ThesisPDF Available

HYBRID RANDOM WALK-PARTIAL FLOODING TECHNIQUE OVER MANET

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Many routing protocols have been proposed for MANET, with the goal of achieving efficientrouting. Flooding technique is often used for r oute discovery in on-demand routing protocols inMANET such as AODV routing. Such technique coul d unnecessarily saturate most parts of thenetwork with route request packets. In addition, flooding has poor granularity, and does not scalewell. Random walks have been proposed as an alternative search technique. Searching bysimulating random walks reduces the message ove rhead compared to flooding across network.Additionally, the random walks method scales well and has excellent granularity. However, it isinherently sequential, which increases route establishment delay.To avoid the problem of wireless broadcast storm caused by flooding technique, and to reduceroute establishment delay in ra ndom walk techniques, we proposed a hybrid Sear ch technique,which combines the strength of random walk techniques with Delegation-Based Partial Flooding(D-BPF) techniques, and show how to use locally maintained network information to improveperformance of searching.Hybrid Search technique employs the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routingprotocol. We quantify performance in terms of the amount of control packets and routeestablishment delay. Simulation results showed that the Hybrid Search technique re duces theamount of route request packets and route estab lishment delay with large time-to-live value ascompared with the D-BPF technique (PDF) HYBRID RANDOM WALK-PARTIAL FLOODING TECHNIQUE OVER MANET. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274705416_HYBRID_RANDOM_WALK-PARTIAL_FLOODING_TECHNIQUE_OVER_MANET [accessed Jun 26 2022].
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wireless routing based on an embedding of the connectivity graph is a very promising technique to overcome shortcomings of geographic routing and topology-based routing. This is of particular interest when either absolute coordinates for geographic routing are unavailable or when they poorly reflect the underlying connectivity in the network. We focus on dynamic networks induced by time-varying fading and mobility. This requires that the embedding is stable over time, whereas the focus of most existing embedding algorithms is on low distortion of single realizations of a graph. We develop a beacon-based distributed embedding algorithm that requires little control overhead, produces low distortion embeddings, and is stable. We also show that a low-dimensional embedding suffices, since at a sufficiently large scale, wireless connectivity graphs are dictated by geometry. The stability of the embedding allows us to combine geo-routing on the embedding with last encounter routing (LER) for node lookup, further reducing the control overhead. Our routing algorithm avoids dead ends through randomized greedy forwarding. We demonstrate through extensive simulations that our combined embedding and routing scheme outperforms existing algorithms.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article presents RaWMS, a novel lightweight random membership service for ad hoc net- works. The service provides each node with a partial uniformly chosen view of network nodes. Such a membership service is useful, for example, in data dissemination algorithms, lookup and discovery services, peer sampling services, and complete membership construction. The design of RaWMS is based on a novel reverse random walk (RW) sampling technique. The article includes a formal analysis of both the reverse RW sampling technique and RaWMS and verifies it through a detailed simulation study. In addition, RaWMS is compared both analytically and by simulations with a number of other known methods such as flooding and gossip-based techniques.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Broadcasting is a common operation in a network to resolve many issues. In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) in particular, due to host mobility, such operations are expected to be executed more frequently (such as finding a route to a particular host, paging a particular host, and sending an alarm signal). Because radio signals are likely to overlap with others in a geographical area, a straightforward broadcasting by flooding is usually very costly and will result in serious redundancy, contention, and collision, to which we call the broadcast storm problem. In this paper, we identify this problem by showing how serious it is through analyses and simulations. We propose several schemes to reduce redundant rebroadcasts and differentiate timing of rebroadcasts to alleviate this problem. Simulation results are presented, which show different levels of improvement over the basic flooding approach.
Conference Paper
A mobile ad hoc network consists of wireless hosts that may move often. Movement of hosts results in a change in routes, requiring some mechanism for determining new routes. Several routing protocols have already been proposed for ad hoc networks. This paper suggests an approach to utilize location information (for instance, obtained using the global positioning system) to improve performance of routing protocols for ad hoc networks. By using location information, the proposed Location-Aided Routing (LAR) protocols limit the search for a new route to a smaller "request zone" of the ad hoc network. This results in a significant reduction in the number of routing messages. We present two algorithms to determine the request zone, and also suggest potential optimizations to our algorithms.
Article
Abstract Anumber,of library-based parallel ,and sequential network,simulators ,have ,been ,designed. This paper describes a library, called GloMoSim (for Global Mobile system Simulator), for parallel simulation of wireless networks. GloMoSim has been designed to be ,extensible and composable: the communication ,protocol stack for wireless networks is divided into a set of layers, each with its own API. Models of protocols at one layer interact with those at a lower (or higher) layer only via these APIs. The modular,implementation,enables consistent comparison,of multiple,protocols ,at a ,given ,layer. The parallel implementation,of GloMoSim ,can be executed ,using a variety of conservative synchronization protocols, which include,the ,null ,message ,and ,conditional ,event algorithms. This paper describes the GloMoSim library, addresses,a number ,of issues ,relevant ,to its parallelization, and presents a set of experimental results onthe IBM 9076 SP, a distributed memory multi- computer. These experiments use models constructed from the library modules. 1,Introduction The,rapid ,advancement ,in portable ,computing platforms and wireless communication,technology has led tosignificant interest in mobile ,computing ,and mobile networking. Two primary forms of mobile ,computing ,are becoming popular: first, mobile computers continue to heavily use wired network infrastructures.Instead of being hardwired to a single location (or IP address), a computer can,dynamically ,move ,to multiple ,locations ,while maintaining,application transparency. Protocols such as
Article
This paper introduces a new route request flooding control scheme, called Pre-location Oriented Routing for the Ad Hoc On Demand Routing protocols. This scheme aims to control and reduce the route request flooding. Furthermore, the scheme combines the strength of Clustering Structure Routing to make the flooding mechanism more efficient and increase the route establishment speed.
Article
Efficient search algorithms are crucial to the success of unstructured and hybrid peer-to-peer networks. Performance requirements on search algorithms include low search traffic, low search latency, and determinism in returning the searched items. However, existing search algorithms fail to meet these goals. We propose, analyze, and evaluate two novel flooding search algorithms. The first algorithm conducts on-the-fly estimation of the popularity of the searched item, and uses such knowledge to guide a peer’s search process. It requires the minimum search cost and very low latency, and albeit its non-determinism, often returns the desired number of results. The second algorithm, Hurricane flooding, exponentially expands the search horizon of the source of a search in a spiral pattern. Hurricane flooding is deterministic, requires search cost arbitrarily close to a lower bound, and returns the results in logarithmic time. We analyze and optimize our proposed algorithms, and evaluate them using various network models, including a real Gnutella network topology.
Conference Paper
In this paper, we consider hybrid peer-to-peer systems where users form an unstructured peer-to-peer network with the purpose of assisting a server in the distribution of data. We present a mathematical model that we use to analyze the scalability of hybrid peer-to-peer systems under two query propagation mechanisms: the random walk and the expand- ing ring. In particular, we characterize how the query load at the server, the load at peers as well as the query response time scale as the number of users in the peer-to-peer network increases. We show that, under a properly designed random walk propagation mechanism, hybrid peer-to-peer systems can support an unbounded number of users while requiring only bounded resources both at the server and at individual peers. This important result shows that hybrid peer-to-peer systems have excellent scalability properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a theoretical study characterizing the scalability of such hybrid peer-to- peer systems has been presented. We illustrate our results through numerical studies.
Conference Paper
We study hybrid search schemes for unstructured peer-to-peer networks. We quantify performance in terms of number of hits, network overhead, and response time. Our schemes combine flooding and random walks, look ahead and replication. We consider both regular topologies and topologies with supernodes. We introduce a general search scheme, of which flooding and random walks are special instances, and show how to use locally maintained network information to improve the performance of searching. Our main findings are: (a) a small number of supernodes in an otherwise regular topology can offer sharp savings in the performance of search, both in the case of search by flooding and search by random walk, particularly when it is combined with 1-step replication. We quantify, analytically and experimentally, that the reason of these savings is that the search is biased towards nodes that yield more information. (b) There is a generalization of search, of which flooding and random walk are special instances, which may take further advantage of locally maintained network information, and yield better performance than both flooding and random walk in clustered topologies. The method determines edge critically and is reminiscent of fundamental heuristics from the area of approximation algorithms.