Conference Paper

Do people really act the way they think? – Differences between perceptions and reality in mode choice behavior

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Abstract

As traditional methods often fail when trying to recruit special parts of the population for travel sur-veys, new recruitment methods have to be developed and evaluated. In this case study, we recruited customers of the carsharing company Car2Go in Berlin for a web-based survey using Facebook. On the official Facebook fan-site of Car2Go Berlin, we identified customers and send them invitation messag-es to attend our survey. In our survey, we ascertained (1) data about the carsharing usage, (2) infor-mation about the recruitment process itself and (3) socio-demographics. The particular emphasis of our work was placed on the evaluation and conclusions of the recruitment process. We evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of our method. Furthermore, we show that by addressing Facebook users directly, we recruited almost three times more participants as just by posting the link to our survey.

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... In general, more research is required concerning the combination of independent survey data gained from trip diaries and surveys, which capture general mode usage only. Kagerbauer et al. (2014) showed partly differences between both approaches concerning self-assessed and revealed travel behavior. In most cases, indicated travel behavior was comparable and similar. ...
... Je komplexer der Versuchsaufbau, desto größer die Ausfallquote der Teilnehmer. Auch führt die subjektive Selbsteinschätzung der Teilnehmer mitunter dazu, dass sie versuchen, ihr tatsächliches Verhalten positiver darzustellen [3,4]. Dies nährt den Verdacht, dass Daten aus SP-Versuchen nicht unbedingt eine reale Verteilung der Wahlentscheidungen wiederspiegeln [5]. ...
Chapter
Multimodalität ist nicht neu, jedoch nimmt sie im Mobilitätsverhalten in Praxis und Theorie an Bedeutung zu. Multimodalität ganz allgemein beschreibt unterschiedliche Verkehrsangebote und Verkehrsdienstleistungen oder die Nutzung von mehreren Verkehrsmitteln oder Wegen zu Fuß in Zeit und Raum. Unterschiedliche Rahmenbedingungen und unterschiedlicher Kontext führen zu spezifischen Definitionen von Multimodalität. Der Begriff Intermodalität als Spezialfall der Multimodalität beschreibt aufseiten des Verkehrsangebots bzw. der Verkehrsnachfrage die Kombination von Verkehrsmitteln inklusive eventueller Wege zu Fuß auf verschiedenen Teilen (Etappen) eines Weges. Als Weg wird eine Ortsveränderung einer Person von einem Ausgangspunkt zu einem Ziel zur Ausübung einer bestimmten Aktivität außer Haus bei Nutzung von Verkehrsmitteln (einschließlich Zu- und Abgang) und/oder durch Wege zu Fuß verstanden. Aufgrund sich ändernder Rahmenbedingungen im Umfeld der Mobilität (Durchdringung aller Lebensbereiche durch immer leistungsfähigere Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT), neue Formen des Verkehrsangebots wie Fernbusse oder Leihradsysteme usw.) spielen die Begriffe Multimodalität und Intermodalität sowohl in Bezug auf die Verkehrsnachfrage als auch auf das Verkehrsangebot eine zunehmende Rolle, wie Erhebungen und Befunde zum Mobilitätsverhalten belegen.
Book
Full-text available
Microscopic transport modeling is becoming more and more important due to intrapersonal differentiation of travel behavior. Modeling individual travel behavior allows a more detailed forecasting of the impact and the acceptance of traffic supply in terms of people's needs. Existing microscopic transport demand models describe the mobility of all inhabitants of the inner planning area. Until now trips by people living in the outer planning area which enter the inner planning area were not modeled in detail. They were either modeled using rough assumptions, models describing a larger-scale area or extensive traffic surveys. This thesis develops a microscopic model which simulates all trips that residents of the outer planning area make in the inner planning area. Because of limited computer memory storage and processor power, it is not necessary to model all trips of inhabitants of the whole outer planning area. Due to spatial spread, the number of the inhabitants in the outer planning area is much higher than those of the inner planning area. This thesis begins by analyzing the possibility of transferring individual mobility data from the German Mobility Panel to other areas within Germany. That is the prerequisite for the presented transport model. A method is then explained which localizes the spatial delimitation of the whole planning area; this contains all counties in Germany. Finally, a microscopic transport demand model simulates all trips made in the inner planning area by people living in the outer planning area. Only the trips of inhabitants of the outer planning area, which enter the inner planning area, are modeled; all other trips are not taken into consideration. This makes it possible to reduce computational load and minimize memory storage requirements without affecting quality. This developed microscopic transport demand model was already used in transportation planning in the Rhine-Neckar Region around the cities of Mannheim, Heidelberg and Ludwigshafen. With this method, all relevant trips of non-inhabitants of the inner planning area could be modeled without expensive and additional travel surveys at regional borders.
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This 275-page document is a comprehensive study of transport benefit and costing research, and a guidebook for applying this information in planning applications. It includes detailed analysis of various transport costs and benefits. Using the best available data, it provides monetized estimates of twenty costs for eleven travel modes under three travel conditions. Costs are categorized according to various attributes: whether they are internal or external, fixed or variable, market or nonmarket. This document is unique in several important ways. It is one of the most comprehensive studies of its kind, including many cost and benefit categories that are often overlooked. It is the only transportation cost study that is regularly updated as new information becomes available. It provides costs values in a format designed to easily calculate the full costs and benefits of transport activities and options. It is designed to help noneconomists understand and apply economic evaluation techniques. It provides extensive references, many available through the Internet, allowing users to obtain more information on specific subjects as needed. This study indicates that on average about a third of automobile costs are external and about a quarter are internal but fixed. Other modes tend to have different cost profiles. Fuel efficient and alternative fuel vehicles tend to have somewhat lower external costs. Transit tends to have lower total costs under urban-peak conditions. Ridesharing tends to have the lowest marginal costs. Motorcycles tend to have relatively high costs due to crash risk. Nonmotorized modes (walking and cycling) have minimal external costs, but relatively high travel time costs. Policy and pricing reforms are justified on economic efficiency and equity grounds.
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Household travel surveys aim at reaching as many households as possible to collect data about the travel behavior of the persons living in that household. For this purpose it is essential to choose the right survey method for each person group. While conducting a multi-day household survey in the Greater Stuttgart Region, three different survey methods – paper pencil interview (PAPI), computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) and computer assisted web interview (CAWI) – were used and their impacts were analyzed. The different survey methods show some significant differences in responses and results for different groups. Younger persons prefer the CAWI method, while the CATI method generates higher response rates from older persons. Implicitly this leads to different results from the different methods. When summarizing the results of the CATI and CAWI methods, the overall results largely compare to the results gained from the PAPI method. Stand-alone results from the CAWI and CATI methods however show significant differences.
Conference Paper
Das Mobilitätsverhalten der Bevölkerung weist zunehmend inter- und multimodale Ten¬denzen auf. So werden vermehrt über einen längeren Zeitraum mehrere Verkehrsmittel genutzt, die in der jeweiligen Situation für den Verkehrsteilnehmer geeignet erscheinen. Auf Basis einer längsschnittorientierten Haushaltsbefragung wurde für die Region Stuttgart mit dem Multi-Agenten-Modell mobiTopp das Verkehrsverhalten von 2,7 Mio. Einwohnern über eine gesamte Woche modelliert. Dabei wurden mikroskopisch alle Wege mit allen Zielen und Verkehrsmitteln unter Berücksichtigung der Variabilität und Stabilität des Verkehrsverhaltens abgebildet. Diese räumlich (Verkehrszellen) und zeitlich (Minuten) hoch aufgelösten Daten, die einer synthetisch modellierten Haushaltsvollerhebung entsprechen, können in räumlicher und zeitlicher sowie intra- und interpersoneller Weise ausgewertet werden.
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Intelligent load management systems (ILMS) for electric vehicles (EVs) would make it possible to link EV use to renewable energy sources. ILMS require information about the departure time and length of EV drivers’ upcoming trips to optimize the charging process depending on the availability of renewable energy in the grid. Inaccurate information may lead to insufficient battery levels or inefficient charging processes. In a field test during two weeks 60 participants predicted the departure time and trip length of their upcoming trips after having arrived at home with their own gasoline-powered cars. Actual mobility behavior was assessed by means of logbooks and GPS tracking devices. The results show that participants are on average able to accurately predict their departure times and trip lengths although for some outliers their prediction errors would potentially have led to insufficient battery levels. The type of trip (work, leisure, shopping) significantly influenced the accuracy of mobility predictions.
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The walking trip from an origin or destination to a bus stop or transit station can be a barrier to riding transit for older adults (over age 60) who may walk more slowly than others or experience declining physical mobility. This article examines the relationship between transit ridership and proximity to fixed-route transit stations using survey data for older adults in Buffalo and Erie County, New York. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics—including age, sex, race, income, possessing a driver’s license, frequency of leaving home, and personal mobility limitations—are tested but do not display, in bi-variate analysis, statistically significant differences for transit riders versus non-transit riders. However, features of the built environment—including distance (actual and perceived) between home and transit stop, transit service level, population density, number of street intersections, metropolitan location, and neighborhood crime (property and violent) rate—display statistically significant differences for transit riders versus non-transit riders. Both objective and perceived walking distances to access fixed-route transit show statistically significant differences between transit riders and non-transit riders. Average walking distance from home to transit for non-transit riders—who mostly live in suburbs—is three times greater than average walking distance between home and the nearest transit stop for transit riders—who mostly live in the central city. When asked how near a bus stop is to their homes, transit riders slightly overestimate the actual distance, while non-transit riders underestimate the distance.
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Using survey data collected from 1358 commuting workers in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1998, this paper empirically explores the determinants of individuals’ subjective assessments of their mobility (measured on a five-point ordinal scale, for 10 different categories of travel). Linear regression was used to identify the relative importance of reported mobility in explaining the variance of the dependent variables. A variety of personal factors were also found to significantly influence such assessments: personality traits, travel-related attitudes, lifestyle characteristics, and affinity for travel. The study provides insight into the way individuals mentally process the amount of travel they do, which will increase our understanding of travel behavior and its motivations.
Answer young people just like old people? -Impacts and consequences of different household travel survey methods. Presented at New Techniques and Technologies for
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Kagerbauer, M. und Manz, W. Answer young people just like old people? -Impacts and consequences of different household travel survey methods. Presented at New Techniques and Technologies for Statistics NNTS, Brussels : s.n., 2013.
Enquête Nationale Transports et Déplacements, Biographies: méthodologie et formation. s.l. : INREST-INSEE
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The dymamics of change -15 years German Mobility Panel
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Zumkeller, Dirk. The dymamics of change -15 years German Mobility Panel. Washington : Transport Research Board 88th Annual Meeting, 2009.
Methodogical analysis of different methods within one multi day household travel survey -PAPI, CATI and CAWI in comparison
  • M Kagerbauer
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Kagerbauer, M., Manz, W. und Zumkeller, D. Methodogical analysis of different methods within one multi day household travel survey -PAPI, CATI and CAWI in comparison. Presented at the 9th Conference on Survey Methods in Transport, Termas de Puyehue, Chile : s.n., 2011.
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Papon, F., et al., et al. Enquête Nationale Transports et Déplacements, Biographies: méthodologie et formation. s.l. : INREST-INSEE, 2007.
Regional panels against the background of the German Mobility Panel -an integrated approach. Annecy, Frankreich : Presented at the 8th ISCTSC -International Steering Committee for Travel Survey Conferences
  • Dirk Zumkeller
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Zumkeller, Dirk, Chlond, Bastian und Kagerbauer, Martin. Regional panels against the background of the German Mobility Panel -an integrated approach. Annecy, Frankreich : Presented at the 8th ISCTSC -International Steering Committee for Travel Survey Conferences, 2008.
Perceptions of walking distance to neighborhood retail and other public services
  • J Horning
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  • D C Washington
Perceptions of walking distance to neighborhood retail and other public services. Horning, J., El-Geneidy, A.M. und Krizek, K.J. Washington, D.C. : Transporation Research Board, 2008. TRB 87th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD.