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Calcium and its Role in Human Body

  • Y.C. Institute of Science Satara


Calcium is very essential in muscle contraction, oocyte activation, building strong bones and teeth, blood clotting, nerve impulse, transmission, regulating heart beat and fluid balance within cells. The requirements are greatest during the period of growth such as childhood, during pregnancy, when breast feeding. Long term of calcium deficiency can lead to oestoporosis in which the bone deteriorates and there is an increased rise of fractures. Eating a well-balanced diet can provide all the necessary nutrients and help prevent calcium deficiency. INTRODUCTION The group IIA of the periodic table contains the alkaline earth metals such as Ca, St, Ba and Ra. All the non metallic substances are insoluble in water and unchanged by five were called earths. Limes and magnesia showed alkaline reactions hence alkaline earths. The name calcium is derived from latin word calas meaning lime was known as early as the first centuries when the ancient Romans prepared lime as CaO. It was not actually isolated until 1808 in England when Sir Humphrey Davy electrolyzed a mixture of lime and mercuric oxide. Davy was trying to isolate calcium along with magnesium, strontium and barium.Out of alkaline earth group, Ca has achieved the greatest use and tonnage.
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______________________________________________Review Article
Calcium and its Role in Human Body
Piste Pravina*, Didwagh Sayaji and Mokashi Avinash
P.G .Department of Chemistry, Y. C. Institute of Science, Satara, Maharashtra, India.
Calcium is very essential in muscle contraction, oocyte activation, building strong bones and teeth, blood
clotting, nerve impulse, transmission, regulating heart beat and fluid balance within cells. The requirements
are greatest during the period of growth such as childhood, during pregnancy, when breast feeding. Long term
of calcium deficiency can lead to oestoporosis in which the bone deteriorates and there is an increased rise of
fractures. Eating a well-balanced diet can provide all the necessary nutrients and help prevent calcium
Key Words: Calcium, Oesteoporosis, Hypo and Hypercalcaemia, Parathyroid glands.
The group IIA of the periodic table contains the
alkaline earth metals such as Ca, St, Ba and Ra. All
the non metallic substances are insoluble in water
and unchanged by five were called earths. Limes
and magnesia showed alkaline reactions hence
alkaline earths.
The name calcium is derived from latin word calas
meaning lime was known as early as the first
centuries when the ancient Romans prepared lime
as CaO. It was not actually isolated until 1808 in
England when Sir Humphrey Davy electrolyzed a
mixture of lime and mercuric oxide. Davy was
trying to isolate calcium along with magnesium,
strontium and barium.Out of alkaline earth group,
Ca has achieved the greatest use and tonnage.
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ISSN: 2229-3701
Calcium ranks fifth in the order of abundance of
elements in earth’s crust, the percentage being
estimated at 3.64. Calcium does not occur free in
nature being an active element.It occurs largely in
the form of carbomates and sulphates. As
carbonates, it occurs in the form of lime stone,
chalk, calcite, marble, Iceland spar, dolomite,
stalactite, stalagmite etc. and sulphate, it occurs in
the form of Gypsum and its anhydride form
calcium also occurs as a phosphate in the
phosphorite rock. CaSiO3 in many complex rocks,
fluoride in the form of fluorspar (Caf2).
The tensile property of calcium metal are greatly
affected by impurities and in the pure form by the
methods of fabrication. Calcium metal work upon
mechanical possessing. Bulk calcium is soft,
crystalline metal. It may be readily extruded on
heating to 420 – 4600C. X-ray diffraction pattern of
calcium samples exists in only two allotropic form
– face centered cubic and Body centered cubic
(4640C). According to Debye-Scherer, Ca exists in
three allotropic modifications i.e. α-Ca-face
centered cubic, β-Ca-hexagonal close packed and
γ-Ca-body centered cubic. It readily forms a white
coating of nitrite in air, reacts with water by
forming Ca(OH)2, burns with a yellow red flame
forming the largely the nitride. They are malleable,
extrudable and machinable may be in rods, wires or
plates. Calcium is cheapest of alkaline earth metals
but more expensive than Sodium. Ca metal itself
comates even in metallurgical work with some of
its own compounds e.g. calcium silicide, calcium
boride, calcium carbide, all of which are used as
degasifiers, reductants and sources of calcium for
Calcium has four stable isotopes 40Ca, 42Ca, 46Ca
and 48Ca that have such long half lives that for all
practical purposes. They can be considered stable.
It has also cosmogenic isotope radioactive 41Ca
which has a half life of 1,03,000 yrs. 41Ca is
produced by neutron activation of 40Ca. It has
received much attention in stellar studies because it
decays to 41K, a critical indicator of solar system
anomalies. 97% of naturally occurring Ca is in the
form of 40Ca which is one of the daughter product
of 40K decay along with 40Ar. While K-Ar dating
has been used extensively in the geological
The body contains about 2% of Ca and 98% of this
is in the bones. The cell and body fluid contains
from 10 – 15 mg per 100 gm. The blood Ca is in
two distinct forms, a part is bound with protein and
is non diffusible while the diffusible moiety is
found as undissociated phosphates and carbonates
and as ionic calcium. The protein bound Ca does
not diffuse. Out of the blood, the cerebrospinal
fluid contains only 6 mg per 100 gm. The Ca in the
blood and tissues and that in the skeleton are in
equilibrium. The Ca of the bone can be drawn upon
to make up deficiency of blood Ca and when the
deficit is made up the Ca is redeposited in the bone.
The medication of parathyroid is necessary for the
withdrawal of Ca from the skeleton. In the body,
there is a balance in various forms of Ca. The ionic
forms of Ca is involved in the various
physiological activities.
Physiological role
Daily body requirement is about 450 mg. The adult
requirements of Ca vary. During pregnancy and
lactation, there is greater depletion of Ca from the
mother and the intake needs to be increased. On an
average, 10 mg per Kg of body weight per day
should be sufficient. Growing children would
require from 40 to 60 mg per day. A Cow’s milk
contains 0.126% of Ca. A litre of Cow’s milk
provides therefore a full day’s ration of Ca is
readily assimilable form. Generally sufficient Ca
gets ingested through the normal through the
normal diet. It gets from upper intestinal tract and
is excrete through urine and faeces. As the upper
portion of intestine the condition is acidic, it tends
to favour absorption of Ca. As Ca salts have better
solubility. The alkaline condition brings about the
precipitation of Ca salts and the absorption is
retarded. Higher fatty acid contents also decreases
the absorption due to formation of Ca salts of fatty
acid which are insoluble.
Calcium is essential to maintaining total body
health. Your body needs it every day not just to
keep your bones and teeth strong over your life
time but to ensure proper functioning of muscles
and nerves. It even helps your blood clot. Many
peoples think they are getting enough Ca every day
but the fact is, they are not so. Ca deficiency is
usually due to an inadequate intake of Ca when
blood Ca levels drop too low, the vital mineral is
borrowed from the bones. It is returned to the
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bones from Ca supplied through the diet. If an
individual’s diet is low in Ca, there may not be
sufficient amount of Ca available in the blood to be
returned to the bones to maintain strong bones and
total body health. Taking Ca regularly everyday is
key to preventing and treating Ca deficiency. So
how much daily Ca do you need? How much do
you get? It is very important to your health.
According to the U.K. Dept. of Health
recommended reference nutrients intake for Ca
required according to age. The infants and children
require 350 - 550 mg/day.
Teenage girls and boys : 800 1000
Adult men and women : 700 mg/day
The Ca play an important role to maintain some
important body functions such as
i) Ca controls nerve excitability. The effect is
mainly on the peripheral neuromuscular
mechanism. Fibrillary twitching can be
produced by per fusing a muscle with Ca free
fluid. Automatic ganglia also become hyper
ii) It is necessary for the maintenance of the
integrity of the skeletal muscles. An increase
in the ionized Ca results in an increase in
contractility and vice varsa.
iii) It is very essential for maintaining the tone
and contractility of heart. Ca is antidotal to
the depressant action of K.
iv) It aids rennin in the coagulation of milk in
the stomach.
v) It is essential for the clotting of food.It
decreases cellular permeability. It is
therefore used in allergic conditions to
diminish exudation which produces wheals
and rushes. Ca appears to serve as a
constituent of the intercellular cement.
vi) Ca take part in the formation of certain tissue
and bones. Normally 25 – 35% is excreted in
the urine and the rest in the stools.
A high protein diet especially derived from animal
foods causes Ca loss in the body. The higher
sulphur to calcium ratio of metal increases Ca
excretion and a diet righ in meal can cause bone
demineralization. A report published in 1988
comparing the amounts of Ca excreted in the urine
showed that, the animal – protein diet cause greater
loss of bone loss and hence Oestoporosis. It is the
major cause of bone fractures in the elderly. It is
better prevented than treated and prevention
includes an adequate intake of Ca throughout life
but especially in childhood and young adult hood
and minimizing risk factors e.g. smoking, heavy
alcohol use and lack of physical exercise. Diet high
in protein and in salt also increase Ca loss from the
body and may have an effect on oestoporosis. Post
menopausal women are more prone to osteoporosis
because they produce less oestrogen which protects
the skeleton in younger women.
Calcium Deficiency
Calcium deficiency is a condition in which the
body has an inadequate amount of calcium.
Calcium is a mineral that is essential for many
aspects of health, including the health of bones and
teeth, and a normal heart rhythm. This mineral is
also required for muscle contractions and
relaxation, nerve and hormone function, and blood
pressure regulation.
Calcium must be ingested daily and absorbed
effectively in order to maintain optimal health.
Most people can get enough calcium by eating a
variety of foods rich in calcium. Foods that
naturally contain calcium include milk and other
dairy products; green, leafy vegetables; seafood,
nuts, and dried beans. Calcium is also added to
orange juice, breakfast cereals, breads, and other
fortified food products.
High dietary calcium intake is necessary for
infants, children and adolescents in order to
promote bone growth and formation. Pregnant
women also have higher calcium needs, because it
is required for the normal development of fetal
bones. In addition, women who have reached
menopause need to ensure an adequate amount of
calcium intake to reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
Types of calcium deficiency
There are two types of calcium deficiency
Dietary calcium deficiency is a condition
in which there is an inadequate calcium
intake, which can lead to depleted calcium
stores in the bones, thinning and
weakening of the bones, and osteoporosis.
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Hypocalcemia is a low level of calcium in
the blood. It can occur from taking
medications, such as diuretics; medical
treatments; or disease processes, such as
renal failure or hypo-parathyroidism.
An insufficient amount of calcium in your diet will
generally not cause hypocalcemia. This is because
normal amounts of calcium in the blood are so
critical to many vital body functions of the nerves,
muscles, brain and heart, that your body will pull
calcium from the bones as needed to maintain
normal blood calcium levels. This enables
important processes in the body to continue.
However, ongoing dietary calcium deficiency can
eventually lead to thinning of the bones and
osteoporosis because calcium stores in the bones
are not replaced as they are used by the body.
Untreated calcium deficiency can lead to serious
complications, such as osteoporosis, hypertension
and cardiac arrhythmias and follow your treatment
plan to reduce the risk of serious complications
from calcium deficiency.If you, or someone you
are with, have chest pain a seizure, difficulty
breathing, or an unusual change in alertness or
Sign of Deficiency in Calcium,
All humans lose bone density starting between the
ages of 30 and 40. Excessive bone loss affects over
20 million people, mostly women who are 45 and
Sign no.1: Muscle Cramping
One of the first signs of a deficiency is a nervous
affliction called tetany, which is characterized by
muscle cramps, numbness and tingling in the arms
and legs.Muscle Cramping can be an early sign that
you are developing a calcium deficiency. These
types of cramps generally occur at night, especially
in the legs
Sign no.2: Dry Skin and Brittle Nails
A common calcium deficiency sign can be seen in
your skin and your nails. When your skin becomes
dry and your fingernails become brittle (break
easily), you could be lacking from calcium. If these
symptoms are present, you may also want to check
to see if your teeth are becoming yellow. The teeth
and the bones can be severely affected from a lack
of calcium.
Sign no.3: Increased PMS Symptoms
A woman may begin experience more cramping or
a change in her menstrual flow if she is suffering
from a calcium deficiency. Adding more calcium to
a diet may ease these symptoms.
Sign no.4: Bone Fractures or Breakage
If you begin to suffer from several small bone
fractures or full bone breakage, you should really
evaluate the amount of calcium in your diet. This is
a severe symptom of calcium deficiency.
Calcium is needed to build bones and to keep them
strong. Without this calcium, our bones will
become weak. As they weaken, fractures and
breakage can occur i.e osteoporosis, in which the
bones become porous and fragile because calcium
is withdrawn from the bones and other areas faster
than it is deposited in them. Moderate cases of
calcium deficiency may lead to cramps, joint pains,
heart palpitations, increased cholesterol levels,
slow pulse rates, insomnia, impaired growth,
excessive irritability or nerves, muscle cramps,
brittle nails, eczema and numbness of the arms and
or legs.A deficiency may be due to a lack of
vitamin D or abnormal concentrations of hormones
that regulate the availability from the bones to the
blood, not to a dietary inadequacy.
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Regulators of Blood Calcium
Prompt diagnosis and treatment of dietary calcium
deficiency reduces the risk of developing serious
complications, such as hypertension and
osteoporosis. Treatments involve replacing the
body’s depleted calcium stores and may include:
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human
body and has several important functions. Calcium
is the top macro mineral when it comes to your
bones. This mineral helps build strong bones, so
you can do everything from standing up straight to
scoring that winning goal. Calcium is a primary
structural constituent of the skeleton, but it is also
widely distributed in soft tissue where it is involved
in neuromuscular, enzymatic, hormonal, and other
metabolic activity. Calcium absorption is
dependent upon the calcium needs of the body, the
foods eaten, and the amount of calcium in the foods
eaten. Vitamin D from diet or exposure to the
ultraviolet light of the sun increases calcium
absorption. Calcium absorption tends to decrease
with increased age for both men and women. More
than 99% of total body calcium is stored in the
bones and teeth where it functions to support their
structure. The remaining 1% is found throughout
the body in blood, muscle, and the fluid between
cells. Because of its biological importance, calcium
levels are carefully controlled in various
compartments of the body. The three major
regulators of blood calcium are parathyroid
hormone (PTH), vitamin D, and calcitonin.
Disorders of calcium metabolism
It occur when the body has too little or too much
calcium. The serum level of calcium is closely
regulated within a fairly limited range in the human
body. In a healthy physiology, extracellular
calcium levels are maintained within a tight range
through the actions of parathyroid hormone,
vitamin D and the calcium sensing receptor.
Disorders in calcium metabolism can lead to
hypocalcemia, decreased plasma levels of calcium
or hypercalcemia, elevated plasma calcium levels.
Hypocalcemia is common and can occur unnoticed
with no symptoms or, in severe cases, can have
dramatic symptoms and be life-threatening.
Hypocalcemia can be parathyroid related or
Vitamin D related. Parathyroid related
hypocalcemia includes post-surgical
hypothyroidism, inherited
hypoparathyroidism,pseudohypopara thyroidism
and pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism. Post-
surgical hypoparathyroidism is the most common
form, and can be temporary (due to suppression of
tissue after removal of a malfunctioning gland) or
permanent, if all parathyroid tissue has been
removed. Inherited hypoparathyroidism is rare and
is due to a mutation in the calcium sensing
receptor. Pseudohypoparathyroidism is maternally
inherited and is categorized by hypocalcemia and
hyperphosphatemia. Finally, pseudo-
pseudohypoparathyroidism is paternally inherited.
Patients display normal parathyroid hormone action
in the kidney, but exhibit altered parathyroid
hormone action in the bone. Vitamin D related
hypocalcemia may be associated with a lack of
vitamin D in the diet, a lack of sufficient UV
exposure, or disturbances in renal function. Low
vitamin D in the body can lead to a lack of calcium
absorption and secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Symptoms of hypocalcemia include numbness in
fingers and toes, muscle cramps, irritability,
impaired mental capacity and muscle twitching.
Hypercalcemia is suspected to occur in
approximately 1 in 500 adults in the general adult
population. Like hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia can
be non-severe and present with no symptoms, or it
may be severe, with life-threatening symptoms.
Hypercalcemia is most commonly caused by
hyperparathyroidism and by malignancy, and less
commonly by vitamin D intoxication, familial
hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and by sarcoidosis.
Hyperparathyroidism occurs most commonly in
postmenopausal women. Hyperparathyroidism can
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be caused by a tumor, or adenoma , in the
parathyroid gland or by increased levels of
parathyroid hormone due to hypocalcemia.
Approximately 10% of cancer sufferers experience
hypercalcemia due to malignancy. Hypercalcemia
occurs most commonly in breast cancer,
lymphoma, prostate cancer, thyroid cancer, lung
cancer, myeloma, and colon cancer. It may be
caused by secretion of parathyroid hormone-related
peptide by the tumor or may be a result of direct
invasion of the bone, causing calcium release.
Symptoms of hypercalcemia include anorexia,
nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain,
lethargy, depression, confusion, polyurea,
polydipsia and generalized aches and pains.
Plasma Calcium
The amount of biologically active calcium varies
with the level of serum albumin, a protein to which
calcium is bound, and therefore levels of ionized
calcium are better measures than a total calcium;
however, one can correct a total calcium if the
albumin level is known.
A normal ionized calcium is 1.12-
1.45 mmol/L (4.54-5.61 mg/dL).
A normal total calcium is 2.2-2.6 mmol/L
(9-10.5 mg/dl).
o Total calcium of less than 8.0 mg/dL is
hypocalcaemia, with levels below
1.59 mmol/L (6 mg/dL) generally fatal.
o Total calcium of more than 10.6 mg/dL is
hypercalcaemia, with levels over
3.753 mmol/L (15.12 mg/dL) generally
Long-term calcium deficiency can lead to
osteopenia, which is a loss of bone density.
Osteopenia may progress into osteoporosis, a
health condition where bones become weak and
brittle. Most adults need from 1,000 to 1,200
milligrams of calcium every day. That need can be
met when you eat a balanced diet that includes
dairy products
When you don't get enough calcium over an
extended period of time, you may increase your
risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis, which in turn
increase your risk of bone fractures. But you
probably won't feel any actual symptoms of
calcium deficiency, unless you have hypocalcemia
(low blood calcium), which is usually due to health
conditions or certain medications and treatments.
The symptoms of hypocalcemia include muscle
cramps, lethargy, numbness and tingling in the
fingers, and problems with heart rhythm. These can
all be signs of other health conditions too, so if you
have them, you need to see your health care
Calcium as a Natural Tranquilizer
Calcium acts as a Natural Tranquilizer. It tends to
calm the nerves. When taken 20-40 minutes before
bedtime it promotes a deep sleep. The production
of energy and the maintenance of the immune
system benefit from calcium. By lowering
cholesterol, calcium is thought to be beneficial in
the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Calcium
supplements up to 1500 mg have lowered blood
pressure in people with or without hypertension
and are thought to do so because of the condition of
the smooth muscle that surrounds the blood
vessels. Early supplementation may help prevent
arthritis. Rheumatism may also be helped
positively with calcium therapy. The hormones
involved are stimulated by the concentration of
calcium ions in the blood. Problems of menopause
such as nervousness, irritability, insomnia and
headaches have been overcome with administration
of calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. Prevention
of premenstrual tension and menstrual cramps has
also been noticed.Absorption takes place in the
duodenum and ceases in the lower part of the
intestinal tract when food content becomes
Interfering factors in absorbing Calcium
When excess amounts of fat, protein or sugar
combine with calcium an insoluble compound is
formed which cannot be absorbed. Insufficient
vitamin D intake or excess phosphorus and
magnesium hinder the absorption of calcium. Large
amounts of phytic acid present in unleavened
grains may also inhibit absorption by the
body.Other interfering factors include lack of
exercise, physical and emotional stress, excitement,
depression and too rapid a flow of food through the
intestinal tract.
The parathyroid glands in the neck help adjust the
body's storage of calcium. If these glands are not
functioning properly, accumulation may occur.
Calcium needs acid for proper assimilation. If acid
in some form is not present in the body, the mineral
will not be dissolved and therefore cannot be used
as needed by the body. Instead it may build up in
tissues or joints as deposits, leading to a variety of
disturbances. Drugs affecting absorption include
caffeine, diuretics, fatty acids, fibre oxalates,
glucocorticoids, fluoride, losec, Mylanta, protein,
Absorption of Calcium and Harmone
Absorption depends upon the presence of adequate
amounts of Vitamin D, which works with the
parathyroid hormone to regulate the amount of
calcium in the blood. Phosphorus is needed in the
same amount but should not exceed the exact
amount of calcium. The body uses them together to
give firmness to the bones. If excess amounts of
either mineral is taken, that excess cannot be used
efficiently.Vitamins A & C are also necessary for
absorption. Fat content in moderate amounts,
moving slowly through the digestive tract, helps
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facilitate absorption as does bile and bile salts. To
function properly, Calcium must be accompanied
by magnesium, phosphorus, boron and the
Vitamins A,C,D, K and possibly E.
If the intake of calcium is too high, magnesium
levels also need to be high. Too little magnesium
results in calcium accumulations in the muscles,
heart and kidneys. Too much calcium can interfere
with the functions of the nervous and muscular
systems. An excess amount in the blood causes
calcium rigour, which is characterized by muscles
that contract and cannot relax. When an excess is
added to blood plasma, coagulation does not take
place. Too much calcium will decrease the body's
absorption of zinc and iron.
The parathyroid and thyroid glands function to control the level of blood calcium
Hormones that affect bone growth and
development include those secreted by the pituitary
gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, and the
ovaries and testes . The pituitary gland, for
instance, secretes growth hormone (GH), also
called somatotropin, which stimulates activity in
the epiphyseal plates.
This hormone is the main regulator of height.
Somatotropin plays many roles in the body: it
stimulates bone and muscle growth, maintains the
normal rate of protein synthesis in all body cells,
and speeds the release of fats as an energy source
for growth. Other hormones play a part in
maintaining the strength and health of the bone
matrix by functioning to control the level of blood
calcium. In fact, calcium is needed for a number of
metabolic processes other than for bone formation,
including blood clot formation, nerve impulse
conduction, and muscle cell contraction. When a
low blood calcium condition exists, the parathyroid
glands respond by releasing parathyroid hormone
(PTH). This hormone stimulates osteoclasts to
break down bone tissue, and as a result, calcium
salts are released into the blood. On the other hand,
if the blood calcium level is excessively high, the
thyroid gland responds by releasing a hormone
called calcitonin. Its effect is opposite that of
parathyroid hormone; it inhibits osteoclast activity
allowing osteoblasts to form bone tissue. As a
result, the excessive calcium is stored in bone
matrix. The actions of these hormones are both
excellent examples of some important negative
feedback loops present in our bodies. Without
adequate supplies of these important chemicals, the
bones will not develop or grow normally.
How to prevent deficiency of Calcium
especially in Women ?
Menopausal Woman
Drop in estrogen production after menopause result
in increased bone resorption, and decreased
calcium absorption. Estrogen therapy works to
restore postmenopausal bone remodeling levels
back to those of pre-menopause, leading to a lower
rate of bone loss. Estrogen appears to interact with
supplemental calcium by increasing calcium
absorption in the gut. However, including adequate
amounts of calcium in the diet may help slow the
rate of bone loss for all women.
Amenorrheic Women and the Female Athlete
Amenorrhea is the condition when menstrual
periods stop or fail to initiate in women who are of
childbearing age. Secondary amenorrhea is the
absence of three or more consecutive menstrual
cycles after menarche occurs (first menstrual
period). The secondary type of amenorrhea can be
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induced by exercise in athletes and is referred to as
"athletic amenorrhea". Potential causes of athletic
amenorrhea include low body weight and low
percent body fat, rapid weight loss, sudden onset of
vigorous exercise, disordered eating and stress.
Vitamin D helps prevent calcium loss from your
bones. It is sometimes called "the sunshine
vitamin" because it is made in your skin when you
are exposed to sunlight. If you get outside in the
sunlight every day for 15 to 30 minutes, you should
get all the vitamin D you need. However, in
northern locations in winter, the sunlight may be
too weak to make vitamin D in the skin. Vitamin D
may also be obtained from your diet or from
multivitamin preparations. Most milk is fortified
with vitamin D.
A good accumulation of calcium in the bones at
early stages in life is the best prevention of age
related bone loss and fractures. it is important for
vegans to include adequate amounts of non-dairy
sources of calcium in their daily diet. It is more
efficient to take calcium in smaller doses several
times a day and at night before bedtime, which also
promotes a sound sleep. The key is prevention and
prompt diagnosis. Consult your nutritionist or
dietitian to plan your diet accordingly. Always take
away from tannin rich beverages, to help ensure
maximum absorption.
When there is not enough calcium absorbed in the
body, the output of estrogen decreases. As is the
case with postmenopausal women, older men are
often deficient in calcium. Even it also can be
encourages moderate exercise .Although dairy
products are the main source of calcium in the diet,
other foods also contribute to overall calcium
intake. Calcium is also used in muscle contraction,
blood clotting, and maintenance of cell membranes.
Long-term calcium deficiency can lead to
osteoporosis, in which it is remarkable that there
should be so much controversy over the roles of
calcium and vitamin D in human nutrition in
general and in osteoporosis in particular, given that
both are acknowledged to be essential nutrients. No
sooner have osteomalacia and osteoporosis been
satisfactorily distinguished than evidence of their
overlapping aetiologies becomes apparent. Low
calcium absorption may be the result of moderate
vitamin D insufficiency and that high calcium
excretion may be due to dietary factors (such as
protein and sodium intakes) or to hormonal effects
(such as estrogen deficiency). Seen in this light, the
worldwide pattern of osteoporosis becomes
comprehensible, but carefully targeted fieldwork -
exemplified by studies on the relationship between
calcium intake and bone density in the Gambia.
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... 91,92 The main components of this fruit are vitamins and minerals such as Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn (in range of 1.29-15.82%). 93,94 Bael fruit ash (with basic nature (PH ¼ 12.6, due to various oxides of metals) provides numbers of Lewis basic sites (O 2À and OH) and Lewis acidic sites (M 2þ ) for the activation of reactants to perform final products. Figure 11 shows the preparation steps of the BFA catalyst. ...
... The rind of dried fruits was crushed, and after burning, the BFA was obtained. [93][94][95] Many biological and pharmaceutical properties have been reported for the 2-amino-4H-benzochromene derivatives. 96 ...
The design and development of eco-friendly procedures for synthesizing organic compounds is an essential key to synthetic chemistry and has gained significant interest. The catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions with additional advantages such as reduced energy input, diminished environmental impact, and overall financial benefit. The combined advantages of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) and natural catalysts will be an emerging and strategic area and is an ideal blend for the development of sustainable methodologies in organic synthesis. The plant, fruits, and their extracts and residues contain many useful chemical components lost during disposal. The crops contain renewable chemicals which are useful for catalysis and organic synthesis. Due to the excellent chemical properties of the natural extracts, they have gained great attention as cost-effective catalysts. In this review, we critically focus on using natural-based catalysts in multicomponent reactions that lead to synthetically and biologically relevant organic molecules and diverse heterocycles. The use of natural-based catalysts is cost-effective, favorable for work-up procedures, sustainable and industrial applications, and is usually more effective than traditional catalysts.
... Ca is the most abundant (98% of the total body Ca) element, present in the living bone [82,83]. For the nucleation and growth of HA, Ca plays the crucial role which also influence the metabolic activities of osteoblastic cells [55,84]. ...
... Whereas, the medium concentration (6-8 mmol) of Ca 2? is favorable for mineralization of extracellular matrix (ECM). Also, low concentration (2-4 mmol) of Ca 2? is preferable for differentiation and proliferation of osteoblast cells [83,[85][86][87]. Generally, 10-15 mg of Ca ions are found per 100 mg of cells or body fluid [78]. ...
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The present article critically reviewed the potentiality of Mg–Ca silicate-based crystalline bioceramics such as MgSiO3, Mg2SiO4, CaSiO3, Ca2SiO4, Ca3SiO5, CaMgSi2O6, Ca2MgSi2O7, Ca7MgSi4O16, CaMgSiO4 and Ca3MgSi2O8 as new generation orthopedic prosthetic implants. Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺ and Si⁴⁺ ions are abundant in bone and play a crucial role in various bone metabolic activities such as enhancing osteogenesis and inhibiting osteoporosis. The release rate of Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺ and Si⁴⁺ ions from these bioceramics depends on the crystal structure which consequently, influences their bioactivity and biocompatibility. In addition, the release rate of these ions can be tuned by tailoring the processing parameters/routes and compositional modifications and subsequently, bioactivity, cellular response as well as bone regeneration ability can be improved. Toward this end, the present article thoroughly reviewed and analyzed the influence of crystal structure, processing parameters/routes and compositional alteration on in vitro/in vivo biocompatibility and degradation behavior of the above ceramics. Further, a correlation between structure, processing and properties has been established.
... Kalsium termasuk salah satu mineral yang didapatkan paling b anyak pada t u buh manu sia Kalsium dalam tubuh berfungsi sebagai t ra nsmisi impuls syaraf, kontraksi otot, pengaturan permeabilitas membran sel, penggumpalan darah dan pengaktifan enzim dalam tubuh 38 . Ko n t rak si otot terutama kontraksi pa da u t erus d isebab kan karena kadar prostaglandin endometrium mengalami peningkatan ketika memasuki fase luteal, dalam hal ini kalsium berperan dalam interaksi protein otot antara aktin dan myosin. ...
ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Dismenorea primer banyak ditemui pada wanita usia sekitar 17-24 tahun dan masih menjadi permasalahan yang dikeluhkan bagi remaja putri karena dapat menyebabkan terganggunya aktivitas sehari-hari dan tertinggalnya mata pelajaran. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui hubungan tingkat stres, status anemia dengan dismenorea primer pada siswi kelas XII di SMAN 1 Nganjuk.Metode: Penelitian dengan desain cross sectional ini dilakukan kepada 74 siswi dengan metode proportional stratified random sampling dari 213 siswi kelas XII SMAN 1 Nganjuk. Variabel bebas yang diteliti adalah tingkat stres dan status anemia, sedangkan variabel terikat adalah dismenorea primer. Data karakteristik seperti usia menarche, lama menstruasi, riwayat keluarga, dan kebiasaan sarapan diperoleh dengan wawancara terstruktur. Profil status gizi seperti IMT/U, kecukupan kalsium, magnesium, Fe dan vitamin E dan status anemia, berturut-turut, diperiksa dengan pengukuran antropometri, formulir semi-FFQ dan food picture, pengukuran kadar hemoglobin menggunakan Hemochroma. Penentuan tingkat aktivitas fisik, tingkat stress dan persepsi dismenorea primer, berturut-turut, dilakukan dengan kuesioner IPAQ, DASS 42, dan MSQ. Uji bivariat dianalisis menggunakan Chi Square dengan tingkat signifikansi 0,05.Hasil: Sebanyak 34% remaja putri mengalami dismenorea primer, anemia 71,6% dan yang mengalami stres 56,8%. Terdapat hubungan antara tingkat stres (p=0,002; C=0,339) dan status anemia (p=0,001; C=0,552) dengan dismenorea primer. Lama menstruasi (p=0,008; C=0,293), riwayat keluarga (p=0,010; C=0,287), tingkat kecukupan kalsium (p=0,001; C=0,640), tingkat kecukupan Fe (p=0,009; C=0,639) serta tingkat kecukupan vitamin E (p=0,001; C=0,596) juga berhubungan dengan dismenorea primer.Simpulan: Dismenorea primer remaja putri berhubungan dengan tingkat stres dan status anemia. Namun demikian, dismenorea primer juga dipengaruhi oleh lama menstruasi, riwayat keluarga, tingkat kecukupan kalsium, Fe dan vitamin E. Kata kunci: tingkat stres, status anemia, dismenorea primer, siswi SMA, Nganjuk ABSTRACT Title: Relationship between Stress Level and Anemia Status with Primary Dysmenorrhoea in Class XII Students at SMAN 1 Nganjuk Background: Primary dysmenorrhoea is mostly found in women aged around 17-24 years and is still a problem that is complained of for young women because it can cause disruption of daily activities and lagging subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of stress levels, anemia status with primary dysmenorrhoea in class XII students at SMAN 1 Nganjuk.Method: This cross sectional design study was conducted on 74 students using proportional stratified random sampling method from 213 students of class XII SMAN 1 Nganjuk. The independent variables studied were stress level and anemia status, while the dependent variable was primary dysmenorrhoea. Data on characteristics such as menarche age, menstrual period, family history, and breakfast habits were obtained by structured interview. Nutritional status profiles such as BMI /U, adequate calcium, magnesium, Fe and vitamin E and anemia status, respectively, were examined by anthropometric measurements, semi-FFQ forms and food pictures, measurement of hemoglobin levels using Hemochroma. Determination of the level of physical activity, stress levels and perception of primary dysmenorrhoea, respectively, was carried out with the IPAQ questionnaire, DASS 42, and MSQ. Bivariate test was analyzed using Chi Square with a significance level of 0.05.Results: As many as 34% of adolescent girls experienced primary dysmenorrhoea, anemia 71.6% and those experiencing stress 56.8%. There is a relationship between stress level (p = 0.002; C = 0.339) and anemia status (p = 0.001; C = 0.552) with primary dysmenorrhoea. Menstrual duration (p = 0.008; C = 0,293), family history (p = 0.010; C = 0,287), calcium adequacy level (p = 0,001; C = 0,640), adequacy level of Fe (p = 0,009; C = 0,639) and adequate levels of vitamin E (p = 0.001; C = 0.596) are also associated with primary dysmenorrhoea.Conclusion: Primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescent girls is associated with stress levels and anemia status. However, primary dysmenorrhoea is also influenced by menstrual length, family history, adequate levels of calcium, Fe and vitamin E. Keywords: Stress Level, Anemia Status, Primary Dysmenorrhoea, High School Girls, Nganjuk
... Bone powder is used as a dietary supplement for calcium and phosphorous, which are essential for improving the function and health of bones, teeth, muscles, and nervous system (Hintz, Schryver 1972, Piste et al. 2013. However, there are many challenges and drawbacks when using bones either as an edible bone meal or for medicinal uses. ...
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Evaluation of the nutritional value of edible fine bone powder, rich in bioelements extracted using a long-term hydrothermal method, for nutrition and human calcium supplementation. Abstract Although bone is rich in vital proteins and minerals, it is inedible, and its use in nutrition and nutritional supplements is hampered by its strength as well as the risk of disease transmission and lead contamination. Since bones are difficult to grind, high-quality fine bone powder (FBP) without additives is still needed. The study was designed to extract FBP and evaluate its physicochemical properties and value for human nutrition based on its chemical composition, including the mineral and toxic metal content. The applied long-term hydrothermal treatment sterilized and softened hard bones, which were then ground into FBP that inherited bone properties. The physicochemical properties of the extracted FBP were studied, including the structure, composition, thermal behavior, morphology, elemental analysis, and proximate composition analyses. The high-quality FBP has indeed inherited bone properties; it has micro-crystalline particles with sizes less than 100 μm and is characterized by a higher content of biological hydroxyapatite, 65% by weight of FBP with a calcium/phosphorous ratio of 1.57, and it is rich in protein and vital bioelements, such as Na, Mg, Fe, Si, Al, K, Ba, Cr, Cu and Zn. The powder is free from lead and cadmium, which are well below detection limits. The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for calcium are 700-800 mg per day, which equates to about 2800-3300 mg of FBP per day. Given the beneficial protein and biomineral composition of FBP, it may be a promising choice in the development and enrichment of nutritional products and calcium supplements.
... In addition, the iron metal ion is found in every cell of the body and is required for the production of hemoglobin as a component of blood cells. Also, the copper metal ion works with iron to help the body make red blood cells and keep the blood vessels, nerves, immune system, and bones healthy [21,22]. However, excessive or insufficient intake (Table 1) of these ions can result in a variety of health problems such as lethargy, hypertension, acute renal failure, liver and kidney damage for a short period, diabetes, arthritis, liver cancer, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, kidney failure, and so on [23,24]. ...
The colorimetric and fluorescent Schiff base sensors have proven to be powerful tools in the detection of metal ions due to their simplicity, low cost, rapid photophysical response, high sensitivity, low detection limit, and application to the environmental and medical fields. The core concepts involved in the design of such sensors are : (a) analyte separation; (b) isolation of a specific analyte from a mixture of analytes; and (c) signal generation due to species complexing. It is because several of these metal ions (such as K+, Na+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Co2+, etc.) play a prominent role in biological, medicinal, and environmental fields. Hence, their sensing or detection has become one of the most challenging and vital research domains among many other domains. In the presented review article, we have reviewed the recent (2010-2021) development of colorimetric and fluorescent Schiff base sensors to detect pollutants and biologically significant cations. Also, a summary includes the significant points, such as the structure of molecule, IUPAC name, detection limit (LOD), association constant, binding stoichiometry, the mechanism of binding, instrumental techniques used, and the practical applications. Lastly, we have talked about the a performance evaluation (pie chart), a conclusion and outlooks of Schiff base sensors for metal ion detection.
... Calcium requirements are essential for all stages of life, and requirements are most significant during childhood, pregnancy, and breastfeeding [26]. e study showed that among the studied vegetables, celery leaves had high calcium content (306.00 mg/100 g), which was found within the daily allowance recommended for all life cycles (200-1300 mg/ day) [27]. ...
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In Ethiopia, some plants (Ethiopia kale, Swiss chard, and celery) remain underutilized for human consumption, as information on their nutritional potential remains limited. As a result, the purpose of this study was to determine the proximate, mineral, antinutrient, and phytochemical content of Ethiopia kale (Brassica carinata), Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea) using standard analytical methods. The moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total ash, total carbohydrate, and energy contents were found to be 6.44–16.62%, 6.76–33.64%, 9.19–54.86%, 0.50–4.00%, 1.00–2.75%, 7.28–68.73%, and 141.06–333.28 kcal/100 g, respectively. Ethiopia's kale had a high protein content, while celery had a high fat and fiber content. The calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, and sodium content (mg/100 gdb) ranged between 8.00 and 306.00, 8.10–11.83, 0.64–4.85, 11.34–63.00, 2.83–810.00, 0.15–41.65, and 1.50–443.80 mg/100 g, respectively. Swiss chard contained magnesium, potassium, and sodium, whereas celery was high in calcium and iron. The total oxalate, condensed tannin, and phytate (mg/100 gdb) ranged as follows: 0.88–4.92, 138.27–892.19, and 69.14–265.99, respectively. Ethiopia’s kale recorded a comparatively low amount of tannin and phytate. High mineral bioavailability, such as calcium, iron, and zinc, was obtained in Ethiopia kale. The results also showed that Ethiopia's kale contained a good amount of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The findings indicated that Ethiopia kale was a significant source of protein, had low antinutrient content with high mineral bioavailability, and had the potential to formulate nutrient-rich infant and young child foods using staple cereals and pulse grains.
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Mushrooms have bioactive compounds such as phenol compounds, terpenes, steroids, polysaccharides and vitamins etc. performing various biological activities can benefit the health.Pleurotus sp. is popularly cultivated edible mushrooms worldwide. It contains macronutrient and micronutrient along with certain bioactive compounds hic are of medicinal importance. The compounds isolated from mushroom are of great significance in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, neutraceuticals as well as for therapeutics purpose and prevention and treatment of diseases through their immunomodulatory property.
One of the strategies adopted to introduce fruits to youngsters is achieved by delivering pineapple chellies containing soy milk. This study, therefore, aims to determine the differences in nutrient content, antioxidant activity, physical properties, and organoleptic quality of pineapple chellies with the addition of suitable soy milk as a complementary alternative to children's nutritious snacks. Based on the weights and considerations, P3 was selected as the best formulation, in terms of the nutrient content and contribution level of the chellies with adequate snack standards.
This study assessed the contamination and human health risks of metals in selected fruits and vegetables from Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria. Sixty samples from selected markets in Abeokuta were collected and analysed for essential and toxic metals using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Contamination risk (ContR) and human health risk [hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk (CR)] of metals were measured. All the observed metals except Ni (in coconut and walnut), Cd (in bananas and pineapples), and Cr (in bananas, pineapples, and walnut) had values within the permissible limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. Pb levels (<0.01–1.90 mg/kg) were higher than the permissible limit in most of the fruits. The ContR values of Cd (4.08–4.19), Cr (1.16–1.42), Ni (1.43–1.60), and Pb (1.71–19.0) in some of the fruits were higher than the allowable limit of 1.0, indicating they were unfit for consumption. Furthermore, an HQ > 1.0 for Ca and Mn; and CRs >1.0 × 10–4 for Cd, Ni, and Cr were observed in some of the fruits consumed by adults and children. This study established the possible development of cancer through exposure to some metals in the fruits.
Hourly fractional absorption of radiocalcium (alpha), serum calcitriol, and a number of other variables were measured in 152 normal and 148 osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Alpha, body weight, and serum albumin were all significantly lower in the osteoporotic than in the normal women, and plasma alkaline phosphatase, fasting urinary calcium, sodium, and hydroxyproline were all significantly higher in the osteoporotic than in the normal group. The most significant determinant of alpha in each group was the serum calcitriol concentration, but calcium absorption relative to serum calcitriol was significantly lower in the osteoporotic than in the normal women. The serum calcitriol level was slightly but not significantly lower in the osteoporotic than in the normal group and accounted for only 20% of the difference in alpha between them. The implied “resistance” to calcitriol in the osteoporotic group was significantly related to serum albumin and body weight but independent of age. Urinary hydroxyproline was an inverse function of alpha and a positive function of fasting urinary calcium in the osteoporotic group.
1. The effects of a low calcium diet and of oophorectomy, separately and together, on cortical and trabecular bone mass, have been examined in mature female rats. 2. Calcium deprivation caused a significant decrease of weight, cortical cross-sectional area and ratio of cortical to total area in the femur, it significantly reduced the volume of trabecular bone and increased the percentage of osteoid surface in the tail vertebrae, and in addition increased the urinary excretion of phosphate and, initially, of hydroxyproline. 3. Oophorectomy caused similar though smaller changes in trabecular bone and urine, whereas the effects of oophorectomy on cortical bone were greater on a low calcium intake than on a normal intake. 4. The ash weight of the femora, expressed as a percentage of the total dry weight, was unaffected by calcium deprivation or oophorectomy alone but was significantly reduced when the two occurred together. 5. The percentage of resorption surfaces in the vertebrae tended to increase on the low calcium diet and after oophorectomy on the normal diet but decreased after oophorectomy on a low calcium diet. 6. It is concluded that oophorectomy and calcium deficiency each reduce bone mass in the adult rat but the greatest effect is seen when they are combined.
The relationships between the amount of calcium absorbed and the quantity ingested was evaluated in 180 adult humans. Absorption was measured from the concentration ratio of concurrently administered oral and intravenous calcium isotopes. Intake ranged from 0.163 to 7.48 Gm. Ca per day. In 14 subjects, intakes were artificially elevated for purposes of this study. All others were studied at their usual intake levels. Absorption (Ca Abs) was found to follow a curvillnear relationship with intake (Ca-D), and was characterized by the following equation: Ca Abs equals 0.1541 - Ca-D plus 0.3127[exp(-1.0539 - Ca-D)] - Ca-D. The exponential term of this equation provided the major component of total absorption at intakes below 0.8 Gm. per day, but fell to negligible values when intake reached 2 to 3 Gm. per day, above which absorption was characterized by a simple linear function of intake. We found that there was no detectable upper limit to absorption capacity, which, at the 7.48 Gm. intake level, averaged more than 1.0 Gm per day. The observed mathematical description is consistent with the generally recognized inverse relationship between absorption efficiency and intake. At the same time it indicates that a component of absorption is independent of control mechanisms and is related solely to intake. A more general form of the foregoing equation, suggesting provision for other physiological variables such as growth hormone and cortisol, is proposed and discussed.
Traditional dietary habits and the living style in Spain should theoretically be enough to assure a healthy vitamin D status: a very high fish intake and one of the highest sun exposure rates of all countries in Europe. However, in spite of this, there is a high percentage in the elderly showing low vitamin D serum values. This paper is part of the Euronut-SENECA study, a major multicentre survey assessing the nutritional status in the elderly from 19 centres over 12 countries in Europe. In it, the vitamin D status in 55 healthy individuals from Spain has been studied and assessed by measuring dietary and supplemental vitamin D intakes; the influence of sunlight exposure such as physical activity, permanence in the sun, clothing, etc.; and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH)D] serum concentration. The mean dietary intake was 1.3 +/- 1.5 micrograms/day, being fish, and specially fatty fish, the main source (62%). Of the total, 85% of the elderly did not reach the Spanish recommended dietary intake (2.5 micrograms/day). The mean 25(OH)D serum level was 25 +/- 14.7 nmol/l and there was a high percentage with deficit (13%) (8.4 +/- 1.9 nmol/l) and marginal (62%) (19.8 +/- 4.2 nmol/l) levels. People who usually walked 1.9 +/- 1.3 hours/day or stayed in the sun "every day" or "as much as possible", had higher (p < 0.05) serum 25 (OH)D concentrations (27.7 +/- 2.4 nmol/l and 31.3 +/- 3.7 nmol/l, respectively) than people who did not (16.6 +/- 1.2 nmol/l and 21.3 +/- 2.1 nmol/l, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
We have measured calcium, albumin, globulin, bicarbonate, and anion gap in the plasma; and calcium, sodium, and creatinine in the urine, in 115 premenopausal and 140 postmenopausal normal women after an overnight fast, and calculated the calcium fractions in the plasma and the calcium/and sodium/creatinine ratios in the urine. The total ultrafiltrable calcium was significantly higher in the postmenopausal group, mainly due to their higher complexed calcium fraction, due in turn to their higher bicarbonate and anion gap concentrations. Urinary calcium was also significantly higher in the postmenopausal group even after correcting for sodium. After matching for total calcium and each of the calcium fractions in turn, the urinary calcium remained significantly higher in the post- than in the premenopausal sets even after correction for sodium. The implication is that the rise in urinary calcium at the menopause is due to reduced tubular reabsorption of calcium rather than to an increase in filtered load. We suggest that estrogens promote tubular reabsorption of calcium and that the rise in bone resorption at the menopause could be accounted for, at least in part, by the effect of estrogen deficiency on the kidney.