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Experimental Study of Interior Temperature Distribution Inside Parked Automobile Cabin

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Temperature inside the vehicle cabin is very important to provide comfortable conditions to the car passengers. Temperature inside the cabin will be increased, when the car is left or parked directly under the sunlight. Experimental studies were performed in Baghdad, Iraq (33.3 o N, 44.4 o E) to investigate the effects of solar radiation on car cabin components (dashboard, steering wheel, seat, and inside air). The test vehicle was oriented to face south to ensure maximum (thermal) sun load on the front windscreen. Six different parking conditions were investigated. A suggested car cover was examined experimentally. The measurements were recorded for clear sky summer days started at 8 A.M. till 5 P.M. Results show that interior air temperature in unshaded parked car reaches 70 o C and dashboard temperature can approach 100 o C. While, cardboard car shade inside the car not reduce the air temperature inside it. Suggested car cover with 1 cm part-down side windows reduced temperature of cabin components by 70 % in average compare to the base case. 1. INTRODUCTION Recently, after 2003, the private passenger vehicles number in Iraq has been growing significantly. It's the most convenient means of transportation in the country. The high density of private passenger vehicles leads to lack of parking space. This is much clearer at the government offices, universities, and shopping areas. Moreover, the available shaded parking areas do not match the existing numbers of vehicles; hence the alternative choice for those who are unable to park under shaded area is to park in an open parking space. Parking in an unshaded area gave rise of greenhouse problem. It is the problem of conversion of solar radiation entering through the windows of a car into long wave thermal radiation and trapped inside car cabin causes temperature increase of cabin components. Thereby, use of cardboard car shades to reduce the interior temperatures inside parked automobile has become popular in Baghdad and other hot regions in Iraq. Temperature inside the vehicle cabin is very important to provide comfortness to the car passenger. The temperature can be controlled by using air conditioning system that can be operated when the car engine is in operation. However, when the car is left or parked directly under the sunlight, temperature inside the cabin will be increased. Sealed automobiles commonly encounter interior temperature conditions that are tremendously uncomfortable to the passengers.
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Journal of Engineering
Volume 21 March 2015
Number 3
1
Experimental Study of Interior Temperature Distribution Inside Parked
Automobile Cabin
Issam Mohammed Ali Aljubury
Ammar A. Farhan
Munther Abdullah Mussa
Instructor
Instructor
Instructor
Mech. Eng. Dept.
Mech. Eng. Dept.
Mech. Eng. Dept.
Eng. Coll. - Baghdad Univ.
Eng. Coll. - Baghdad Univ.
Eng. Coll. - Baghdad Univ.
juburyima@gmail.com
ammarali@uobaghdad.edu.iq
munthermech@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Temperature inside the vehicle cabin is very important to provide comfortable conditions to
the car passengers. Temperature inside the cabin will be increased, when the car is left or parked
directly under the sunlight. Experimental studies were performed in Baghdad, Iraq (33.3 oN, 44.4
oE) to investigate the effects of solar radiation on car cabin components (dashboard, steering wheel,
seat, and inside air). The test vehicle was oriented to face south to ensure maximum (thermal) sun
load on the front windscreen. Six different parking conditions were investigated. A suggested car
cover was examined experimentally. The measurements were recorded for clear sky summer days
started at 8 A.M. till 5 P.M. Results show that interior air temperature in unshaded parked car
reaches 70oC and dashboard temperature can approach 100 oC. While, cardboard car shade inside
the car not reduce the air temperature inside it. Suggested car cover with 1 cm part-down side
windows reduced temperature of cabin components by 70 % in average compare to the base case.
Key words: automobile cabin, temperature distribution, thermal comfort, greenhouse problem.
ﺔﻔﻗﻮﺘﻣ ةرﺎﯿﺳ ةرﻮﺼﻘﻣ ﻞﺧاد ةراﺮﺤﻟا تﺎﺟرد ﻊﯾزﻮﺘﻟ ﺔﯿﻠﻤﻋ ﺔﺳارد
ﻰﺳﻮﻣ ﷲ ﺪﺒﻋ رﺬﻨﻣ
نﺎﺣﺮﻓ ﻲﻠﻋ رﺎﻤﻋ
يرﻮﺒﺠﻟا ﻲﻠﻋ ﺪﻤﺤﻣ مﺎﺼﻋ
سرﺪﻣ
سرﺪﻣ
سرﺪﻣ
ﺔﯿﻜﯿﻧﺎﻜﯿﻤﻟا ﺔﺳﺪﻨﮭﻟا ﻢﺴﻗ
ﺔﯿﻜﯿﻧﺎﻜﯿﻤﻟا ﺔﺳﺪﻨﮭﻟا ﻢﺴﻗ
ﺔﯿﻜﯿﻧﺎﻜﯿﻤﻟا ﺔﺳﺪﻨﮭﻟا ﻢﺴﻗ
ﺔﺳﺪﻨﮭﻟا ﺔﯿﻠﻛﻌﻣﺎﺟداﺪﻐﺑ ﺔ
ﺔﺳﺪﻨﮭﻟا ﺔﯿﻠﻛداﺪﻐﺑ ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ
ﺔﺳﺪﻨﮭﻟا ﺔﯿﻠﻛداﺪﻐﺑ ﺔﻌﻣﺎﺟ
ﺔﺻﻼﺨﻟا ﻞﺧاد ةراﺮﺤﻟا ﺔﺟرد ﺮﺒﺘﻌﺗةرﻮﺼﻘﻣةرﺎﯿﺴﻟاﺔﯾروﺮﺿﺮﯿﻓﻮﺘﻟﺔﺤﯾﺮﻣ فوﺮظبﺎﻛﺮﻠﻟﺎﮭﻠﺧاد .دادﺰﺗﻞﺧاد ةراﺮﺤﻟا ﺔﺟرد
ةرﺎﯿﺴﻟاكﺮﺘُﺗ ﺎﻣﺪﻨﻋﺔﻔﻗﻮﺘﻣﺖﺤﺗ ةﺮﺷﺎﺒﻣﺲﻤﺸﻟا ﺔﻌﺷأ.ﺖﯾﺮﺟأﺔﺳاردﺔﯿﺒﯾﺮﺠﺗﻐﺑ ﺔﻨﯾﺪﻣ ﻲﻓقاﺮﻌﻟا ،داﺪ لﻮط ﻂﺧ)44 ضﺮﻋ ﻂﺧو 33(ةرﺎﯿﺴﻟا تﺎﻧﻮﻜﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻂﻗﺎﺴﻟا ﻲﺴﻤﺸﻟا عﺎﻌﺷﻹا ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ فﺮﻌﻤﻟﺔﯿﻠﺧاﺪﻟا ءاﻮﮭﻟا ،ﺪﻌﻘﻤﻟا ،دﻮﻘﻤﻟا ،ةدﺎﯿﻘﻟا ﺔﺣﻮﻟ)ﻟاﻠﺧاﺪﺖﻌﺿو .(
ةرﺎﯿﺳرﺎﺒﺘﺧﻹاﺔﮭﺟاﻮﻣ ﺔﮭﺠﻟبﻮﻨﺠﻟا ﻦﻣ رﺪﻗ ﻰﺼﻗأ نﺎﻤﻀﻰﻠﻋ ﻂﻗﺎﺴﻟا ﻲﺴﻤﺸﻟا عﺎﻌﺷﻹاﻲﻣﺎﻣﻷا جﺎﺟﺰﻟاةرﺎﯿﺴﻠﻟﻟﺬﻛو ةرﻮﺼﻘﻤﻟا ﻞﺧاد يراﺮﺣ ﻞﻤﺣ ﺮﺒﻛأ ﻰﻠﻋ لﻮﺼﺤﻠﻟ.تﺮﺒﺘﺧأﺔﺘﺳتﻻﺎﺣ ﺔﻔﻠﺘﺨﻣةرﺎﯿﺴﻠﻟاﺔﻔﻗﻮﺘﻤ .ﺖﻠﺠُﺳتﺎﺳﺎﯿﻘﻟامﺎﯾﻷﻒﯿﺼﻟا ءﺎﻤﺴﻟاوﺔﯿﻓﺎﺻ ﺔﻋﺎﺴﻟا ﻦﻣ8.ﺮﮭﻈﻟا ﺪﻌﺑ ﺔﺴﻣﺎﺨﻟا ﻰﺘﺣو ًﺎﺣﺎﺒﺻﺖﻨﯿﺑنأ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻨﻟاةراﺮﺣ ﺔﺟردﻲﻠﺧاﺪﻟا ءاﻮﮭﻟاﻲﻓﻟاﺔﻔﻗﻮﺘﻤﻟا ةرﺎﯿﺴ
ﺔﻠﻠﻈﻤﻟا ﺮﯿﻏﻞﺼﯾ70ﻣ ﺔﺟردﺔﯾﻮﺌةدﺎﯿﻘﻟا ﺔﺣﻮﻟ ةراﺮﺣ ﺔﺟرد ﺖﺑﺮﺘﻗإو ﻦﻣ100ﺔﯾﻮﺌﻣ ﺔﺟرد.ﯿﺴﻤﺷ ﯿﻗاو ﻊﺿو ﺪﻨﻋ ﺎﻣأ
ﻦﻣ مﻮﯿﻨﻤﻟﻻا قرو ﻦﻣ ﺔﻌﻨﺼﻤﻟا ﻞﺧادةرﺎﯿﺴﻟاﻦﻣ ﻞﻠﻘﺗ ﻢﻟ ﺎﮭﻧءاﻮﮭﻟا ةراﺮﺣ ﺔﺟردﻞﺧادةرﻮﺼﻘﻤﻟا.ﻨﻋوةرﺎﯿﺴﻟا ءﺎﻄﻏ لﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳإ
Journal of Engineering
Volume 21 March 2015
Number 3
2
حﺮﺘﻘﻤﻟا ﻲﺒﻧﺎﺠﻟا جﺎﺟﺰﻟا ﺢﺘﻓ ﻊﻣ1،ﻢﺳﺾﻔﺧ ﻲﻓ ﻢھﺎﺳ ﮫﻧﺈﻓﺔﺟردةراﺮﺣتﺎﻧﻮﻜﻣةرﻮﺼﻘﻤﻟا ﺔﺒﺴﻨﺑ70 ٪ﺔﻧرﺎﻘﻣﻰﻟإ ﺔﻟﺎﺤﻟا
ﺔﯿﺳﺎﺳﻷا) ةرﺎﯿﺳ(ءﺎﻄﻏ يأ نوﺪﺑو ةدﺮﺠﻣ.
:ﺔﯿﺴﯿﺋﺮﻟا تﺎﻤﻠﻜﻟا ةرﻮﺼﻘﻣﻟا ،ةراﺮﺤﻟا تﺎﺟرد ﻊﯾزﻮﺗ ،ةرﺎﯿﺴﺔﯾراﺮﺤﻟا ﺔﺣاﺮﻟا.يراﺮﺤﻟا سﺎﺒﺘﺣﻻا ﺔﻠﻜﺸﻣ ،
1. INTRODUCTION
Recently, after 2003, the private passenger vehicles number in Iraq has been growing
significantly. It’s the most convenient means of transportation in the country. The high density of
private passenger vehicles leads to lack of parking space. This is much clearer at the government
offices, universities, and shopping areas. Moreover, the available shaded parking areas do not match
the existing numbers of vehicles; hence the alternative choice for those who are unable to park under
shaded area is to park in an open parking space.
Parking in an unshaded area gave rise of greenhouse problem. It is the problem of conversion
of solar radiation entering through the windows of a car into long wave thermal radiation and
trapped inside car cabin causes temperature increase of cabin components. Thereby, use of
cardboard car shades to reduce the interior temperatures inside parked automobile has become
popular in Baghdad and other hot regions in Iraq. Temperature inside the vehicle cabin is very
important to provide comfortness to the car passenger. The temperature can be controlled by using air
conditioning system that can be operated when the car engine is in operation. However, when the car
is left or parked directly under the sunlight, temperature inside the cabin will be increased. Sealed
automobiles commonly encounter interior temperature conditions that are tremendously
uncomfortable to the passengers.
The cabin temperature of unshaded parked car can quickly rise to a level that may damage
property and harm children or pets left in the car. According to the findings of Saidur, et al., 2008
in USA, every year many children die of (hyperthermia) heatstroke after being left unattended in
vehicles. Hyperthermia is an acute condition that occurs when the body absorbs more heat than it
can handle. Annually, hundreds of children experience varying degrees of heat illness from being
left in cars. Similar experimental studies carried out in Australia show that rising air temperature
+20 oC inside a parked car compared to the outside temperature on a hot summer day for periods of
the order 30 minutes, children or pets left in such a parked car suffer heat stress and a number of
deaths ,Dadour, et al., 2011.
Many car users are faced a hot interior after a certain hours of parking in open space or
unshaded parking area. The heat under such parking conditions causes the car cabin and interior
temperature to reach up to 80 oC average. The accumulation of thermal energy inside the vehicle
with undesired temperature rise would cause the interior parts to degrade because they normally are
subjected to wear and tear. Degradation may shorten the life span of the various components inside
the car, especially electronic devices. Passengers are also being affected with the thermal condition
inside the vehicle itself. The car user is forced to wait for a period of time around 2 5 minutes
before getting into car to let the interior condition cool down either by rolling the window or running
the air conditioner system (A/C) at high speed that really affect the fuel consumption ,Al-Keyiem, et
al.,2010. The increased of fuel consumption by the A/C system subsequently increased CO2
emissions , Jasni and Nasir, 2012.
Journal of Engineering
Volume 21 March 2015
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,Abd-Fadeel and Hassanein, 2013, showed that the opening window about 1 3 cm during
one hour, from 12 P.M. to 1 P.M. reduced the temperature inside the car because the flow rate of
fresh air entering the car insufficient and its velocity inside the car approximately neglected.
Whereas, the inside car sunshade reduces the temperature at front dashboard by about 40 60 oC
compared with closed car. Al-Kayiem, et al., 2010, showed that, the effect of sunshades application
to the interior windshield on the temperature was significant during six hours of parking time from 9
A.M. to 4 P.M. The maximum dashboard temperature of the parked vehicle with sunshade was
found to be 25 oC lower than the other vehicle without any shades.
The objective of this research is to determine the most technically feasible passive method in
reducing the car interior temperature. Six cases were experimentally studied: unshaded, partial
shaded (inside and outside), total shaded (shelter and novel cap), and windows part-down by 1 cm.
The obtained improvements from suggesting method were increasing in passenger comfort and less
thermal stress on car interior components. Also, lower initial automobile air conditioner loads and
reduction in fuel consumption and CO2emissions.
2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP (MATERIALS AND METHODS)
2.1 Experimental Procedure: The car was parked in an open parking space and care was taken
such that there was no interference from local shadows during the measurements. It was located in
the same place and same orientation during the entire experimental measurements so as to obtain
consistency during experiments, as in Fig. 1 Experimental were performed in Baghdad, Iraq (33.3
oN, 44.4 oE). The test vehicle was oriented to face south to ensure maximum sun load on the front
windscreen. The vehicle chosen in this study was 2000 cc, Daewoo car, 1997. There were no
modifications done on the chosen car, and all the factory settings were retained all throughout the
experiments.
2.2 Experimental Methodology: Six different parking conditions were investigated consisting of
closed and opened glass windows, inside and outside front shield shading and normal parking
conditions. The cases are described in Table 1. The temperature variation at four places inside the
car cabin is measured. Four places are front dashboard, front seats, steering wheel, and inside air.
The temperatures were measured by thermocouple wire type K in junction with 12 channel data
logger. Only 10 channels were used for the cabin interior surfaces (2 measuring points for
dashboard, front sets and 1 for steering wheel), cabin air (4 measuring points) and ambient (1
measuring point) temperatures. The measurements were recorded for clear sky summer days started
at 8 A.M. till 5 P.M. and the data was recorded on 30 min. step interval. Hourly solar radiation was
measured during the day with a Kipp and Zonen pyranometer model CMP22 having a measuring
range of up to 4000 W m-2 (error < 5 W m-2).
The suggested cover is consisted from many cardboard car shades which were sew with each
other to make cap. A cap is covered the roof and windows of car only as shown in Fig. 2. Car
windows and roof had the main effect on the car cabin temperature so that it is covered. The
cardboard has 5 mm thickness with a silver foil front and back which is available in the markets.
More benefits can be achieved from this suggested cover as compared with classical car cover made
from leather or cloth. These benefits are: 1. Less in weight and small in size. 2. Cheap and easy to
installation 3. Reflect solar radiation. 4. Thermal insulation.
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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
All methods of exploitation of solar energy required the knowledge of the average values of the
intensity of solar radiation incident on the structure. The intensity of solar radiation on the car cabin
in summer was measured with a Kipp and Zonen pyranometer model CMP22. The amount of
irradiative heating in Baghdad from 5 A.M. to 7 P.M. in June is shown in Fig. 3 It could be seen that
irradiation increases with time to maximum values between 11 A.M. to 3 P.M. The maximum
irradiance reading was 954 W/m2approximately at 1 P.M.
Fig. 4 presents the temperature variation of base case for front dashboard, steering wheel, seat,
inside air, and ambient. The temperature of measuring points rises in the morning more rapidly than
does the ambient. It is also observed that the temperature of these measuring points cools in the
afternoon more rapidly than does the ambient. Solar radiation absorptance by the cabin components
and greenhouse effects behind the rapidly increase of cabin temperature in the morning. At noon,
these measuring reach its maximum temperature due to the maximum value of solar radiation occurs
at this time. Dashboard has the maximum temperature between the cabin’s components due to the
largest projected area of glass is facing to the sun’s rays. The maximum temperature of dashboard,
inside air, seat, and ambient recorded in June were 99 oC, 70 oC, 68 oC and 44 oC, respectively. The
experimental results of ,Abd-Fadeel, and Hassanein, 2013. for the dashboard temperature inside
unshaded parked car are compared with the present study was shown in Fig. 5 The behavior of the
two curves is in good agreement but, the average percentage error about 20 % was occurred due to
the different measured values of solar radiation.
Since experimental tests for the six cases done during different days, and in order to make
comparison between these cases, the reductions in maximum temperature of measuring points
(dashboard, steering wheel, seat, and inside air) minus ambient temperature are used. The reductions in
maximum temperature of measuring points minus ambient temperature are presented in Table 2.
and Fig. 6 The maximum temperature difference is recorded at the dashboard (TDTa), which can
reach a maximum value of 58oC at noon. At this location, it can be seen that shading application
(case # 5 and # 6 in Table 1.) are the most effective methods in reducing the dashboard temperature
difference from base case by much as 39.2 oC and 54.4 oC, respectively as shown in Fig. 7 and
Table 2. Also there is a reducing in the temperature at the steering wheel by as much as 51oC and
44.2oC. This could be due to the blockage of a large amount of sun radiation entering the car cabin
by the cardboard sun shades. On the other hand, the seat temperature change in case #5 experiment
have a significant difference from the base case and it reduces by as much as 17.9 oC.
The effect of shading and part-down the two side windows by 1 cm on hot days in June was
shown in Fig.8. It is observed that inside shade (case # 2) had no effect on the inside air temperature
due to the greenhouse effect occurs inside car cabin. On other hand, outside shading (case # 4)
reduced the inside air temperature by 40 % from the base case. The combination of outside shading
and windows part-down by 1 cm (case # 5 and # 6) were observed to be reducing the inside air
temperature from the base case by 58 % and 91 % respectively . In short, it can observed from table
2 that the outside shades with part-down by 1 cm the two side windows (case # 5 and # 6) had
important effect in reducing the interior temperature. Because they have decreased the interior
temperature by 27.2 oC and 17.2 oC from the base case, respectively.
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4. CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions were recorded from the experimental study:
1- Use the cardboard car shade from outside with part-down windows by 1 cm has achieved an
overall good performance in reducing the average maximum temperature at all interior locations
of the test car, with higher difference of reduction at dashboard, steering wheel, seat and inside
air ambient locations
2- Interior air temperature in unshaded parked car in a hot climate such as Baghdad, reach 70 oC and
dashboard temperature can approach 100oC.
3- Use the cardboard car shade behind the car windshield reduced dashboard temperature by 40 %
from the base case. While, it does not reduced the air temperature inside parked car.
4- Shelter with part-down side windows by 1 cm made car cabin temperature approximately equal
to ambient temperature plus 3oC in maximum.
5- The obtained results of case #5 enabled to confirm that the suggested car cover designed with
part-down side windows is able to keep comfortable conditions in the car cabin. The average
temperature values of cabin components (dashboard, steering wheel, seat, and inside air) were
reduced by 70 % from the base case.
REFERENCES
Abd-Fadeel, Waleed. A., and Hassanein, Soubhi. Ali., 2013, Temperature Variations in a Parked
Car Exposed to Direct Sun During Hot and Dry Climates, International journal of automobile
engineering research and development (IJAuERD), vol. 3, Issue I, 75-80.
Al-Kayiem, Hussain. H., Sidik, M. Firdaus Bin M. and Munusammy, Yuganthira. R.A.L., 2010,
Study on the Thermal Accumulation and Distribution Inside a Parked Car Cabin, American
journal of applied sciences, 7(6),784-789.
Dadour, I., Almanjahie, I., Fowkes, N., Grant Keady, and Vijayan, K., 2011, Temperature
Variations in a Parked Car, Forensic science international, vol. I, no. 207, pp. 205-211.
Jasni, M. A., and Nasir, F. M., 2012, Experimental Comparison Study of the Passive Methods in
Reducing Car Cabin Interior Temperature, International conference of mechanical automobile
and robotics engineering (ICMAR), Penang, Malaysia.
Saidur, R., Sattar, M. A., and Masjuki, H. H., 2008, Performance of an Improved Solar Car
Ventilator, International conference on sustainable development: Issues and prospects for the
GMS, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp. 1-6.
NOMENCLATURE
Ta= ambient temperature, oC.
TD= dashboard temperature, oC.
Ti= inside air temperature, oC.
Tse = seat temperature, oC.
Tst = steering wheel temperature, oC.
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Table 1. Description of the experimental measurements cases.
Test case
Description
1
Unshaded car and all windows are closed (base case) without any
temperature-reducing methods applied.
2
Shaded is placed under the front windshield and all windows are closed
3
Shaded is placed above the front windshield and all windows are closed
4
Shaded is placed above the front windshield and two side windows are
part-down by 1 cm
5
Shaded is placed above all windows and two side windows are part-
down by 1 cm (novel cap)
6
Shaded is placed above all windshield and all windows are part-down
by 1 cm
Table 2. Reduction in maximum temperature of different locations.
Experiment
Reduction in maximum temperature of measuring
points minus ambient temperature (oC)
Dashboard
Steering
wheel
Seat
Inside air
TD- Ta
Tst - Ta
Tse - Ta
Ti- Ta
Case # 1
58.0
53.7
27.4
29.9
Case # 2
34.2
28.3
23.4
30.0
Case # 3
19.1
22.1
21.3
24.7
Case # 4
15.8
17.6
16.4
18.1
Case # 5
10.8
9.5
9.5
12.7
Case # 6
3.6
2.7
1.6
2.7
Figure 1. The car orientation during the measurements.
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Figure 2. Suggested car cover.
Figure 3. Measured values of solar radiation on the horizontal surface on, 11-6-2014 for clear sky.
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Figure 4. Temperature variations in an unshaded parked car in June.
Figure 5. Comparison between present measured dashboard temperature with results measured by
,Abd-Fadeel, and Hassanein, 2013.
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Figure 6. Reduction in maximum temperature of different locations.
Figure 7. Comparison between temperatures differences for different cases in June.
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Figure 8. Comparison between temperatures differences for different cases in June.
... Aljubury et al. [3] investigated the effect of the configuration shown in Fig. 3 on the cabin temperature reduction. The results revealed that this configuration was able to maintain a comfortable level in the car cabin, where the cabin temperature was approximately equal to the ambient temperature of +3°C at its maximum. ...
... They confirmed that the maximum irradiation was recorded between 12:00 and 14:00 with an approximate mean value of 500 ± 50 W/m 2 , which was affected by sky conditions. Similarly, Saidur et al. [43], Abd-Fadeel and Hassanein [1], and Aljubury et al. [3] found the maximum values between 11:00 and 15:00. ...
... Cardboard car shades on the cabin glazing and roof[3]. ...
... Air temperature and relative humidity. The severity of thermal conditions in cars is principally influenced by the ambient temperature, passenger seat temperature and inner panels radiation [10][11][12][13]. ...
Article
In this research, an attempt is made to maintain human thermal comfort by regulating temperature and relative humidity inside the automobile cabin by impregnating an organics phase change material (PCM)-coconut oil-underneath the rooftop of the vehicle and vacant spaces in door interior. Temperature and relative humidity inside the vehicle cabin with and without PCM are discussed. In the next phase of this study, multiple feed forward back propagation (MBP) artificial neural network modelling for regression is carried out. Later, variable effects and optimization was performed using response surface methodology (RSM). The results show that the interior temperature of the automobile cabin is decreased by 13 °C on an average with an average increase in relative humidity of 8.6%. This method is a simple and feasible solution to prevent undesirable heating and steep humidity decrease in automobile cabins when parked under sunlight which guarantee energy saving, safety and enhanced quality of car interior. The developed MBP model can be used easily for prediction of thermal comfort factors. From the response surface analysis the strong association between ambient temp and temp with PCM and humidity inside cabin without PCM and humidity with PCM was established.
... Two separate occasions are examined: exterior and interior shading. The use of windshield sunshades aims at reducing the sunlight from entering the vehicle and is a common technique, especially in regions with high temperatures (Jasni & Nasir, 2012) (Aljubury, Farhan, & Mussa, 2015).It shares similarities with the concept of adaptive building facades, a high-potential way of reducing building energy consumption while improving occupants' comfort (Loonen, R. C. G. M., Trčka, M., Cóstola, D., Hensen, J. ...
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Parked vehicles have the tendency to overheat quickly. This can lead to a negative impact on the thermal comfort of the driver and its passengers, as well as intensive use of air conditioning systems, and thus fuel consumption of the vehicle or, in the case of electric mobility, a reduced cruising range. In the search for effective measures to mitigate this effect, important guidance can be provided by the field of sustainable building design. On the one hand, inspiration can come from design strategies in terms of shapes and advanced cover materials, but this paper advocates that this can also pertain to the simulation-based design support tools that are used by building engineers. This paper first presents the results of a thermal soak test, and then uses this data to demonstrate the suitability of the building performance simulation tool EnergyPlus for predicting the thermal behavior of parked vehicles. This fit-for-purpose validated model is used to evaluate the performance of three overheating mitigation measures for two car models in two climates. The results show that spectrally selective glazing can reduce the cabin air temperature by 12.5°C and when combined with solar reflective opaque surfaces, the reduction of cabin air temperature can reach 23.8°C. Increased use of building performance simulation in the automotive domain can help to further optimize the overheating reduction potential of cars.
... It is often observed that the passengers and drivers are forced to wait for around 5-10 min to cool down the cabin either by rolling down the windows or speeding the air conditioner (this results in higher fuel consumption) [6]. The severity of thermal conditions in automobiles is influenced mainly by ambient temperature, passenger seat temperature and radiation from inner panels [7][8][9][10]. It is also worth noting that, the thermal discomfort inside automobile has been ranked third among the major causes of road accidents [11]. ...
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Parked vehicles are vulnerable to cabin overheating, which leads to hyperthermia, accidental death of babies and pets, increased fuel consumption and deterioration of vehicle interior. In this study, an effort was made to maintain thermal comfort inside an automobile cabin by impregnating phase change material (PCM) beneath the rooftop of the vehicle. Experiments were performed for a period of 3 months with coconut oil as PCM, in the Abha region of Saudi Arabia. An Arduino UNO microcontroller-based temperature measurement system with LM-35 temperature sensors along with a bluetooth module and an android application was used to monitor the cabin temperature history. Initially, the cabin temperature was monitored without PCM, and it was found in good agreement with the theoretical values published in the literature. Subsequently, the cabin temperature with PCM was measured, and the results show that the interior temperature of the automobile cabin is decreased by 15 °C on an average. This method is a simple and feasible solution to prevent undesirable heating of automobile cabins when parked under sunlight.
... Smart buildings and automobiles with minimum consumption of electrical energy are designed so that sunlight can be used as a source of light during daytime in buildings using large windows [2]. However, exposure to sunlight results in heating and eventually consumption of extra electrical energy as air-conditioning to remove trapped heat in buildings [3] [4] and automobiles especially when they are parked without any shadow [5,6]. Conventional windows pass not only visible wavelengths but also Infrared (IR) wavelengths that are mainly responsible for heating [7] and also harmful to human skin [8]. ...
Conference Paper
Sunlight can be used a source of light in buildings and automobiles, however infrared wavelengths in sunlight result in heating. In this work, Infrared Reflective Coatings are designed using thin films to transmit visible wavelengths 400~700 nm while reflecting infrared wavelengths above 700 nm. Three different design approaches have been used, namely single layer of metal, sandwich structure and multilayer design. Four metals (Ag, Au, Al and Cu) and two dielectrics (TiO2 and SiO2) are used in this study. Designs with Ag show maximum reflection of Infrared wavelengths in all designs. Sandwich structures of TiO2-Ag-TiO2 on substrate with 22 nm of thickness for each layer show the maximum transmission of 87% in the visible region and maximum reflection of Infrared wavelengths.
Article
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During hot days, the temperature inside vehicles parked under the sun is very high; according to previous studies, the vehicle cabin temperature can be more than 20 °C higher than the ambient temperature. Due to the greenhouse effect, the heating that occurs inside a vehicle while it is parked under the sun has an impact on energy crises and environmental pollution. In addition, the increase in the temperature inside the cabin will have an effect on the dashboard and plastic accessories and the leather on the seats will age rapidly. The ventilation of solar energy from the cabin of a vehicle parked under the blazing sun has received a great deal of attention. The present study was conducted to utilize a renewable energy system to operate the ventilation system through a novel portable ventilation system powered by solar energy. Experimental results were obtained for a vehicle with and without the solar ventilation system. The results indicate that the maximum daily average difference in temperature during the experimental tests between the cabin of the car and the atmospheric temperature with and without the solar ventilation system was 7.2 °C and 20.6 °C, respectively. With and without the usage of the system, the minimum average difference in temperature between the automobile’s cabin and the atmospheric temperature was 6.2 °C and 17.6 °C, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed system is effective and that the thermal comfort inside the vehicle’s cabin improved when the vehicle was parked under the hot sun. Therefore, this system helps to protect human bodies, conserve energy, protect the environment, protect the vehicle’s cabin, and provide a comfortable environment.
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Car overheating after parking under the direct sunshine leads to not only more energy consumption of air conditions but also potential security issues, such as higher traffic accident rates and heatstroke of passengers. In this study, we propose a new type of car cover with the daytime radiative cooling effect (named as Cover R) to reduce interior temperature when parking outside. With utilizing a layer of innovative meta-material coating, this cover is capable of reflecting most sunlight and effectively emitting infrared radiation in the atmospheric window band (8 - 13μm). Experimental results have shown that under strong solar irradiation (>900 W/m²), the usage of Cover R decreases cabin air temperature by 31.1°C and 19.6°C compared that for a car without a cover and with a traditional cover, respectively, which efficiently avoids thermal shock to the passengers. A simulation model that reproduces experimental data well suggests that Cover R is able to improve personal comfort in hot days. Considering the initial energy cost of air conditions for high interior temperatures, the application of Cover R also saves gasoline and reduces carbon dioxide emission.
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Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer is used in different areas of engineering based applications, especially in the aviation and automobile industry. It is highly desirable to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of this polymer to enhance its current applicability and to widen its scope for variety of advanced applications. Fabrication of polymer nanocomposite by reinforcing the polymer with nanofiller is one of the key techniques used worldwide to enhance the properties of polymer. In this paper, we have fabricated nanocomposite of ABS using facile solution blending technique with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as nanofiller. The weight of functionalized MWCNT in ABS was varied from 1 wt% to 5 wt%. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) were used for characterization of functional group and structural analysis in functionalized MWCNT. The distribution and confirmation of functionalized MWCNT in ABS was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Thermal characterization showed considerable improvement in thermal degradation stability and significant reduction in thermal expansion of ABS nanocomposite in comparison to pure ABS. Mechanical characterization using nanoindentation techniques also showed significant enhancement in mechanical properties of ABS nanocomposite in comparison to pure ABS. The 5 wt% nanocomposite showed improvement of 95% and 91% in elastic modulus and hardness respectively in comparison to pure ABS. Dynamic mechanical properties average storage modulus and average hardness improved by 148% and 369% respectively for 5 wt% nanocomposite in comparison to pure ABS. These improved thermal and mechanical properties of ABS using functionalized MWCNT will lead to wider and enhanced applicability of ABS.
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