Working PaperPDF Available
O.Saritas, L. Proskuryakova, E. Kyzyngasheva
WATER RESOURCES AN
ANALYSIS OF TRENDS, WEAK
SIGLANS AND WILD CARDS WITH
IMPLICATIONS FOR RUSSIA
BASIC RESEARCH PROGRAM
WORKING PAPERS
SERIES: SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION
WP BRP 35/STI/2015
This Working Paper is an output of a research project implemented within NRU HSE’s Annual Thematic Plan for
Basic and Applied Research. Any opinions or claims contained in this Working Paper do not necessarily reflect the
views of HSE.
O.Saritas
1
, L. Proskuryakova
2
, E. Kyzyngasheva
3
WATER RESOURCES AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS, WEAK
SIGLANS AND WILD CARDS WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR
RUSSIA
4
Water resources are crucial for the continuity of life. Humans and living species need
fresh water for drinking and sanitation, while most, if not all, industries need water for some part
of production processes and products themselves. Access to fresh water is a grand challenge at
the global level, mainly due to increasing water consumption, low rate of replenishment of
resources as well as external factors, like climate change, that significantly reduce amount of
water available. The solution to the existing water problems require a systemic approaches for
sustainable use of water resources, while advancing water infrastructure and providing circular
use of water.
Research presented in this paper, focuses on the use of water resources in Russia with a
long term perspective developed through a Foresight study. Russia is one of the countries, which
is relatively better positioned compared to a number of other countries in the world regarding the
availability of water resources. However, there are still considerable issues regarding the
protection and use of water resources, purification processes, water networks, consumption
patterns, discharge, treatment and re-use. The present study aims to develop strategies and for the
use of water resources with a long term time perspective. The first step involved a scanning
exercise, to be followed by future scenarios and strategy proposals for action. Presenting the
results of the scanning phase, the paper begins with the review of the key issues and challenges
concerning water resources. Particular attention is paid to the state-of-the-art in the three
domains identified in the scope of research: (i) sustainability of water systems, (ii) water use by
households and industry, and (iii) new water products and services. Furthermore, trends, weak
signals and wild cards identified in the course of the study, as well as their implications on water
resources in Russia are discussed. The paper concludes with a brief description of the next
phases of the study and follow-up activities planned in the project.
JEL: H4, H5, H87, I30, M11, R20, R52, Q01, Q02, Q15, Q18, Q22, Q25, Q26, Q27, Q53, Q54,
Q55
Keywords: water resources, sustainable water systems, water use, water goods and services,
trend scanning, weak signals, wild cards.
1
Leading Research Fellow, Research Laboratory for Science and Technology Studies, National
Research University “Higher School of Economics, Email: osaritas@hse.ru.
2
Leading Research Fellow, Research Laboratory for Science and Technology Studies, National
Research University “Higher School of Economics. Email: lporoskuryakova@hse.ru.
3
Intern, Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge, National Research
University “Higher School of Economics, Email: kyzyngasheva@gmail.com.
4
The study was implemented with the financial support of Renova Group of companies.
The working paper was prepared within the framework of the Basic Research Program at the National Research
University Higher School of Economics (HSE) and supported within the framework of the subsidy granted to the
HSE by the Government of the Russian Federation for the implementation of the Global Competitiveness Program.
3
Introduction
Access to clean water is a Grand Challenge. The intensity of this challenge varies
between countries depending on their geographical location and level of socio-economic
development. However, what is common is the search for ways to improve the efficiency of
water production and use, as well as mitigate the impacts of factors affecting water availability,
including climatic conditions, natural disasters, demographic changes and urbanization,
technological advancements, economic growth and prosperity, and social and cultural values
[UNESCO, 2012].
Researchers attempt to forecast how these drivers will evolve over the next decades and
what measures should be taken by consumers and policy makers in order to address the water-
related hurdles and develop a vision for a sustainable use of water resources. In such an attempt
in 2011, the experts of the International Water and Sanitation Center note that “water sector
operates in a dynamic environment of rapidly changing levels of economic development,
demographic change and governance contexts that have significant impacts[IRC International
Water and Sanitation Center, 2011: 3] and note that trends in the sector are very uncertain.
Concerning the availability of water resources, Russia is one of the countries, which is
relatively better positioned compared to a number of other countries in the world. However,
there are still outstanding issues linked to protection and use of water resources, purification
processes, water networks, consumption patterns, discharge, treatment and re-use. The present
research recognizes that strategies for water resources should be covering the whole life-cycle
approach in a holistic manner. Therefore, three inter-related domains have been identified to
address different aspects of exploiting water resources: (i) sustainability of water supply systems;
(ii) water use by households and industry; and (iii) new water services and products.
The project involves a fully-fledged Foresight process, which begins with a horizon
scanning exercise, and continues with future scenarios and strategies for action. The current
paper presents the outcomes of the scanning phase, which involves the analysis of trends, weak
signals of future changes, uncertainties and wild cards in the form of largely unexpected but
potentially vital developments in water resources. The scanning process began with a systematic
analysis of Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental, Political and Value/Culture
(STEEPV) systems to understand the dynamics of change in water resources. A global scanning
was carried out with the review of publications and reports by acclaimed international and
national bodies such as UNESCO, OECD, and the EU. The results were discussed and
elaborated with the experts from Russia, Brazil, India, the USA, Japan and other countries
through a scanning workshop held in Moscow in November, 2014.
4
The paper begins with the review of the key issues and challenges for water resources.
Particular attention is paid to the state-of-the-art in the aforementioned three domains identified
in the scope of research. The third section details the scanning methodology used for research.
Trends, weak signals and wild cards identified are presented in the fourth section. In the
following section the implications of those trends, weak signals and wild cards on water
resources in Russia are discussed. The final section of the paper draws overall conclusions and
outlines the project’s next steps and follow-up activities.
1. Background
Despite its criticality as a natural resource, today water is not accessible and readily
available, particularly for industries and people living in urban areas. Therefore, water has to be
supplied for use for various purposes, and this makes it to be considered as a commodity. Water
products and services have certain costs and markets rapidly develop. On the other hand, people
have the right to access and use water “for free”. This creates a complexity, and frequently,
conflict in the utilization of water resources.
On 28 July 2010, through Resolution 64/292, the United Nations General Assembly
recognized the human right to water and sanitation and acknowledged that clean drinking water
and sanitation are essential to the realization of all human rights [United Nations, 2010]. When it
comes to enforcement of this human right, UNESCO [2012] distinguishes between the following
categories of water consumers:
1. ecosystems, whose water demands are determined by the water requirements to sustain or
restore the benefits for people;
2. energy, for which large quantities of water are used, but rarely reported and thus are
poorly known;
3. food and agriculture;
4. human settlements, which includes water for drinking and household use; and
5. industry.
These five categories will constitute a necessary scope for the analysis of trends, wild
card, which are likely to shape the sustainability of water systems, water use by households and
industry, and new water products and services. Therefore it is important to set the scene in each
category in order to understand the current context and what is likely to emerge in the future
within that context.
The amount of water use has been growing at an alarmingly high speed over the course of
the last century. It is projected that global water demand will increase by 55% in 2050 in
5
comparison with the level in year 2000. Specialists forecast that by the year 2050, 3,9 bln people
(or approximately 40% of world’s population) will face in serious limitations to their water
consumption. About 240 mln people will not have sufficient access to drinking water, and 124
bln people will not have appropriate facilities for water disposal (i.e. will have inadequate
sanitary conditions) [OECD, 2012a].
Water and Energy domains are inextricably interlinked. Whilst water is crucial for the
production, distribution and use of energy, energy is crucial for the extraction and delivery of
water. As the drivers of human health, economic growth and environmental sustainability,
development of long term water and energy strategies are crucial. At present, increased global
water consumption is also linked to the increased global energy consumption trend.
According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), in 2010, 15% water of the total water
consumption was spent on electricity production, which makes up 75% of water resources
consumption in the industrial sector [OECD, 2012b]. As global industrial production is expected
further grow, it will continuously require more electric power, and, thus, more water. Therefore
programs aimed at the reduction of water resources consumption (deficit) should also include
energy efficiency measures.
Water food agriculture nexus is also crucial as water is one of the key inputs in the
entire agrifood supply chain. Agriculture is currently the largest user of water at the global level,
accounting for 70% of total withdrawal [FAO, 2011]. Water scarcity and decreasing availability
of water for agriculture constrain irrigated production overall, and particularly in the most
hydrologically stressed areas and countries [UNESCO, 2014]. Excessive use of water for
irrigation leads to degradation of farmlands; causes rise of groundwater level and secondary soil
salinization. As a result, salted soil is inappropriate for agricultural use. On the other hand, by
2050 there will be much less water left for irrigation, as it will compete with other human needs.
Demand for water resources in both urban and rural settlements has been
increasing dramatically. A substantial part of the world population does not have access to clean
water and/or water disposal systems (a pre-requisite for proper sanitation). UN experts estimate
that the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for sanitation will not be attained by 2015.
Moreover, by 2050, 1.4 billion people, mostly in developing countries, are projected not to have
access to basic sanitation [OECD, 2012a]. The UN estimates that 11% of humanity (0.8 Billion)
cannot access safe water, 17% of humanity (1.2 Billion) live where water is physically scarce,
22% of humanity (1.6 Billion) face economic water shortage (inadequate infrastructure/cost) and
36% of humanity (2.5 Billion) still lack basic sanitation [United Nations, 2013]. Considering the
rapid urbanization process, particularly in Africa, South Asia and China, it may be expected that
cities will be the main sources of crises in water as well as food and energy.
6
Industry is one of the main users of water, which is used in production processes, e.g.
for heating, cooling, cleaning/washing, manufacturing, extracting etc. Industrial water is either
provided by a public/private supplier or self-supplied through making use of available ground-
and/or surface water resources. Moreover, industry is one of the major water polluters.
Unfortunately, not all industrial water is treated before disposed into nature. Water withdrawals
for industry currently represent 22% of total water use with 59% in high-income countries and
only 8% in low-income countries. In 2025, the industrial withdrawal is expected to represent
about 24% of total water consumption [UNESCO, 2014a]. 70% of industrial waste is dumped
into untreated water in developing countries.
The present research recognizes that strategies for water resources should be covering the
whole life-cycle approach in a holistic manner. Therefore, three inter-related domains have been
identified to address different aspects of exploiting water resources: (i) sustainability of water
supply systems; (ii) water use by households and industry; and (iii) new water services and
products. These three domains cover the five categories identified by UNESCO on the demand
side as well as the supply side ranging from the nature, state, and utility companies responsible
for supplying water to the users. Thus, the present study considers the scope of the three domains
as follows:
The “sustainability of water systems” domain in this study encompasses climate and
water resources, surface and ground water sources and their condition, management of water
resources in hydrolic engineering systems, transboundary water governance issues, economy of
water resources, recycling and reuse of water and its “micro” and “macro” purification, and
cross-sectoral water issues.
The domain, “new water products and services”, the study considers water industry
challenges that create demand for new products and services, which are universal. The following
topics are considered in this sub-category: institutional (public and private ownership of water
and water systems; international financial institutes and water reforms and water tariffs),
regional and national water use (groundwater use; water storage; water-energy-food nexus; and
culture of water use) and client-oriented products and services (water and wastewater
treatment).
Finally, Water use by households and industry” covers issues linked with changing
society and lifestyles and the economic development. The term ‘water use’ refers to the amount
of water used by an individual, community or a nation for a certain task or need.
Following the scoping of the domains, the next section of the paper describes the research
methodology.
7
2. Methodology
The Foresight project on Water Resources aims at:
Considering trends, drivers and uncertainties in water supply, demand, use and re-use
with a particular focus on:
o Sustainability of water systems
o Water use by households and industry
o New water services and products
Explore emerging opportunities and threats for the future and assess their implications
Present strategies and actions with emerging technologies, applications, and new business
models for water supply, transfer and use.
The research methodology of horizon scanning, presented in this paper involves the
identification of the key trends, drivers and uncertainties along with the identification of Weak
Signals of future emerging trends, and Wild Cards in the forms of future surprises, shocks and
other unexpected events, which may disrupt the future of the Water Resources sector. By
identifying key developments and uncertainties the scanning phase of the study provides a
background for the development of future scenarios, which is the key activity of the second
phase.
As the first deliverable of the project, this paper develops and presents a set of “Global
Trends in the Water Sector”. Scanning is defined as by the UK’s Chief Scientists Advisers’
Committee (2004) as:
the systematic examination of potential threats, opportunities and likely future
developments including but not restricted to those at the margins of current thinking and
planning. Horizon scanning may explore novel and unexpected ideas as well as persistent
trends and issues [DEFRA, 2002].
Trends typically involve those change factors that arise from broadly generalizable
change and innovation. These are usually experienced by everyone and often in similar contexts.
Trends characterize broad parameters for shifts in attitudes, policies and business focus over
periods of several years that usually have global reach. They may be larger than the power of
individual organizations and sometimes nations [Saritas, Smith, 2011]. Issues may be the threats,
opportunities or a mixture of them related to trends, underlying processes, possible events, and
other future developments. In most cases Horizon Scanning goes beyond the identification of
trends and issues to cover drivers of change as enablers of trends, weak signals of emerging
future change, wild cards of potential high impact but low probability events. Most organizations
8
and even nations need to collaborate in order to change, exploit or mitigate the implications of all
these expected or unexpected events and developments.
In the present study, the STEEPV framework was used to map trends identified to ensure
that a broad range of trends are covered, which may be stemming from various factors in the
overall Water Resources landscape. The set of categories is intended to be sufficiently wide-
ranging and comprehensive to consider a wide variety of inter-related and inter-dependent issues
(Figure 1). It is not a rigorous conceptual framework, but rather a set of categories that have
proven to be useful for stimulating broad thinking or convenient for classifying topics, trends or
drivers.
Figure 1. STEEPV framework with examples of what is covered under each category
The Scanning work within this project involved a mixture of methods involving scoping,
desk research, expert meetings, STEEPV analysis and brainstorming activities. First, a scoping
exercise was undertaken in August 2014 to clarify the focus of the activity. Three thematic areas
were identified during the scoping meeting (i.e. Sustainability of water systems; Water use by
households and industry; and New water services and products). A scoping document was
prepared describing each thematic area in detail. Second, a review activity was undertaken to
identify trends in global, international and national references and strategy documents. The
identified trends were detailed by the experts from the perspective of three areas of the project to
be presented at the international expert seminar.
9
The reviewing process also involved the identification of international and national
experts with particular competence on the three themes. Following the nomination of experts, the
workshop “Global Trends in the Water Sector” was held on November 7th, 2014. The workshop
involved the presentation of the project goals and methodology. The team members presented
the three themes and the trends identified under each of them. The international experts from the
US, Japan, India, Moldova and Belarus gave presentations on the international perspectives on
the three themes.
A brainstorming session was undertaken to discuss the trends under each of the three themes.
The international and national experts had an opportunity to review the lists of trends and to
complement them with their knowledge and experience. Two key questions were asked to the
experts for consideration:
1. What are the trends, issues and uncertainties in the water sector in each theme?
2. What would be the implications for Russia?
A STEEPV framework was generated to map the trends under relevant categories and to
indicate the systemic relationships between them. The expert meeting was concluded with a
discussion on possible implications of the trends for Russia.
The current report presents the selection of key trends identified by the project team, and
complemented and validated by the expert panel. In the following sections of the paper, first,
trends will be presented followed by the discussion of them in the context of Russia. The paper
will be concluded with a discussion and future work to follow up.
4. Trends, weak signals and wild cards for Water Resources
Following the scoping workshop and definition of the focus and coverage of the three
domains, a preparatory work was undertaken through expert consultations and reviews. The
results of the preparatory work were presented at the scanning workshop by the respective
experts in three domains. This was followed by the presentations by invited international
speakers with the focus on the some domains. A list of trends was generated based on all the
presentations and through a brainstorming session by using the STEEPV framework to address
different aspects of water resources. The list of trends generated is presented below (Tables 1-6).
10
Table 1. Social trends
Water challenges for the poorest people are persisting. Problems with sanitation and waterborne
diseases
Health impacts of water treatment technologies (e.g. use of chlorine and chlorine compounds
during the drinking water treatment)
Increasing risk of water-related conflicts between countries
Increasing demand for freshwater due to global population growth
Public and private ownership of water and water systems may go in conflict with human right to
water
Motivation for more rational use of water (not to be considered as somebody’s own or free good)
A significant part of the World population does not have an access to a stable water supply,
which creates environmental refugees (i.e., North Africa) and water terrorism
Russia’s trends
The quality of drinking water in water supply systems in Russia and post-Soviet countries often
do not meet sanitary standards and raises consumer concern. A significant part of the population
use household filters or buys bottled water
Absence of water-supply and organized water disposal in significant number of the Russian
settlements. In some cities water supply is available only several hours per day
Increasing demand for water in Russia. It has already decreased almost two times over the last 10
years (~from 300-380 to 180-200 liters per person per day) while it is constantly increasing
around the world (European level is 120-150 liters). This is largely a result of introducing
metering systems and widespread installation of modern plumbing
Table 2. Technological trends
Increasing efficiency of water use through technologies for water saving. Technologies for
treatment and recycling of water and promotion of zero-discharge
Increasing availability of water cleaning and filtering technologies
The implementation of centralized information systems for measuring resource use (beyond
meters)
The widespread use of smart metering and payment technologies to enable variable tariffs for
different users
Differentiation of water supply technologies for small settlements and big cities. The challenge of
water supply in rural areas and poor cities’ suburbs still exists: a connection to major water pipes
and water treatment systems becomes very expensive, small-scale systems usually cannot provide
a similar level of water quality
Increasing efficiency of irrigation technologies
Technologies enabling 100% water desalination for drinking purposes. Quick cost-cutting of
desalination technologies and processes enhances rising demand for desalinated water
Solar desalination has already allowed to decrease costs of desalinated water twofold and there
are strong estimates that there are additional possibilities to cut the price further down as much as
3-4 times
Membranes continuously replace chemicals. Particularly forward osmosis technology is a new
promising form of water desalination and treatment
In regular water purification, chlorine will be gradually replaced by Ultra Violet (UV)
disinfection
A volume of water that evaporates from reservoirs exceeds world domestic and industrial water
withdrawal. Evaporation challenge makes countries build mid-scale reservoirs and develop
chemical covers and leak proof puddles
Water resources consumption is increasing due to increased energy consumption. Thus the most
promising and cost-efficient technologies are combo water-energy solutions based on water re-
11
use in the energy sector
Nuclear desalination for small and mid-sized reactors becomes one of the most attractive
«tandems» in water-energy nexus
Russia’s trends
Insufficient wastewater treatment in the majority of Russia’s industrial enterprises and utilities
leads to the deterioration of water facilities. The deterioration of the Russian water supply-
disposal infrastructure exceeds 60%, which causes relatively low technological efficiency and
higher number of accidents. It is necessary to replace about 5% of pipeline routes per year, while
in Russia a little more than one percent is being replaced
Table 3. Economic trends
Greater competition in goods and services in the water market
Design of new, more customized business models in water management. For example: due to
limited water availability in San Paolo 60% of companies in textile moved to other regions
Wider application of future-oriented risk analysis of water-dependent sectors
Priority development of water-intensive sectors
Wider application of techniques for mapping and measuring the level of government investment
Increasing availability of financing for industrial and urban water cleaning
Increasing water export and trade of ‘virtual water’ between water-supply and water-deficit
countries
Water-consuming shale gas extraction and hydraulic fracturing turn into a broadly discussed issue
because water stressed countries search for alternatives
As far as world business leaders pay more attention to water management and use it as a PR tool,
eco-friendly water treatment and use will soon provide an extra market value for firms
In developing countries the water sector ranks third in investment attractiveness in infrastructure
after transport and energy
Russia’s trends
Adoption of long-term tariffs (starting 2016) for water supply-disposal services in Russia.
Although this is a positive development, it is insufficient to make the water sector attractive for
investments as frozen tariffs may not be desirable
The Russian water sector has some positive improvements in the performance of measures with a
short pay-off period, e.g., energy service contracts related to the installation of private meters and
optimization of the hydrodynamic modes of payment in order to save money on electricity bills
In Russia there are institutional problems in the water supply to apartment houses after the switch
to metering systems. After the apartment owners purchase the meter for the entire apartment
house, water supply companies loose access to it
Russia’s water utility enterprises debts steadily grow due to decreasing tariff revenues and
inadequate presentation of technological losses
12
Table 4. Environmental trends
Increasing pollution of water basins rivers, ground water, etc., especially in the developing and
under-developed countries
Climate change, desertification, and ice caps melting. Higher frequency of extreme weather
phenomena, floods, droughts.
Widespread adoption of the 0-discharge concept, i.e. no water is discharged to rivers, but
repeatedly treated and re-used
Critical levels of groundwater around industrial areas
The number of people who are under the risk of flood is gradually increasing
In Asia 90% of disasters are related to water
Increasing concerns related to transboundary water pollution
The deterioration of hydraulic structures and reservoirs increase the risk of disasters especially in
flooding periods
Environment unfriendly virtual water flows (national, international and global trade transfers
water from [often dry] rural areas to higher population urban centers)
New canals, dams and reservoirs provide water for economic use but at the same time, a
displacement of huge amounts of water can destroy local fisheries, farming, and traditional
recreation zones.
Russia’s trends
In Russia and post-Soviet countries insufficient water treatment leads to serious environmental
consequences
Chinese market opens up for Russian water products
Increasing threat of water deficit for Russia’s Eastern water basins due to large consumption by
the neighboring China’s industries
Seasonal changes in water supply (e.g. water accidents in Central Russia)
The excess rate of groundwater spending compared with the rate of replenishment. The
exhaustion of groundwater gradually becomes a threat to sustainable water supply in some
regions.
Increasing volume open waste water in cities with ‘micro-pollutants’ (i.e. rain water from cities
containing chemicals including medical waste, used cosmetics, dyes) pollute water sources.
Table 5. Political trends
Although governments are often involved in water regulation (in particular, through strategy-
making and promoting innovations), the public sector is usually slow in catching up on trends
(for example, Brazil missed such an opportunity and now imports all the equipment for water
treatment from China, Finland)
Increased competition for water in transboundary river basins are characterized by escalation of
tensions in political relations and even water-related conflicts
Privatization of water supply companies
Multiple water stakeholder collaboration
Service policies for big/small towns
Introduction of new normative and tariff policies with diversified regulation
Changes in the legal basis for water management
Russia’s trends
Critically low cost of water supply and disposal services in Russia and post-Soviet countries
Water supply-disposal companies’ tariff regulation in Russia and other post-Soviet countries is
often normative (heavily influenced by the government)
Development potential of public-private partnership as competition for the monopoly market.
Currently, the market share of private water supply operators exceeds 20%. However, it has not
13
led to significant changes
Table 6. Value / Cultural trends
Changing lifestyles and water consumption patterns. Increasing quality of life is usually
considered to be associated with higher water consumption
Changing attitudes towards state policy and complying with it
Water is considered to be a free good, a gift of nature, especially in rural communities that do not
have water meters. It leads to a permanent wasteful water use and will eventually lead to local
crisis situations
Russia’s trends
Irrational water resources use for industry and agriculture in Russia in comparison with the
European Union and the USA gradually creates water resources deficit, escalated in several
regions of the country
Following the discussion on the trends in each category, the participants of the workshop
were invited to prioritize the topics for further elaboration. During the first round of discussion
and prioritization a total of 25 trends were prioritized out of 60 presented above. The shortened
list included 9 trends related to sustainability of water supply systems; 7 trends for water use by
households and industry; and 9 trends for new water services and products. These are elaborated
further in the next sections of the paper. Following the descriptions through a second round of
prioritization, three trends were selected under each domain, which will be given in a table at the
end of each section below.
4.1 Sustainability of water systems
It is projected that global water demand will increase dramatically in the future (by
55% in 2050 in comparison with the level in year 2000). This will require makes water sector to
rank third by the volume of attracted infrastructure investment after transport and energy. World
Health Organizations (WHO) study for quantifying the impact of projects aimed at advancing
water quality, identified the main economic benefits of investments in drinking water
purification. The overall gain projected by the WHO equals to USD 84 bln per annum. The
breakdown of the key impacts from achieving the MDGs for water and sanitation are presented
below in Table 6 [Hutton, Haller, 2004].
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Table 7. Overall benefits of achieving the MDGs for water and sanitation
Types of benefits
Monetized benefits (in USD)
Time saved by improving water
and sanitation services
USD 63 billion a year
Productivity savings
USD 9,9 billion a year
Health-care savings
USD 7 billion a year for health
agencies
USD 340 million for individuals
Value of deaths averted, based on
discounted future earnings
USD 3,6 million a year
Total benefits
USD 84 billion a year
Sources: [OECD, 2010; Prüss-Üstün et al., 2008; Hutton, Haller, 2004].
The main difficulty on the way to a more efficient water use is the insufficient volume of
investments in the water sector. The main difficulty in attracting investments is that despite the
expected high returns, investor and beneficiary are usually different persons. As one may
conclude from the Table 6, the added value of the water investments is gained not only by end
users, but the society as a whole; the government saves money on emergency costs, tourism is
advancing, healthcare system becomes more efficient. It is nearly impossible to channel these
benefits in the form of dividends to a particular investor.
There is a growing need for investment in global water infrastructure that surpasses
similar cumulative investments in traditional physical infrastructure (roads, railways,
telecommunication and energy distribution). This is due to the prolonged exploitation and the
lack of ongoing recovery of water basins (especially in cases of ponds and agricultural sector
reservoirs), the deterioration of hydraulic engineering units, and siltation of water reservoirs.
Data for several world regions indicate that in the course of the last 40 years the rate of
groundwater consumption has surpassed the rate of its replenishment. The groundwater
depletion is gradually becoming a threat to sustainability of water supply in some regions: it has
doubled and reached approximately 280 kilometer cubed in 2000 (for comparison: in 1960 that
figure was about 130 cubic kilometers). For instance, greater ground water use at the coastal
areas leads to groundwater salinization, which complicates their use for drinking water supply
[Wada et al, 2012].
Natural disasters pose a substantial threat to many countries. It is expected the number
of people who are under the risk of flood will increase from 1.2 in 2010 to 1.6 bln in 2050, and
the economic value of assets under the risk of flood will rise by 340% (up to 45 trln USD) during
15
the same period. Moreover, the frequency of extreme weather phenomena, floods, droughts are
expected to be higher due to climate change [OECD, 2012a] and this requires creation of a
system of sustainable water supply in the regions mostly affected by fluctuations, i.e. water
storage facilities as well as water pipelines should secure water needs in suffered regions.
Accidental water pollutions, such as unauthorized discharge, pipeline breakouts, and
accidents at oil wells are often complimented by the so-called ‘micro-pollutants’ (i.e., medical
waste, used cosmetics, dyes) that accumulate at water sources gradually. Insufficient
wastewater treatment in the majority of industrial enterprises and utilities is yet another reason
for the deterioration of water facilities and eventual pollution.
Sustainability of water systems is an important factor for preserving water ecosystems
and fishery stock: among negative impacts are nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers from crop
fields, eutrophication processes. OECD notes that badly designed agricultural and fisheries
subsidies could further stress land, water and ecosystems.
Water is scarce and water basins and systems are not always within boundaries of one
country. The transboundary nature of water basins have important consequences for their
governance and may lead to political tensions and non-efficient distribution of water resources
[United Nations, 2013a]. Mesopotamia, Nile, and Amu Derya basins can be considered among
the most vulnerable areas for conflict [Peek, 2014]. Imbalance, and eventual problems, in the
distribution of water resources are observed within the boundaries of individual countries too,
such is in the Amazon basin. Substantial differentiation between groups of countries occurs in
the rational water use (quantitative attributes) and the condition of water resources (qualitative
attributes) [Soncini-Sessa, 2007]. OECD member-countries show positive dynamics in indicators
reflecting both rational water use and condition of water resources, unlike other groups of
countries, including the BRICS [OECD, 2012a].
Furthermore, we note the absence of regulations and mechanisms for the functioning
of the water market in the (inter)national distribution of water-intensive products manufacture,
and diversion of runoff.
Improved water management is essential to regulate competition for water needs
among urban and rural regions, industries, energy producers, and ecosystems. In the absence of
proper water management, water availability may become a major problem already in 20 to 30
years from now leading to lost opportunities, health and environmental damage [OECD, 2012a].
Among the persistent problems of water resources management is weak management of water
basins, including incomplete set of criteria used for taking decisions on the distribution of water
resources among users.
16
The key trends in sustainable water systems are related to climate change, non-efficient
water resources distribution and water management (Table 7).
17
Table 8. Trends in sustainable water systems
Contribution
Trends
Climate change
Higher frequency of extreme weather phenomena (floods, droughts,
tsunami) deterioration of hydraulic structures, siltation of reservoir, for
ex. increased number of people and volumes of property under the risk
of flood
Negative impacts on water ecosystems, fishery, fishery, agriculture,
water transport sector, etc.
Problems with natural groundwater replenishment
Non-efficient
distribution of water
resources
Increased demand for water around the world due to growing
population and economic growth, leads to increasing competition for
limited water resources. Lack of effective market institutions lead to
inefficient allocation of water resources among different industries
and sectors of economy, between countries for trans-boundary water
basins and between (groups of) people
Growing share of world population with lack of access to drinking
water and appropriate water disposal
Lack of international regulation and mechanisms for ‘virtual water’
trade
Water management
The rate of groundwater use does not march the rate of its
replenishment
Ineffective control over water pollution leads to water contamination,
including ‘micro-pollutants’ (i.e., medical waste, used cosmetics, dyes)
Lack of investment in water infrastructure
Deterioration of hydraulic structures and siltation of reservoirs
4.2. Water use by households and industry
A substantial part of the world population does not have access to clean water and/or
water disposal systems (a pre-requisite for proper sanitation). In the course of the past 10 years,
we have seen an increase in global water demand and consumption. During this period an
opposite trend was observed in Russia. The sales volume of water-sewage utilities has decreased
nearly twofold. This is partly a consequence of the introduction of own water use systems by
large industrial consumers, and a result of widespread installation and meters and modern
plumbing equipment in housing sector. Thus, average water consumption by households in
Russia has gone down from over 300 liters per person per day (in Moscow from 380 liters) to
180-200 liters. However, there is still some way to go to reach the level of European average -
120-150 liters per person per day [Russian Federal State Statistics Service, 2013].
While in developed countries there are growing concerns over the renewal of main
water supply and disposal infrastructure, in the New Independent States (NIS) of Eastern and
Central Europe and Central Asia (EECA) (including some parts of Russia), the quality of
drinking water in water supply systems often does not meet sanitary standards and raises
18
consumer concerns (a significant part of the population use household filters or buying bottled
water). Consequently, in the NIS EECA countries there is a growing number of cities where
waste waters undergo at best only mechanical purification, and in many cities clean water is
supplied only in certain hours.
Unlike energy, manufacturing, and housing, irrigation is expected to suffer
dramatically from structural changes in water consumption. Considering that in the next 35
years the overall water demand is projected to increase by 55% and 40% of the world’s
population are projected to live in water-stressed areas [OECD, 2012a: 208] by 2050 there will
be much less water left for irrigation, as it will compete with other human needs.
Today we see wide industrial application of new water treatment technologies with use of
low pressure membrane technologies (i.e. in secondary use in Singapore, desalination in Israel,
etc.). Compared to other technologies with the same effect (i.e. biomimetic nanosystems), these
technologies have the biggest scale of use. They are widely discussed at business and research
fora
5
and by specialized research centers
6
. The greatest installed volume as of 2008 has occurred
in the Americas (44% in the US), 19% in Europe (including Eastern Europe and a few in
neighboring states), and 23% in the Pacific Rim [Furukawa, 2008]. In 2012, the US Department
of the Interior published experimental results of a data-driven analysis to evaluate the technical
and economic factors that impact lifecycle costs for low-pressure (microfiltration and
ultrafiltration) membranes. The researchers quantified differences in the fouling propensity for
an alumina ceramic and a polyethersulfone (PES) polymeric ultrafiltration membrane [Guerra,
Pellegrino, 2012]. Generally these technologies are expensive and only cost-effective if
payments for water use are sufficient to cover the costs. For instance, the cost of water supply
and disposal services in Russia and NIS EECA countries is critically low, which often leads to
bankruptcy of the water supply enterprises, especially in towns / small settlements. Water cubic
meter in the Russian water supply system costs less than RUB 30 (in 2013), which is cheaper
than a half liter bottled water.
Furthermore, water tariff regulation methods applied to water supply and wastewater
disposal companies in NIS EECA countries is often done based on political (social) rather than
economic considerations. For example, in calculating expenditures the companies take into
consideration normative losses (instead of not actual losses). This distorts the real picture: if
losses are insignificant, why upgrading the networks?
5
Such as the conference “Advanced Membrane Technology VI: Water, Energy, and New Frontiers” (ECI
Conference Series) to be held in February 2015 in Italy.
6
Such as UNESCO Center for Membrane Science and Technology at the University of New South Wales,
Australia.
19
Trends in individual and industrial water use could be grouped into those, related to water
infrastructure and tariff policy, those liked with investment policy and institutional ones (Table
8).
Table 9. Trends in household and industrial water use
Contribution
Trends
Water infrastructure
and tariff policy
Ineffective policy instruments or implementation oversight lead to
industrial enterprises discharging wastewater outside proper disposal
systems. Lack of funds for renewal of main water supply and disposal
infrastructure
Scale optimisation of water supply enterprises and their activities (to
overcome the inefficiency of water services in small towns and
settlements)
Most countries face the need to renovate (replace) capital equipment,
both production and infrastructural
The price of water supply and wastewater disposal in Russia and the
former Soviet countries is extremely low
Tariff regulation of water supply and wastewater treatment in Russia
and the former Soviet countries has political (rather than economic)
reasoning
Wasteful water consumption patterns among population and
households
Investment policy
Advancement of public-private partnerships (developing countries) and
public sector borrowing (developed countries)
In Russia the 10 years of PPP experience there is no statistically
significant difference in enterprises’ performance as compared to other
institutional alternatives
Remunipalization of water supply and disposal enterprises in Europe
Institutions
«Regionalization» of water business: horizontal vs vertical
Institutional problems in the water supply to multi-apartment houses,
including metering and connection to water supply systems by
developers
20
4.3 New water products and services
Researchers note slow evolution of water use culture, which implicitly defines a wide
range of aspects within water use among households. Even the developed countries apply a
combination of measures, including tariff regulation and intense PR and awareness rising
campaigns promoting water-friendly equipment (for example double-splash toilets) to change
water-use practices. Given the global urbanization trend this cultural aspect plays a continuously
growing role.
The use of chlorine and chlorine compounds during the drinking water treatment in some
countries (including many Russian cities) increase the risk of morbidity. However for least-
developed economies implementation of basic treatment (even individual chlorine purification)
and development of simplest irrigation systems could have a profound effect on economic
growth and contribute to a better healthcare.
The costs of access to clean water increases in many countries around the world
following the escalation of water stress. For an individual, water use it means lower quality of
life and there is a high degree of uncertainty associated with the establishment of property rights
on water. For municipal water use it means that rural areas and slums are weak competitors for
scarce water resource, and it poses a huge social problem. Among industrial and agricultural
water users enhanced cross-industrial competition for water creates a need for higher
productivity. Technology solutions aimed at resolution of this challenge are directed towards
design of new less water-intensive production processes and equipment.
There is a direct relation between financial support (mainly credits, but also grants)
provided by international financial institutions and the requirement for privatization of water
services. It may create substantial social risks (which have to be carefully evaluated) in
developing countries with large share of poor population. The most famous example is a so
called Water war in Cochabmba, in Bolivia [Olivera, Cochamabma, 2003; Nickson, Vargas,
2002; Spronk, 2007].
Developing countries face the operating costs vs. capital expenditures dilemma: in the
past years many of them have gradually raised water tariffs. However, this additional money is
spent to cover growing operating costs. Thus it creates an endless circle: obsolete water
capacities require higher operating expenses and money gained from tariff` increase is not used
to make capital investments to modernize the water supply systems. Freezing of tariffs, in
contrast, makes water sector unattractive for investors.
The trade of real water between waterrich and water-poor countries is usually
impossible due to long distances and associated high costs, while the trade of ‘virtual water’
21
happens often. The 'Virtual water' contained in the product, first introduced by Tony Allan in
1993 [Allan, 1993; 1994], is the water used for the production of an agricultural or industrial
product. Thus, if a country exports a water-intensive product, one may say that it exports virtual
water. In this way some countries satisfy the water needs of other countries [Hoekstra, 2002].
Most importantly, virtual water may become an alternative source of water, but it needs to be
wisely used. The current trend is international trade of virtual water (in the form of water
intensive products) between water-scarce and water-rich countries. However, it is often the case
that national, international and global trade transfers water from (often dry) rural areas to higher
population urban centers. The existing studies estimate global virtual water trade between
nations to be from 1340×109 m3 (in 2000) to 683×109 m3 per year [Hoekstra and Hung, 2002,
2003; Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2003; Oki et al., 2003]. These important developments make
researchers talk about the water footprint [see for ex., Ercin, Hoekstra, 2014; Mekonnen,
Hoekstra, 2011]. The virtual water consumption by industry and agriculture is presented in Table
9.
22
Table 10: Actual and virtual water consumption in selected countries, 2006-2014
* Worldometers, 2014, annualized from. Jan 1-Nov 6, 2014, UN statistics.
Sources: [Gleick et al., 2011]
What is important indeed is the dawn of the actual (not virtual) water trade. Pure water
seems to become a tradable good in this century. Experts expect that in the middle of 21st century
fresh water from the lake Baikal may replace petroleum in the structure of Russian exports. This
may be the threat for sustainability if greed prevails over rationality.
The climate change makes dry areas become dryer and warmer, and other regions,
especially tropical ones, face more frequent and large-scale floods. Another consequence of
climate change is higher probability of natural disasters: since the 1950s, the number of natural
disasters has risen exponentially and water-related disasters (either droughts or floods) represent
more than one third of the total. This challenge requires considerable adaptation of existing
water systems building new reservoirs, improving flood management and developing anti-
evaporation and leak-proof technologies.
The abovementioned UN resolution on human right to water and sanitation is a great
human rights achievement, and, at the same time, a limitation for market mechanisms of water-
pricing and intensive privatization as advised by the World Bank. For many developing
countries, the World Bank funds represent a unique opportunity to renovate their obsolete water
systems. For instance, in Bolivia, Philippines and Tanzania quick liberalization of water industry
23
led to serious conflicts between poor population and local authorities. Thus, a human right to
water may represent a constraint for investors.
Developing countries face the biggest challenges in water use and management almost
all of them experience water shortage, deteriorating environment and fast urbanization. China
and other developing countries have to solve several problems simultaneously: develop large-
scale infrastructure projects, establish or modernize municipal water systems and increase water
sector productivity. At the same time those countries ought to rebalance their water use structure
and upgrade respective institutional regulations for national and trans-boundary basins.
Developed countries are the major producers of water-related technological innovations
and have the most advanced water-use policies. This is true for Europe (European Water
initiative), Asia (with Singapore best-practices) and North America (International Joint
commission that manages US-Canadian Great Lakes). Groundbreaking water treatment and
recycling technologies and eco-neutral infrastructure projects represent the main focus of
innovative water technologies in those countries.
The main principle of the water sector organization is conservatism, given its social
implications. Internationally there are various legal forms that water supply and wastewater
disposal enterprises assume. In developed countries public enterprises dominate the picture:
“German model” with joint-stock companies, usually owned by local authorities;
French model” with high share of public-private partnerships;
England model” with water supply infrastructure privatized on the basin principle (not
by the settlement principle).
Furthermore, in continental Europe investments in the sector are usually attracted through
public borrowings (i.e. municipal bonds), even in the case of public-private partnerships (PPP).
The reason for this is rather pragmatic: public borrowing is cheaper than private. Of fundamental
importance is that investments are rarely made from the current budget and loans are paid back
due to economic activity of the water supply enterprises [Mandri-Perrott, Striggers, 2013].
In developing countries the main burden usually lies on the PPP contracts and private
investment (due to high risk of budgetary borrowings) [World Economic Forum, 2005].
The overview of the state-of the art allowed us to narrow the research focus of the three
topics on the following issues.
Policy makers should be aware of the way we have dealt with water use both historically
and in the present. These insights are a good basis for assessments of water use by industry and
households and water restrictions that feed into the new water management programs. By
mapping water use and comparing it to economic value we can see where this limited resource
24
is of most benefit to us. Moreover, it is necessary to monitor the flow of water from environment
to the economy and back [Australian Bureau for Statistics, 2012].
The problem of scale optimization of water supply enterprises activities is common for
many countries. In small settlements (towns) limited scale of activities leads to the lack of
managerial and technical competence and to high unit costs (coupled with lower consumers'
purchase power). In the European Union scale optimization is solved through establishing
horizontal links, either by creating one inter-municipal company in several settlements through
the merger of assets (e.g. Poland, and the Czech Republic), or by conducting inter-municipal
competition for selection of a private operator for several municipal institutions (e.g. Romania).
Some recent developments point to a "remunicipalization" of the public services sector,
including water, that we may soon see in the European Union.
Emerging trends related to water products and services were classified by their main
contribution. These trends are linked to either solutions increasing productivity or the volume of
water resources, or aim to physically reallocate existing volumes of water. Trends in water
products and services could be grouped into those that are aimed at attaining higher productivity
as compared with existing solutions, provide users with additional resources and offer
infrastructure solutions (Table 10).
25
Table 11. Trends in new water products and services
Contribution
Trends
Higher productivity
• Combo hydro-energy technologies
Water-saving technologies (bio-gas recovery systems, water meters,
ultrasonic sludge pre-treatment, pipe rehabilitation and relining systems, and
water derivative products like water-free toilets)
Increased competition from Asia (especially China) in higher-end of water
products and services
Extra-resources
Desalination (new methods, solar and nuclear options)
Treatment (UV and membranes versus Chlorine and other chemicals)
Infrastructure
solutions
• Multifunctional dams
• Small and mid-sized water reservoirs, chemical covers and leak proof puddles
• Country–wide channels
26
5. Weak Signals and Wild Cards
The main trends that were identified above are the likely developments of the global
water resources. However, they could be diverted or completely reversed by certain factors,
which seem unlikely or are little known at present weak signals and wild cards [Saritas, Smith,
2011]. The weak signals and wild cards, identified in the project, range from big ocean current
shifts to pandemics that radically change water demand practices (Table 11).
Table 12. Weak signals and wild cards in the project’s thematic areas
Weak signals
Wild cards
Sustainable water
systems
Water loss/contamination in
aging urban pipes
Nuclear accidents
contaminated aquatic food
webs in Chernobyl and
Fukushima
“Freaky weather,” like drought
in nations’ breadbaskets (i.e.
California)
“Freakish” aquatic life:
intersex fish, mutant frogs and
toxic shellfish
Catastrophic contamination of drinking
water (e.g., by fracking or radiation)
Exotic pollutants bypass water
treatment (e.g., medicine, nanotech,
pathogen)
Big ocean currents shift, changing
climate & weather across continents
Hydrosphere geo-engineering (e.g.,
refilling Lake Chad, Dead Sea, and
depleted aquifers)
Individual and
industrial water use
Illegal water taps continue in
urban slums
The World miss UN
sustainable development goal
(SDG) for sanitation
Thousands dying of Ebola in
West Africa how many
collected water for their
families?
Society rejects cost to give or sustain
clean water for everyone everywhere
Back to basics:” demand drops for
bottled water and virtual water-intensive
products
Pandemic changes water demands, limits
water operating & maintenance capacity
Hydro-hegemons assert power or
hydro-terrorists act (e.g., IS in Iraq
now)
Decentralized/on-site water harvesting,
treatment & reuse becomes viable
Hydrosphere geo-engineering (e.g.,
refilling Lake Chad, Dead Sea, depleted
aquifers)
Water products and
services
Hegemons have ignored
water-sharing treaties and
threatened international
violence vs. neighbors
Energy-for-water trading or water
cartels become economically and
politically viable
“Hot” superpower war disrupts global
trade, SDG investment and development
aid
Hydrogen fuel cells’ proliferate, with
pure water as byproduct
Source: [Sklarew, 2015].
No matter how improbable weak signals and wild cards seem, all of them are based on
certain signals that need to be assessed. In mathematical models the probability of the
phenomena occurrence may be calculated. For instance, extreme weather phenomena (i.e.
27
droughts, tsunami) are already predicted by private and state agencies based on satellite and
other data with the use of special software.
6. Conclusions: implications for Russia, discussion and next steps
Based on the above analysis we conclude that the three topics identified for our study are
complementary and overlap in a number of issues, including the impact of climate change and
its consequences, the limitations to virtual and actual water consumption that require water-
saving and water-reuse solutions and the differences in approaches to water management in
different country groupings.
First of all, it can be said that Russia has sufficient water supply. The overall intake of
water for drinking and economic purposes in Russia amounts to 3% of the total water resources
2/3 of which are discarded back to water bodies as discharge water. The country is among those
with sufficient water supply with a little less than 20,000 m3 of water per person per year (the
UN Economic Commission for Europe defines countries with poor water supply as those with
less than 17,000 thousand m3 per person per year) [UNESCO, 2012a].
The water management measures target difficulties related to housing and sustainable
development. The comprehensive policies should cover tariffs, infrastructure, investments and
institutions. Every trend listed in this paper is linked to a set of related water management issues.
The specific products and services that may address the main trends and help solve the
existing challenges are related to advancements of infrastructure, increasing the volume of water
resources used (through previously unavailable resources or though re-use of existing stock) and
their productivity.
Through our analysis we have identified five major challenges mentioned below for
implementation of water-tech innovations in Russia and trends that create new opportunities for
Russia.
A key systemic restriction in water use for the next decades relates to competition
between agriculture, energy, biofuel production and water use. Given that the amount of
renewable water resources is almost fixed and even decreases because of pollution,
comprehensive solutions for water development will be required.
Drop irrigation turns into an imperative. This technology may entail a substantial
decrease of costs due to high demand in new farmlands in Africa owned by Chinese, Indian and
Middle East investors.
The challenge of water supply in rural areas and poor city suburbs is especially evident in
large countries, like Russia: a connection to major water pipes and water treatment systems
28
becomes very expensive and small-scale systems typically cannot provide a similar level of
water quality. A substantial part of Russian settlements do not have a water supply and disposal
system.
While the Russian water sector is not very attractive for investors. The Russian water
sector has significantly less lobbying opportunities than other infrastructure sectors, which
complicates its institutional and financial positions. Meanwhile, there have been some positive
changes with regard to activities with a short pay-off period. In particular, it concerns the
widespread of energy service contracts related to the installation of private meters and
optimization of the hydrodynamic payment modes, the costs of which are covered due to
electricity bills savings.
There are three steps that will be undertaken in the project next. First, a set of scenarios
will be developed. Future scenarios for Water Resources will explore the alternative future for
Water Resources. This phase will involve the analysis of existing water scenarios produced by a
number of international organizations. First a set of synthesis scenarios will be developed based
on the common assumptions of scenario sets. These will be used as a background for developing
future scenarios for Water Resources in Russia. The scenario phase will be completed with the
development of a vision. Second, strategies will be formed. Following the development of future
visions and targets, the study will then focus on strategies and roadmaps for achieving that
desirable future. Promising science and technology areas, and policy and strategy advice will be
the main outcomes of this third phase. Third, the project team will proceed to dissemination and
evaluation activities. This phase will be concerned with the generation of scientific, policy and
educational outputs, awareness raising and reporting. An evaluation study will be undertaken to
assess the work done and to develop ways of improving the practice and impact for the future
activities to be undertaken by the Center for Advanced Studies.
Acknowledgements
We would like to sincerely thank the following people, who were instrumental in conducting the
research, presented in the paper: Anastasia Likhacheva, Mikhail Kozeltsev, and Sergey Sivaev
from the Higher School of Economics; Dann Sklarew from George Mason University (USA),
Anumita Raj from the Strategic Foresight Group (India); Dmitry Vazagashvili and Anna
Ryzheva from RENOVA group of companies; Ilya Guzeev from “Rossiyskye Kommunalnye
Systemy”.
29
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© Saritas, Proskuryakova, Kyzyngasheva, 2015
... We began from global trends, or megatrends, analysis because it sets the frame for further research and for the timeline building and wild card identification (Mikova & Sokolova, 2014). Global trends generally represent gradual forces, factors and patterns that are pervasively causing change in society (Saritas & Smith, 2011;Ena et al., 2016;Saritas, Proskuryakova, 2017). We used the expanded version of the PEST classification from environmental scanning research, sometimes also referred to as the STEP classification (Hiltunen 2008; Carr and Nanni 2009). ...
... We began from global trends, or megatrends, analysis because it sets the frame for further research and for the timeline building and wild card identification (Mikova & Sokolova, 2014). Global trends generally represent gradual forces, factors and patterns that are pervasively causing change in society (Saritas & Smith, 2011;Ena et al., 2016;Saritas, Proskuryakova, 2017). We used the expanded version of the PEST classification from environmental scanning research, sometimes also referred to as the STEP classification (Hiltunen 2008; Carr and Nanni 2009). ...
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industry foresight, textile and apparel industry, wild cards, timelines, global technological trends
... 4 (2017), andSaritas et al. (2015). Building upon the trends, drivers, and wild cards 5 identified there, the present study designs and elaborates on the future scenarios and 6 strategies for water resources in Russia. ...
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... This method was widely applied in studies of energy sector and particularly renewable energy domain [Zhang et al., 2013; Blaabjerg, Ionel, 2015; Froggatt, Schneider, 2015]. The STEEPV framework was used to structure identified trends and ensure that a broad range of them are covered [Saritas et al., 2015]. The set of categories is intended to be sufficiently wide-ranging and comprehensive to consider a wide variety of inter-related and inter-dependent issues in the energy sector. ...
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