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Determination of Nutritive Value of the Edible migratory locust Locusta migratoria, Linnaeus, 1758 (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

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Abstract

The study was conducted to determine the nutritional composition of the migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae), commonly eaten by people in Sudan, in order to provide basis for using locust as food for humans or feeds for animals. Proximate analyses indicated the presence of (96.19 ± 0.2) dry matter in 100g. Crude protein was (50.42 ± 2 %), crude fat (19.62 ± 0.8 %), carbohydrates (4.78 ± 0.74 %), crude fiber (15.65 ± 1.7 %), ash (6.24 ± 0.5 %) and moisture content was (3.81 ± 0.2 %). Energy content was (490.4 ± 4) calories in 100g of dry product. The ratio of crude fat: crude protein (CF:CP) was 0.39, carbohydrates: crude protein (CH:CP) was 0.09, carbohydrates: crude fat (CH:CF) was 0.24. Minerals content was very low except for phosphorus, which has an average value of (29.6 ± 4.32 ppm), while other minerals have a range of (0.04 to 2.2 ppm). The results indicated high nutritional value of the migratory locust, and could be considered as a good food source for both humans and animals, especially for protein, fat, phosphorus and energy. It is recommended that hygienic practices should be applied in collecting and cooking of these insects and spreading by insecticides should be avoided. More investigation of the nutritive values such amino and fatty acids, vitamins and minerals should be carried out to evaluate the migratory locust.
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... From the year 2000, the growth of aquaculture in Africa and Asia has a quest for alternative protein sources so they examined locusts and grasshoppers for catfish and tilapia. Many researchers have documented the nutritional properties of eatable insects such as (Elagba, 2015). Locust is considered to be edible and classified to be high in protein, dry matter, minerals and vitamins (Finke, 2002). ...
... The protein percentage was 76% in S. gregaria, much the same values for S. histrio 77% and somewhat lower for Schistocerca sp 61% were shown by Ramos-Elorduy et al., (1997). Elagba (2015) studied the chemical analyses of Locusta migratoria showed that the dry matter, CP, CF, TC, fiber, ash and moisture content were 96.2%, 50.42%, 19.62%, 4.78%, 15.65%, 6.24% and 3.8% respectively. Calories in the migratory locust were 490.8 Kcal/100g. ...
... In contrary to Finke and Oonincx (2014) which found that grasshoppers are a poor source of calcium, because these insects do not have a mineralized skeleton. Elagba (2015) studied the minerals content in L. migratoria, high levels of phosphorus was 29.6 ppm of dry matter, while other minerals of barium, zinc, iron, copper, aluminum, manganese and boron had a range from 0.04 to 2.2 ppm of dry matter. Nevertheless, many insects had significant levels of macro-minerals. ...
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... 2015) and L. migratoria contain 342.79 ± 6.19 kcal/100 g and 0.4803-0.5003 kcal/100 g respectively (Elagba 2015). Acridians are a better source of energy compared to conventional African foods such as vegetables (spinach, eggplant), fruits (orange, banana), tubers (cassava, yam), cereals (rice) and meats (chicken, fish, pork, beef) ( Stadlmayr et al. 2012) (Table 12.2). ...
... Aluminum, a trace element essential for metabolism, can be found in Locusta migratoria with a content of 0.0443 ± 0.001 mg/100 g (Elagba 2015). Until 2008, the tolerable weekly intake of aluminum was 1 mg/kg of body weight per week. ...
... mg. L. migratoria is a source because it contains a content of 0.006 ± 0.001 mg/100 g (Elagba 2015). Cobalt is an essential trace element that enters into the structure of vitamin B12 and indirectly to the production of red blood cells and regulation of the functioning of various enzymes. ...
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The current inadequacy between the accelerated growth of the African population and the availability of nutrients has led us to study the nutritional composition of Acridian. This chapter reviews work on edible Acridians in Africa and assesses their nutritional value and potential impact on malnutrition in Africa. The results show that about 74 Acridians are eaten in Africa, amongst which the nutritional value of Zonocerus variegatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Kraussaria angulifera (Krauss, 1877), Acanthacris ruficornis citrina (Serville, 1839), Locusta migratoria (Linnaeus, 1758), Cyrtacanthacris aeruginosus unicolor (Stoll, 1813), Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775) and Anacridium melanorhodon (Walker, 1870) were studied. These Acridians have a high protein content with good levels of essential amino acids. They are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals but poor in carbohydrates. Although their nutrients vary from one species to another, depending on the stages of development and the habitat, edible Acridians can play an important role in the fight against malnutrition in Africa, if they are well exploited.
... Moreover, insects are particularly noted for their high protein content. Orthopteran species can range from 15% to 81% protein [5], with averages around 50% to 65% for Locusta migratoria [6][7][8]. Orthopteran species also contain satisfactory ratios of essential amino acids recommended for human consumption, making them a sustainable protein option for consumers looking for alternatives to traditional meat sources such as beef [5]. Yet, some studies have recognised the potential overestimation of insect protein contents when the nitrogen to protein conversion for meat (6.25) is used [9][10][11]. ...
... The crude protein, fat, and ash content of the present study were similar to results reported by Osimani et al. [8] for whole dried locusts (Locusta migratoria) sourced from The Netherlands. The crude protein content (50.79%) was also similar to reports by Mohamed [6], while other studies reported higher percentages, ranging from 55.5% to 65.9% [7,18,19]. The fat content (34.9%) was much higher than the average (13%) for orthopteran species (locust, crickets, grasshoppers) [5]. ...
... This could alter the fat content identified, compared to literature that sourced insects from the wild [5]. The ash content was lower than reported contents for L. migratoria, ranging from 3.3% to 5.72% [6][7][8]18,19]. The mineral content varies depending on species and other factors such as habitat, diet, and season. ...
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Although locusts can be sustainably produced and are nutrient rich, the thought of eating them can be hard to swallow for many consumers. This paper aims to investigate the nutritional composition of Locusta migratoria, including the properties of extracted locust protein, contributing to limited literature and product development opportunities for industry. Locusts sourced from Dunedin, New Zealand, contained a high amount of protein (50.79% dry weight) and fat (34.93%), which contained high amounts of omega-3 (15.64%), creating a desirably low omega-3/omega-6 ratio of 0.57. Three protein fractions including; insoluble locust fraction, soluble locust fraction, and a supernatant fraction were recovered following alkali isoelectric precipitation methodology. Initially, proteins were solubilised at pH 10 then precipitated out at the isoelectric point (pH 4). All fractions had significantly higher protein contents compared with the whole locust. The insoluble protein fraction represented 37.76% of the dry weight of protein recovered and was much lighter in colour and greener compared to other fractions. It also had the highest water and oil holding capacity of 5.17 mL/g and 7.31 mL/g, possibly due to larger particle size. The high supernatant yield (56.60%) and low soluble protein yield (9.83%) was unexpected and could be a result of experimental pH conditions chosen.
... Generally, orthopteran species have reasonably low carbohydrate (CHO) and higher fibre contents. This has been linked to the presence of a hard exoskeleton and life stage of the insect (Mohamed, 2015a). The high amount of indigestible fibre called chitin, can lead to fibre contents of locusts ranging from 15.65% to 27% (Kou rimská and Adámková, 2016; Mohamed, 2015a). ...
... Orthopteran species ash contents range from 0.34% to 9.10%, with an average 3.85% . Some studies have identified high amounts of iron in locust species (Kou rimská and Adámková, 2016;Zieli nska et al., 2015) whereas, one study only identified phosphorous in high amounts (Mohamed, 2015a). However, the bioavailability of these minerals still needs to be investigated further. ...
... (Rumpold and Schlüter, 2013) than locusts 18.90-20.34% (Mohamed, 2015). Higher fat content in cricket flour may have provided enhancement to the extrusion process as it functions as a lubricant in extrusion. ...
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... Despite this, locusts are underutilised, and are seen as a nuisance in their gregarious form since they cause great devastation to crops. Also, their hard exoskeleton which is rich in chitin could limit bioavailability of nutrients (Clarkson et al., 2018) Most studies on migratory locusts have focussed on nutritional composition (Elagba, 2015;Köhler et al., 2019;Zielińska et al., 2015) and protein isolates (Clarkson et al., 2018). To the best to our knowledge, the use of migratory locusts as a protein source in foods to address nutritional deficiencies was only previously reported by Akande et al. (2020). ...
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... First, a query was structured using the terms "orthoptera" AND ("edible") AND ("pest" OR "plague") within the title, abstract, or key words of arti- cles. Then; filters were applied to the resulting pool of 9000 documents to identify those mentioning the genus or species of an Orthoptera species with a wide distribution or a large population size (Toye, 1982;Waloff & Pedgley, 1986;Steedman andOverseas Development Natural Resources Institute (Great Britain), 1988, Steedman, 1990;Waldbauer and Friedman, 1991;Pfadt, 1994;Ramos-Elorduy, 1997;Simpson, Raubenheimer, Behmer, Whitworth, & Wright, 2002;Cerritos & Cano-Santana, 2008;Lokeshwari & Shantibala, 2010;Premalatha, Abbasi, Abbasi, & Abbasi, 2011;Blásquez, Moreno, & Camacho, 2012;Meyer-Rochow & Chakravorty 2013;Van Huis et al., 2013;Rumpold & Schlüter, 2013;Makkar, Tran, Heuzé, & Ankers, 2014;Mohamed, 2015;Zieli´nskaZieli´nska, Baraniak, Kara´sKara´s, Rybczy´nskaRybczy´nska, & Jakubczyk, 2015). Based on these criteria; we identified the following species as potential viable sources of protein: Camnula pellucida; Locusta migatoria; Schistocerca gre- garia; S. cancellata; Melanoplus femurrubrum; Zonocerus variegatus; and Oxya sp. ...
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