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The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective

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... Experimental research has found evidence that restoration from stress and from mental fatigue relates to exposure to Nature (for a review see Berto, 2014). Natural places that allow a shift toward more positively-toned emotional states (for a review see Bratman et al., 2021), positive changes in physiological activity levels, and in behavior and cognitive functioning are called "restorative environments" (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989;Ohly et al., 2016). The theoretical framework of this research is the Attention Restoration Theory (ART; Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989), which prescribes two distinct types of attention. ...
... Natural places that allow a shift toward more positively-toned emotional states (for a review see Bratman et al., 2021), positive changes in physiological activity levels, and in behavior and cognitive functioning are called "restorative environments" (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989;Ohly et al., 2016). The theoretical framework of this research is the Attention Restoration Theory (ART; Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989), which prescribes two distinct types of attention. The first is the directed attention, which is a key ingredient in human performance as it permits to focus on specific tasks despite potential distractions which might arise in daily life. ...
... In all cases, the main target of the initial views was looking at the redesigned garden, thus including the path and structures, such as the pergola and the benches; instead, the main target views depicting the average reaction of people shift to frame the more natural parts of the garden, where the amount of greenery and trees is higher. This is consistent with the literature on ART, suggesting that natural elements exert a spontaneous and effortless attraction of attention in the observer (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989). It is worth noting that the visual exploration is done on the horizontal axis, as it generally happens in reality when there are no emerging attractive points in the vertical view, such as a skyscraper or bell towers, i.e., when "the upward glance is important to give a sense of the object's dimensions relative to the viewer" (Bosselmann, 1998, p. 171). ...
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Natural environments have a restorative effect from mental/attentional fatigue, prevent stress, and help to revitalize psychological and physical resources. These benefits are crucial for promoting active aging, which is particularly relevant given the phenomenon of population aging in recent decades. To be considered restorative, green spaces have to meet specific requirements in ecological and psychological terms that can be assessed through Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE), a multimethod approach commonly used by environmental psychologists and landscape architects after construction to evaluate the design outcomes from the users' perspective. Generally, POEs consist of surveys and/or interviews accompanied by more or less structured observations of onsite users' behavior. Despite this, various practical constraints can prevent physical access to the renovated area (e.g., weather conditions, time/resources limits, health issues, bureaucratic constraints). Exploiting digital tools for such an assessment can be a crucial support in such circumstances. The current study presents the visual POE of a restorative garden for older adults in Milan, Italy. We developed a web application, that includes the exp-EIA© patented method, which allows participants to virtually explore a visual simulation of the environment and provide their feedback. We identified 3 representative viewpoints in the redeveloped garden differing from each other for the functions and the design principles that inspired the transformation. For each point of view, we created 360° Virtual Reality photographs, that can be navigated by looking around, i.e., panning, from the standing point of each view. In connection to each virtual scene, a survey was conducted (N = 321). The focus was the psychological experience related to each viewpoint, assessed with two psychometric scales investigating the constructs of emotions (pleasure and arousal) and restoration (fascination, being away, coherence, scope, and environmental preference); such information is integrated with behavioral aspects, including the main activities prefigured by participants TYPE Original Research PUBLISHED Frontiers in Psychology 02 frontiersin.org and their visual exploration of the VR photography. The results of the virtual exploration show that the garden is perceived as restorative, with a more intense effect in a spot purposely designed. The emotions experienced in the garden are positive and a mild level of arousal is observed. The behavioral dimension is characterized by predominantly contemplative activities and contact with nature. A cartographic representation of the psychological and behavioral data is developed, to support the maintenance of the garden.
... One of the resilience strategies mentioned by many researchers to cope with stress is the optimisation of land or space available around the house to plant vegetables and herbs or others (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989;Wood et al., 2015;Soga et al., 2017;Ng et al., 2018;Sia et al., 2020). According to Kaplan and Kaplan (1989), people need nature (plants and vegetation) for faster recovery from hospitals and other purposes. ...
... One of the resilience strategies mentioned by many researchers to cope with stress is the optimisation of land or space available around the house to plant vegetables and herbs or others (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989;Wood et al., 2015;Soga et al., 2017;Ng et al., 2018;Sia et al., 2020). According to Kaplan and Kaplan (1989), people need nature (plants and vegetation) for faster recovery from hospitals and other purposes. ...
... Optimising land for planting or agricultural activities increases the interaction between humans and nature. The intensive interaction with nature could give many benefits, such as decreasing stress (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989;Troy & Mauss, 2011), increasing spirituality (Bernardini & Irvine, 2007), growing relationships with nature and the community (Soga et al., 2017), fulfilling the nutritional food of the community and local food diversification and finally increasing people's income (Gulyas & Edmonson, 2021). Anindya et al. (2021) explained that urban farming would be able to meet the food and nutritional needs of the family by between 38-70%. ...
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Urban agriculture has been seen as an essential strategy for enhancing food availability and reducing stress levels for urban households. This paper aims to study the benefits of urban farming and its ability as a resilient strategy, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research used primary and secondary sources to gather relevant data. Primary data was collected through interviews in June-July 2021 and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis found that respondents' perception of urban farming was strongly positive. The paper finds that urban farming could be a resilient strategy since it could reduce stress and increase the community's income. Urban farming could also play a way in increasing people's immunity and health system in urban areas. Therefore, urban farming needs to be supported and assisted by the Government, specifically at the local level.
... The categorization system used in this study was based on the theory that landscape preferences are influenced by the spatial configurations and content-based properties of the landscape (Kaplan and Kaplan 1989;Nielsen et al. 2012). While the Trail, Tree, Prospect, and Look-up types broadly corresponded to spatial configurations and the Plant, Sign and Building types generally corresponded to content-based properties. ...
... Although a signboard was present, Trail was the dominant landscape type of this hotspot. Based on information processing theory, Kaplan and Kaplan (1989) argued that entrances are more likely to attract visitors and improve the quality of their experience. Prior VEP research that analyzed the temporal distribution of photographs reported that participants took more photographs at the beginning of the experiment because of the influence of initial impressions (Markwell 1997;Oku and Fukamachi 2003;Sugimoto 2013) (Supplement 5). ...
... Despite representing the negative ecological impacts of forest trails, exposed roots are highly visible features and thus receive attention, Moore et al. (2012) and Verlič et al. (2015) reported exposed roots are preferred by approximately 20% of participants. Moreover, one photograph taken at HS3 was described as "corner" by a respondent; curvature is often invoked as a component of mystery, one of the factors of landscape preference in of Kaplans' information processing theory (Kaplan and Kaplan 1989). Although the relationship between curvature and preference has not been substantially supported in off-site photo-based studies (Herzog and Kirk 2005), it is possible that trail curvature fostered interest in the surrounding environment, as hypothesized by Kaplan (1989) Kaplan et al. (1998) also suggested that the spatial characteristics and pattern of a trail environment are factors in landscape preference. ...
Article
An evidence-based understanding of visitors’ landscape preferences is important for holistic forest planning and management. In this study, a visual landscape assessment was conducted to 1) determine the locations and recreational value of scenic hotspots (popular locations) and 2) identify the landscape types that visitors most preferred along the Inariyama Trail in the Takao Quasi-National Park in Tokyo by using geotagged visitor employed photography and asking the 60 participants to score their photographs based on five assessment measures. Nine hundred geotagged photographs were collected, and the subsequent hotspot analysis was conducted using a combination of Getis-Ord Gi* statistics in GIS. Analysis of means (ANOM) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed to determine what and how visitors preferred landscapes in the site. The main findings of this study were as follows: 1) seven hotspots, comprising prominent landscape features and spatial changes, were identified, and 2) Prospect and Look-up were the most highly valued landscape types. These results reveal the importance of Look-up views, which have thus far been underrepresented in landscape assessments, and that hotspots are influenced by landscape features as well as spatial changes. Therefore, through the application of GIS technology, this study lays a foundation for future research as well as the planning and management of forested landscapes that harmonize recreation and other uses.
... Specifically, fascination includes involuntary aspects and aesthetic experiences, which play a role in attracting human attention directly from information richness and lead us to explore and discover the place. The above statements relate to landscape preference ratings (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989) and to understanding and exploring the content and spatial configurations in the environment (Kaplan, 1987;Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989). It also refers to the aspects of the evolved human-nature relationship in biophilic design. ...
... Specifically, fascination includes involuntary aspects and aesthetic experiences, which play a role in attracting human attention directly from information richness and lead us to explore and discover the place. The above statements relate to landscape preference ratings (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989) and to understanding and exploring the content and spatial configurations in the environment (Kaplan, 1987;Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989). It also refers to the aspects of the evolved human-nature relationship in biophilic design. ...
... Schebella et al. (2017) stated that favorite outdoor places could be national parks, community parks, linear parks, botanical gardens, etc., which correspond closely to the fascination attribute provided by nature. Orderliness with visual accessibility reflects a state in the environment that provides a sense of safety, fosters landscape preferences, and influences emotional states (i.e., positive/negative affect) (Bakker et al., 2014;Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989). Well-maintained green spaces, such as urban forests, parks, gardens, and watersides, tend to be preferred over those without natural elements in one's favorite place and affect one's restorative experiences (Korpela and Hartig, 1996;Korpela et al., 2009). ...
Article
With the growth of urbanization and the increasingly hectic pace of life, exposure to urban nature within blue-green infrastructure is greatly impacting human health and well-being. Biophilia, an evolutional concept, conveys the initial connection between humans and nature; biophilic design transfers into design attributes to indicate the relationship between humans and the environment. A significant advantage of experiencing nature is positive restoration; however, only limited research has been conducted on connecting biophilic design and mental health. This study adopted our perceived biophilic design items (PBDi) to examine the relationship between landscape preferences and emotional states in urban green spaces. Online surveys (valid total n = 477) examining these biophilic items, landscape preferences, and emotional states were conducted. Seven aspects—(1) evolved human–nature relationships, (2) place-based relationships, (3) visual aesthetic quality, (4) state of natural change, (5) environmental perception, (6) sense of compatibility in the built environment, and (7) natural form of design method —were confirmed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), with 64.35% of the cumulative variance, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) demonstrated good convergent validity and discriminant validity. The overall perceived biophilic design scale (PBDs) with 28 items had a Cronbach’s α of 0.91. In addition, it was found that PBDs significantly explained landscape preferences and positive emotional states within urban nature. The findings provide an alternative tool for measuring human biophilic perceptions that influence environmental experiences. In addition, each item in the scale could be used as a biophilic guideline for designers and planners to reinterpret nature in cities and to enhance our connection to nature in general.
... Therefore, due to its lack of proper development, it is able to be capitalized as a resource capable of providing (a) ecosystem values-carbon sequestration, heat island reduction, storm water mitigation, and biodiversity and (b) aesthetic values-scenic recuperation [43], as well as experiential development [44,45], while anchoring environmental awareness and education [46], as well as neighborhood transformation and development. In this respect, and taking into consideration all that has been mentioned above, War Island is seen as a WUW, a specific kind of urban forest. ...
... When a person develops a relationship with the environment in which he lives through everyday practices, then this feeling is called place attachment [48]. Then, the place becomes the center of events and carries the key meaning of belonging [43], which triggers emotions, mutual connections [43,44], and later appropriation. The time spent in a certain place is directly proportional to the strength of people's emotional connection with the place [49,50]. ...
... When a person develops a relationship with the environment in which he lives through everyday practices, then this feeling is called place attachment [48]. Then, the place becomes the center of events and carries the key meaning of belonging [43], which triggers emotions, mutual connections [43,44], and later appropriation. The time spent in a certain place is directly proportional to the strength of people's emotional connection with the place [49,50]. ...
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In the vortex of the environmental and ecological crises, it is clear that the cosmopolitan way of living is facing uncertainty with no easing in sight. Looking beyond the horizon at what the aftermath will yield, it is quite clear that the meaning of urbanity has to be transformed; the urban life has to support social and ecological well-being, and the city has to intertwine more closely with nature. Therefore, wild urban woodlands (WUWs), often morphologically exclusive, culturally contradictory, and biologically heterogeneous, are recognized together with the other informal wilderness of the city as catalyzers of a newly constructed identity and the first line of defense when the question of the socio-ecological resilience of the city is raised. The present study focuses on how the biocultural diversity of WUWs can be stimulated by architecture and on which principles and restorative components an architectural design should stand on. Taking War Island on the river Danube, in the very heart of Belgrade, Serbia, as the particular case study, a specific assignment was given to students of the Faculty of Architecture in Belgrade to affirm, recuperate, and stipulate the relationship between the nature and the culture of the site. On the threshold of interdisciplinarity, a net of coordinated values is set up based on a theoretical, analytic, and typo-morphological approach, gathering the eco-cultural aspects, components, and characteristics of the place. On the bases of the students’ research-based design propositions, the results show different design paths promoting accessibility and security, restoring social responsibility and awareness, and regaining the socio-ecological well-being of the place. The conclusions drawn from the study open the perspective of the alliance between nature and culture through an architectural infrastructure that heals the landscape and induces its therapeutic properties, enhancing the biocultural diversity of the place and proclaiming a kind of hedonistic sustainability for the future life of cities.
... Exposure to outdoor environments can bring psychological restoration by replenishing cognitive resources (Berman et al., 2012;Grassini et al., 2019;Ladouce et al., 2019;Ohly et al., 2016;Stevenson et al., 2018), inducing a more positive emotional balance Brooks et al., 2017;Browning et al., 2020;Kondo et al., 2020), and/or altering the hormonal and nervous system-related physiology towards less stress (Haluza et al., 2014;Hartig et al., 2014;Mygind et al., 2019). Attention restoration theory predicts that the restorativeness of an environment increases when there is high (soft) fascination, scope/extent, compatibility, and being away, because these features allow a person to be distracted from everyday demands and to replenish depleted directed attention resources (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989;Kaplan, 1995). On the other hand, psycho-evolutionary theory explains that humans have evolved to recover quickly from psychological and physiological stress in natural non-threatening and resource-rich environments, and not in urban environments (Ulrich, 1981;Ulrich, 1983;Ulrich et al., 1991). ...
... More specifically, four of the five constructs in our adapted perceived restorativeness scale referred to feelings of fascination, being away, coherence, and compatibility. According to the attention restoration theory, environments that score higher on these constructs can more easily restore directed attention resources, which are needed to cope with everyday challenges and demands (Hartig et al., 1997;Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989;Kaplan, 1995). The fifth construct in our scale asked for the likelihood of relaxation and mental restoration in the specific environment. ...
... To our knowledge, no direct investigations for the effects of sandy undergrounds have been performed. However, seeing more sand in realistic environments would automatically result in a larger extent and spaciousness, which benefits restoration (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). Interestingly, sand as a particular type of underground can also make the coastal experience more unique by being integral to many coastal activities (e.g. ...
Article
Outdoor environments benefit health by providing psychological restoration, but the degree of psychological restoration may vary considerably within heterogenous areas. This study focused on the Belgian coast to quantify the inter- and intra-environment variation in psychological restoration and the influence of natural and urban components and people. Students (N = 102, 18-30y, 83 % female) rated 52 pictures of ten coastal environments and of five beach-specific locations on a five-item perceived restorativeness scale (PRS) in random order. General linear mixed modelling standardized for individual and study design-related covariates and random effects. Generally, the average PRS-scores varied according to the scenes’ ‘naturalness’. The PRS was up to 30% higher for beaches, dunes, and salt marshes (PRS ≈ 8/10) than for dikes, docks, recreational harbors, and towns (PRS ≈ 5/10). Green parks, piers, and historical sites scored intermediate. At the beach specifically, pictures taken ‘on a breakwater’ (PRS ≈ 8.5/10) scored up to 20% higher than those taken ‘in a beach bar’ and ‘between beach cabins’ (PRS ≈ 6.5/10). The PRS was also associated with the relative surface area of the picture components. Associations were positive for natural components (i.e. vegetation, sky, and natural underground, not water), negative for urban components (i.e. buildings, vehicles and hardened underground), and unclear for people. This study confirmed the hypothesized inter- and intra-environment variation in the psychological restoration along the Belgian coast, and highlighted the importance of coastal nature for mental health. The generated insights can lead to better informed policy decisions to maximize the health benefits offered by coastal environments.
... Moreover, legibility is one of the four (along with coherence, complexity and mystery) components of Kaplan's model of preferences (1989) and, in line with the adopted definition, refers to space in the context of how easy it is to understand and remember. Legible space, according to Kaplan and Kaplan (1989), is a well-constructed space. It contains characteristic elements that assist orientation and help find the way back (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). ...
... Legible space, according to Kaplan and Kaplan (1989), is a well-constructed space. It contains characteristic elements that assist orientation and help find the way back (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). This is also how we understand the definition of legibility in our study. ...
... It is easier to lose one's way in illegible spaces (Suthasupa, 2012), and it is also more difficult to find an escape route in situations of danger (Fisher & Nasar, 1992). Overall orientation in the environment resulting from, inter alia, its legibility (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989, Lynch, 1960 enables us to make better spatial decisions, choose safer roads and avoid dangerous places. ...
Article
Understanding how the physical characteristics of city parks impact the perceptions of visitors is a factor that designers may well find useful. Many studies have been made on the influence of the quantity of vegetation in parks, and how natural it looks, on visitor preferences, but the mechanisms underlying this impact are still insufficiently understood. We attempt to identify the nature of the relationship between naturalness, legibility, perceived safety and preference taking into account the complexity of these relationships in urban parks. We analysed the correlations between the variables and the mediating effects. We applied a within-subjects design whereby 127 participants evaluated a set of 120 eye-level photographs of park landscapes. We evaluated a number of mediation models while testing hypotheses regarding the mediating role of legibility in how the quantity of greenery and naturalness impacts perceived safety and preferences towards park landscapes. All the hypotheses presented, verified via analysis of indirect effects, were confirmed. Legibility mediates naturalness and safety – the naturalness of a park itself is not a source of fear as long as the park has a clear layout. Moreover, the influence of the amount of greenery on preferences is partly explained by naturalness and legibility: more greenery enhances a landscape’s natural feel, while a landscape that is extremely natural has lower legibility, which leads to lower preferences. Finally, perceived safety turned out to be a mediator between naturalness and preference – naturalness is not popular in a park because it lowers sense of safety. The research does not offer an indication as to whether visitors prefer parks with copious or sparse greenery, or wild-looking or sculpted vegetation. However, it has shown that parks with natural vegetation tend not to be popular when they are illegible and dangerous – nature and a large amount of greenery per se do not evoke negative feelings.
... People form visual references after processing different pieces of visual information [48]. Kaplan and Kaplan [49] divided the means by which people process environmental information into four kinds: immediate understanding, immediate exploration, inferred understanding, and inferred exploration. These four means correspond to four visual information factors that can predict environmental preferences, coherence, complexity, legibility, and mystery, referred to as the preference matrix (shown in Table 1). ...
... Legibility means that the information can be easily identified (i.e., via distinctive elements or way finding). Mystery refers to the accessibility of the information [49][50][51][52]. Recent scholars have not only adopted the preference matrix in research on the natural environment but have also verified that the factors of the preference matrix can be used to predict the environmental preference of people in built environments [51,53,54]. ...
... We believe that the reason H7 was not supported might be related to the formation process of visual preference. In this study, visual preference was related to the formative variables of the preference matrix of Kaplan and Kaplan [49]. The four indicators (coherence, complexity, legibility, and mystery) that form visual preference are the visual representation features after the visual information is processed by four means: immediate understanding, immediate exploration, inferred understanding, and inferred exploration. ...
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Historic districts should be sustainably developed by preserving historic architectural landscapes and developing tourism. Researchers have found that attachment to a place positively influences pro-tourism and pro-environment behaviors among tourists, indicating that exploring the landscape planning of historic districts from the perspective of place attachment is a noteworthy topic of sustainability. However, there are few studies on how historic district landscapes ignite tourists’ place attachment. Using a historical district named Taiping Old Street in Taiwan as an example, we investigated the association between tourists’ landscape evaluation and place attachment in historic districts. This study mainly adopted questionnaire surveys and used partial least squares structural (PLS) equation modeling for survey data analysis. (1) The study identified three dimensions of tourists’ landscape evaluation of historic districts: visual preference, cultural heritage value, and authenticity. (2) The stimulus–organism–response (SOR) model was combined with the studies by previous scholars and a conceptual model put forward for the relationship between tourists’ landscape evaluation, destination image, and place attachment. (3) The model was verified, and we found that (i) tourists’ landscape evaluation in terms of cultural heritage values and authenticity had significant positive effects on destination image; (ii) tourists’ visual preference, evaluation of authenticity, and destination image had significant positive effects on place attachment; and (iii) tourists’ destination image influenced the impact of authenticity and cultural heritage values on place attachment. This study provides both theoretical references for the formation process of place attachment from a landscape perspective and suggestions for landscape planning in the sustainable development of historic districts of a similar type.
... Ulrich [32] proposed that the human survival advantages of such natural environments were thus genetically encoded as a restorative response to nature. A key concept underpinning the biophilia theory is the aesthetic experience of nature according to Kaplan and Kaplan [33]. That is, we have been genetically programmed to focus on and respond more positively to natural environments and their elements, such as plants, flowers, birds, trees, and water, compared with man-made environments [31][32][33]. ...
... A key concept underpinning the biophilia theory is the aesthetic experience of nature according to Kaplan and Kaplan [33]. That is, we have been genetically programmed to focus on and respond more positively to natural environments and their elements, such as plants, flowers, birds, trees, and water, compared with man-made environments [31][32][33]. Over millions of years of repeated experiences in natural environments encoded humans with a behavioral response (attraction to) and an emotional response (capacity to recover) to natural environments according to the biophilia theory [32]. ...
... However, the results of included studies suggest the potential for therapeutic horticulture-based interventions as a suitable non-pharmacological approach to diminishing episodes of distress, in particular as they relate to apathy through increased activity engagement [49,50,54] and reducing feelings of depression and increasing levels of happiness [42,44,54]. The biophilia theory argues that there is a genetic component to the aesthetic response to gardens, linked to our evolutionary experience, which includes the supposition that humans intuitively view natural environments as being places more likely to provide tranquility, security, and shelter [31][32][33][34]. ...
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Most people living with dementia in the early-to-middle stages live in the community or in their own homes and engagement in enjoyable activities is fundamental to maintaining quality of life and autonomy. Horticulture-based activities are beneficial for the health and well-being for people living with dementia (“PLWD”) in residential care settings, yet evidence within community settings, where the majority live, has not been comprehensively synthesized. A mixed studies systematic review protocol was registered and a systematic search conducted to June 2022 across MEDLINE, COCHRANE, Web of Science, Embase, Psycnet, CINAHL, PsycINFO databases, using terms relating to dementia and horticulture. Original studies examining group or individual horticulture-based programs for community-dwelling PLWD were included. Forty-five articles were selected for full review, eight met inclusion criteria and were retained for data extraction. Evidence from three mixed methods, two quantitative, two qualitative, and one case study design, involving a total of 178 community dwelling PLWD, was narratively summarized. Findings revealed that involvement in horticulture-based activities led to positive impacts on engagement, social interactions, and mental and physical well-being in PLWD. No conclusive evidence was found from included studies for improvement in cognitive function. As most studies to date have concentrated on PLWD in long-term care settings, future research should evaluate the effect of these types of activities in a more rigorous intervention design in community settings.
... Landscape aesthetics e landscape aesthetic is de ned by the components at the scene and their spatial arrangement (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989;Tveit et al., 2006). According to Daniel and Vining (1983), the properties that de ne the aesthetics of a landscape relates to colors, textures and shapes, and the way in which they are related, resulting in visual expressions of these as variability, integrity, unity and complexity. ...
... Según Daniel y Vining (1983), las propiedades que de nen la estética de un paisaje están relacionadas con colores, texturas y formas, y la manera en cómo estas se relacionan, dando como resultado expresiones visuales de éstas como variabilidad, integridad, unidad y complejidad. Kaplan y Kaplan (1982, 1989) mencionan que hay atributos del paisaje que proporcionan información y pueden afectar la preferencia. Estos atributos son coherencia y complejidad que se relacionan con la comprensión del paisaje, y legibilidad y misterio relacionados con la exploración (Kaplan y Kaplan, 1982, 1989. ...
... Kaplan y Kaplan (1982, 1989) mencionan que hay atributos del paisaje que proporcionan información y pueden afectar la preferencia. Estos atributos son coherencia y complejidad que se relacionan con la comprensión del paisaje, y legibilidad y misterio relacionados con la exploración (Kaplan y Kaplan, 1982, 1989. En esta teoría, en las preferencias del paisaje destacan la exploración y la comprensión como dos actividades fundamentales en nuestra interacción con el entorno; estas dos motivaciones combinadas con el tipo de estimulación recibida del entorno (inmediata o presente, potencial o inferida), dan lugar a las cuatro propiedades referidas: coherencia (información inmediata + necesidad de dar sentido al entorno), complejidad (información inmediata + necesidad de implicarse en el entorno), legibilidad (información potencial + necesidad de dar sentido al entorno) y misterio (información potencial + necesidad de implicarse en el entorno). ...
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jis essay aims to present the conceptual basis and main methods used for visual assessment of landscapes. je visual evaluation of the landscapes regained importance at the end of the 20th century in planning activities and in generating public policies for territorial management. It also re-acquired validity in academic studies. je methods for the visual evaluation of landscapes were developed during the mid-1960s to apply its results in landscape planning and processes design. Although a regularly studied subject, the methods used for it are not completely formalized and these are classiked as subjective, objective and mixed. jere is no single method to assess landscapes, but the methodological tendency is towards the mixed methods. Within these, there is a development of aesthetic and at the same time ecological evaluations based on the usage of indicators that allow landscape evaluation in a comprehensive manner. Although this evaluation approach is still in its initial stages and requires further research to strengthen the theoretical basis of visual evaluation, the use of eco-aesthetic indicators has empirically demonstrated the theoretical relationship established in the main theories of visual preferences.
... This research intends to apply the Attention Restoration Theory to fill the gaps between theory and practice. Kaplan and Kaplan [20] mentioned that in the ART, the natural environment has a curative effect on human attention recovery. The natural environment that people come into contact with may not be spectacular; even a tiny piece of open land or a part of a forest can have the effect of restoring attention [21,22]. ...
... Kaplan and Kaplan [20] put forward the "ART", which mainly explains the concept of reducing mental fatigue and restoring direct attention. Direct attention is dominated by the autonomous consciousness and selectively concentrates on something. ...
... Attention fatigue may occur when a particular stimulus or task needs to be concentrated on [21]. The four characteristics of attention recovery are "being away," "extent," "fascination," and "compatibility" [20]. Seeing green through a window can enhance WB, promoting mental recovery [27]; in this way, humans can recover from stressful events [28]. ...
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The impacts of perceived risk (PR) and perceived severity (PS) on personal well-being (WB) during the COVID-19 epidemic have often been overlooked, especially in the context of China’s post-1990 generation. Therefore, this research intends to explore how members of the post-1990 generation obtain personal benefits through PR through the Attention Restoration Theory (ART). A total of 276 online questionnaires were collected by snowball sampling and analyzed in SPSS 21.0. This research found that PR, NC, and the ART are mediating variables which affect WB. The higher the PR, the more likely it is that the post-1990 generation will engage in nature tourism. These discoveries undoubtedly demonstrate a breakthrough in the theoretical gap, and provide a proposal for the sustainable development of China’s tourism industry.
... Studies generally related to ART, SRT, but also the concept of flow (Nakamura & Csikszentmihalyi, 2002) -essentially a state of happiness evoked by complete absorption in a task, with naturebased activities viewed as an ideal mechanism for eliciting this emotive response. Mental fatigue from excessive voluntary, directed attention is held to lead to stressful responses including irritability, impatience with self/others, decreased task performance, more risk taking and generally weakened functional capability (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989;Ulrich et al, 1991). Mackay and Neill (2010) found that a wide variety of GE modes had beneficial impacts upon anxiety, although none of those specific modes related to my research. ...
... Indeed, a healthy community (Hubley et al, 2013) is characterised by strong social capital, the nurturing of community assets, and the sense of community pride evoked from the interactions fostered through increased levels of active citizenship and, by association, democratic social capital (Hemingway, 1999;Okvat & Zautra, 2011). Such civic engagement has been noted by Kaplan and Kaplan (1989) in studying the impact of a New York City Housing Authority flower competition that has operated for decadesan initiative that engaged thousands of community members in friendly competition. Okvat and Zautra (2011) speculated that successful projects of this ilk could persuade policy makers to see the health value in creating a network of sustainable community gardens that provide opportunities for residents to be positively engaged within their communities, develop skills and knowledge, and build social capital (Ruggeri et al, 2016;Scheromm, 2015). ...
Thesis
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In recent years there has been considerable reporting of a range of physical and psycho-social benefits derived from ‘green exercise’, a term which describes a myriad of nature-based activities, including gardening, walking, climbing, and running in natural surroundings. Extant literature has largely focused upon exploring these benefits in respect of specific physical and psycho-social health and wellbeing outcomes, including positive impacts upon mood states, enhanced social connectedness, and improvements in recovery rates for patients in physical rehabilitation programmes. However, numerous gaps existed within the research beyond a focus on outcome measures: firstly, articulating the essential influences (mechanisms and processes) potentially driving these impacts. Secondly, insufficient qualitative investigations, particularly longitudinal ones. Third, a lack of innovation in researching green exercise, especially in respect of ethnographic studies. Fourth, and relatedly fifth, a need for more granular focused research upon specific population groups and settings, and utilising specific modes of green exercise - gardening, horticulture, and conservation activity - that had hitherto been under-investigated. The work consists of findings from six published papers that not only confirm that green exercise promotes positive enhancements to physical and psycho-social health and wellbeing for participants, but also offers possible explanations as to why and how these are derived, drawing upon relevant theories and concepts. The investigations were based upon a pragmatic overarching research approach employing ethnography to research participant experiences within four distinct contexts: a purpose-built garden within a medium secure NHS unit; a conservation project in an urban park; a woodland project outside formal mental health service provision; and a corporate health setting. Combined, these small-scale ‘case studies’ of GE offer important insight into the value of GE for specific groups and contexts and enable the development of a suggested socio-ecological model that emphasises a ‘green transformative ripple effect’ can be achieved delivering benefits not only for individuals, but also at group and community level. The latter is further evidenced through local ‘social impact’, demonstrating potential for the adoption of green exercise initiatives by practitioners and policymakers involved in social prescribing and community development as part of a more comprehensive health improvement strategy within communities.
... The second dimension measured the amount of space perceivable to the viewer in the presented images, which is referred to as visual depth or openness (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). In landscapes, openness is decreased by the presence of features such as dense woodland or steep cliffs which spatially enclose the scene, and openness is increased by features such as expansive areas of field. ...
... La segunda dimensión medía la cantidad de espacio perceptible por el espectador en las imágenes presentadas, lo que se denomina profundidad visual o apertura (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). En los paisajes, la apertura se reduce mediante la presencia de características como un bosque espeso o acantilados escarpados, que hacen que la escena parezca espacialmente atestada, y se aumenta mediante características como los campos extensos. ...
Article
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent UK lockdowns restricted mobility, altered access to the outdoors and led to changes in the environment (e.g., reduced traffic, pollution and crowding). This is likely to have altered the way people evaluated outdoor environments. Here we investigated aesthetic and emotional responses (liking, openness, relaxation) to paintings and photographs depicting landscapes and urban scenes in three UK cohorts: pre-lockdown, spring 2020 lockdown, and winter 2021 lockdown. Participants (N = 334) reported higher levels of liking, openness and relaxation for landscapes and urban scenes during the two lockdown periods compared to pre-lockdown levels. Importantly, evaluations in the lockdown groups were influenced by the types of places visited most frequently. These findings aid our understanding of the psychological effects of lockdowns on evaluations of outdoor environments and are relevant to the development of policies for the promotion of well-being, including the design of more open and relaxing urban spaces.
... ese interventions have been shown to be beneficial in increasing positive affect and decreasing negative affect and stress (e.g., [20][21][22][23]. Specifically, Attention Restoration eory (ART; [24] has shown the potential effects of nature on stress and well-being. ART states that the perceptual experience of scenes and elements of nature (e.g., forests) facilitates recuperation from mental fatigue [25,26] and recovery from psychophysiological stress [27]. ...
... Moreover, they also perceived that the environment had an effect on their cognition (e.g., mental fatigue) and behavior (e.g., desire to stay in the environment). According to ART [24] and previous studies (e.g., [51]), this finding shows that being in contact with nature is a good resource for restoring fatigued affective processes. In addition, it can be said that our settings complied with the specific elements (e.g., water features and wilderness) that natural environments need to elicit emotional states [20,52]. ...
Article
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Psychological interventions have been shown to be beneficial in mitigating stress related to COVID-19 confinement. According to theories of restorative environments, exposure to natural surroundings has positive effects on well-being and stress through its restorative qualities. With 360° video-based Virtual Reality (VR), people can be exposed to nature and so better manage the consequences associated with mobility restrictions during confinement. The main aim of this pilot study was to examine whether a 360° video-based VR intervention composed of five 13-minute sessions (once a day) has positive effects on affect, well-being, and stress. The sample was made up of 10 participants (4 men and 6 women; age : M = 46.5, SD = 11.7) who were confined at home (voluntarily or not) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were instructed to watch a 360° video each day (of a “beach” or “lake” environment) using their smartphone and VR glasses sent to them by mail. Participants responded with several self-reports before and/or after each session (emotions and sense of presence) and before and/or after the intervention (affect, well-being, perceived stress, perceived restorativeness of nature, and the usefulness and acceptability of the intervention). Results showed a tendency to improve positive (e.g., happiness) and negative (e.g., anxiousness) emotions and experience a high sense of presence after each session. Moreover, perceived restorative qualities of the environment and their cognitive and behavioral effects were high. A significant decrease in negative affect was found after the intervention. Usefulness and acceptability were also high. This is the first study to show that an affordable and accessible technology can be used to overcome the negative consequences of confinement and counteract its harmful psychological effects.
... The biophilia hypothesis states that humans feel an innate tendency to connect with nature since this attitude is rooted in our evolutionary history [10,11]. Research about the beneficial effects of nature has been mainly motivated by two theoretical frameworks − Attention Restoration Theory (ART) [12] and Stress Recovery Theory (SRT) [13], that explain the psychological benefits of nature from different perspectives. ART focuses on cognitive restoration through nature exposure. ...
Article
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Since living in cities is associated with an increased risk for mental disorders such as anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia, it is essential to understand how exposure to urban and natural environments affects mental health and the brain. It has been shown that the amygdala is more activated during a stress task in urban compared to rural dwellers. However, no study so far has examined the causal effects of natural and urban environments on stress-related brain mechanisms. To address this question, we conducted an intervention study to investigate changes in stress-related brain regions as an effect of a one-hour walk in an urban (busy street) vs. natural environment (forest). Brain activation was measured in 63 healthy participants, before and after the walk, using a fearful faces task and a social stress task. Our findings reveal that amygdala activation decreases after the walk in nature, whereas it remains stable after the walk in an urban environment. These results suggest that going for a walk in nature can have salutogenic effects on stress-related brain regions, and consequently, it may act as a preventive measure against mental strain and potentially disease. Given rapidly increasing urbanization, the present results may influence urban planning to create more accessible green areas and to adapt urban environments in a way that will be beneficial for citizens’ mental health.
... Here, the emotional character emerges from total arrangements, as opposed to a face, path, forest or hill alone. "Mysteriousness" designates an emotional quality we observe in settings or other people and not in us (Rosar 1994), and, in the case of the path, emerges partly as an outcome of the trail offering new discoveries around the next bend, while simultaneously assuring that explorers will not get lost (Kaplan and Kaplan 1989;Crippen and Schulkin 2020, Ch. 3). Something similar holds with the captivating individual, whose purple pleats in the context of a free jazz performance introduce intriguing wildness, yet with the elegant clothing and venue offering assurance that an encounter in the bar will not get completely out of hand. ...
Article
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Though there are many challenges to Ekman’s thesis that there are basic emotions with universal corresponding facial expressions, our main criticism revolves around the extent to which grounding situations alter how people read faces. To that end, we recruit testifying experimental studies that show identical faces expressing varying emotions when contextualized differently. Rather than dismissing these as illusions, we start with the position—generally favored by embodied thinkers—that situations are primary: they are where specifiable and hence knowable properties first show up. We further argue that situationally inflected emotional expressions are informationally meaningful. We reject the idea that reading expressions is primarily about ascertaining internal mental states, arguing instead that people are registering overall situations when looking at faces. However, if mind is understood as a situated phenomenon that extends into active ecological frames, then one can still argue that mindreading is going on. Although we do not claim isolated things like cliffs or cars have agency, we speculate networked systems with cliffs, people, cars, bears, etc., collectively function with intentionality, more so if advancing a robust situated mind thesis, contra figures like Dennett who argue that people over-impute mind to things. Our position has practical implications insofar as it casts doubts on recent attempts to develop AI systems that extract emotional intent out of facial expressions since many of these systems are grounded on Ekman’s basic view.
... There has also been vigorous debate about whether landscape evaluation should be undertaken by experts, such as planners, or whether the task should be the province of the lay public (e.g. Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989). Over the last 20 years or so, there has been an increasing tendency to advocate subjective approaches that are based on a community's landscape preferences (e.g. ...
Article
Approaches to landscape assessment have been widely debated and, despite their usefulness in educational settings, have generally fallen out of favour. Yet, ways to record, monitor and discuss landscape quality are becoming more important as the pace of landscape change increases. The growing prominence of ‘place’ and ‘place-making’ in geography presents an opportunity to reinvigorate landscape assessment in educational contexts. In this article, we present a tool for assessing the visual quality of landscapes, which can be adapted for use in a range of environments. We discuss the results of a pilot study that deployed the approach. We demonstrate how the tool can be used to monitor landscape changes and how the experience of generating data, as well as the results, can be used as a catalyst for discussions about place, land use, development and the contested nature of valued landscapes.
... Theoretically, these experiments are predominantly based on the attention restoration theory (ART) and/or the stress reduction theory (SRT). The ART states that natural environments tend to require less directed attention than builtup environments, allowing restoration of this resource when it previously has been depleted (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989). The SRT states that because of the humankind's evolutional history, exposure to unthreatening natural settings has immediate calming effects on stressed individuals, physiologically as well as emotionally (Ulrich, 1981). ...
Article
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Several studies have observed an inverse relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related behavior of children, as reported by parents or teachers, and the amount of green space in their residential environment. Research using other, more objective measures to determine ADHD prevalence is scarce and could strengthen the evidence base considerably. In this study, it is investigated whether a similar beneficial association will be observed if the use of ADHD-related medication is selected as an outcome measure. More specifically, registry data from a health insurance company on the reimbursement of ADHD-related medication in 2011 were available for 248,270 children between 5 and 12 years of age. Amounts of green space within 250 and 500 m of the home address were calculated. Multilevel logistic regression analyses for the prevalence of use were conducted, including the following covariates: sex, age, urbanity of the neighborhood, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and percentage of people with a non-Western migration background in the neighborhood population. Results showed that the amount of green space was inversely related to the prevalence of use of ADHD medication. Moreover, the relationship was strongest among children living in the least wealthy neighborhoods and absent among those living in the wealthiest neighborhoods. Results also show that in less wealthy neighborhoods, there is, on average, less green space available nearby: children who are likely to benefit most from nearby green space tend to have the least of it.
... Edward Wilson (1984) argued in his Biophilia Hypothesis that humans are endowed with a biological attraction to nature. Others pointed out that (perceived) nature has the ability to restore attention (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989) and reduce stress (Ulrich, 1993). This is because nature was (and is) a critical factor for survival, for instance, as a source of water, nutrition, and shelter (Ulrich, 1993). ...
Article
Recent UI design employs regional cues such as images of iconic landmarks from the users’ region. Thus far, however, there is only limited research on the effects of regional cues on user attitudes and behaviors. Addressing this gap, we draw on Consumer Ethnocentrism Theory to study how regional cues affect users’ visual attention, perceptions of regional presence, and trust. We develop and evaluate a research model by means of a multi-method approach, comprising (1) an eye-tracking lab experiment and (2) an experimental online survey. Study 1 shows that regional cues attract users’ visual attention and suggests a relation between such cues and human information processing. Study 2 shows that regional cues promote regional presence perceptions, with positive effects on trusting belief and trusting intention. This paper is among the first to evaluate the effects of regional cues in the digital context with important implications for UI design in research and practice.
... The restoration elicited by an experience in green space had been mostly assessed by self-reported scores on questionnaires [20,28]. This methodology was queried for its accuracy regarding human errors caused by mental fatigue or making overly reserved judgments [29]. In addition, many questionnaires used for evaluating green space experiences were not validated at all [30]. ...
Article
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Ecological infrastructures (EIs), such as public and urban green and blue spaces (GBSs), have been well demonstrated to benefit visitors’ mental well-being. Experiences in community GBSs may also evoke positive emotions for their residents. In this study, 54 communities in Nanchang were chosen as objective sites, where landscape metrics of GBSs were remotely evaluated. A total of 2105 local residents’ facial expressions (with happy, sad, and neutral emotions) were obtained from Sina Weibo. Inhabitants showed more net positive emotions (happy minus sad) in cold seasons, and females smiled more frequently than males. Newly constructed communities with houses for sale had larger areas of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and built-up index compared to communities with no houses for sale. Neither the availability of houses for sale nor housing price had any effect on facial expression scores. Poisson regression revealed significant coefficients (β) of positive emotions with largeness of green space (GS) and blue space (BS). Overall, BS had a stronger contribution (β, 0.6–1.1) to residents showing positive emotions relative to GS (β, −2.45–0.89), whose area ratio of NDVI increased the frequency of showing happiness. We recommend constructing GBSs with over 0.68 km2 of GS and over 2000 m2 of BS per community, where the area ratio of GS should be more than 70% of the total if the goal is to evoke more happiness in residents.
... Y. Hong & Jeon, 2015;Lynch, 1964). A person's perceived environment reflects his or her cognitions, emotions and experiences at the individual level (Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989;Kwan, 2008). The aggregated perceived environment is a collection of people's average perceptions at the level of a certain geographic context (Lynch, 1964;F. ...
Article
With the rapid growth in both urbanization and the ageing of the population, elderly migrants have become a more prominent group in urban China. Previous studies have shown that elderly migrants are a vulnerable group in terms of subjective well‐being (SWB) and studies have emphasized the role of their socioeconomic status (SES) and family‐related attributes (FRA) on their SWB. However, there is less attention on whether the perceived residential environment (PRE) to which elderly migrants are exposed and their social interactions have some effect on their SWB. To fill this research gap, street view images and questionnaire survey data from Guangzhou, China were collected. The association between PRE, social interactions, and elderly migrants' SWB was examined within a comprehensive framework using structural equation models. The results indicated that elderly people who had migrated within China had lower levels of SWB than Guangzhou‐born elderly adults. Social interactions mediated the effects of SES, FRA, and perceived environment on the SWB of elderly migrants. After controlling for SES and FRA, a livelier and safer PRE was directly positively associated with elderly migrants' SWB (coefficient = 0.181 at the 1% level) and indirectly associated with elderly migrants' SWB through social interactions with local friends (coefficient = 0.035 at the 1% level) and with neighbours (coefficient = 0.014 at the 5% level). These results suggest that increased social interactions and the creation of a better PRE would benefit elderly migrants' SWB in the context of active ageing.
... As portrayed in 17 th and 18 th century art of the Judeo-Christian tradition, some have historically preferred idyllic natural landscapes composed of symmetry and order, not of ecological complexity [8,9]. Work in environmental psychology shows that people may favor "tidy" and "manicured" nature scenes rather than "messy" or "unorderly" nature scenes [10], a preference that humans have evolved [11], though such relationships often depend on socio-cultural context [12]. In contemporary Western culture, tidy landscapes, including mowed turfgrass lawns, and 'weed' free agricultural fields and urban gardens are an expression of domination and control, social capital and norms [13,14], and 'cues of care' [7]. ...
Article
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Agroecosystem management influences ecological interactions that underpin ecosystem services. In human-centered systems, people's values and preferences influence management decisions. For example, aesthetic preferences for 'tidy' agroecosystems may remove vegetation complexity with potential negative impacts on beneficial associated biodiversity and ecosystem function. This may produce trade-offs in aesthetic- versus production-based management for ecosystem service provision. Yet, it is unclear how such preferences influence the ecology of small-scale urban agroecosystems, where aesthetic preferences for 'tidiness' are prominent among some gardener demographics. We used urban community gardens as a model system to experimentally test how aesthetic preferences for a 'tidy garden' versus a 'messy garden' influence insect pests, natural enemies, and pest control services. We manipulated gardens by mimicking a popular 'tidy' management practice-woodchip mulching-on the one hand, and simulating 'messy' gardens by adding 'weedy' plants to pathways on the other hand. Then, we measured for differences in natural enemy biodiversity (abundance, richness, community composition), and sentinel pest removal as a result of the tidy/messy manipulation. In addition, we measured vegetation and ground cover features of the garden system as measures of practices already in place. The tidy/messy manipulation did not significantly alter natural enemy or herbivore abundance within garden plots. The manipulation did, however, produce different compositions of natural enemy communities before and after the manipulation. Furthermore, the manipulation did affect short term gains and losses in predation services: the messy manipulation immediately lowered aphid pest removal compared to the tidy manipulation, while mulch already present in the system lowered Lepidoptera egg removal. Aesthetic preferences for 'tidy' green spaces often dominate urban landscapes. Yet, in urban food production systems, such aesthetic values and management preferences may create a fundamental tension in the provision of ecosystem services that support sustainable urban agriculture. Though human preferences may be hard to change, we suggest that gardeners allow some 'messiness' in their garden plots as a "lazy gardener" approach may promote particular natural enemy assemblages and may have no downsides to natural predation services.
... Early research highlighting the benefits of nature contact for people in urban areas treated 'nature' as a homogenous 'green' entity, contrasting positive human reaction to 'nature' with negative responses to the built environment (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989). In contrast, a growing body of research has sought to understand more nuance, differentiating human reactions to diverse nature with varying aesthetics and biodiversity (Hoyle 2020). ...
Article
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Covid-19 and COP26 both amplified calls from the environment sector for greater support for greenspace management globally. As the future of our planet and population is threatened by a global pandemic, escalating mental health challenges and the interrelated climate and biodiversity crises, there is a growing awareness of the potential for the intersecting roles of greenspace (GS), green infrastructure (GI) and nature-based solutions (NBS) to meet the myriad socio-economic and ecological of modern society (Frantzeskaki, 2019; Venkataramanan et al., 2020). Unfortunately, their potential to address these challenges remains undervalued by many, and thus underfunded, (Mell, 2021). Presenting examples of ‘research into action’, we advocate greenspace management to maximise benefits for people and wildlife. We draw on research from UK to consider how and why different people react to landscapes of varying aesthetic and biodiversity quality (Hoyle et al. 2017a), proposing an alternative approach to biodiversity-friendly greenspace management under austerity. Next, we emphasise the urgency of ‘futureproofing’ places to adapt to changing climate, demonstrating the public acceptability of climate-ready urban GI (Hoyle, 2021). Finally, we discuss how socio-cultural variables and values impact on preferences. We illustrate the benefits of co-creating local NBS with reference to ‘Futureproofing Luton’, a live project engaging diverse partners in the co-production of an educational arboretum-meadow. We propose alternative options open to all natural and built environment and public health professionals to support knowledge exchange promoting more sustainable forms of urban development. Although framed within a UK context, the processes of engagement, best practice exchange, and more effective dialogue, are meaningful across Europe and beyond.
... Open water is critical for everyday aesthetic experiences offered by stormwater ponds. It is often associated with high landscape preference, aesthetic pleasure, and relaxation and restoration (Herzog, 1985;Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989;Völker, Matros, & Claßen, 2016;White et al., 2010). But the visual qualities of water such as transparency and color may also profoundly affect how people perceive it . ...
Thesis
Cities worldwide are exploring nature-based solutions (NBS) for climate change adaptation and sustainable development. To innovatively use nature to tackle societal challenges, thinking around NBS increasingly focuses on practices that integrate engineering and technological components with natural processes. Such novel NBS are especially relevant in urban contexts where land is limited and environmental stressors such as disturbance and pollution are present. This dissertation calls attention to a rarely considered implication of novel NBS: they may introduce noticeable yet unfamiliar changes and affect how people perceive everyday urban landscapes. These perceptions can influence local community members' well-being and support for NBS adoption. A deeper understanding of community members' perceptions of novel NBS can inform their design, implementation, and assessment to realize more reliable and sustained community co-benefits. This dissertation presents three key chapters that are prepared as journal articles. Chapter 2 identifies everyday landscape experiences as an essential cultural ecosystem service and connects them with the social impacts of and local communities' support for NBS. Focusing on NBS managed by smart systems, it speculates their potential negative influences on everyday urban nature experiences and how to address this issue in NBS development. This chapter lays the conceptual basis for this dissertation. Chapter 3 investigates how microscale landscape elements may affect community members' perceptions of novel NBS through the example of retention ponds where smart systems manage stormwater storage. It examines both the effects of individual microscale elements on perceptions of smart ponds and the interacting effects of water level and other elements affected by design choices. Chapter 4 applies "risk as feelings" to understand how people perceive visible stormwater dynamics in everyday urban landscapes, considering both uncontrolled localized flooding and intentional stormwater detention in novel vs. traditional NBS measures. It examines how experiences of localized flooding and other contextual and socio-demographic factors may affect perceived urban flood risks and the perceived safety of different NBS practices for stormwater management. This dissertation connects different knowledge domains and employs quantitative social science methods to contribute to the understanding of public perception of novel NBS. It demonstrates that community members' perceptions can be affected by what is perceivable and manageable in the landscape, as well as their lived experiences and socio-demographic characteristics. This work has implications for the planning, design, and management of novel NBS to better address community members' experiences and gain broader societal support.
... From the perspective of Attention Restoration Theory (ART) [13][14][15], nature acts on the improvement of mental fatigue and, in this way, contributes to the recovery of associated mental health problems. According to ART, mental fatigue is related to voluntary attention (concentration), which tends to increase over time. ...
Article
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Mental health benefits have been linked to human interaction with nature. However, most studies have been carried out in developed countries, limiting the generalizability of empirical findings to other parts of the world. To address this gap, this study was conducted in Brazil. The objective of the study was to assess whether the frequency of contact with nature affects the occurrence of anxiety, stress, and depression. Data were collected between June and July 2022 through an online survey (n = 1186, 1 − α = 0.95, p = 0.05, 1 − β = 0.85, rho = 0.1). Thus, the public online survey made it possible to carry out voluntary response sampling suitable for an exploratory study, with the purpose of an initial understanding of an under-researched population. First, a logistic regression was performed for quantifying the association between contact with nature and mental symptoms. In addition, three groups of people having different frequencies (low, medium, and high) of contact with nature and a reference group, comprised of those who reported no contact, were compared using Kruskal–Wallis and Dwass–Steel–Chritchlow–Fligner tests. This study employs a cross-sectional design and relies on retrospective recall. As a result, the research hypothesis was confirmed. People who very rarely have contact with nature had a 97.95% probability of moderate occurrence of stress, which decreases to 20.98% for people who have contact with nature frequently. Furthermore, in the same comparison, the probability of occurrence was 3.6 times lower for anxiety and 4.8 times lower for depression. In conclusion, the evidence indicates that the greater the frequency of contact with nature, the lower the occurrence of stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Nevertheless, the benefits of this contact were significant only when its frequency was moderate (about once or twice a week) or higher.
... Female subjects showed significantly higher RST scores in Case 2 than in Case 1 in the third answer term. According to the ART by Kaplan et al.,25,26 fatigue caused by directed attention can be recovered by the effects of an attentional system called soft fascination, 30 which does not require intentional concentration and occurs when viewing nature. The females may have shown higher scores in Case 2, as during the rest period, the desktop plants enhanced recovery from fatigue caused by directed attention to tasks. ...
Article
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Plants improve indoor environmental quality as a visual factor and enhance occupants' overall well‐being. However, research on the mechanisms by which plants improve human cognitive function is limited. This study examined the characteristics of eye movement while viewing indoor plants and their relationship with the cognitive benefits of plants. Thirty students performed cognitive tasks in four desktop conditions: no objects, real plants, artificial plants, and books. Eye movements while viewing plants during rest times in the reading span task (RST), which requires working memory, were characterized by a lower number of fixations, frequent dispersion of fixation points, and a higher number of blinks. Females showed higher RST scores under the real plant condition than under the no‐object condition. These results are consistent with the assumption that plants require lower cognitive effort and better restoration of attention capacity. In addition, in the real plant condition, females showed higher RST scores than males, and only females showed higher creativity scores than those in other conditions. Therefore, gender differences in the cognitive benefits of plants have been suggested. This study provides new insights into the effects of indoor plants on occupants' cognitive functions by quantifying visual perception processes using eye‐tracking technology. This study examined the characteristics of eye movement while viewing indoor plants and their relationship with the cognitive benefits of plants. Results of eye tracking and task performance were consistent with the assumption that plants require lower cognitive effort and better restoration of attention capacity. In addition, gender differences in the cognitive benefits of plants have been suggested.
... Through the permutation and combination of multiple natural factors, the healing landscape design builds an environment for people to relax their body and mind. Attention restoration theory (ART) states that directed attention is critical for human health [7]. ...
Article
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Impacted by the COVID-19 epidemic, the human sub-health in national high-tech zones (hereinafter referred to as high-tech zones) has become more prominent. It is critical for the mental sub-health group in the high-tech zone to relieve the anxiety and tension caused by the pressure of life and work. This paper uses SketchUp virtual engine (Unity 2019) software, and 3D roaming technology to carry out the ecological landscape transformation design of the Baotzixi ecological corridor in the East Lake High-tech Zone, to construct a 3D roaming landscape scene and measure its therapeutic effect by inviting subjects to participate in an interactive experience experiment on the ErgoLAB platform. The results illustrate that: (1) the thermogram trend shows that the more attractive the 3D roaming landscape scene is, the stronger the subjects’ interest is; (2) the participants have a positive emotional arousal state in the immersive experience of the 3D roaming landscape scene after the modification design; and (3) the mean skin conductance (SC) fluctuation variance of the subjects is 5.819%, indicating that the healing effect is significant in the state of positive emotional arousal. The research results show that there is a connection between the subjects and the 3D roaming landscape scene after the transformation design of “high interest, emotional arousal and significant healing”.
... Environmental psychologists working on attention restoration theory proposed that nature had the ability to restore people's attention and release stress 6 . Studies indicated people preferred natural environments or built environments with water, trees, and other vegetation (i.e., nature mimicking features) 7 . Subsequent studies on surgery patients in hospitals also highlighted a correlation in rooms with a natural scenic view and shorter post-operative hospital stays, leading to further research and development of fields such as naturebased solutions in built design, green facades, etc. to explore how building an environment that mimics, or provides access to nature impacts well-being in humans 8 . ...
Conference Paper
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The disruptions caused by COVID-19 pandemic in everyday lives worldwide have been far reaching, with effects seen in both tangible and intangible ways. Consequently, the pandemic response has highlighted various spatial contestations and negotiations such as–isolation, inaccessible or reduced access to public spaces, concepts of fragility, reduced mobility, amongst others. These contestations and negotiations have been further affected by socio-material interactions in everyday life through daily technology use, digital readiness, and increasing technology dependencies, leading to a renewed focus on users in today’s technologically mediated societies. This has led praxis and academia to seek an in-depth understanding of the pivotal role architecture and built environment play in physical and mental wellbeing. Earlier studies in the field of functional brain imaging have led to the intersection of neuroscience research with the fields of planning and architectural design, by highlighting the embodiment of the built environment into our daily sensorial experience. Neuroarchitecture is the interdisciplinary field that studies creation of environments to optimize the brain performance, human behavior and well-being. Moreover, with the pandemic highlighting effects of socio-spatial and socio-material interactions to public health, an in-depth understanding into perceptual influences of built environment on human brain can provide architects, planners, health care providers, governance actors and development practitioners a theoretical framework to adapt and create more responsive, healthy and sustainable public and built spaces. This review paper thus, aims to firstly, to highlight the various interaction between the human brain and the environment, secondly; analyze the association between neuroscience and architecture, and lastly, explore the benefits of contribution of neuroscience in designing built environments. Through a literature review performed through studies in neuroscience, cognitive and behavioral sciences intersecting with spatial and/architectural design elements, the paper assess the neurological findings in creating a healthy built environment. Findings reveal that methodological frameworks from neuroscience studies can inform user perception and behavior, thereby influencing and shaping built environments.
... One reason for the extremely strong emotional reactions to dark heritage sites may be that visitors are not only aware of their historical dimension but also experience them as authentic places resembling the historic situation both in terms of appearance and atmosphere, described either by objective parameters such as size, lightning, spectrum of color, or by more abstract qualities like legibility, coherence, complexity, and mystery (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989). In contrast, everyday places having a dark heritage background often lack a strong visual resemblance to the former historical situation. ...
Article
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Visiting historical places can give important impulses regarding education of history, society, and politics. While there does exist extensive research on visitors' experiences at memorial sites, little is known about the impact of everyday places holding dark history. Two experimental studies took place in a research institute, a former women's clinic, where in the time of National Socialist (NS) dictatorship in Germany hundreds of forced sterilizations took place. Historical awareness was manipulated via systematic variation of prior information. We found partial evidence that historical awareness had a negative effect on personal mood. Awareness of the site's NS history had a negative effect on the perceived valence of related photos but did not influence their qualitative description. Also, there was partial evidence that the site itself was perceived less positively and evoked more arousal when participants were aware of its NS history. Possible reasons are discussed.
... The WELL Building Standard (International WELL Building Institute, 2020) requires that at least 200 equivalent melanopic lux is provided at 75% or more of workstations during daytime to maintain human circadian systems. From a psychological prespective, according to the Attention Restoration Theory (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989), natural environments can replenish cognitive resources depleted by everyday activities. The Stress Reduction Theory (Ulrich, 1983) indicates that natural environments can promote recovery from stress as well. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper describes a new approach to teaching architectural students to design with and for light while understanding the paradox of lighting design which is both science and art. The course curriculum integrates quantitative and qualitative lighting approaches in architectural design. The course, titled "Shaping Light", extends our curriculum to include digital design and simulation tools with the use of virtual reality (VR) and introduces the ways in which we can go beyond quantitative measurements of lighting to include qualitative aspects of light such as its influence on occupants' subjective impressions of a space, well-being and behavior. Architecture students focused on qualities of light, façade design patterns and geometries, and their influence on daylight ingress and distribution in a space, with an emphasis on integrating artificial lighting concepts in their designs. Simulation tools for lighting analyses were coupled with immersive VR technology to provide a comprehensive understanding of the ephemeral and dynamic qualities of light and the integration of electric and natural lighting in architectural spaces. Fundamentals of light and lighting design were introduced by a series of lectures by the faculty as well as guest experts with different backgrounds, covering diverse topics of lighting design and its impact on human psychological and physiological wellbeing. The course included simulation exercises for students to apply their knowledge and modeling skills through hands-on experience, and the course final project provided students an opportunity to better understand the new concepts and incorporate what they had learned into a design project or a research study. This paper presents the teaching method as well as examples of projects and research conducted during the course.
... In other words, if possible, the phenomenon of leaving for travel activities in nature with less interpersonal contact appears (Freeman and Eykelbosh, 2020;Seraphin and Dosquet, 2020). Academically, the perception of anxiety about psychological and social risks according to the attention recovery theory is the same in that it acts as a catalyst to leave the natural environment (Kaplan and Kaplan, 1989). Consistency with this theory, Buckley and Westaway (2020) confirmed that walking in bountiful nature is helpful for the psychological treatment of women during COVID-19. ...
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... Image size was adjusted to 8.7 cm × 13.4 cm and brightness, contrast, colour and other features were adjusted for all images using Adobe Photoshop CS software, as recommended by Wergles and Muhar (2009) and Daniel (2001). The selection of photographs for the study was carried out following the principles presented by Kaplan and Kaplan (1989) and Appleton (1975). ...
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Eynali Urban Woodland Park (EWP) is a large mountain park in Tabriz, Iran, and is the largest urban woodland park in Iran. It was developed to increase the urban green space in the growing city of Tabriz for recreation, climate improvement, biodiversity, and ecological connection between the city and its natural surroundings. The planted hilly woodland is located in a natural mountain steppe in a semi-arid region andneeds intensive management, including irrigation. By questioning of 277 randomly selected park visitor's frequency of visits, activities, accessibility, preferences, and especially nature preferences were analyzed using visualization of different nature types by photographs. The management targets were compared to visitors’ perceptions, preferences, and acceptances. The results show, visitors prefer a natural surrounding instead of artificial landscape design. Expectations of visitors for specific natural design attractions are lower than the actual status offers, higher for social security, quality of infrastructure, accessibility, and utilization. Especially important are security by monitoring and guarding, enhancing picnic sites, improving the lighting system for evening visits, continuing forestry, public transport, and providing natural risk protection. Most visitors prefer nature-near vegetation, dry grassland with shrubs partly planted with trees and bushes, followed by planted forest. The planted forest is not the prefered preference. Vistors’ mental nature imagination matches quite well with the nature experience they have from the surrounding mountain steppe with forest patches. Conclusions: The use of the visitors’ expectations can improve the park landscape management can reduce the management costs.
... Presenting the Biophilia hypothesis, Kellert and Wilson [58] stress the importance of diversity regarding landscape types and species. Kaplan and Kaplan [59] mention that complexity is a component of information processing theories. Ode et al. [2] propose three dimensions to describe complexity: distribution of landscape attributes which focuses on the number of landscape elements, the spatial organization of patterns, as well as variation and contrast between landscape elements. ...
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With the rapid rise of social media, the photo-taking behavior of tourists and their uploaded photos provide a new perspective to explore landscape visual characters. In this study, we provide methodological advancements for assessing landscape visual quality based on content analysis of user-generated photographs. The purpose is to demonstrate an empirical method for evaluating visual indicators reflected in photographs through a case study application. This research takes the core cultural landscape area of Wuhan University as the research scope. The photographs shared on a famous Chinese social media platform Sina Weibo during the Cherry Blossom Festival, together with tourists’ trajectory data, were used as data sources. Based on a fixed-point photography experiment, the spatial relationship between the scenic spot and the observation point was illustrated. Utilizing a semi-automatic photo content analysis founded on computer vision technology, landscape visual attributes of each attraction were studied thoroughly regarding complexity, visual scale, and color. The results indicate that the Old Dormitory is the most popular scenic spot with diverse viewing angles, strikingly vivid colors, and rich color combinations. Complexity and color play key roles in landscape visual quality, while the depth of view has a subtle impact, which suggests the depth-to-height ratio of less than 1 is the best distance for viewers to take photographs. In all, the mapping relationship between landscape visual attributes and viewers’ perception was revealed in the present work.
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... The principal environmental benefits of UGSs are identified as improvements in air and water quality, combating urban heat islands (UHIs), preventing floods and reducing surface runoff [4,[22][23][24]. Numerous studies have also shown that UGSs contribute to improving the physical and mental health of residents [25][26][27]. Even where restrictions on movement have been introduced, residential green areas are nearby and offer opportunities for physical activity. ...
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An original study in the 1990s to integrate an agricultural preservation district, rural character/recreation/tourism, and housing/commercial development on the Old Mission Peninsula, Grand Traverse County, Michigan. The study describes the normative theory accompanying the investigation, the incorporation of university student studies, methodology, and results of the research. The study employs GIS technology and principal component statistical analysis to derive recommendations. The extensive appendices of GIS maps and material are not included in this pdf. A hardcopy of the document resides in the Michigan State Library, OCLA: 42216973; MSU accession number: msuc.b35565986. The posted version contains revised formatting and minor corrections suitable for distribution.
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I begin this article with an increasingly accepted claim: that emotions lend differential weight to states of affairs, helping us conceptually carve the world and make rational decisions. I then develop a more controversial assertion: that environments have non-subjective emotional qualities, which organize behavior and help us make sense of the world. I defend this from ecological and related embodied standpoints that take properties to be interrelational outcomes. I also build on conceptions of experience as a cultural phenomenon, one that coheres around shared environmental contours and public emotional concerns, introducing normative constraints (or what might be called “world grammars”). Endorsing this outlook suggests an argument for the view that cultural spaces have affectively charged, non-subjective, normative openings and closures. These openings and closures engender selectively permeable barriers which cordon space without physically preventing entry, as seen with decorative half walls and elevation changes. An area with such barriers may look emotionally hostile to, say, the dispirited homeless who are in fact less welcome there. Outcomes like these might be thought of as “political affordances.” These affordances can be regarded as normative openings and closures that implicitly filter, and hence segregate, according to various social divisions. Although registering political affordances requires more than the detection of ambient arrays, the notion retains core Gibsonian ideas: that affordances are values, that these values are linked with how a space can be used, and that the existence and nature of such affordances is not a subjective matter.
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The long-lost Ibero-Roman citadel of Castŭlō, or Castulo as it is known today, has been revealed to be one of the most important centers of the southern Iberian Peninsula due to its size and its geographical position. The ancient walled holdfast occupies an area of about 50 hectares, with overlapping vestiges from different historical stages. During the last intervention in the northwest city walls, a set of important findings was revealed, notably a Roman high-quality relief depicting a lion which holds a human head between its paws. This article, in addition to contextualizing and presenting the archaeological site, focuses on the latest work carried out in the northern area of the city’s Punic wall. Based on the data obtained, an urban interpretation is also provided on the use and function of this walled city area and how it was attuned to the surroundings to configure a new kind of landscape project. Relevant endeavours have been undertaken by the authors in order to render the restoration feasible, and prominently to introduce a more innovative issue of cognitive accessibility for the visitors who are allowed to enjoy this significant piece of heritage despite the hindrances of the terrain. This is the fundamental objective of a former research project by the authors, and it was extended to offer a key to sustainable archaeology, establishing design criteria for the planning of spaces that fulfil the experience of visiting heritage for groups of people with cognitive problems: among them, those with Alzheimer’s disease. By addressing these pending requirements, the sustainable qualities of the archaeological sites would be significantly enhanced.
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The functionality, well-being, and quality of life of people living with dementia can be positively impacted by careful environmental design. As a consequence of the COVID-19 outbreak, sudden rearrangements were made in the social and physical environment of dementia care residents. The present study aimed to explore the lessons learned regarding the design and use of the built environment during the COVID-19 lockdown and to find how the built environment might contribute positively to improved well-being, and social and physical connection of dementia care residents in the future. In a mixed-method explorative study, social-physical aspects of the built environment that influence quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic were explored. In general, buildings with a spacious layout and flexible use of spaces contribute to a higher quality of life and level of resident well-being, improved infection control, greater resilience, and enhances social and physical contact. Currently, the buildings of many care facilities are not designed to accommodate a severely infectious disease outbreak. Additionally, nursing staff have learned the importance of attending to the number of stimuli in the social and built environment and attuning these to individual, instead of group needs. Our findings indicate there is a need for designing and building spacious long-term dementia care facilities that allow for flexible, social and personalized appropriation of spaces.KeywordsBuilt environmentDementiaQuality of lifeWell-beingCOVID-19 pandemicSocial contactAffective touchCare home
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Comment agir sur la motivation des jeunes à s’en sortir, s’émanciper et prendre place en société ? Constat : il existe des jeunes pris dans la spirale de la marginalisation sociale et professionnelle à risque de dépendance chronique des systèmes de protection sociale (aide sociale, AI et autres). Problématique : Les jeunes en situation de grande difficulté d’insertion ne voient pas d’issues à leur situation complexe et se sentent, tout comme les professionnels qui les accompagnent, démunis. À force d’échecs successifs, ils perdent espoir et confiance en eux. Ils ne voient plus de sens à l’avenir. Souvent, pour se protéger ou en lien avec des difficultés personnelles, ils ont tendance à se couper de leurs propres émotions qu’ils vont mettre à distance par des comportements et des consommations à risque (drogue, alcool). Ils activent des mécanismes de défense (croyances limitantes, trouble du comportement) et finissent pas se distancer ou être distancé des systèmes d’intégration sociale (travail, famille, formation, société) qui révèlent ses failles. Lorsqu’on leur donne la parole, ils disent avoir besoin d’être attendus quelque part par quelqu’un, pour une activité sociale ou professionnelle valorisante et valorisée, qui procure un statut et une fonction sociale. En bref, ces jeunes ont besoin d’appartenance. C’est pourquoi, souvent, ils se rapprochent des milieux marginaux dans lesquels ils ont une place et sont reconnus par les pairs qui partagent la même réalité de « mise à la marge ». Enjeux : Comment amener les jeunes en (risque de) rupture d’insertion sociale et à la prise de conscience de leur capacité d’agir sur soi ? Depuis 2020, la Fondation de Fribourg pour la jeunesse élabore un concept d’accompagnement spécifique aux jeunes en (risque de) rupture d’insertion sociale et professionnelle, intitulé : « mentorat à haut seuil de tolérance en nature et sur le marché du travail réel ».
Chapter
The rising pace of urbanization has led to an unprecedented demand for buildings and other construction activities. The modern urban environment is often characterized by its concrete buildings, tall skyscrapers and uniformity in physical features and appearance. It has symbolized the almost violent expunge of the natural world not only from our physical environment, but also our psyche. Biophilic design as a trend incorporates the use of natural or nature-inspired systems and processes in the design of the built environment, thereby initiating an integration or re-integration of nature into our daily lives. The present paper aims to review the concept of biophilic design, its attributes and theoretical perspectives as well as its implications for human mental health. The probable challenges of its implementation in the Indian context have also been discussed. The review follows a narrative approach, and an effort was made to review researches conducted in the last fifteen years. Secondary data were taken from PubMed, Google Scholar and JSTORE using relevant keywords. The concept of biophilic design is gradually gaining momentum as part of the rising environmental consciousness. While it has found a footing in the realm of architecture, social sciences are yet to take it up in any considerable manner. The review found enough scientific evidence supporting positive effects of biophilic design architecture on human mental health. However, the extent and duration of these positive effects is not clear. In addition, the interaction of biophilic design elements with individual characteristics and contextual factors such as culture and class requires more exploration. In India, even though biophilic design practice are available, there is a lack of academic literature exploring the same. Further multidisciplinary research is required in order to establish biophilic design as a viable design alternative. In current times, it has become pertinent to explore alternatives that promote environmental protection and rejuvenation of “human–nature” relationship, biophilic design offers one such opportunity.KeywordsBiophiliaBiophilic designHuman healthNature and well-being
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