Article

Work and Family Plans Among At-Risk Israeli Adolescents: A Mixed-Methods Study

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Abstract

Quantitative methods were used to investigate attributions of importance to work and family roles and anticipated work-family conflict and facilitation among 353 at-risk Israeli male and female adolescents. Qualitative interviews conducted with 26 of the at-risk youth explored future work and family perceptions. Findings indicated that both sexes anticipated greater facilitation than conflict and demonstrated little exploration and unsophisticated understanding of the work domain. However, perceptions of family were very salient. Females' exploration of family roles was widespread. Both genders understood work as a means to financially support the family. At-risk adolescents' work-family thinking differed meaningfully from descriptions of mainstream youngsters. Implications for career interventions and research with at-risk adolescents are considered.

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... This perception is critical in individuals' identity construction and in their career development (Bandura, 2001;Nurmi, 1991). Cinamon and her collaborators (e.g., Cinamon & Rich, 2014;Michael, Most, & Cinamon, 2011) stated the term "future perceptions" encompass the process of preparing and building the future in diverse roles (e.g., family, work, and the association between them). They also argued that future perceptions involve the degree and intensity of clarity with which the future is conceptualized, future beliefs or expectations, and the emotions (extent of excitement and stress) emerging from contemplating the future. ...
... In general, gender is important to consider when trying to comprehend young adults' future expectations and perceptions (e.g., Cinamon & Rich, 2014). As discussed in the social cognitive theory of gender, gender role conceptions are influenced by a diverse range of sociocultural and environmental mechanisms and experiences, which impact and shape different aspects of a person's life (Bussey & Bandura, 1999). ...
... Research on youth's future plans indicates most male and female teenagers, and young adults expected to have families and be employed (e.g., Cinamon & Rich, 2014). Women, in contrast to men, however, tended to place greater importance on family roles (Cinamon & Rich, 2002), while men focused on their careers (Gati & Perez, 2014;Seginer, 2009). ...
Article
Future perceptions consist of an individual’s ambition, view of future events, and plan for life domains. Such perceptions can predict and shape a person’s career development and motivate to pursue and achieve goals in different life roles. Research on emerging adults’ perceptions has important implications for career professionals assisting this population. In this study, the authors investigated the future perceptions of 49 U.S. and 39 Israeli emerging adult university males using thematic analysis. Participants’ responses represented an array of topics and were grouped into the following themes: (a) work, (b) family and relationships, (c) education, (d) material and monetary assets, (e) location, (f) leisure, and (g) general quality of life. Results suggested that culture could be important in how emerging adult males envision their future lives and roles. Recommendations for how career educators and counselors can implement the findings in their work with U.S. and Israeli college students are discussed.
... Future perceptions include one's plans, ambitions, expectations, and concerns about possible events in different life domains in the near and far future (Seginer, 1988). Cinamon and colleagues (e.g., Cinamon & Rich, 2014;Michael, Most, & Cinamon, 2011) suggested that the term ''future perceptions'' relates to the process of preparation for and construction of the future in different role domains (e.g., work, family, and the relationship between them). They also claimed that future perceptions encompasses the intensity and degree of clarity in which the future is conceptualized, beliefs about the future (expectations), and the emotions (degree of stress and excitement) elicited by thinking about the future. ...
... In general, gender is an important topic for understanding young peoples' future perceptions and expectations (e.g., Cinamon & Rich, 2014). Research indicates that most female and male adolescents and young adults expect to work and have families (e.g., Seginer & Vermulst, 2002). ...
... Their responses usually involved hopes for a positive future. Previous studies on youths' future plans and perceptions reported similar results (e.g., Cinamon & Rich, 2014). However, the perception of what constitutes a positive future may be different in certain aspects for different groups. ...
Article
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The current study investigated the content of future perceptions among 47 U.S. women and 48 Israeli women. Thematic analysis was used to explore participants’ qualitative responses. Women’s responses covered a wide range of topics, and were categorized into ten key themes: (a) work, (b) family/relationships, (c) property, (d) residence, (e) education, (f) general quality of life, (g) leisure, (h) pro-social activities, (i) multiple role management, and (j) religion. Results demonstrated the role of nationality in the process of exploration and future perceptions. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
... Participants' future perceptions can be characterized by three elements that comprise the categories of this domain: optimism and simplicity, working mothers, and collectivistic aspirations. As in other studies on future perceptions of young people (e.g., Cinamon & Close, 2011;Cinamon & Rich, 2014;Fresko, Most, & Cinamon, 2011), their descriptions about their future were largely optimistic, focusing upon their wish to be working mothers that have it all: taking care of the children and the house, working out of the house, and contributing to the family's financial resources. Few mentioned their wish to continue studying for an M.A. or a Ph.D. ...
... Although participation in the labor market is not a common route for Arab women, and although the rate of unemployment is relatively high in Israel's Arab population, all of the women anticipated working, having no hesitations or doubts with regard to possible difficulties with their families or in being part of the labor market. As in other studies that focus upon at-risk Israeli adolescents (Cinamon & Rich, 2014) and upon religious American young adults (Cinamon & Close, 2011), and contrary to other studies focusing upon mainstream young adults (Cinamon, 2006(Cinamon, , 2010Westring & Ryan, 2011), they exhibit a lack of awareness of the complexity of blending work and family roles, or of the difficulties and challenges that exist in the labor market. Future conflicts between roles, such as difficulties in finding and maintaining a job, were not mentioned at all. ...
Article
The current study focuses on the conception of work and higher education among ten Israeli Arab women, enrolled in an undergraduate program of early childhood education. This qualitative study aims to explore the gap between women's career development in under-investigated cultures and career development assumptions traditionally reported in the literature. We explored the contextual aspects within Arab society that shape women's career development, as well as their own candid conceptions of their development. The content analysis of the interviews revealed various aspects of a long and arduous journey to the desired goal of becoming an educated working mother. Six domains were identified: studies, interpersonal relations, conflicts and difficulties, resources, decision-making processes, and future perceptions. Implications for practice and further research are discussed.
... This is an issue in many highly developed countries, including Finland, where nearly half of workers report work-family conflict (Kinnunen & Mauno, 1998). A study in Israel suggests that at-risk high school students are more inclined to emphasize family over career aspirations, whereas normally developing adolescents place a stronger emphasis on career aspirations (Cinamon & Rich, 2014). In sum, the family motive may hinder achievement, if students do not see how what they are learning at school will prepare them to contribute to the wellbeing of their family (Froiland, 2014). ...
... Although a student's parental involvement contributes to high school achievement in various ways (Froiland & Davison, 2014b), Finnish adolescents who think about their current or future family significantly more than others may not see how diligence at school connects to their family motive. This should be investigated further as the current finding is in accordance with recent evidence that lower achieving students put a greater emphasis on their future family than career aspirations in high school (Cinamon & Rich, 2014). In accordance with Reiss et al. (2001), we found further evidence that those high in the physical activity motive also have a higher family motive. ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies indicate that intrinsic motivation predicts academic achievement. However, relatively few have examined various subtypes of intrinsic motivation that predict overall achievement, such as motivation for exercise and physical activity. Based upon the 16 basic desires theory of personality, the current study examined the motives of 178 senior high school (gymnasium) students (mean age = 17.6, range = 16-20) from Finland, using the Reiss School Motivation Profile. In structural equation models that controlled for gender and age, intellectual curiosity was positively associated with achievement, whereas the family motive was negatively associated with achievement. Boys had a higher intellectual curiosity and a lower family motive than girls. The physical activity motive had a significant negative interaction with intellectual curiosity, such that youth with higher intellectual curiosity had the strongest achievement when their physical activity motive was lower. This suggests that adolescents with a strong desire for exercise may have some difficulty in selective high schools that require rigorous study and long hours of sitting, even when they enjoy learning. Implications for motivational theory, education research, physical education for promoting fitness, and school psychology practice are discussed.
... Thinking about the future is an important activity which may impact adolescent development in general (e.g., Erikson, 1968;Lewin, 1939), and their adaptation to adult roles in particular (e.g., Malmberg, Ehrman, & Lithén, 2005). Most of the research in the area of career development and future planning has focused on occupation, neglecting other important life domains (such as family) and the relationships between them (for a review see Cinamon & Rich, 2014). Furthermore, these studies have mainly tended to examine youth with typical hearing (e.g., Cinamon & Rich, 2014;Ellison, Yvette Wohn, & Greenhow, 2014;Rogers & Creed, 2011). ...
... Most of the research in the area of career development and future planning has focused on occupation, neglecting other important life domains (such as family) and the relationships between them (for a review see Cinamon & Rich, 2014). Furthermore, these studies have mainly tended to examine youth with typical hearing (e.g., Cinamon & Rich, 2014;Ellison, Yvette Wohn, & Greenhow, 2014;Rogers & Creed, 2011). The knowledge about career development and future perceptions of adolescents with hearing loss is limited, reducing professionals' ability to guide and foster their transition into adult roles. ...
Article
The current study examined the contribution of hearing loss, social affiliation, and career self-efficacy to adolescents' future perceptions. Participants were 191 11th and 12th grade students: 60 who were deaf, 36 who were deaf or hard of hearing, and 95 who were hearing. They completed the Future Perceptions Scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) Scale, and the Self-Efficacy for the Management of Work-Family Conflict Scale. Results indicated that participants who were deaf reported significantly higher levels of future clarity and intensity than the other groups. However, no significant differences were found in career self-efficacy. Hearing status and affiliation and the efficacy to manage future conflict between work and family roles were significant predictors of participants' future clarity. CDMSE was a significant predictor of future planning. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
... Hence, this reflexive process is an essential mechanism in the career development of the individual (Flum & Blustein, 2000). Research indicates that exploration processes during the period of emerging adulthood include the work role, the family role and concern regarding how to manage these two demanding roles (inter alia Cinamon, Gross, & Rich, 2013;Cinamon & Rich, 2014). Furthermore, anticipated work-family relations affect work and family choices (inter alia . ...
... Indeed, recent studies demonstrated the dominant role of work and family in the exploration process and future plans of Israeli adolescents and young adults, and the contribution of culture to this process. Cinamon and Rich (2014) investigated role salience and future plans of at risk Israeli Jewish male and female adolescents via mixed methods approach. Findings indicated that both sexes attribute high importance to both roles, work and family, and both of them anticipated greater facilitation than conflict between these roles. ...
Book
Full-text available
Perhaps no other challenge preoccupies governments and citizens in the Mediterranean region than the mass unemployment of young people, many of who have invested in higher education in the hope that ability and effort lead to fulfilling lives. Transitions to independent adulthood are, however, frustratingly long drawn-out, and often jeopardised by labour markets that are neither youth-friendly nor meritocratic. While such challenges require structural responses at the macro-economic level, career education and guidance have an important role to play in addressing both the public and private good, and in furthering the social justice agenda. This volume provides a state-of-the-art review of career education and guidance in Southern Europe and the Middle East and North Africa Region, presenting a multi-faceted portrayal of the situation in each country as well as overviews of cross-cutting themes that are especially relevant to context, such as women’s career development in the Arab states, job placement support for refugees, and the impact of faith on livelihood planning. “This book is a major achievement, focusing on a pivotal part of the world.” – Tony Watts, Cambridge, UK “This book challenges career guidance to truly think in a contextual, localised, plural and dialogical way. In providing an opportunity for the South to speak on its own terms it helps renew the field through different ways of thinking and doing career guidance.” – Marcelo Afonso Ribeiro, University of São Paulo, Brazil “This wonderful new book furnishes a way forward in helping people and communities establish practices that will support our natural striving for work that is decent, dignified, and meaningful.” – David L. Blustein, Boston College, USA “This book is packed with fresh ideas based on lucid arguments that draw from a substantial evidence base. This work is essential reading.” – Gideon Arulmani, The Promise Foundation, Bangalore, India “This publication is a must-read for every individual involved in policy, research and practice activities in the career guidance field.” – Rènette du Toit, Independent Research Services, South Africa
... The term "future perceptions" relates to the process of preparation for and construction of the future in different role domains (e.g. work, family, and relationship between them; Cinamon & Rich, 2014;Michael, Most, & Cinamon, 2011). Cinamon and Rich (2014) have also claimed that future perceptions encompass the intensity and degree of clarity by which the future is conceptualised, beliefs about the future (expectations), and the emotions (degree of stress and excitement) elicited by thinking about the future. ...
... work, family, and relationship between them; Cinamon & Rich, 2014;Michael, Most, & Cinamon, 2011). Cinamon and Rich (2014) have also claimed that future perceptions encompass the intensity and degree of clarity by which the future is conceptualised, beliefs about the future (expectations), and the emotions (degree of stress and excitement) elicited by thinking about the future. ...
Article
Guided by Social Cognitive Career Theory, this study investigated the future perceptions of Hong Kong female university students. Fifty-eight students completed a semi-structured questionnaire to better understand their beliefs, hopes, and visions about their future. The thematic analysis performed yielded 10 major future life themes in the participants’ responses: (a) work, (b) family, (c) roles and responsibilities, (d) romantic relationships, (e) values, (f) living situation, (g) quality of life, (h) status of education, (i) personal interests and hobbies, (j) finance, and (k) friendship. Findings from this study provide novel information on Hong Kong women’s future perceptions that may help career counsellors when constructing client goals and tasks aimed at exploring and fulfilling their future perceptions.
... As noted previously, because of the competition to complete education and find a job, young men especially may be at risk of a period of emerging adulthood and adulthood filled with problematic behaviors (Nelson, Duan, Padilla-Walker, & Luster, 2013;Wilsnack, Vogeltanz, Wilsnack, & Harris, 2000). Instead, other-related criteria such as norm compliance are more relevant for young women in particular during the age period of emerging adulthood, in which they start to consider the possibility of forming a family sooner than their male counterparts (Cinamon & Rich, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults.
... These should include any combination of the following: sufficient school support; child care provision for siblings or dependents at times during which girls direct their attention to their occupational future; actual quality jobs where they can accumulate positive experiences. Like Cinamon and Rich (2014), we emphasize that such resources go beyond the material. We need to involve mentors who will support the girls in bringing the workshop's content into their family relationships, which are particularly complex. ...
... Ahvenharju et al. (2018) state that, for instance, futurists often take a 'philosophical-speculative, methodological or pragmatic-instrumental point of view' (p.11) in order to create models with a normative stance or to predict behavior while scholars from 'psychology, sociology and anthropology have developed their own distinctive approaches' (p.3). Among those many concepts are Anticipation (Poli 2014), Consideration of Future Consequences (Strathman et al. 1994), Future Attitude (Godet 2006), Future Consciousness (Lombardo 2007(Lombardo , 2017Sande 1972;Ahvenharju et al. 2018), Future Memory (Ingvar 1985, Klein et al. 2011), Future Orientation (Trommsdorff 1983, Seginer 2009), Future Perception (Seginer 1988, Cinamon & Rich 2014, Future Time Perspective (Richter 2003, Lombardo 2007, Futures Literacy (Miller 2007), Long-term Orientation (Bearden et al. 2006), Projectivity (Mische 2009), Prospection (Seligman et al. 2013), (La) Prospective (Berger 1964, Godet & Roubelat 1996 and Time Perspective (Zimbardo & Boyd 1999). 1 Instead of browsing and analyzing existing literature only, an empirical approach was chosen in order to reveal mental models as unbiased as possible by theoretical underpinnings and existing scientific models. For that reason, no preliminary definition of future perception is given. ...
Chapter
Among the most relevant megatrends of today’s business and society are the fastmoving world, the accelerating development of technology and increasing complexity. All these environmental conditions have impact on the way humans perceive their future and how they prepare for it today. An increasingly velocious future leaves people and organizations with constantly decreasing time for preparation and a growing degree of uncertainty while the present itself becomes more and more irrelevant (Huyssen 2000).
... La literatura sobre el desarrollo profesional que incorpora el concepto de relaciones trabajo-familia ha recibido una gran atención en las investigaciones sobre elección relacionada con la carrera, agotamiento y desgaste. El concepto de relaciones trabajo-familia, que emana de la teoría del rol social, se ha articulado dentro de la teoría de la carrera para describir cómo las personas construyen identidades y se involucran en roles múltiples en el trabajo y los dominios familiares (Cinamon y Rich 2014). Desde un punto de vista de género, el conflicto afecta principalmente a la mujer, que sigue siendo la principal, y a veces la única, responsable del trabajo hogareño (Grzywacz y Butler, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research analyzes the influence of Work-Family Conciliation, Good Labor Practices, Organizational Commitment, Self-Efficacy and Organizational Beliefs, presented as dependent and independent variables. Using Models of Structural Equations, a sample of 101 surveys was analyzed at a Health Center, presenting in Case 1 and 2, the variable Work-Family Conciliation as a dependent variable of the others, and as an independent variable, respectively. In the same way, the same procedure was carried out, in Case 3 and 4, but with the variable Good Labor Practices. It is observed in all four cases, that Work-Family Conciliation and Good Labor Practices have a high positive relationship. In addition, the Organizational Commitment is highly affected by previous variables, Case 2 and 4 respectively.
... Following the conceptualization of Cinamon and her colleagues (e.g., Cinamon & Rich, 2014) as well as the suggested importance of time horizon when examining future perceptions (e.g., Rolison et al., 2017), the current study aimed at exploring the future perceptions of young adults living in Israel and in Hong Kong. Specifically, we focused on three aspects: (a) time horizon, (b) the domains in which their future perceptions were focused, and (c) their emotions towards their perceived future. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the future perceptions of Israeli and Hong Kong young adults focusing on three aspects: (a) time horizon (how far into the future participants envision), (b) future life roles on which they focus, and (c) emotions towards their perceived future. Twenty students took part in semi-structured interviews. Israeli participants reported a narrower range of time horizon. Both samples mentioned four domains when envisioning their future: work, relationships, education, and leisure. Both Israeli and Hong Kong participants were similar in their emotions towards their perceived future, although Israeli participants were overall more positive. Research and practice implications are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter presents and discusses the career plans of Israeli Arab and Jewish young adults. It also considers in some detail recent Israeli studies on the process of career exploration in the period of emerging adulthood. These studies illustrate how culture as well as socio-political conditions shapes this process and impact on plans for the future. The chapter concludes by making a series of reflections and suggestions regarding career interventions that use a broad definition of career.
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Managing the work-family interface is increasingly strategic for international human resource management (HRM) in attracting and retaining a diverse workforce. Yet despite growing methodological sophistication in the field work-family research still lacks a truly global approach, one that considers alternative work and family conceptualisations, particularly those from the so-called Global South. This article addresses these shortcomings by proposing mixed methods research (MMR), rather than a single method (quantitative or quantitative only), to offer a dual analytical lens which can deepen and broaden our understanding of work-family issues in and across diverse and multinational contexts. We critically review the methodological features of 40 work-family studies that used MMR, revealing the need for stronger integration. Then, through a thematic analysis of the reviewed articles, we highlight three distinct ways in which MMR adds value to the field: grounding empirical work and theorising within context, improving appropriateness of measurement instruments, and enhancing validity of inferences for relevant HRM practices. We conclude with an agenda for future mixed methods work-family research and present implications for human resource managers and work-family scholars in an increasingly competitive and changing international employment milieu. Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2021.1964092 .
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Perception of the future (PF) includes setting goals, establishing courses of action for achieving them, and assessing one’s personal abilities to do so. The present study was designed to examine the degree to which the research variables (personal characteristics, personal and social resources, and values) contribute to explaining the variance in measures of PF between at-risk adolescents and their normative peers regarding life roles in two realms – work and family. It was further designed to examine whether there are differences between the groups in the rate to which these variables contribute to variance. Participants were 323 Jewish Israeli adolescents (age 14–18) in two comparison groups – 139 at-risk adolescents who were treated in child and youth care (CYC) units, and 184 normative high-school students. The research tool was a questionnaire that examined personal characteristics, personal resources, values, and measures of PF work and family life roles. The conclusion was that the groups of variables examined have a relatively similar contribution to explaining the variance in perception of the importance of work and family in both groups. At the same time, self-efficacy, optimism, and values of openness to change, as well as the personal characteristics, contributed differently to each group. The variables’ contribution to PF in both groups was examined to identify those that predict the importance of perception of future in different areas in each group, which could enable education and welfare professionals establish means of helping at-risk adolescents form positive PF regarding various life roles and manage to integrate successfully into society.
Chapter
This chapter presents a bibliometric review of research methods in the field of career studies. We analyzed all empirical articles in JVB, CDI, CDQ, JCA, and JCD between 2014-2018 to draw conclusions about the main methods used in the field. We also reflect on similarities and differences between subfields and we formulate a research agenda.
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This article presents findings that emerged from a study that asked how adolescents who dropped out of schools perceived their future and whether they had an orientation toward their own future. Although numerous studies on adolescents’ future orientation have been carried out in Israel, none of them focused on dropout youth. The research was conducted within the setting of the Youth Advancement Units, official bodies, part of the ministry of Education that care for youth at risk, aged 14–18 who dropped out of school or are on the verge of doing so. To conduct the study, qualitative research using grounded-theory methodology was chosen. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with sixteen youths at risk who dropped out of school were employed.
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An examination of the literature on conflict between work and family roles suggests that work-family conflict exists when: (a) time devoted to the requirements of one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; (b) strain from participation in one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; and (c) specific behaviors required by one role make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of another. A model of work-family conflict is proposed, and a series of research propositions is presented.
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An examination of the literature on conflict between work and family roles suggests that work-family conflict exists when: (a) time devoted to the requirements of one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; (b) strain from participation in one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; and (c) specific behaviors required by one role make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of another. A model of work-family conflict is proposed, and a series of research propositions is presented.
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Provides and overview of the literature on work-family balance, including a discussion of the major causes and outcomes or work-family balance. Although work-family balance has generally focused on the negative aspects of work-family conflict, the author suggests there also can be work-to-family and family-to-work facilitation. The research that has been done, to date, on work-family facilitation suggests that the processes may be different from those operating under conditions of work-family conflict. The author ends the chapter with a discussion or personal and organizational initiatives to promote work-family balance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Drawing on the importance of future orientation for adolescent development this analysis presents a model describing how future orientation is affected by high challenge (or resilience) in the face of political violence. The analysis consists of three parts. The first two present future orientation conceptualization and the psychological processes underlying threat and challenge/resilience, respectively. Consequently, the third part outlines an integrated model positing that the effect of challenge/resilience on future orientation is mediated by hope and moderated by four factors: cultural orientations, developmental period, interpersonal relationships, and intrapersonal characteristics.
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The authors discuss the components of consensual qualitative research (CQR) using open-ended questions to gather data, using words to describe phenomena, studying a few cases intensively, recognizing the importance of context, using an inductive analytic process, using a team and making decisions by consensus, using auditors, and verifying results by systematically checking against the raw data. The three steps for conducting CQR are developing and coding domains, constructing core ideas, and developing categories to describe consistencies across cases (cross analysis). Criteria for evaluating CQR are trustworthiness of the method, coherence of the results, representativeness of the results to the sample, testimonial validity, applicability of the results, and replicability across samples. Finally, the authors discuss implications for research, practice, and training.
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Sizeable percentages of youths leaving tertiary educational settings appear not to have constructed a sense of their own identity. Both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have commonly produced samples with fewer than half of individuals in Marcia's achieved identity status upon entering young adulthood. At the same time, many investigations have also pointed to the adaptive features associated with identity achievement as well as the fact that many do attain identity achievement during and beyond late adolescence. This article will review theoretical issues involved in the transition to identity achievement and personality and contextual features associated with this transition. It will conclude by proposing potential reasons for the elusiveness of identity achievement and directions for further research into this perplexing phenomenon.
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This study presents the educational and career goals and perceptions of supports and barriers related to these goals as described in semistructured interviews of 16 students from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds attending 9th grade at an urban public high school in a large Northeastern city. Using consensual qualitative research (CQR) methodology (C. E. Hill et al., 2005), the authors identified categories and subcategories to students' perceptions of barriers and supports. The findings highlight students' understanding of how their proximal contexts serve potentially as both supports and barriers. Implications for educational and career interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Cluster analysis identified 3 groups of individuals who differed systematically on attributions of relative importance to work and to family roles. Participants were 213 married computer workers and lawyers, 126 men and 87 women. Questionnaires gathered data on attributions of importance to life roles, work-family conflict, spousal and managerial support, and flexibility of working hours. In addition to variation between members of the 3 profiles for level of work-family conflict, differences were also found for age, hours working at job and home, and spousal support. Findings also indicated meaningful differences between the profiles for 2 types of conflict: work-family and family-work. Results suggest that simultaneous analysis of relative importance attributed to life roles enables more precise understanding of work-family conflict. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study sought to examine how poor and working-class urban adolescents conceive of work as well as the work-related messages they receive from their families. Data were collected to understand how 9th-grade urban students perceive work using an exploratory and qualitative research methodology. Although the data suggested that urban youths' conceptions of work were complex and varied, the conceptual array of urban youths' perceptions of work suggested that work does not generally represent a means of self-concept expression or the expression of one's interest in the world of work. Specifically, urban youth tended to define work in terms of external outcomes (e.g., money), which was also a common theme among the messages they received about work from their families.
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Emancipatory communitarian perspectives advocate for theory, research, and action that address the needs of oppressed groups, such as urban adolescents. Considering the dearth of instruments sensitive to the career development needs of urban adolescents, this study examined the component structure of three indices of career development with 220 urban high school students. Analyses revealed a unique four-component (connection to work, vocational identity, commitment to chosen career, salience of chosen career) solution best fit the model. In addition to the traditional emphasis on vocational identity and future orientation in theories of career development, the obtained component solution suggests that (in a social context with pressure to disconnect) remaining connected to one’s vocational future in the face of external barriers, “vocational hope,” may be a particularly important consideration in urban adolescents’ career development.
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Purpose This study investigated the relationship between work-to-family enrichment (WFE) and family-to-work enrichment (FWE) with work-related, non work-related, and health-related consequences using meta-analysis. Design/methodology/approach We conducted a meta-analytic review of 21 studies (54 correlations) for WFE and 25 studies (57 correlations) for FWE. Findings We found that both WFE and FWE were positively related to job satisfaction, affective commitment, and family satisfaction but not turnover intentions. WFE was more strongly related to work-related variables, whereas FWE was more strongly related to non work-related variables. We also found that both WFE and FWE were positively related to physical and mental health. Additionally, relationships appear to depend on moderating variables including the proportion of women in the sample as well as the construct label (e.g., enrichment, facilitation, positive spillover). Implications Our work indicates that organizations need to consider ways to not only reduce conflict, but also increase enrichment, which will drive many important outcome variables. Originality/value This is the first meta-analysis on the positive side of the work–family interface.
Book
The need to establish a narrative self reaches an important peak during adolescence as teens work to understand life events and establish their self-identity. The first book to examine narrative development during adolescence in depth, Narrative Development in Adolescence: Creating the Storied Self, focuses on both stable and at-risk youth as they construct, organize, and tell their life stories and link these stories to larger developmental contexts as they grow to maturity. Renowned specialists identify such core skills as reflection, meaning making, and decision making as well as crucial domains, including autonomy and moral agency evolving across normative adolescence, and relate them to the narrative process. Deficits in these key areas are seen in the more contradictory and incoherent stories narrated by delinquent youth, teenage mothers, and victims of war and violence. In addition, these themes are observed as adolescents process and interpret the narratives of others. This volume offers insights into the crucial task of identity development, and explores new possibilities for counseling and therapy. Its authoritative and accessible coverage: • Examines the relationships between narrative and developmental outcomes • Identifies normative and problematic issues in adolescents across cultures and social backgrounds in the United States, Canada, Germany, the former Yugoslavia, and New Zealand • Offers current research on adolescent narrative development, with attention to theoretical bases and methodological issues • Discusses the roles of parents, grandparents, and peers in shaping narratives • Features case studies of narratives from at-risk youth • Includes findings on how early narrative development predicts narrative identifying adolescence Narrative Development in Adolescence is an essential resource for researchers, clinicians, and graduate students in developmental, clinical child, and school psychology as well as allied mental health and education fields. It is a must-have volume for anyone conducting research or working with adolescents to ensure their healthy development and successful transition to adulthood.
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The present exploratory-descriptive cross-national study focuses on what information children believe they need to find out about jobs. In total, 511 South African and 372 Australian children participated in the study. The present paper reports on the findings related to one item of the Revised Career Awareness Survey used in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that the nature of information the children needed to find out was related to life/career implications and life/career management tasks and to a lesser extent to interests and personal characteristics and the nature of work. The implications of the findings for career guidance and counseling practice are discussed.
Article
This study examined the independent and combined influence of demographic variables (gender and ethnicity) and contextual variables (perceived family and friend support, and school climate) on changes in psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressive symptoms) over a 2-year period. The sample included 100 Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the increase over time in reported levels of self-esteem was significantly greater for those who reported more positive perceptions of school climate at Time 1. Unexpectedly, the increase in self-esteem and the decrease in depressive symptoms over time were also significantly greater for those who reported lower family support at Time 1. Post hoc analyses were conducted to better understand the patterns detected. Findings underscore the importance of positive school experiences for students' psychological well-being and the need to examine the meaning of family support.
Book
Making Modern Lives looks at how young people shape their lives as they move through their secondary school years and into the world beyond. It explores how they develop dispositions, attitudes, identities, and orientations in modern society. Based on an eight-year study consisting of more than 350 in-depth interviews with young Australians from diverse backgrounds, the book reveals the effects of schooling and of local school cultures on young people’s choices, future plans, political values, friendships, and attitudes toward school, work, and sense of self. Making Modern Lives uncovers who young people are today, what type of identities and inequalities are being formed and reformed, and what processes and politics are at work in relation to gender, class, race, and the framing of vocational futures. "This is a brilliant book because it balances so well the relationship between the structural issues that help to promote inequality with the biographical experiences of the researchers’ informants. Few books have either the breadth that this one does, or the thoughtfulness in addressing the topic." — Sari Knopp Biklen, author of School Work: Gender and the Cultural Construction of Teaching and coauthor of Qualitative Research for Education, Fourth Edition
Article
Anticipated levels of 2 types of work-family conflict (WFC) were studied among 358 students from 2 universities. The study examined the contribution of gender, parental models of child care and housework, and self-efficacy to the variance in anticipated WFC. Findings demonstrated that the bidirectionality of the relations between work and family life also exists in anticipated conflicts. A number of gender-related differences emerged: Women anticipated higher levels of work interfering with family and family interfering with work and demonstrated lower efficacy in managing these conflicts than did men. Exposure to an egalitarian child care model correlated with lower anticipated levels of work interfering with family. Self-efficacy correlated negatively with both types of conflict. Implications for further research and career programs are discussed.
Article
Conceptualizing career development in a cultural and contextual framework, this study examined within-gender differences in role salience and work— family conflict (WFC) among 101 Jewish and 99 Arab female teachers (aged 23-64 years) from central Israel. The contribution of social support to women’s conflict was also examined. Results highlighted various differences: in contrast to expectations, Jewish teachers demonstrated higher spouse and parent values than Arab teachers, who demonstrated higher work values and work commitment. As expected, Jewish women reported higher levels of WFC compared to their Arab colleagues. Support systems in Jewish culture were related to lower WFC but not in Arab culture. Theoretical and practical implications emphasize the need for culture-sensitive models of work—family relations and for career counseling interventions.
Article
To paraphrase the dialogue between Alice and the Cat, it is their constructed image of the future that directs individuals when each of them – like Alice – ponders “which way I ought to go from here?” And it is the “where you want to get to” that guides their behavior, but not all of it. Because, just as future orientation is about where one wants to get and the ways she or he ought to go, it is also about destinations one fears to reach and routes she or he should avoid. Moreover, as research reported in this and subsequent chapters shows not all future thinking is goal directing; some of it – like Alice’s “-so long as I get somewhere” – consists of future images that do not aim at or lead to specific plans, goals, or hopes.
Article
The authors conducted a content analysis on new scale development articles appearing in the Journal of Counseling Psychology during 10 years (1995 to 2004). The authors analyze and discuss characteristics of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis procedures in these scale development studies with respect to sample characteristics, factorability, extraction methods, rotation methods, item deletion or retention, factor retention, and model fit indexes. The authors uncovered a variety of specific practices that were at variance with the current literature on factor analysis or structural equation modeling. They make recommendations for best practices in scale development research in counseling psychology using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.
Article
This study tested a four-step model consisting of family background, perceived parental support and demandingness, educational aspirations, and academic achievement. The model was estimated on data collected from eighth graders (N = 686) growing up in two cultural settings: transition to modernity (Israeli Arabs) and Western (Israeli Jews). LISREL analyses performed separately for the four ethnicity-by-gender groups showed good fit of the model and supported the predicted differences in the links between the latent variables across ethnicity and gender. Specifically, family background had direct and indirect effects on the academic achievement of Arab but not Jewish adolescents. The indirect family background-academic achievement path showed gender differences only for the Arab adolescents via educational aspirations for girls and parental demandingness for boys, and parental demandingness was directly related to academic achievement of Arab boys and Jewish adolescents. Discussion explained ethnic and gender differences in terms of demographic and sociocultural conditions.
This study examined the independent and combined influence of demographic variables (gender and ethnicity) and contextual variables (perceived family and friend support, and school climate) on changes in psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depressive symptoms) over a 2-year period. The sample included 100 Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the increase over time in reported levels of self-esteem was significantly greater for those who reported more positive perceptions of school climate at Time 1. Unexpectedly, the increase in self-esteem and the decrease in depressive symptoms over time were also significantly greater for those who reported lower family support at Time 1. Post hoc analyses were conducted to better understand the patterns detected. Findings underscore the importance of positive school experiences for students' psychological well-being and the need to examine the meaning of family support.
Article
Considerable research has demonstrated that spirituality is generally a positive force in human functioning. Reasoning that one's perceptions of spirituality are based on particular cultural, religious, and social contexts and that adult and adolescent conceptions may differ meaningfully, the authors examine understandings of spirituality among Arab and Jewish Israeli late adolescents. Participants are 36 high school students or college freshmen, Arab and Jewish, male and female, and religious and secular. The authors use semistructured interviews to collect data and the consensual qualitative research method to analyze them. Results indicate broad agreement regarding transcendence as the essential component of spirituality and show that religious and humanistic modes of spirituality exist. Religious and cultural groups develop divergent conceptions of spirituality with overlapping and contrasting features. Gender yielded few differences. Finally, limited correspondence appears between components of spirituality in this study and those found among adults in earlier research.
Article
The current study investigated how male and female university students’ self-efficacy and their role salience contributed to the variance in their anticipated work-family conflict (WFC). Participants comprised 387 unmarried students (mean age 24 years). Cluster analysis yielded four profiles of participants who differed in their attributions of importance to work and family roles: work oriented, family oriented, dual oriented, and no orientation. Of the women, 30.1% were family oriented, versus only 18.9% of the men. The work oriented participants anticipated the highest levels of WFC and demonstrated the lowest efficacy to manage this conflict. The family oriented participants anticipated the lowest levels of WFC and demonstrated the highest efficacy to manage it. Implications were raised for research and career counselling.
Article
Drawing from the contributions of vocational psychology, this study examined school engagement as a mediator of academic performance through the effects of career preparation (career planning, career decision-making self-efficacy), parental career support, and teacher support among diverse urban youth in middle school and high school (N = 285). Based on structural equation modeling, all structural paths of the proposed hypothetical model were significant. The effects of teacher support and parental career support on school engagement were mediated by career preparation; in turn, the effect of career preparation on grades was mediated by school engagement. Teacher support also had a direct effect on school engagement.The middle school students had significantly higher grades than the high school students, but there were no significant grade-level differences in terms of school engagement, career preparation, parental career support, or teacher support.The limitations of the study and its implications for research, practice, and public policy are discussed.
Article
With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods research designs. It defines mixed methods research, discusses its origins and philosophical basis, advances steps and procedures used in these designs, and identifies 6 different types of designs. Important design features are illustrated using studies published in the counseling literature. Finally, the article ends with recommendations for designing, implementing, and reporting mixed methods studies in the literature and for discussing their viability and continued usefulness in the field of counseling psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
context without development / an ecological paradigm for development in context / research models in the study of development in context / properties of the person from an ecological perspective / parameters of context from a developmental perspective / form and substance for future research (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Proposed on the basis of a review of the ego identity and career development literatures that variability in career exploration and occupational commitment might be related to characteristic differences in the manner by which individuals explore and commit to their ego identity in late adolescence. To test propositions about the relations between career development and identity formation, measures of ego identity status, exploratory activity, and occupational commitment were administered to 99 college students. A canonical analysis was conducted, which yielded two significant canonical roots. The 1st root, which accounted for 35% of the variance between canonical composites, indicated that occupational commitment is inversely related to the moratorium status. The 2nd root, which accounted for 11% of the variance, suggested that career exploration is positively associated with the moratorium and identity-achieved statuses and inversely related to the diffusion status. The results are related to future directions in theory, research, and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this article, recent research using the Work Importance Study (WIS) instruments in English-speaking countries is reviewed. Research results indicate several consistent trends. First, that life-role salience and values must be viewed within specific developmental and cultural contexts. Second, in diverse settings and with different groups, there are sex differences related to the relative importance of life roles and values. Third, career counselors need consider the client's values and life-role salience to facilitate personal development. Recommendations for future research are offered.
Article
The present study examined aspects of identity development in a sample of adolescent boys from two approaches: individuation and narrative. To extend the more recent research on narrative identity development, we also examined relations between narrative identity, well-being, and age. Narrative meaning making was predicted by themes of individuation in the narratives, specifically the interaction of autonomy and connectedness. Well-being was predicted by different aspects of meaning depending on the kind of meaning and the stage of adolescence. Finally, results showed an age-related increase in meaning-making processes, particularly meaning related to perceiving the self as changing. Results are discussed in terms of the processes of narrative identity development for adolescent boys.
Article
To date, little is known about how work–family issues impact the career development process. In the current paper, we explore this issue by investigating a relatively unstudied construct: anticipated work–family conflict. We found that this construct can be represented by the same six-dimensional factor structure used to assess concurrent experiences of work–family conflict. Drawing upon the social-cognitive theory of career development (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) and the bi-directional model of the work–family interface (Frone, Russel, & Cooper, 1992), we investigated the nomological net of anticipated work–family conflict. Our findings and directions for future research and practice are presented.
Article
This study reviews the development of the Life Role Salience Scales (LRSS), which were designed to assess men's and women's personal expectations concerning occupational, marital, parental, and homecare roles. Two aspects of personal role expectations were assessed by means of the scales: (a) the personal importance or value attributed to participation in a particular role, and (b) the intended level of commitment of personal time and energy resources to enactment of a role. Measurement of these dimensions by means of a set of attitude scales was the focus of the research effort. Design objectives were to develop an instrument applicable to both men and women and to persons anticipating as well as those currently engaged in these four roles, and to provide items that might reflect attitudinal changes as a result of changes in role status. Research results indicate that the instrument has eight clearly defined scales demonstrating adequate convergent and discriminant validity and reliability.
Article
In this study we explored between- and within-gender differences in the importance of life roles and their implications for work–family conflict. In earlier research (Cinamon & Rich, 2002) we found 3 profiles of workers who differ in attributions of importance to work and family roles: persons who assigned high importance to both the work role and the family role (Dual profile); participants who ascribed high importance to the work role and low importance to the family role (Work profile); and participants who attributed high importance to the family role and low importance to the work role (Family profile). We used these profiles to clarify the relationship between gender and work–family conflict. Participants were 126 married men and 87 married women who were employed in computer or law firms. Significant between- and within-gender differences were found in the distribution of participants to profiles. Men were equally distributed throughout the profiles, whereas women were underrepresented in the Work category. More women than men fit the Family profile, and more men than women fit the Work profile. No gender differences were found for the Dual profile. Women reported higher parenting and work values than men did. Between-gender differences in work–family conflict were apparent, as were within-gender differences across profiles. Results demonstrate the value of examining both between- and within-gender variation in studies of gender and work–family conflict.
Article
We examined the relationship between maternal employment and college students’ expected work–family conflict as well as the relationship between expected conflict and the anticipated use of family-altering and career-altering strategies. Results indicated a positive relationship between the extensiveness of maternal employment and expected work–family conflict only for men. In addition, students who expected extensive work–family conflict anticipated delaying marriage, limiting the number of children they will have, and, in the case of men, intending not to have children. There was no relationship between expected work–family conflict and the anticipated use of career-altering strategies. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
The present exploratory-descriptive cross-national study focuses on what information children believe they need to find out about jobs. In total, 511 South African and 372 Australian children participated in the study. The present paper reports on the findings related to one item of the Revised Career Awareness Survey used in the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that the nature of information the children needed to find out was related to life/career implications and life/career management tasks and to a lesser extent to interests and personal characteristics and the nature of work. The implications of the findings for career guidance and counseling practice are discussed.
Article
Childhood marks the dawn of human development. To organize, integrate, and advance knowledge about vocational development during this age period from a life-span perspective, we conducted a comprehensive review of the empirical vocational development literature that addresses early-to-late childhood. The review considers career exploration, career awareness, vocational expectations and aspirations, vocational interests, and career maturity/adaptability. By conducting the review, we sought to consolidate knowledge and identify avenues for further research concerned with vocational development in childhood and across the life span. Linking knowledge of child vocational development with what is known about adolescent and adult vocational development and conducting research that embeds vocational development within the fabric of a life-span developmental framework could move the field of vocational psychology from a disjointed perspective on career as studied in isolated age groups and toward an integrated life-span conceptualization.