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The effects of grounding (earthing) on inflammation, the immune response, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases

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Multi-disciplinary research has revealed that electrically conductive contact of the human body with the surface of the Earth (grounding or earthing) produces intriguing effects on physiology and health. Such effects relate to inflammation, immune responses, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this report is two-fold: to 1) inform researchers about what appears to be a new perspective to the study of inflammation, and 2) alert researchers that the length of time and degree (resistance to ground) of grounding of experimental animals is an important but usually overlooked factor that can influence outcomes of studies of inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Specifically, grounding an organism produces measurable differences in the concentrations of white blood cells, cytokines, and other molecules involved in the inflammatory response. We present several hypotheses to explain observed effects, based on current research results and our understanding of the electronic aspects of cell and tissue physiology, cell biology, biophysics, and biochemistry. An experimental injury to muscles, known as delayed onset muscle soreness, has been used to monitor the immune response under grounded versus ungrounded conditions. Grounding reduces pain and alters the numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, and also affects various circulating chemical factors related to inflammation.
Reduction in inflammation with grounding or earthing documented with medical infrared imaging. Notes: Thermal imaging cameras record tiny changes in skin temperature to create a color-coded map of hot areas indicative of inflammation. Panel A shows reduction in inflammation from sleeping grounded. Medical infrared imaging shows warm and painful areas (arrows in upper part of panel A ). Sleeping grounded for 4 nights resolved the pain, and the hot areas cooled. Note the significant reduction in inflammation and a return toward normal thermal symmetry. Panel B shows infrared images of a 33-year-old woman who had a gymnastics injury at age 15. The patient had a long history of chronic right knee pain, swelling, and instability, and was unable to stand for long periods. Simple actions, such as driving, increased the symptoms. She had to sleep with a pillow between her knees to decrease the pain. On-and-off medical treatment and physical therapy over the years provided minimal relief. She presented on November 17, 2004 with considerable right medial knee tenderness and a mild limp. Top images in Panel B were taken in walking position to show the inside of both knees. Arrow points to exact location of patient’s pain and shows significant inflammation. Lower images in Panel B taken 30 minutes after being grounded with an electrode patch. The patient reported a mild reduction in pain. Note significant reduction of inflammation in knee area. After 6 days of grounding, she reported a 50% reduction pain and said that she could now stand for longer periods without pain, and no longer needed to sleep with pillow between her legs. After 4 weeks of treatment, she felt good enough to play soccer, and for the first time in 15 years felt no instability and little pain. By 12 weeks, she said her pain had diminished by nearly 90% and she had no swelling. For the first time in many years, she was able waterski. The patient contacted the office after 6 months of treatment to report that she had finished a half-marathon, something she never dreamt she would ever be able to do prior to treatment.
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Open Access Full Text Article
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S69656
The effects of grounding (earthing) on
inammation, the immune response, wound
healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic
inammatory and autoimmune diseases
James L Oschman
1
Gaétan Chevalier
2
Richard Brown
3
1
Nature’s Own Research Association,
Dover, NH, USA;
2
Developmental and
Cell Biology Department, University
of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA,
USA;
3
Human Physiology Department,
University of Oregon, Eugene, OR,
USA
Correspondence: Gaétan Chevalier
Developmental and Cell Biology
Department, University of California
at Irvine, 2103 McGaugh Hall, Irvine,
CA, 92697-2300, USA
Tel +1 760 815 9271
Fax +1 858 225 3514
Email dlbogc@sbcglobal.net
Abstract: Multi-disciplinary research has revealed that electrically conductive contact of the
human body with the surface of the Earth (grounding or earthing) produces intriguing effects on
physiology and health. Such effects relate to inflammation, immune responses, wound healing,
and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The purpose
of this report is two-fold: to 1) inform researchers about what appears to be a new perspective to
the study of inflammation, and 2) alert researchers that the length of time and degree (resistance
to ground) of grounding of experimental animals is an important but usually overlooked factor
that can influence outcomes of studies of inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis.
Specifically, grounding an organism produces measurable differences in the concentrations of
white blood cells, cytokines, and other molecules involved in the inflammatory response. We
present several hypotheses to explain observed effects, based on current research results and our
understanding of the electronic aspects of cell and tissue physiology, cell biology, biophysics,
and biochemistry. An experimental injury to muscles, known as delayed onset muscle soreness,
has been used to monitor the immune response under grounded versus ungrounded conditions.
Grounding reduces pain and alters the numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, and
also affects various circulating chemical factors related to inflammation.
Keywords: chronic inflammation, immune system, wound repair, white blood cells,
macrophages, autoimmune disorders
Introduction
Grounding or earthing refers to direct skin contact with the surface of the Earth, such
as with bare feet or hands, or with various grounding systems. Subjective reports that
walking barefoot on the Earth enhances health and provides feelings of well-being can
be found in the literature and practices of diverse cultures from around the world.
1
For
a variety of reasons, many individuals are reluctant to walk outside barefoot, unless
they are on holiday at the beach. Experience and measurements show that sustained
contact with the Earth yields sustained benefits. Various grounding systems are avail-
able that enable frequent contact with the Earth, such as while sleeping, sitting at a
computer, or walking outdoors. These are simple conductive systems in the form of
sheets, mats, wrist or ankle bands, adhesive patches that can be used inside the home or
office, and footwear. These applications are connected to the Earth via a cord inserted
into a grounded wall outlet or attached to a ground rod placed in the soil outside
below a window. For the footwear applications, a conductive plug is positioned in
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Oschman et al
the shoe sole at the ball of the foot, under the metatarsals, at
the acupuncture point known as Kidney 1. From a practical
standpoint, these methods offer a convenient and routine,
user-friendly approach to grounding or earthing. They can
also be used in clinical situations, as will be described in the
section entitled Summary of findings to date.
1
Recently, a group of about a dozen researchers (including
the authors of this paper) has been studying the physiologi-
cal effects of grounding from a variety of perspectives. This
research has led to more than a dozen studies published in
peer-reviewed journals. While most of these pilot studies
involved relatively few subjects, taken together, the research
has opened a new and promising frontier in inflammation
research, with broad implications for prevention and public
health. The findings merit consideration by the inflammation
research community, which has the means to verify, refute,
or clarify the interpretations we have made thus far.
Grounding reduces or even prevents the cardinal signs of
inflammation following injury: redness, heat, swelling, pain,
and loss of function (Figures 1 and 2). Rapid resolution of
painful chronic inflammation was confirmed in 20 case stud-
ies using medical infrared imaging (Figure 3).
2,3
Our main hypothesis is that connecting the body to the
Earth enables free electrons from the Earths surface to spread
over and into the body, where they can have antioxidant effects.
Specifically, we suggest that mobile electrons create an antioxi-
dant microenvironment around the injury repair field, slowing
or preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) delivered by the
oxidative burst from causing “collateral damage” to healthy tis-
sue, and preventing or reducing the formation of the so-called
“inflammatory barricade”. We also hypothesize that electrons
from the Earth can prevent or resolve so-called “silent” or
“smoldering” inflammation. If verified, these concepts may
help us better understand and research the inflammatory
response and wound healing, and develop new information on
how the immune system functions in health and disease.
Summary of ndings to date
Grounding appears to improve sleep, normalize the day–night
cortisol rhythm, reduce pain, reduce stress, shift the autonomic
nervous system from sympathetic toward parasympathetic
activation, increase heart rate variability, speed wound healing,
and reduce blood viscosity. A summary has been published in
the Journal of Environmental and Public Health.
4
Effects on sleep
One of the first published grounding studies examined the
effects of grounding on sleep and circadian cortisol profiles.
5
Figure 1 Photographic images documenting accelerated improvement of an 8-month-
old, non-healing open wound suffered by an 84-year-old diabetic woman.
Notes: (A) Shows the open wound and a pale-gray hue to the skin. (B) Taken after
one week of grounding or earthing treatments, shows a marked level of healing and
improvement in circulation, as indicated by the skin color. (C) Taken after 2 weeks
of earthing treatment, shows the wound healed over and the skin color looking
dramatically healthier. Treatment consisted of a daily 30-minute grounding session
with an electrode patch while patient was seated comfortably. The cause of the
wound adjacent to the left ankle was a poorly tted boot. A few hours after wearing
the boot, a blister formed, and then developed into a resistant open wound. The
patient had undergone various treatments at a specialized wound center with no
improvement. Vascular imaging of her lower extremities revealed poor circulation.
When rst seen, she had a mild limp and was in pain. After an initial 30 minutes of
exposure to grounding, the patient reported a noticeable decrease in pain. After 1
week of daily grounding, she said her pain level was about 80% less. At that time, she
showed no evidence of a limp. At the end of 2 weeks, she said she was completely
pain-free.
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Earthing or grounding reduces inammation
The study involved 12 subjects who were in pain and had
problems sleeping. They slept grounded for 8 weeks using the
system shown in Figure 4. During this period, their diurnal cor-
tisol profiles normalized, and most of the subjects reported that
their sleep improved and their pain and stress levels declined.
The results of the experiment led to these conclusions:
1) grounding the body during sleep yields quantifiable
changes in diurnal or circadian cortisol secretion levels
that, in turn, 2) produce changes in sleep, pain, and stress
(anxiety, depression, and irritability), as measured by
subjective reporting. The cortisol effects described by Ghaly
and Teplitz
5
are particularly significant in the light of recent
research showing that prolonged chronic stress results in
glucocorticoid receptor resistance.
6
Such resistance results in
failure to downregulate inflammatory responses, which can
thereby increase risks of a variety of chronic diseases. This
effect complements the findings described in the “Effects on
pain and the immune response” section.
Effects on pain and the immune response
A pilot study on the effects of grounding on pain and the
immune response to injury employed delayed-onset muscle
soreness (DOMS).
7
DOMS is the muscular pain and stiffness
that takes place hours to days after strenuous and unfamil-
iar exercise. DOMS is widely used as a research model by
exercise and sports physiologists. The soreness of DOMS is
caused by temporary muscle damage produced by eccentric
exercise. The phase of contraction that occurs when a muscle
shortens, as in lifting a dumbbell, is referred to as concentric,
whereas the phase of contraction as a muscle lengthens, as in
lowering a dumbbell, is referred to as eccentric.
Eight healthy subjects performed an unfamiliar, eccentric
exercise that led to pain in their gastrocnemius muscles. This
was done by having them perform two sets of 20 toe raises
with a barbell on their shoulders and the balls of their feet
on a 2-inch × 4-inch wooden board.
7
All subjects ate standardized meals at the same time
of day, and adhered to the same sleep cycle for 3 days.
At 5.40 pm on each day, four of the subjects had conductive
grounding patches adhered to their gastrocnemius muscles
and the bottoms of their feet. They rested and slept on ground-
ing systems such as that shown in Figure 4. They remained
on the grounded sheets except for visits to the bathroom and
meals. As controls, four subjects followed the same protocol
except that their patches and sheets were not grounded. The
following measurements were taken before the exercise and
1, 2, and 3 days thereafter: pain levels, magnetic resonance
imaging, spectroscopy, cortisol in serum and saliva, blood
and enzyme chemistry, and blood cell counts.
7
Pain was monitored with two techniques. The subjective
method involved morning and afternoon use of a Visual
Analog Scale. In the afternoon, a blood pressure cuff was
positioned on the right gastrocnemius and inflated to the
point of acute discomfort. The pain was documented in
terms of the highest pressures that could be tolerated. The
grounded subjects experienced less pain, as revealed with
Figure 2 Rapid recovery from a serious wound with minimal swelling and redness
expected for such a serious injury.
Notes: Cyclist was injured in Tour de France competition – chain wheel gouged his
leg. (A) Grounding patches were placed above and below wound as soon as possible
after injury. Photo courtesy of Dr Jeff Spencer. (B) Day 1 after injury. (C) Day 2
after injury. There was minimal redness, pain, and swelling, and cyclist was able to
continue the race on the day following the injury. (B and C) Copyright © 2014.
Reprinted with permission from Basic Health Publications, Inc. Ober CA, Sinatra ST,
Zucker M. Earthing: The Most Important Health Discovery Ever? 2nd ed. Laguna Beach:
Basic Health Publications; 2014.
1
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Oschman et al
both the analog soreness scale (Figure 5) and by their ability
to tolerate a higher pressure from the blood pressure cuff
(Figure 6).
7
The DOMS grounding study report
7
contains a summary
of the literature on the changes in blood chemistry and content
of formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets)
expected after an injury. The immune system detects pathogens
and tissue damage and responds by initiating the inflammation
cascade, sending neutrophils and lymphocytes into the region.
8–12
As expected, the white cell counts increased in the ungrounded
or control subjects. White cell counts in the grounded subjects
steadily decreased following the injury (Figure 7).
7
Previous research has shown increases in neutrophils
following injury.
13–16
This happened in both grounded and
ungrounded subjects (Figure 8), although neutrophil counts
were always lower in the grounded subjects.
7
As the number of neutrophils increases, lymphocytes are
expected to decrease.
17–19
In the DOMS study, the lympho-
cyte count in the grounded subjects was always below the
ungrounded subjects (Figure 9).
7
Normally, neutrophils rapidly invade an injured
region
8,20–22
in order to break down damaged cells and send
signals through the cytokine network to regulate the repair
process. Neutrophils’ production of ROS and reactive nitro-
gen species (RNS) is termed the “oxidative burst”.
21
While
ROS clear pathogens and cellular debris so that the tissue can
regenerate, ROS can also damage healthy cells adjacent to the
repair field, causing so-called collateral damage. The fact that
the grounded subjects had fewer circulating neutrophils and
lymphocytes could indicate that the original damage resolved
more quickly, collateral damage reduced, and the recovery
process accelerated. This would explain the reduction in the
Figure 3 Reduction in inammation with grounding or earthing documented with medical infrared imaging.
Notes: Thermal imaging cameras record tiny changes in skin temperature to create a color-coded map of hot areas indicative of inammation. Panel A shows reduction in
inammation from sleeping grounded. Medical infrared imaging shows warm and painful areas (arrows in upper part of panel A). Sleeping grounded for 4 nights resolved the
pain, and the hot areas cooled. Note the signicant reduction in inammation and a return toward normal thermal symmetry. Panel B shows infrared images of a 33-year-old
woman who had a gymnastics injury at age 15. The patient had a long history of chronic right knee pain, swelling, and instability, and was unable to stand for long periods.
Simple actions, such as driving, increased the symptoms. She had to sleep with a pillow between her knees to decrease the pain. On-and-off medical treatment and physical
therapy over the years provided minimal relief. She presented on November 17, 2004 with considerable right medial knee tenderness and a mild limp. Top images in Panel B
were taken in walking position to show the inside of both knees. Arrow points to exact location of patient’s pain and shows signicant inammation. Lower images in Panel B
taken 30 minutes after being grounded with an electrode patch. The patient reported a mild reduction in pain. Note signicant reduction of inammation in knee area. After 6
days of grounding, she reported a 50% reduction pain and said that she could now stand for longer periods without pain, and no longer needed to sleep with pillow between
her legs. After 4 weeks of treatment, she felt good enough to play soccer, and for the rst time in 15 years felt no instability and little pain. By 12 weeks, she said her pain
had diminished by nearly 90% and she had no swelling. For the rst time in many years, she was able waterski. The patient contacted the ofce after 6 months of treatment
to report that she had nished a half-marathon, something she never dreamt she would ever be able to do prior to treatment.
Figure 4 Grounded sleep system.
Notes: Grounded sleep system consists of a cotton sheet with conductive carbon
or silver threads woven into it. The threads connect to a wire that leads out the
bedroom window or through the wall to a metal rod inserted into the Earth near
a healthy plant. Alternatively, it can be connected to the ground terminal of an
electrical outlet. Sleeping on this system connects the body to the Earth. A frequent
report from people using this system is that sleeping grounded improves the quality
of sleep and reduces aches and pains from a variety of causes.
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Earthing or grounding reduces inammation
0.00
Day 1
0.00 113.79 172.41 127.59
0.00 28.26
Days
89.13 41.30
Placebo
Grounded
Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
Placebo
Grounded
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
% change
120.00
140.00
160.00
180.00
200.00
PM pain scale
Figure 5 Changes in afternoon (PM) visual analog pain scale reports.
Days
Placebo
Grounded
Placebo
Grounded
% change
Blood pressure cuff
–30.00
–20.00
–10.00
0.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
Day 1
0.00 –18.41 –13.04 –15.46
29.9116.148.390.00
Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
Figure 6 Changes in afternoon (PM) pain levels using a blood pressure cuff.
Days
Placebo
Grounded
Placebo
Grounded
% change
White blood cells
–10.00
–5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
Day 1
0.00
–0.45 –1.35 –4.05
9.66 15.97 13.87
0.00
Day 2
Day 3
Day 4
Figure 7 Comparisons of white blood cell counts, comparing pretest versus post-test for each group.
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Oschman et al
cardinal signs of inflammation (redness, heat, swelling, pain,
and loss of function) following acute injury, as documented,
for example, in Figures 1 and 2, and the rapid reduction of
chronic inflammation documented in Figure 3.
Our working hypothesis features this scenario: mobile
electrons from the Earth enter the body and act as natural
antioxidants;
3
they are semi-conducted through the connective
tissue matrix, including through the inflammatory barricade
if one is present;
23
they neutralize ROS and other oxidants in
the repair field; and they protect healthy tissue from damage.
The fact that there are fewer circulating neutrophils and
lymphocytes in the grounded subjects may be advantageous
because of the harmful role these cells are thought to play
in prolonging inflammation.
24
We also raise the possibil-
ity that the inflammatory barricade is actually formed in
ungrounded subjects by collateral damage to healthy tissue,
as was suggested by Selye in the first and subsequent editions
of his book The Stress of Life (Figure 10).
25
While there may be other explanations, we suggest that
rapid resolution of inflammation takes place because the
Earth’s surface is an abundant source of excited and mobile
electrons, as described in our other work.
1
We further propose
that skin contact with the surface of the Earth allows Earth’s
electrons to spread over the skin surface and into the body.
One route to the body interior could be via acupuncture points
and meridians. The meridians are known to be low resistance
pathways for the flow of electrical currents.
26–28
Another
pathway is via mucous membranes of the respiratory and
digestive tracts, which are continuous with the skin surface.
Sokal and Sokal
29
found that the electrical potential on the
Days
Placebo
Grounded
Placebo
Grounded
% change
Lymphocytes
Day 1
0.00
0.00
–9.22
–12.30
–18.00
–16.00
–14.00
–12.00
–10.00
–8.00
–6.00
–4.00
–2.00
0.00
2.00
–12.12
–0.58 –2.45
–16.84
Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
Figure 9 Comparisons of lymphocyte counts, pretest versus post-test for each group.
Placebo
Grounded
Placebo
Grounded
Days
% change
Neutrophils
0.00
0.00
0.00
Day 1
28.24
20.11
Day 2
30.83
17.86
Day 3
30.49
19.05
Day 4
5.00
10.00
15.00
20.00
25.00
30.00
35.00
Figure 8 Comparisons of neutrophil counts, pretest versus post-test for each group.
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Earthing or grounding reduces inammation
body, on the mucosal membrane of the tongue, and in the
venous blood rapidly drop to approximately –200 mV. When
the body is disconnected from the Earth, the potential is
quickly restored. These effects reveal changes in the internal
electrical environment within the body.
29
Selye
30
studied the histology of the wall of the inflamma-
tory pouch or barricade (Figure 10). It is composed of fibrin
and connective tissue. Our hypothesis is that electrons can
be semi-conducted across the barrier, and can then neutralize
reactive oxygen species (free radicals).
30
A semiconducting
collagen pathway or corridor may explain how electrons from
the Earth quickly attenuate chronic inflammation not resolved
by dietary antioxidants or by standard medical care, including
physical therapy (Figure 3). The barricade probably restricts
diffusion of circulating antioxidants into the repair.
Taken together, these observations indicate that grounding
or earthing the human body significantly alters the inflam-
matory response to an injury.
Figure 10 Formation of the inammatory barricade.
Notes: Copyright © 1984, Selye H. Reproduced from Selye H. The Stress of Life. Revised ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Com panies, Inc.; 1984.
25
(A) Normal connective tissue
territory. (B) Same tissue after injury or exposure to irritant. Vessel dilates, blood cells migrate toward irritant, connective tissue cells and bers form a thick impenetrable
barricade that prevents the spread of the irritant into the blood, but that also inhibits entry of regenerative cells that could repair the tissue and slow the entry of antioxidants
into the repair eld. The result can be a long-lasting pocket of incompletely resolved inammation that can eventually leak toxins into the system and disturb functioning of
an organ or tissue. This is referred to as “silent” or “smoldering” inammation. (C) The inammatory, Selye, or granuloma pouch as originally described by Selye,
30
is widely
used in studies of inammation.
Myofascia
Ligament
Bone
Periosteum
Pericardium
Heart
tendons
Tendon
Cartilage
DNA
Nuclear matrix
Nuclear envelope
Cytoskeleton
Integrin
Superficial
fascia
Perineurium
Figure 11 The living matrix, ground regulation system, or tissue tensegrity matrix is a continuous brous web-work or network that extends into every part of the body.
The extracellular components of this network consist primarily of collagen and ground substance. It is the largest system in the body, as it is the only system that touches
all of the other systems.
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Oschman et al
Anatomical and biophysical aspects
The concept that the inflammatory barricade forms from col-
lateral damage to healthy tissue surrounding an injury site is
supported by Selye’s classic studies published along with his
description of the granuloma or Selye pouch (Figure 10).
25,30
Moreover, research in cell biology and biophysics reveals the
human body is equipped with a system-wide collagenous,
liquid–crystalline semiconductor network known as the living
matrix,
31
or in other terms, a ground regulation system
32,33
or tissue tensegrity matrix system (Figure 11).
34
This body-
wide network can deliver mobile electrons to any part of
the body and thereby routinely protect all cells, tissues, and
organs from oxidative stress or in the event of injury.
23,31
The
living matrix includes the extracellular and connective tissue
matrices as well as the cytoskeletons of all cells.
31
Integrins
at cell surfaces are thought to allow for semi-conduction of
electrons to the cell interior, and links across the nuclear
envelope enable the nuclear matrix and genetic material to be
part of the circuitry.
23
Our hypothesis is that this body-wide
electronic circuit represents a primary antioxidant defense
system. This hypothesis is the central point of this report.
The extracellular part of the matrix system is composed
mainly of collagen and ground substances (Figures 11 and 12).
The cytoskeleton is composed of microtubules, microfila-
ments, and other fibrous proteins. The nuclear matrix contains
another protein fabric composed of histones and related
materials.
It is not widely appreciated that collagen and other
structural proteins are semiconductors. This concept was
introduced by Albert Szent-Györgyi in the Korányi memorial
lecture in Budapest, Hungary in 1941. His talk was published
in both Science (Towards a New Biochemistry?)
35
and Nature
(The Study of Energy Levels in Biochemistry).
36
The idea that
proteins might be semiconductors was immediately and firmly
rejected by biochemists. Many modern scientists continue to
reject semi-conduction in proteins, because living systems
only have trace amounts of silicone, germanium, and com-
pounds of gallium that are the most widely used materials in
electronic semiconductor devices. However, there are many
ways of making organic semiconductors without using metals.
One of the sources of confusion was the widely held belief that
water was a mere filler material. We now know that water plays
crucial roles in enzymatic activities and semi-conduction.
Hydrated proteins actually are semiconductors, and have
become important components in the global microelectronics
industry. Organic microcircuits are preferred for some appli-
cations, because they can be made very small, self-assemble,
are robust, and have low energy consumption.
37,38
One of the leaders in the field of molecular electron-
ics, NS Hush, has recognized Albert Szent-Györgyi and
Electron
Hydration shell
AB
Helical protein
Proton
Hyaluronan
Link protein
Keratin sulfate
Electrons
H
2
O
(b)
Field of
negative
charge
Core protein
Chondroitin
sulfate
Figure 12 Collagen and ground substance.
Notes: (A) Collagen, the principal protein of the extracellular connective tissue matrix, is a triple helix with a hydration shell surrounding each polypeptide strand. The protein
can transfer electrons by semiconduction, and protons (H
+
) and hydroxyls (OH
) migrate through the hydration shell. These charge movements can be very rapid and are vital
to life. (B) Copyright © 2005. R Paul Lee Reproduced with permission from Lee RP. Interface. Mechanisms of Spirit in Osteopathy. Portland, OR: Stillness Press; 2005.
67
The
ground substance is a highly charged polyelectrolyte gel, a vast reservoir of electrons. Note the collagen bril embedded in ground substance units known as matrisomes (a term
coined by Heine).
33
Detail of a matrisome to the right (b) reveals vast stores of electrons. Electrons from the ground substance can migrate through the collagen network to any
point in the body. We suggest that they can maintain an anti-oxidant microenvironment around an injury repair eld, slowing or preventing reactive oxygen species delivered
by the oxidative burst from causing collateral damage to healthy tissue, and preventing or reducing the formation of the so-called “inammatory barricade”.
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Earthing or grounding reduces inammation
–45.00
–40.00
–35.00
–30.00
–25.00
–20.00
–15.00
–10.00
–5.00
0.00
% change
Placebo
Grounded
Placebo
Grounded
Day 1
0.00
0.00
–36.84
–39.47
–39.47
–9.43
–3.77
–13.21
Day 2
Day 3
Day 4
Days
Bilirubin
Figure 13 Comparisons of bilirubin levels, pretest versus post-test for each group.
Robert S Mulliken for providing two concepts fundamental
to the industrial applications: theories of biological semi-
conduction, and molecular orbital theory, respectively.
39
In recent studies, given awards by the Materials Research
Society in both Europe and the USA, scientists from Israel
made flexible biodegradable semiconductor systems using
proteins from human blood, milk, and mucus.
40
Silicon, the
most widely used semiconducting material, is expensive in
the pure form needed for semiconductors, and is inflexible
and environmentally problematic. Organic semiconductors
are predicted to lead to a new range of flexible and biode-
gradable computer screens, cell phones, tablets, biosensors,
and microprocessor chips. We have come a long way since
the early days when semi-conduction in proteins was so
thoroughly rejected.
41,42,43
Ground substance polyelectrolyte molecules associated
with the collagenous connective tissue matrix are charge
reservoirs (Figure 12). The matrix is therefore a vast
whole-body redox system. The glycosaminoglycans have
a high density of negative charges due to the sulfate and
carboxylate groups on the uronic acid residues. The matrix
is therefore a body-wide system capable of absorbing and
donating electrons wherever they are needed to support
immune functioning.
44
The interiors of cells including the
nuclear matrix and DNA are all parts of this biophysical
electrical storage and delivery system. The time-course of
the effects of grounding on injury repair can be estimated in
various ways. First, we know from medical infrared imag-
ing that inflammation begins to subside within 30 minutes
of connecting with the earth via a conductive patch placed
on the skin.
2,3
Secondly, metabolic activity increases during
this same period. Specifically, there is an increase in oxygen
consumption, pulse rate, and respiratory rate and a decrease
in blood oxygenation during 40 minutes of grounding.
45
We
suspect that the “filling” of the charge reservoirs is a gradual
process, possibly because of the enormous number of
charged residues on the polyelectrolytes, and because they
are located throughout the body. When charge reservoirs are
saturated, the body is in a state we refer to as “inflamma-
tory preparedness”. This means that the ground substance,
which pervades every part of the body, is ready to quickly
deliver antioxidant electrons to any site of injury via the
semiconducting collagenous matrix (see Figure 16B).
These considerations also imply anti-aging effects of
earthing or grounding, since the dominant theory of aging
emphasizes cumulative damage caused by ROS produced
during normal metabolism or produced in response to pol-
lutants, poisons, or injury.
46
We hypothesize an anti-aging
effect of grounding that is based on a living matrix reaching
every part of the body and that is capable of delivering anti-
oxidant electrons to sites where tissue integrity might be
compromised by reactive oxidants from any source.
47,48
Molecules generated during the immune response
were also followed in the DOMS study.
7
Parameters that
differed consistently by 10% or more between grounded
and ungrounded subjects, normalized to baseline, included
creatine kinase, phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate ratios,
bilirubin, phosphorylcholine, and glycerolphosphorylcho-
line. Bilirubin is a natural antioxidant that helps control
ROS.
49–53
While bilirubin levels decreased in both grounded
and ungrounded groups, the margin between the subjects
was large (Figure 13).
7
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The inflammatory markers changed at the same time that
the pain indicators were changing. This was revealed by both
the visual analog pain scale and by the pressure measurements
on the right gastrocnemius (Figures 5 and 6). The authors
of the DOMS study suggested that bilirubin may have been
used as a source of electrons in the ungrounded subjects.
7
It
is possible that the lower decline in circulating bilirubin in
the grounded subjects was due to the availability in the repair
field of free electrons from the Earth.
Other markers encourage the hypothesis that the grounded
subjects more efficiently resolved tissue damage: the pain
measures, inorganic phosphate-phosphocreatine ratios (Pi/
PCr), and creatine kinase (CK). Muscle damage has been
widely correlated with CK.
54–56
As Figure 14 shows, CK
values in the ungrounded subjects were consistently above
those in the grounded subjects.
7
Differences between Pi/PCr
of the two groups were monitored by magnetic resonance
spectroscopy. These ratios are indicative of metabolic rate
and cellular damage.
57–60
Inorganic phosphate levels are
indicative of hydrolysis of PCr and adenosine triphosphate.
The ungrounded subjects had higher levels of Pi, while the
grounded subjects showed higher levels of PCr. These findings
indicate that mitochondria in the grounded subjects are not
producing as much metabolic energy, probably because there
is less demand due to more rapid achievement of homeostasis.
The differences between the groups are shown in Figure 15.
The pilot study
7
on the effects of earthing in speeding
recovery from the pain of DOMS provides a good basis for
a larger study. The concepts presented here are summarized
in Figure 16 as a comparison between Mr Shoes
Placebo
Grounded
Placebo
Grounded
Days
Creatine kinase
% change
–20.00
–40.00
–0.51
–1.20
–21.94
59.69
146.22
Day 4Day 3Day 2Day 1
0.00
0.00
26.29
0.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
100.00
120.00
140.00
160.00
Figure 14 Creatine kinase levels, pretest versus post-test for each group.
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
5.84
4.74
2.170.00
Placebo
Grounded
0.00 –12.06
–20.00
–15.00
–10.00
–5.00
0.00
5.00
10.00
–14.97
Days
Pi/PCr ratio
Placebo
Grounded
% change
–10.39
Figure 15 Inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine ratios (Pi/PCr) pretest versus post-test for each group.
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93
Earthing or grounding reduces inammation
Ungrounded from wearing shoes Ground substance
depleted of electrons
Grounded from
going barefoot
Mr Barefoot
Mr Shoes
Ground substance
filled with electrons
INJURY INJURY
Neurophils
attracted to
site of injury
Neutophils
attracted to
site of injury
Electrons
from ground
substance are
semi-conducted
through the
collagen matrix and
neutralize free
radicals that would
otherwise damage
nearby healthy
tissues. No
inflammatory
barricade, no
inflammation
Oxidative burst
delivers free radicals
to injury site to break
down damaged cells
and bacteria
Inflammatory
barricade caused by
unnecessary damage
to neaby healthy
tissues – can lead to
chronic inflammation
and chronic disease
AB
Figure 16 Summary of central hypothesis of this report: comparison of immune response in ungrounded versus grounded person.
Notes: (A) After an injury, the ungrounded person (Mr Shoes) will form an inammatory barricade around the injury site. (B) After an injury, the grounded person
(Mr Barefoot) will not form an inammatory barricade, because reactive oxygen species that could damage nearby healthy tissue (collateral damage) are immediately
neutralized by electrons semiconducted from the electron-saturated ground substance via the collagen network.
(an ungrounded individual) and “Mr Barefoot” (a grounded
individual).
Discussion
Voluminous current research correlates inflammation with a
wide range of chronic diseases. A search for “inflammation” in
the National Library of Medicine database (PubMed) reveals
over 400,000 studies, with more than 34,000 published in
2013 alone. The most common cause of death and disability
in the United States is chronic disease. Seventy-five percent
of the nation’s health care spending, which surpassed US$2.3
trillion in 2008, is for treating chronic disease. Heart disease,
cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteo-
porosis, and diabetes are the most common and costly chronic
diseases.
61
Others include asthma, Alzheimers disease, bowel
disorders, cirrhosis of the liver, cystic fibrosis, multiple scle-
rosis, arthritis, lupus, meningitis, and psoriasis. Ten percent
of all health care dollars are spent treating diabetes. Osteopo-
rosis affects about 28 million aging Americans.
61,62
However,
there are few theories on the mechanisms connecting chronic
inflammation with chronic disease. The research on grounding
or earthing summarized here provides a logical and testable
theory based on a variety of evidence.
The textbook description of the immune response describes
how large or small injuries cause neutrophils and other white
blood cells to deliver highly ROS and RNS to break down
pathogens and damaged cells and tissues. Classical textbook
descriptions also refer to an “inflammatory barricade” that
isolates injured tissues to hinder the movement of pathogens
and debris from the damaged region into adjacent, healthy
tissues. Selye described how the debris coagulates to form
the inflammatory barricade (Figure 10). This barrier also
hinders the movements of antioxidants and regenerative cells
into the blocked-off area. Repair can be incomplete, and this
incomplete repair can set up a vicious inflammatory cycle
that can persist for a long period of time, leading to so-called
silent or smoldering inflammation that in turn, over time, can
promote the development of chronic disease.
Remarkable as it may seem, our findings suggest that
this classical picture of the inflammatory barricade may be a
consequence of lack of grounding, and of a resultant “electron
deficiency”. Wounds heal very differently when the body is
grounded (Figures 1 and 2). Healing is much faster, and the
cardinal signs of inflammation are reduced or eliminated.
The profiles of various inflammatory markers over time are
very different in grounded individuals.
Those who research inflammation and wound healing need
to be aware of the ways grounding can alter the time-course
of inflammatory responses. They also need to be aware that
the experimental animals they use for their studies may have
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very different immune systems and responses, depending on
whether or not they were reared in grounded or ungrounded
cages. It is standard research practice for investigators to
carefully describe their methods and the strain of the animals
they use so that others can repeat the studies if they wish. An
assumption is that all Wistar rats, for example, will be geneti-
cally and physio logically similar. However, a comparison of
neoplasms in Sprague–Dawley rats (originally outbred from
the Wistar rat) from different sources revealed highly signifi-
cant differences in the incidences of endocrine and mammary
tumors. The frequency of adrenal medulla tumors also varied
in rats from the same suppliers raised in different laboratories.
The authors “stressed the need for extreme caution in evaluation
of carcinogenicity studies conducted at different laboratories
and/or on rats from different sources.
63
From our perspective, these variations are not at all
surprising. Animals will differ widely in the degree to which
their charge reservoirs are saturated with electrons. Are their
cages made of metal, and if they are, is that metal grounded?
How close are their cages to wires or conduits carrying 60/50
Hz electricity? From our research, those factors will have
measurable impacts on immune responses. In fact, they repre-
sent a “hidden variable” that could have affected the outcomes
of countless studies, and also could affect the ability of other
investigators to reproduce a particular study.
Dominant lifestyle factors such as insulating footwear,
high-rise buildings, and elevated beds separate most humans
from direct skin connection with the Earth’s surface. An earth
connection was an everyday reality in past cultures that used
animal skins for footwear and to sleep on. We suggest that
the process of killing pathogens and clearing debris from
injury sites with ROS and RNS evolved to take advantage of
the body’s constant access to the virtually limitless source of
mobile electrons the Earth provides when we are in contact
with it. Antioxidants are electron donors, and the best electron
donor, we strongly believe, is right under our feet: the surface
of the Earth, with its virtually unlimited storehouse of acces-
sible electrons. Electrons from the Earth may in fact be the best
antioxidants, with zero negative secondary effects, because
our body evolved to use them over eons of physical contact
with the ground. Our immune systems work beautifully as
long as electrons are available to balance the ROS and reac-
tive nitrogen species (RNS) used when dealing with infection
and tissue injury. Our modern lifestyle has taken the body
and the immune system by surprise by suddenly depriving it
of its primordial electron source. This planetary separation
began accelerating in the early 1950s with the advent of shoes
made with insulating soles instead of the traditional leather.
Lifestyle challenges to our immune systems proceeded faster
than evolution could accommodate.
The disconnection from the Earth may be an important,
insidious, and overlooked contribution to physiological
dysfunction and to the alarming global rise in non-commu-
nicable, inflammatory-related chronic diseases. A lack of
electrons can also de-saturate the electron transport chains
in mitochondria, leading to chronic fatigue and slowing
the cellular migrations and other essential activities of the
cells of the immune system.
64
At this point, even a minor
injury can lead to a long-term health issue. When mobile
electrons are not available, the inflammatory process takes
an abnormal course. Areas that are electron deficient are
vulnerable to further injury they become positively charged
and will have difficulty warding off infections. The result
is an immune system constantly activated and eventually
exhausted. Cells of the immune system may fail to distin-
guish between the body’s diverse chemical structures (called
“self ”) and the molecules of parasites, bacteria, fungi, and
cancer cells (called “non-self ”). This loss of immunologic
memory can lead to attacks by some immune cells on the
body’s own tissues and organs. An example is the destruction
of insulin-producing beta cells of the islets of Langerhans
in the diabetic patient. Another example is the immune
system attacking cartilage in joints, producing rheumatoid
arthritis. Lupus erythematosus is an extreme example of an
auto-immune condition caused by the body’s immune system
attacking host tissues and organs. Lupus, for example, can
affect many different body systems, including skin, kidneys,
blood cells, joints, heart, and lungs. With time, the immune
system becomes weaker and the individual more vulnerable
to inflammation or infections that may not heal, as often seen
with the wounds of diabetic patients. Specifically, which part
or parts of the body the weakened immune system will attack
first depends on many factors such as genetics, habits (sleep,
food, drinks, exercise, etc), and toxins in the body and in the
environment.
65,66
A repeated observation is that grounding,
or earthing, reduces the pain in patients with lupus and other
autoimmune disorders.
1
Conclusion
Accumulating experiences and research on earthing, or
grounding, point to the emergence of a simple, natural, and
accessible health strategy against chronic inflammation, war-
ranting the serious attention of clinicians and researchers. The
living matrix (or ground regulation or tissue tensegrity-matrix
system), the very fabric of the body, appears to serve as one
of our primary antioxidant defense systems. As this report
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Earthing or grounding reduces inammation
explains, it is a system requiring occasional recharging by
conductive contact with the Earth’s surface the “battery”
for all planetary life – to be optimally effective.
Acknowledgments
The authors are indebted to Martin Zucker for very valuable
comments on the manuscript. A Clinton Ober of EarthFx Inc.
has provided continuous support and encouragement for the
research that has been done to explore the science of earthing,
with particular focus on the immune system.
Disclosure
G Chevalier and JL Oschman are independent contractors for
EarthFx Inc., the company sponsoring earthing research, and
own a small percentage of shares in the company. Richard
Brown is an independent contractor for EarthFx Inc., the
company sponsoring earthing research. The authors report
no other conflicts of interest.
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... Research proves that Earthing is beneficial for reducing inflammation because 1) electrons in the soil/earth neutralize free radicals that occur in the inflammatory process and 2) normalize the hormone cortisol, which is beneficial for its regulatory effect on inflammation. Other benefits of Earthing are wound healing, prevention of chronic infections, and autoimmune diseases (5). ...
... Earthing study on a diabetic patient who had diabetic wounds for eight months experienced wound healing after two weeks of grounding and a significant reduction in pain. A study of patients who had an accidental incision wound experienced faster healing for two days (5). ...
... Furthermore, a research study showing the effective healing process with non-infant subjects shows that Earthing improves sleep quality and reduces pain intensity (5). The pilot project study of the Earthing therapy experiment for 1 hour showed that the intervention group experienced an improvement in the mood to positive, thus helping to mitigate the detrimental effects of negative moods such as anxiety, stress, and depression (22). ...
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Preterm infants have compromised immune systems where the maturity of the organs and body system is not optimum. The compromised immune system makes premature infants susceptible to micro-bacterial infections. Acute respiratory infection is the most common infection among them. This study aimed to investigate the significant difference in the length of acute respiratory infection before and after Earthing therapy. This research is a quasi-experimental study. The location is Sukoharjo District, Indonesia, from March to August 2021. The population in this study is preterm infants whose data is obtained from monthly reports on Central Java Statistic Agency. The number of samples of preterm infants was 192 infants. The sample size was 20 infants. Earthing duration is 1 hour every day for 30 days. The statistical analysis results in a P-value of 0,000 and tcount 8.065>t table 2.093, indicating a significant difference in the length of Acute Respiratory Infections among preterm infants before and after Earthing therapy. It is recommended that mothers of preterm infants continue to utilize Earthing devices longer to increase the immune system and prevent acute respiratory infection. Furthermore, using Earthing therapy is beneficial for improving the general immune system in preventing or accelerating the healing process of microbial infection with Earthing devices or straight to the ground.
... Recent research has shown that when the human body electrically contacts Earth's surface, it affects different processes such as inflammation, wound healing, and immune responses; this technique can control chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases [8]. ...
... Grounding systems are simple conductive systems that can easily be used within the home or office in the form of mats, sheets, wrist or ankle bands, sticky patches, and other various comfortable and convenient, user-friendly methods. Such systems connect to the Ground via a wire [8]. ...
... Furthermore, Oschman and colleagues proposed that a connection between the body and the Earth causes free electrons from the Earth's surface to transfer to the body, where they can have antioxidant effects [8]. Additional studies to support these theories are needed. ...
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Acupressure in Oriental medicine is used as a core therapeutic method due to its therapeutic efficacy and minimal side-effects. However, microcurrent stimulation, combined with acupressure and grounding, has not been studied under acupressure conditions in terms of how this combination might affect acupressure therapy's effectiveness. This paper clarifies the new concept of acupressure stimulation combined with a microcurrent that generates electron flow during earthing. In grounding the body, there is free electron movement from and to the body that creates microcurrent. Acupressure uses these currents to activate specific acupoints for therapeutic purposes and activating these acupoints adjust the imbalance between Qi across channels (meridians) and ultimately treat diseases. It is time for proper research and implementation of this technique to increase acupressure efficacy and reduce society's cost.
... Grounding can be achieved by direct contact with the Earth's surface (e.g., by walking barefoot) or by using conductive systems (e.g., grounding mats) [8]. People can connect to the Earth by sleeping or sitting on the grounding mats, which are equipped with conductive wire connecting to the ground outside [10]. The connection to the Earth allows the free electrons to flow into the body and reach electrical equilibrium between the body and the Earth [11]. ...
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Background: Grounding refers to having direct contact with the Earth, such as by walking barefoot or lying on the ground. Research has found that grounding can improve inflammation, free radical damage, blood pressure, sleep quality, pain, stress, mood, and wound healing. However, there has been no research on the effect of utilizing grounding for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, in this study, we investigated the effectiveness of grounding as a non-pharmacological therapy for treating sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression in patients with mild AD. Methods: Patients with mild AD were enrolled in the study. The electrochemical analyzer CHI 1205b was employed to check the electrochemical signals at acupoints KI1 and GV16. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) to evaluate sleep quality, anxiety, and depression, respectively, at weeks 0 and 12. Results: This 12-week placebo-controlled study enrolled 22 patients, but only 15 patients completed the 12-week intervention and survey. Grounding significantly improved PSQI scores compared to the sham-grounding group (mean ± SD: 0.3 ± 0.7 vs. 3.0 ± 1.9, p = 0.006). The scores on the BAI and BDI-II did not change significantly after grounding in comparison to the sham-grounding group. Conclusions: Grounding can improve sleep quality, but it does not significantly improve anxiety and depression among patients with mild AD.
... Previous research states that the "direct contact of humans with the earth or using a metal conductor changes the electric potential on the surface of the body, as well as within the entire human organism" [8]. While the etiology of this potential effect is difficult to explain from a biophysiological perspective, previous findings have shown that the direct contact of an individual with the ground may reduce inflammatory processes, mood, pain, and stress at rest [9][10][11] and during exercise [8,9], with some studies suggesting that grounding technology may have a medical application. For example, previous research has suggested that the implementation of grounding is beneficial for mood, and may be especially beneficial in cases of depression, anxiety, stress, and trauma [11,12]. ...
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The introduction of carbon fiber plate shoes has triggered a plethora of world records in running, which has encouraged shoe industries to produce novel shoe designs to enhance running performance, including shoes containing conductor elements or “grounding shoes” (GS), which could potentially reduce the energy cost of running. The aim of this study was to examine the physiological and perceptual responses of athletes subjected to grounding shoes during running. Ten elite runners were recruited. Firstly, the athletes performed an incremental running test for VO2max and anaerobic threshold (AT) determination, and were familiarized with the two shoe conditions (traditional training shoe (TTS) and GS, the latter containing a conductor element under the insole). One week apart, athletes performed running economy tests (20 min run at 80% of the AT) on a 400 m dirt track, with shoe conditions randomized. VO2, heart rate, lactate, and perceived fatigue were registered throughout the experiment. No differences in any of the physiological or perceptual variables were identified between shoe conditions, with an equal running economy in both TTS and GS (51.1 ± 4.2 vs. 50.9 ± 5.1 mL kg−1 min−1, respectively). Our results suggest that a grounding stimulus does not improve the energy cost of running, or the physiological/perceptual responses of elite athletes.
... According to current research, the grounding of the human body has a significant effect on bioelectrical and bioenergetic processes and a significant moderating effect on chronic disorders and dysfunction [18]. Moreover, Oschman and colleagues postulated that when the body is connected to the Earth, free electrons from the Earth's surface are transferred to the body, where they'll have antioxidant effects [19]. It is necessary to conduct further research to validate these theories. ...
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Multidisciplinary studies showed that when the human body is electrically in contact with the Earth (earthing or grounding), it produces intriguing consequences on the physiology and health of the human being. These effects are related to treating acute and chronic inflammatory and autoimmune illnesses, immunological responses, wound treatment, and prevention. At the same time, acupuncture in Traditional Medicine has been widely utilized for its low side effects and therapeutic effectiveness as primary therapeutic therapy. However, the electrical reaction to acupuncture stimulation has not been investigated in conditions with acupuncture that could alter acupuncture therapeutic effectiveness. The study's objective is to inform scientists of the apparent innovative approach to inflammation studies; and alert researchers to the importance of the duration and the degree of grounding, which may affect the results of inflammation, injury, and tumorigenesis studies. Grounding with acupuncture decreases pain and changes the quantity of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes and circulating chemical substances linked to inflammation. This work reviews the potential of acupuncture with earthing as an easy and readily accessible worldwide modality of substantial clinical importance is reviewed in this work.
... Wilson (12); Kaplan's theory of restoration of attention (13); the earthing or grounding, by Oschman (14); aromatherapy and short-term memory (15); the effect of forests on health (16); brain plasticity (17); mindfulness (18); and cognitive stimulation (19). From a population of 51 older adults of both sexes, with a low level of education, prior informed consent and screening for cognitive impairment (20) and depression (21) excluding severe cases, two equivalent groups of 09 older adults each were obtained, randomized and statistically comparable, in the pre-test in the memory alteration test score, a brief cognitive test to assess verbal memory (22), as an indicator of amnesic cognitive impairment (23), considering only those older adults with mild amnesic cognitive impairment, and with initial Alzheimer's disease (24). ...
... Sokal and Sokal, two Polish researchers and medics, conducted several studies and came to the conclusion that the human body is a "universal regulating force in Nature". Biochemical, Bioelectric, and bioenergetic processes are all strictly monitored, and they have a big influence on chronic illnesses [14]. ...
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The main goals of acute and long-term skincare are the protection and improvement of skin health and integrity. Skincare involves several procedures that help maintain the skin's integrity, improve its appearance, and alleviate skin problems. Proper blood flow is in dire need for the skin to absorb vital ingredients. There are many conventional treatments to help increase blood flow and recently it was discovered that connecting the with the electrical charges of the Earth, or "Grounding" can promote healthy blood flow in the facial region. Additionally, such effects of grounding do not seem limited to the facial region but are rather systemic, essential and are often quickly observable. Grounding also seems to reduce secondary injury, collateral sprouting, and nerve sensitization. In grounded patients, an increase in blood flow was clearly seen when compared directly to ungrounded subjects. The results of documented studies explain that even short contact with the Earth helps to restore blood flow regulation suggesting enhanced skin tissue repair and improved skin appearance with possible implications for overall health.
... Due to modern human lifestyle, grounding restores a primaeval electrical link to the Planet. Grounding seems to fix an "electron deficiency syndrome," a neglected and possibly leading reason for different health circumstances [13]. Grounding is a powerful method for preventing and rehabilitating health and healing. ...
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Massage can alleviate the inflammatory process, help to accelerate recovery, and relieve pain resulting from muscular injuries. In this paper, we combine the idea of mechanotransduction (conversion of mechanical stimulus into electrochemical activity) using grounding in massage to investigate beneficial mechanisms. Grounding massage has been discovered to stabilize the physiology of the body, help reduce pain, inflammation, stress, enhance sleep, increase energy, and blood flow, and enhance well-being by connecting the body with the electrical charges of the Earth. Such effects are systemic and basic, and often quickly evolve. This process can reduce secondary injury, collateral sprouting, and nerve sensitization by modifying inflammatory signaling pathways, resulting in improved damage recovery and pain reduction or prevention. Research shows that grounding, when simultaneously combined with many CAM clinical practices, can offer great potential to improve their effectiveness. The paper aims to explain how massage therapy, combined with geographically and simultaneous earthing, causes a potentially beneficial and properly activated immunomodulatory pathway.
... Furthermore, the results implicated the aqueous stem bark extract of M. aethiopicum as a more potent inhibitor of acetic acid inducing in mice compared with the methanolic stem bark extract. This could be attributable to specific phytochemical compounds that are in high concentration in the aqueous extract than in the methanolic extract [56] . Perhaps, this could be the reason behind the usage and claimed healing properties of the aqueous extract of this plant in traditional medicine. ...
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Pain is the most widely diagnosed and managed symptoms of human diseases, with various debilitating effects. Current analgesics agents have shown low efficacy, are inaccessible, unaffordable, and elicit deleterious side effects which limit their use, thereby warranting the need for alternative and complementary strategies. Mystroxylon aethiopicum is widely utilized in the Agikuyu community of Kenya to treat stomachache, chronic pain, coughs, among other conditions; however, its analgesic efficacy and safety data are scanty, hence the present study. The analgesic activity of the aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of M. aethiopicum were determined using the standard acetic acid-induced writhing technique. Further, qualitative phytochemical screening for various phytocompounds in the studied plant extracts was done following standard phytochemical screening methods. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of M. aethiopicum possess noteworthy analgesic activity as demonstrated by the higher percentage inhibitions of writhing in the treated mice; however, the aqueous extract exhibited significantly lower analgesic efficacy than the methanolic extract (P<0.05). Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed presence of antioxidant-associated compounds including phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, among others, which exhibit analgesic activity. All the studied plant extracts did not cause acute oral toxicity effects in experimental mice, hence safe (LD50>2000 mg/Kg bw). The specific mechanisms of analgesic action, the responsible compounds should be elucidated. Moreover, extensive toxicological studies involving the studied plant extracts should be conducted to fully profile and assure their safety.
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We propose a model wherein chronic stress results in glucocorticoid receptor resistance (GCR) that, in turn, results in failure to down-regulate inflammatory response. Here we test the model in two viral-challenge studies. In study 1, we assessed stressful life events, GCR, and control variables including baseline antibody to the challenge virus, age, body mass index (BMI), season, race, sex, education, and virus type in 276 healthy adult volunteers. The volunteers were subsequently quarantined, exposed to one of two rhinoviruses, and followed for 5 d with nasal washes for viral isolation and assessment of signs/symptoms of a common cold. In study 2, we assessed the same control variables and GCR in 79 subjects who were subsequently exposed to a rhinovirus and monitored at baseline and for 5 d after viral challenge for the production of local (in nasal secretions) proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6). Study 1: After covarying the control variables, those with recent exposure to a long-term threatening stressful experience demonstrated GCR; and those with GCR were at higher risk of subsequently developing a cold. Study 2: With the same controls used in study 1, greater GCR predicted the production of more local proinflammatory cytokines among infected subjects. These data provide support for a model suggesting that prolonged stressors result in GCR, which, in turn, interferes with appropriate regulation of inflammation. Because inflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of a wide range of diseases, this model may have broad implications for understanding the role of stress in health.
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This article describes interaction of the Earth's mass-electrolytic conductor on the electrical environment of human organism-aqueous environment and skeleton. In this environment, bioelectrical and bioenergetical processes take place. Measurements of electric potential on tongue, teeth, nails, and in venous blood in subjects earthed and unearthed were conducted in Faraday's cage with the use of an electrometer placed outside the cage. Measurements were performed in subjects in lying position and in movements of standing up and lying down. In the unearthed human organism in the lying position, electric potential measured in examined points is around 0  mV. Contact of the Earth by a copper conductor with a moistened surface of the human body evokes a rapid decrease of electrostatic potential on the body and in venous blood to the value of approximately -200  mV. This effect is immediate and general. Interruption of contact with the Earth causes a rapid return of the potential to its initial values in examined points. Changes in electric potential measured in venous blood and on mucosal membrane of the tongue reflect alterations in electric potential of the aqueous, electrical environment. Up-and-down movement of the insulated human organism causes transient changes in potential in the human electrical environment. During the same movement, values of potential in the electrical environment of an earthed human body remain constant. These results indicate that up-and-down movement and the elimination of potentials in the electrical environment of the human organism by the Earth's mass may play a fundamental role in regulation of bioelectrical and bioenergetical processes. The Earth's electromagnetohydrodynamic potential is responsible for this phenomenon.
Book
Oxidative Stress in Aging: From Model Systems to Human Diseases discusses the role of free radicals in aging in different animal models, as well as the relevance of free radicals on age-related diseases and pathological conditions in humans (following an introduction section of the basics and theory of free radicals). Human aging is a complex phenomenon - not everyone gets the same diseases and dies from the same cause. Accumulating reports implicate the connection between free radicals and various diseases and age-related pathological conditions. Although the causal relationships have not been established, it is necessary to discuss how free radicals are involved in each situation. In addition, the major interventions trials of antioxidant supplements in age-related disease, cancer and so forth are reviewed and discussed.
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Very weak electromagnetic fields at the appropriate frequencies can be as effective, or even better, than other approaches for reducing inflammation, counteracting diseases, and enhancing longevity. The mechanism involves resonance, the process by which a field of a particular frequency or wavelength can transfer vibrational energy to an object. Clinical applications of electromagnetic resonance have the advantage that they can act at a distance using tiny fields that excite or energize natural processes taking place deep within the body. Resonance is based on simple and understandable biophysics that clearly explains why specific frequencies and not others are therapeutically effective. Two mechanisms are discussed here. The first involves the same theory that has been used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since 1970 to explain how specific frequencies produce resonance in biological structures. The second involves radio antenna theory that is based on the wavelengths of molecules and molecular arrays. Resonance has such broad significance for medicine that there is a need for a summary of the mechanisms involved, which is the purpose of this report.
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In view of the manifold therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids, the mechanism through which they influence disease is of considerable interest to the physician. It is commonplace by now to say that they do not attack pathogens directly. Clinical observations led to the assumption that they might provide some "protective shield" around the tissues of the body, a barrier quite impermeable to many pathogens. This hypothesis would be consonant with the great nonspecificity of their protective effects, but it is hardly in keeping with the well-known fact that cortisone actually diminishes resistance to some aggressors (e. g., certain pathogenic micro-organisms). The purpose of this communication is to report on recent experiments that suggest an alternative interpretation that is compatible with the fact that these hormones can both protect and sensitize to various nonspecifically injurious agents (noxae). As soon as the principal outlines of the general adaptation syndrome had been recognized, it
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This book provides, for the first time, a broad and deep treatment of the fields of both ultra low power electronics and bioelectronics. It discusses fundamental principles and circuits for ultra low power electronic design and their applications in biomedical systems. It also discusses how ultra-energy-efficient cellular and neural systems in biology can inspire revolutionary low power architectures in mixed-signal and RF electronics. The book presents a unique, unifying view of ultra low power analog and digital electronics and emphasizes the use of the ultra-energy-efficient subthreshold regime of transistor operation in both. Chapters on batteries, energy harvesting, and the future of energy provide an understanding of fundamental relationships between energy use and energy generation at small scales and at large scales. A wealth of insights and examples from brain implants, cochlear implants, bio-molecular sensing, cardiac devices, and bio-inspired systems make the book useful and engaging for students and practicing engineers. Reviews: "Professor Sarpeshkar's textbook from MIT provides an excellent overview of ten key fundamental principles related to ultra low power circuit and system design. Examples of many practical, experimental micro-power systems in cardiac, neural, and other medical-electronics applications make the text highly useful. Practitioners in this field will gain insight from his system-level analysis, which is presented at a level deeper than that found in most texts. In fact, the focus on systems thinking and connections made to a diverse set of problems - natural and man-made, from medical implants, to cells, to low-power cars - truly sets this book apart." Dr. Tim Denison, Medtronic Fellow "This truly interdisciplinary book is about much more than circuits. It contains the most comprehensive and deep treatment I have seen of the interplay and parallels between biology and circuits, and of how one discipline can inform the other. The comparisons between analog, digital, and biological implementations are fundamental and highly valuable. The breadth of the book is unique, ranging from feedback and antennas to battery chemistry." Yannis Tsividis, Columbia University "Sarpeshkar's focus on modeling cells as analog rather than digital circuits offers a new approach that will expand the frontiers of synthetic biology. Rahul has nicely laid a foundation that many of us in synthetic biology will be able to build on." James Collins, Boston University.
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Control over molecular scale electrical properties within nano junctions is demonstrated, utilizing site-directed C(60) targeting into protein macromolecules as a doping means. The protein molecules, self-assembled in a miniaturized transistor device, yield robust and reproducible operation. Their device signal is dominated by an active center that inverts affinity upon guest incorporation and thus controls the properties of the entire macromolecule. We show how the leading routes of electron transport can be drawn, spatially and energetically, on the molecular level and, in particular, how the dopant effect is dictated by its "strategic" binding site. Our findings propose the extension of microelectronic methodologies to the nanometer scale and further present a promising platform for ex situ studies of biochemical processes.