced by CO
for heat transfer and refrigeration. We have successfully designed CO
mediated solar
water heater[108_TD$DIFF] with 82% collector efficiency for even low solar insolation areas shown in Fig. 27.
Nature uses sunlight to convert CO
and H
O into biomass using complex biochemical reactions which may be replicated
in the laboratory by splitting water using solar electricity. Photosynthesis is a natural process which inspires us to replicate
artificial photosynthesis. Old proven electrolysis method may be upgraded to direct photoelectrolysis. Recent research has
revealed 67% Faradic yields lead to 1.2% solar to fuel conversion efficiency (James, Jake, Jerry, Paul, & Andrew, 2014). Biosolar
technologies can play the ultimate role to solve the climate change problems (Luicien, Huib, & Bart, 2014). Concepts of super
smart grid capable of transmitting AC, DC and hydrogen with storage capacities are being evaluated as integral parts of future
energy networks (Ehteshami & Chan, 2014). Energy storage media such as flywheel, pumped hydro, battery, supercapacitor,
pressurized air and hydrogen can help shave peak demands.
7. Conclusions
[109_TD$DIFF]It is[110_TD$DIFF] hard to imagine life[111_TD$DIFF] without energy[112_TD$DIFF]. Energy gets energy[24_TD$DIFF] as life thrives on life. Renewable energy sources depend on
fossil fuels to design wind turbines, hydrokinetic and solar cells. The embodied fossil fuel energy is a major fraction of total
renewable energy produced. There is no alternative source in sight which can replace the fossil fuels. This paper has reviewed
the evidence of peaks, declines and depletions of fossil fuels and transition trends to cope with global climate change. King
Hubbert’s peak oil theory predicted normal production rise, peak and decline of conventional oil, whereas natural processes
usually take fast emergence and slow decay profiles. Lightning rise time is a few microseconds, but decay time is several tens
of microseconds long. Oil, gas and coal being finite resources would take a profile that depends upon production rates, which
are low at start, high on plateau and moderate in terminal phase due to new technologies. Rate of rise becomes lower than
the rate of decline in terminal phase due to higher production rates. If production capacity is high, then the duration of the
Fig. 27. CO
mediated solar water heater.
N. Abas et al. / Futures 69 (2015) 31–49
peak plateau continues until terminal depletion of reserves. The half truth of bottomless oil wells or infinite gas dungeons
and paradoxes of the imminent end of Oil Age or Hydrocarbon Era reflect derelict views afar from reality. The truth lies
somewhere between fossil fuels [113_TD$DIFF]depletion and renewable energy repletion. There is neither any imminent end of oil nor any
looming gas crisis in next [114_TD$DIFF]several decades, yet it may be the beginning of[115_TD$DIFF] a breakpoint sometime in distant future. It is time to
fix targets to increase the renewable energy share in the national energy mix to participate grand energy transition.
Continued use of fossil fuel has led to a steady increase of CO
concentration in the atmosphere to 400.26 ppm in 2015. To
decelerate climate change and develop sustainable energy resources, the world community must support the grand energy
transition from fossil fuels to renewable and alternative energy resources. A 20% power from renewable resources by 2020,
50% by 2050 and 100% by 2100 is a good energy transition initiative. According to REN-21 some 91–97% people prefer using
hydro, wind and solar energy, 80% like natural gas, 48% coal and 38% nuclear power. The current share of renewable sources
include 1350 GW hydel, 336 GW wind, 150 GW solar and 20GW geothermal energies. Farmers produce 17.5 Mt bio-ethanol
and 2.45 Mt bio-diesel annually. Despite 1856 GW of renewable energy from various sources, except hydro, contribute to
only 20% of global energy demand and the rest 80% is supplied by fossil fuels. The renewable energy harvesting rate is hardly
equal to the rate of rise of energy demand. Chinese electricity demand has tripled in last one decade and their renewable
energy[26_TD$DIFF] contribution[27_TD$DIFF] quadrupled [94_TD$DIFF]during the same period. A policy of continuous increasing renewable energy percentage in
the national energy mix is the true way forward[28_TD$DIFF].
This research was in part, supported by a grant from the Pakistan–US Science and Technology Cooperation Program
(Project ID No. 299), US Department of State (jointly administered by the National Academics and Higher Education
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... The most important challenge is to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere [8]. Therefore, one of the key elements is the shift in the direction of energy policy-the transition from traditional fossil fuels [9,10] towards zero-emission energy sources [11]. These decisions concern large corporations, companies and factories, as well as individual households. ...
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The public procurement system in Poland remains highly centralized, although thanks to European Community directives, it is part of European law. Therefore, it has established procedures for sustainable public procurement, including so-called green public procurement. In addition to the Public Procurement Law of 11 September 2019, other provisions introducing specific instruments (e.g., energy labels, environmental labels) should be taken into consideration, as such provisions make it easier for contracting authorities to take environmental aspects into account in tender procedures. Bearing in mind the existing legal regulations, this article features a diagnosis of the degree of use of measures to improve energy efficiency in public procurement procedures and models activities related to improving this situation. For this purpose, surveys were conducted for 120 entities applying the provisions of the Public Procurement Law. Taking into consideration the results obtained in the survey, 15 factors related to the improvement of energy efficiency in tender procedures were selected with the help of 12 purposively selected experts connected with the issues raised in this article. Thanks to their expert knowledge, three key factors determining the wider use of this instrument were modeled by means of the systems theory–based methodology of network thinking. The paper also attempts to indicate the key factors determining the wider use of this instrument, using the network thinking methodology for this purpose. As a result of the conducted research, it was found that these factors include human capital, industry, and the energy crisis. Research on the subject in the Polish literature remains innovative and allows for the formulation of application recommendations for decision makers. The concept of energy efficiency in this paper refers to the ratio of the results obtained to the energy input. Efficient use of energy aims to reduce the amount of energy needed to deliver products and services.
... Atualmente, os combustíveis fósseis ainda são considerados um recurso energético fundamental no mundo, representando cerca de 80% (IRENA, 2022) da geração de eletricidade mundial, prejudicando fortemente o meio ambiente e a humanidade com sua utilização e consequente liberação de gases poluentes (ABAS et al., 2015). ...
The growing expansion of photovoltaic systems results in the need to perform maintenance routines and inspections in order to ensure that components and equipment function as expected, that is, normal productivity, operate with low risks to health, environment and safety. In this work, an analysis was carried out in the photovoltaic solar plant of UFERSA-Caraúbas, which included visual inspection and qualitative thermographic analysis, where the first one had the purpose of verifying the components and the photovoltaic arrangement itself, evidencing the factors considered abnormal; and the second, to recognize possible thermal anomalies present in the PV system and/or its components. Finally, it was possible to verify that the system in question has a considerable amount of modules with broken surface glass, in addition to the relevant presence of dirt on their surfaces. The thermographic inspection showed that the modules together with the inverters remain within the limit range determined by the manufacturers.
... The process of being able to charge and discharge imposes the movement of Zn 2 + ions. The general redox reaction that takes place in aqueous ZIBs is given below, Zn ðsÞ $ Zn 2þ ðaqÞ þ 2e À ðAnodeÞ (1) L þ xZn 2þ þ 2xe À $ Zn x L ðCathodeÞ (2) xZn 2þ þ L $ Zn x L ðOverallÞ ...
Aqueous Zn-ion battery systems (AZIBs) have emerged as the most dependable solution, as demonstrated by successful systematic growth over the past few years. Cost effectivity, high performance and power density with prolonged life cycle are some major reason of the recent progress in AZIBs. Development of vanadium-based cathodic materials for AZIBs has appeared widely. This review contains a brief display of the basic facts and history of AZIBs. An insight section on zinc storage mechanism ramifications is given. A detailed discussion is conducted on features of high-performance and long lifetime cathodes. Such features include design, modifications, electrochemical and cyclic performance, along with stability and zinc storage pathway of vanadium based cathodes from 2018 to 2022. Finally, this review outlines obstacles and opportunities with encouragement for gathering a strong conviction for future advancement in vanadium-based cathodes for AZIBs.
... Fossil fuels still stand out with more than 80% of the global energy consumption. 1 Nowadays, the whole of Europe must face an energy crisis and the risk of blackouts. Natural gas prices have surged almost 600%, and as a consequence, the benchmark electricity prices increased almost 3 times in 2022. ...
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The paper puts forward the concept of a double-redox electrochemical capacitor operating in an aqueous electrolyte. The redox activity of sulphur from insoluble Bi 2 S 3 nanocrystals embedded in the negative electrode material (up to 10 wt%) operating in 1 mol L −1 Li 2 SO 4 electrolyte is demonstrated. It is also shown that the performance is significantly boosted using MPA (3-mercaptopropionic acid) as a ligand attached to the surface of the nanocrystals, which allows for more efficient use of Bi 2 S 3 redox active species. This redox activity is combined with the reactions of iodides, which occur at the opposite electrode with 1 mol L −1 NaI. This enables the formation of a discharge voltage plateau that effectively boosts the capacitance (275 F g −1), and thus specific energy of the device owing to the relatively high cell voltage of 1.5 V. This performance is possible due to the advantageous electrode mass ratio (m − : m + = 2 : 1), which helps to balance the charge. The rate capability test of the device demonstrates its capacitance retention of 73% at 10 A g −1 of the discharge current. The different states of the redox species ensure their operation at separate electrodes in an immiscible manner without a shuttling effect. The specific interactions of the redox active species with carbon electrodes are supported by operando Raman spectroscopy.
... The demand for the sustainable energy resources has grown exponentially in the recent past because of the ever-increasing prices and depletion of fossil fuels (Farooq et al., 2021b). Furthermore, the unrestrained use of fossil fuels has left enormous footprints (Shakeel et al., 2021) on the environment in the form of green-house gases (Abas et al., 2015) and caused damage to ozone layer leading to severe global warming. Hence it is a strict need to cut down on fossil fuel resources and shift the focus toward sustainable sources (Woo et al., 2021) to fulfil the energy needs of the future. ...
This study explored the potential of steam gasification of sewage sludge over different temperatures (non-catalytic) and bimetallic (Ni-Fe and Ni-Co) mesoporous Al-MCM48 (3-5% Al basis). The higher temperature (800 °C) resulted in higher gas yield (36.74 wt%) and syngas (H2 and CO) selectivity (35.30 vol% and 11.66 vol%). Moreover, catalytic approach displayed that the Al-MCM48 was effective support because the incorporation of nickel increased the efficiency of gasification reactions compared to HZSM-5 (30). It mainly comes from the presence of mesopores and higher surface area (710.05 m2/g) providing more reaction sites and higher stability (less coke formation). Furthermore, the addition of promoters such as Co and Fe allowed the formation of Ni-Fe and Ni-Co alloys, resulting in even higher gas yield and overall H2 and CO selectivity due to the promotion of related reactions such as tar cracking, Boudouard, water gas shift and reforming and so on. Ni-Co alloy catalyst (10% Ni-5% Co/Al-MCM48) resulted in the highest H2 (∼52 vol%) selectivity due to the enhanced Ni dispersion and synergy effect between Ni and Co. Moreover, the application of bi-metal alloy on Al-MCM48 showed no coke formation and significantly reduced CO2 and hydrocarbon selectivity in the product gas. Overall, this study presented a promising solution for sewage sludge disposal in terms of clean H2 generation, reduction in CO2 and higher stability of metal based catalysts at the same time.
... However, producing hydrogen from fossil fuels also generates a huge amount of carbon dioxide, which must be separated and sequestrated in safe locations to prevent their emission. In addition, fossil fuel reserves are depleting very fast -with their current consumption rate; they may last for another 50 years [5,6]. In this regard, Bio-based hydrogen, also called biohydrogen, is a promising sustainable, and cleaner energy. ...
... In the modern world, the demand for clean, renewable, and costefficient energy has increased enormously because of hasty exhaustion of fossil fuels, causing pollution and climate change that unprecedentedly damages our ecosystem (Abas et al., 2015;Sajjad, 2021). More effort and resources have been devoted to designing novel energy conversion and storage technologies that can fulfill the rising global energy demand (Hafezi and Alipour, 2021;Javed et al., 2022a). ...
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Lightning is one of the fascinating phenomena exhibiting tremendous natural power. It is source of awe, curiosity, enticement, inspiration as well as fear. On average, 50 lightning strikes occur on earth in one second. Fortunately not all of them kill people, albeit 10% people fall prey to lightning annually, out of which hardly 20 to 25% die. Lightning injures victims by heat, shockwave, intense brightness, radio waves, and secondary slip or fall mechanisms. Lightning injury is different from the normal electric shock as it involves transient flashover unlike the electrical contact freeze, wherein alternating (AC) and direct currents (DC) pass through the conductive interior body. Vacuity in knowledge is the driving force behind discoveries and inventions. Lightning experts had hardly developed any concurrence on lightning physics, and the observation of dark lightning complicated the Gordian knot. Lightning preventive, alerting and control devices help reduce fatality rates by the bolts out of blue skies. Lightning was considered to be the second cause of death making natural disasters after flashfloods but preventive measures have slithered it down to the third place in developed countries. Lightning prevention rule recommends ‘when the thunder roars, go indoors’. This work describes lightning characteristics, damage thresholds to humans, machines, energy infrastructures, airplanes, wind turbines, light railway tractions, underground cables and pipelines. Power and energy lifelines such as transmission lines, oil tankers and gas or petroleum pipelines are susceptible to lightning strikes. Artificial rocket and laser triggered lightning protection and control techniques help divert the lightning attacks. Interaction of lightning with power and energy infrastructures disrupts lifelines. However, lightning itself is viewed as an extraterrestrial energy source. Lightning energy harvesting is an interesting application which has been investigated quantitatively.
The forecasts for the peaking world oil production is reviewed that emphasizes on adequate geological investment programs by oil industry organizations and experts. The forecast elaborates that the precise and accurate occurrence of oil peaking is proprietary to oil companies, state secrets of major oil exporting countries, and politically and economically dependent. The forecasts have accepted OPEC reserves estimates at face value. The increase in world oil production is dependent on conventional oil production, which includes on-shore and shallow offshore light oil. The oil industry needs to implement accurate risk mitigation measures to make them cost effective that can be used timely. The studies have estimated that the oil production is likely to increase till 2040, depending on ground oil quality, environmental changes, and global demand of oil.
Using the principle that extracting energy from the environment always involves some type of impact on the environment, The Future of Energy discusses the sources, technologies, and tradeoffs involved in meeting the worlds energy needs. A historical, scientific, and technical background set the stage for discussions on a wide range of energy sources, including conventional fossil fuels like oil, gas, and coal, as well as emerging renewable sources like solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. Readers will learn that there are no truly "green" energy sources-all energy usage involves some tradeoffs-and will understand these tradeoffs and other issues involved in using each energy source. Each potential energy source includes discussions of tradeoffs in economics, environmental, and policy implications Examples and cases of implementing each technology are included throughout the book Technical discussions are supported with equations, graphs, and tables Includes discussions of carbon capture and sequestration as emerging technologies to manage carbon dioxide emissions
Natural gas is one of the world's most important energy sources. Its growth has been the fastest of all the fossil fuels in recent years. In just 20 years, global production of natural gas has increased about 1.7 times and the US Energy Information Administration predicts its use to double by 2020. This study shows that the Multicyclic Hubbert model can be used as an effective technique to forecast future production trends. It is an improvement on the original Hubbert model, as the use of two or more production cycles gives a better match to the historical production trends and consequently leads to a better forecast.