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The thrill of loving a dominant partner: Relationships between preference for a dominant mate, sensation seeking, and trait anxiety

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Abstract

This study investigates whether particular personality traits predict the desire to choose a dominant partner. Specifically examined are the traits of sensation seeking and trait anxiety as predictors of the preference for a dominant female/male partner. Sixty-eight men and 104 women (N = 172) participated in an online survey. Individuals who avoid boredom and seek out exciting social activities have a stronger desire for a dominant partner. For female participants, we detected experience seeking and trait anxiety as additional factors associated with the preference for a dominant partner. Women higher in trait anxiety and lower in experience seeking have a higher preference for a dominant man. Gender differences are interpreted with regard to sexual selection theory and individual differences with respect to the theory of assortative mating.

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... In turn, individuals high on thrill-seeking desire to be entertained by others and tend to be in exciting situations (Andershed et al., 2002). Women high on thrill-seeking generally prefer dominant men with exciting personalities who can easily entertain them (Giebel et al., 2015). Moreover, sensation seekers are more attracted to potential partners with risky personality traits (Henderson et al., 2005). ...
... Prior research showed that anxious attachment predicts women's preferences for partners with an abusive personality (i.e., violence, aggression, impulsivity, and jealousy; Zayas & Shoda, 2007). Moreover, women with trait anxiety prefer dominant romantic partners because they will make them feel safe and protected (Giebel et al., 2015;Snyder et al., 2008). In romantic relationships, narcissistic individuals tend to dominate their partner by perceiving themselves as better than their partner . ...
... low levels of thrill-seeking) were more attracted to men with narcissistic admiration, and to a lesser extent to men with narcissistic rivalry. Individuals high on thrill-seeking desire romantic relationships in which they can be easily entertained (Giebel et al., 2015). Since narcissists are good at entertaining others (Back et al., 2013), women might be more attracted to narcissistic men because they have a high need to be entertained (Andershed et al., 2002), and feel more comfortable with such exciting personalities (Giebel et al., 2015). ...
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The present research examined whether women’s narcissistic traits, thrill-seeking, impulsivity, and attachment style are associated with their level of attraction towards narcissistic men. Two trait dimensions of narcissism were distinguished: admiration (i.e., promoting oneself to gain admiration) and rivalry (i.e., devaluing others to protect one’s self-view). Participants (195 heterosexual women, Mage = 20.78, SD = 2.40) were asked to rate their level of attraction towards 25 pictures of fictional male characters who score relatively high or low on narcissism. Using multilevel modelling, we found that women were more attracted to men with high levels of narcissistic admiration (vs. low), and less attracted towards men with high scores on narcissistic rivalry (vs. low). We found no evidence that women who scored high on narcissism were more attracted to narcissistic men. Response surface analyses revealed that women who scored high on thrill-seeking (vs. low) were more attracted to narcissistic admiration, and to a lesser extent to narcissistic rivalry. Additionally, we discovered that women who scored high on impulsivity or avoidant attachment (vs. low) were (to a small extent) more attracted to narcissistic rivalry. Identifying women who are attracted to narcissistic men can help to implement and improve prevention or intervention programs related to narcissism in romantic relationships.
... These experiences may include (risky) sexual behaviors (Stephenson, Velez, Chalela, Ramirez, & Hoyle, 2007). Zuckerman, Bone, Neary, Mangelsdorff, and Brustman (1972) demonstrated that high sensation seekers (i.e., people who score high on the Sensation Seeking Scale; Zuckerman, Kolin, Price, & Zoob, 1964) are more likely to have varied types of sexual experiences and partners and engage in a wider range of sexual and risk-taking behaviors (Giebel, Moran, Schawohl, & Weierstall, 2015;McCoul & Haslem, 2001). In general, higher levels of sexual sensation seeking are more prevalent in men than in women (Kalichman et al., 1994) and more prevalent in heterosexuals than homosexuals (Gil-Llario, Morell-Mengual, Ballester-Arnal, Giménez-Garcia, & Castro-Calvo, 2015), although McCoul and Haslam (2001) demonstrated the reverse with North American gay men displaying higher sexual sensation seeking compared to their heterosexual peers. ...
... These differences could be due to cultural or methodological factors, so replication studies controlling for these factors are needed. Giebel et al. (2015) investigated the relationship between sensation seeking and the preference for a dominant partner in a non-BDSM context, and found that high sensation seekers were likely to perceive aggressive behavior and unwillingness to compromise in their partners as exciting. ...
... Although associations exist between sensation seeking behavior and sexual orientation (Giebel et al., 2015;McCoul & Haslem, 2001), as well as between coping strategies and sexual orientation (Sornberger et al., 2013), research investigating the potential role of these psychological traits in driving specific BDSM-related interests is lacking. The current study aimed to fill in this void. ...
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Despite the gaining popularity in mainstream media of the phenomenon that is BDSM, empirical research on the motives and underlying psychological mechanisms driving BDSM practitioners is scarce. The current study focused on the potential driving roles of sensation seeking and coping styles in BDSM-related interests and behavior. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was completed by 256 Dutch-speaking BDSM practitioners (110 men, 135 women, 7 gender fluid, 2 genderless, 1 other not specified), 1 missing (this participant did not answer the question regarding gender, but did answer all other survey items) and a matched control group lacking any BDSM interest recruited from the general Belgian population (N = 300; 135 men, 158 women, 4 gender fluid, 3 genderless). The questionnaire consisted of several items surveying different BDSM identities and interest levels of BDSM-related activities, an adapted version of the Dutch Sensation Seeking Scale, and items querying seven coping styles. Compared to controls, BDSM practitioners reported significantly higher levels of sensation seeking for all dimensions (experience seeking, thrill seeking, and distraction seeking), as well as the use of more active coping skills such as problem solving and taking action. Gender differentiated which specific coping skills were being used with women seeking out more emotional support and comfort and reaching out more for help and advice in both the BDSM and control group, and men taking more action and seeking distraction in leisure. About 40% of the practitioners reported using BDSM itself as a coping strategy. Further research is needed to explore the link between coping and sexuality in general, and to other psychological processes that drive BDSM interests in order to destigmatize and normalize consensual BDSM-related activities within the general population.
... In an experiment, female participants responded that in relation to different descriptions regarding a soldier's experience after coming back from war, their preference for the 'warrior' was higher when asked for short-term relationships against long-term relationships. In a different investigation [11], researchers observed that female individuals who declared themselves as wanting to avoid boredom and looking for exciting social activities preferred a dominant partner. Thus, those perceived as dominant were considered by that type of female participants as more interesting, attractive, funny, and appealing. ...
... Likewise, women who de ned themselves as liking new and exciting social activities, such as parties, social drinking, and casual sex, also preferred a dominant partner [11]. Research in evolutionary psychology focused on effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness has provided complementary data. ...
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Background: Gender-based violence among young women is a growing problem worldwide. The consequences of this victimization have been well reported in the scientific literature, among which negative health outcomes stand out. The factors influencing this problem are many; one highlighted by research is socialization into a dominant coercive discourse that associates sexual-affective attraction to males with violent attitudes and behaviors, while in turn such discourse empties males with egalitarian behaviors from sexual attractiveness. This coercive discourse may be shaping the sexual preferences of female youth. The current paper explores young women’s preferences for different types of sexual relationships and, more particularly, for what type of sexual affective relationships they coercively preferred men with violent attitudes and behavior. Methods: A quantitative, mixed-design vignette study was conducted with 191 college females in Spain. We focused the analysis only on responses about vignettes including narratives of men with violent attitudes and behaviors. In addition, we examined whether participants would report higher coerced preferences for violent men when asked about the coerced preferences of their female friends than when asked about their own preferences. Results: Only 28.95% of participants responded that their female friends would prefer a young man with violent behavior for a stable relationship, meanwhile 58.42% would do it for hooking up. When reporting about themselves, the difference was greater: 28.42% would prefer a young man with violent behavior for hooking up and just 5.78% for a stable relationship. Conclusions: The dominant coercive discourse that links attractiveness to people with violent attitudes and behaviors may be explaining the results obtained in this study. The findings can help eliminate the stereotype largely adopted by some intervention and prevention programs which assume that gender-based violence occurs mainly in stable relationships, considering that falling in love is the reason that lead women to suffer from violence. Our results can also support health professionals and others serving young women to enhance their identification of gender violence victimization, as well as our findings point to the need to include the evidence of gender violence in sporadic relationships in prevention programs and campaigns addressed to young women.
... In an experiment, female participants responded that in relation to different descriptions regarding a soldier's experience after coming back from war, their preference for the 'warrior' was higher when asked for short-term relationships against long-term relationships. In a different investigation [11], researchers observed that female individuals who declared themselves as wanting to avoid boredom and looking for exciting social activities preferred a dominant partner. Thus, those perceived as dominant were considered by that type of female participants as more interesting, attractive, funny, and appealing. ...
... Thus, those perceived as dominant were considered by that type of female participants as more interesting, attractive, funny, and appealing. Likewise, women who defined themselves as liking new and exciting social activities, such as parties, social drinking, and casual sex, also preferred a dominant partner [11]. Research in evolutionary psychology focused on effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness has provided complementary data. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Gender-based violence among young women is a growing problem worldwide. The consequences of this victimization have been well reported in the scientific literature, among which negative health outcomes stand out. The factors influencing this problem are many; one highlighted by research is socialization into a dominant coercive discourse that associates sexual-affective attraction to males with violent attitudes and behaviors, while in turn, such discourse empties males with egalitarian behaviors from sexual attractiveness. This coercive discourse may be shaping the sexual preferences of female youth. The current paper explores young women’s preferences for different types of sexual relationships and, more particularly, for what type of sexual affective relationships they coercively preferred men with violent attitudes and behavior. Methods A quantitative, mixed-design vignette study was conducted with 191 college females in Spain. We focused the analysis only on responses about vignettes including narratives of men with violent attitudes and behaviors. In addition, we examined whether participants would report higher coerced preferences for violent men when asked about the coerced preferences of their female friends than when asked about their own preferences. Results Only 28.95% of participants responded that their female friends would prefer a young man with violent behavior for a stable relationship, meanwhile 58.42% would do it for hooking up. When reporting about themselves, the difference was greater: 28.42% would prefer a young man with violent behavior for hooking up and just 5.78% for a stable relationship. Conclusions The dominant coercive discourse that links attractiveness to people with violent attitudes and behaviors may be explaining the results obtained in this study. The findings can help eliminate the stereotype largely adopted by some intervention and prevention programs which assume that gender-based violence occurs mainly in stable relationships, considering that falling in love is the reason that lead women to suffer from violence. Our results can also support health professionals and others serving young women to enhance their identification of gender violence victimization, as well as our findings point to the need to include the evidence of gender violence in sporadic relationships in prevention programs and campaigns addressed to young women.
... In an experiment, female participants responded that in relation to different descriptions regarding a soldier's experience after coming back from war, their preference for the 'warrior' was higher when asked for short-term relationships against long-term relationships. In a different investigation [11], researchers observed that female individuals who declared themselves as wanting to avoid boredom and looking for exciting social activities preferred a dominant partner. Thus, those perceived as dominant were considered by that type of female participants as more interesting, attractive, funny, and appealing. ...
... Likewise, women who de ned themselves as liking new and exciting social activities, such as parties, social drinking, and casual sex, also preferred a dominant partner [11]. Research in evolutionary psychology focused on effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness has provided complementary data. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Gender-based violence among young women is a growing problem worldwide. The consequences of this victimization have been well reported in the scientific literature, among which negative health outcomes stand out. The factors influencing this problem are many; one highlighted by research is socialization into a dominant coercive discourse that associates sexual-affective attraction to males with violent attitudes and behaviors, while in turn, such discourse empties males with egalitarian behaviors from sexual attractiveness. This coercive discourse may be shaping the sexual preferences of female youth. The current paper explores young women’s preferences for different types of sexual relationships and, more particularly, for what type of sexual affective relationships they coercively preferred men with violent attitudes and behavior. Methods: A quantitative, mixed-design vignette study was conducted with 191 college females in Spain. We focused the analysis only on responses about vignettes including narratives of men with violent attitudes and behaviors. In addition, we examined whether participants would report higher coerced preferences for violent men when asked about the coerced preferences of their female friends than when asked about their own preferences. Results: Only 28.95% of participants responded that their female friends would prefer a young man with violent behavior for a stable relationship, meanwhile 58.42% would do it for hooking up. When reporting about themselves, the difference was greater: 28.42% would prefer a young man with violent behavior for hooking up and just 5.78% for a stable relationship. Conclusions: The dominant coercive discourse that links attractiveness to people with violent attitudes and behaviors may be explaining the results obtained in this study. The findings can help eliminate the stereotype largely adopted by some intervention and prevention programs which assume that gender-based violence occurs mainly in stable relationships, considering that falling in love is the reason that lead women to suffer from violence. Our results can also support health professionals and others serving young women to enhance their identification of gender violence victimization, as well as our findings point to the need to include the evidence of gender violence in sporadic relationships in prevention programs and campaigns addressed to young women.
... In an experiment, female participants responded that in relation to different descriptions regarding a soldier's experience after coming back from war, their preference for the 'warrior' was higher when asked for short-term relationships against long-term relationships. In a different investigation [11], researchers observed that female individuals who declared themselves as wanting to avoid boredom and looking for exciting social activities preferred a dominant partner. Thus, those perceived as dominant were considered by that type of female participants as more interesting, attractive, funny, and appealing. ...
... Thus, those perceived as dominant were considered by that type of female participants as more interesting, attractive, funny, and appealing. Likewise, women who de ned themselves as liking new and exciting social activities, such as parties, social drinking, and casual sex, also preferred a dominant partner [11]. Research in evolutionary psychology focused on effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness has provided complementary data. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Gender-based violence among young women is a growing problem worldwide. The consequences of this victimization have been well reported in the scientific literature, among which negative health outcomes stand out. The factors influencing this problem are many; one highlighted by research is socialization into a dominant coercive discourse that associates sexual-affective attraction to males with violent attitudes and behaviors, while in turn, such discourse empties males with egalitarian behaviors from sexual attractiveness. This coercive discourse may be shaping the sexual preferences of female youth. The current paper explores young women’s preferences for different types of sexual relationships and, more particularly, for what type of sexual affective relationships they coercively preferred men with violent attitudes and behavior. Methods A quantitative, mixed-design vignette study was conducted with 191 college females in Spain. We focused the analysis only on responses about vignettes including narratives of men with violent attitudes and behaviors. In addition, we examined whether participants would report higher coerced preferences for violent men when asked about the coerced preferences of their female friends than when asked about their own preferences. Results Only 28.95% of participants responded that their female friends would prefer a young man with violent behavior for a stable relationship, meanwhile 58.42% would do it for hooking up. When reporting about themselves, the difference was greater: 28.42% would prefer a young man with violent behavior for hooking up and just 5.78% for a stable relationship. Conclusions The dominant coercive discourse that links attractiveness to people with violent attitudes and behaviors may be explaining the results obtained in this study. The findings can help eliminate the stereotype largely adopted by some intervention and prevention programs which assume that gender-based violence occurs mainly in stable relationships, considering that falling in love is the reason that lead women to suffer from violence. Our results can also support health professionals and others serving young women to enhance their identification of gender violence victimization, as well as our findings point to the need to include the evidence of gender violence in sporadic relationships in prevention programs and campaigns addressed to young women.
... Several studies have found that the higher the parents' education level is, the healthier the children's mental health is (Bao et al., 2016;Qu et al., 2017). Psychological factors such as mental health and personality can also influence mate choice (Giebel et al., 2015;Liu and Ilmarinen, 2019). Second, some studies have found that parenting style and the parent-child relationship are closely related to the parents' education level (Nilsen et al., 2020;Schrijner and Smits, 2020). ...
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Parents have an influence on the formation of their children’s mate preferences. This research conducted two studies to test the relationship between parents’ education level and the gender role characteristics (masculinity and femininity) of ideal mate for college students, and the moderating role of urban-rural residence on this relationship. In study 1, 1,033 participants (627 females) reported their explicit attitude toward gender role characteristics for an ideal mate via the Chinese Sex Role Inventory-50. In study 2, we recruited 130 participants (66 females) and used an implicit association test to measure their implicit attitude. Regression-based analyses showed that the higher education level of parents was significantly associated with female students’ mate preferences with high-femininity but low-masculinity traits. For male students, the higher education level of parents was associated with their explicit (not implicit) preferences of mates with high-masculinity but low-femininity traits. The significant moderating effect of urban-rural residence was observed in explicit preference, with the different patterns in gender groups. In conclusion, parents with higher educational attainment might bring up children who are more likely to embrace a partner with non-traditional gender roles (e.g., androgynous individuals, feminine men or masculine women).
... In another research study, Giebel et al. (2015) investigated personality traits and to what extent these traits predict the desire to choose a dominant partner. The authors observed that those individuals who declared wanting to avoid boredom and looked for exciting social activities have a stronger desire for a dominant partner. ...
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Violence against women is a reality that is still present in Europe and a serious public health threat worldwide. Fortunately, investment is being made to raise awarness at the national and EU levels and among diverse publics. However, more research is needed in order to better explain its underlying factors, and thus identify effective actions that could contribute to preventing young girls and women from becoming victims. Drawing on a theoretical approach to the preventive socialization of gender violence, in this study we report data from the quasi-experimental research project ‘Free Teen Desire’ (Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant, 2015–2016, No 659299). Through a survey conducted on 100 female adolescents (aged 13–16) in different European secondary schools (in England, Spain, Cyprus and Finland), we analysed their pattern of attraction for both ‘hooking up’ and stable relationships towards boys with either violent attitudes and behaviour or boys with non-violent behaviour, what would be linked to gender violence victimization at a later stage in their lives. Our findings suggest that in the different European secondary schools studied, a similar pattern of attraction is recognized by female participants: although non-violent boys are highly preferred to those with a violent profile, we observed that boys with violent attitudes and behaviours are mostly preferred for hooking up, and boys with non-violent traits are mostly preferred for stable relationships. In addition to the novelty of providing quantitative data on these links (non-violent/stable relationships; violent/hook-ups) in the case of adolescents, the findings regarding the pattern of attraction towards boys with violent traits for sporadic relationships are in line with previous extensive qualitative research. This body of research marks the existence of a coercive dominant discourse that associates attraction with violence and influences the socialization processes of many girls during their sexual-affective relationships’ awakening, which has been shown to constitute a risk factor for gender violence victimization.
... Regarding other personality traits, Brewer and colleagues (Brewer et al. 2018), suggest that sensation seeking is a personality trait that can influence the preference for Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy; Paulhus and Williams 2002), being related to sexual risk taking (Bancroft et al. 2003) and the preference for dominant partners (Giebel et al. 2015). That is, those seeking high intensity sensations may be less averse to Dark Triad faces (Brewer et al. 2018). ...
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This study aims to present the psychometric properties of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale in a Portuguese sample. Three studies were performed: the first study provides psychometric evidence pertaining to its reliability and factor structure, an analysis of the measurement invariance of the BSSS across gender and age, and an examination of the differences scores on the scale regarding gender, age and marital status (n = 526); the second study consists of an assessment of convergent, discriminant and postdictive validity (n = 240); and the third study includes a test-retest of the BSSS (n = 72). A four-factor model yielded the best fit to the data with good reliability and validity. The scale showed non-invariance between genders and between ages, which makes it less generalizable and susceptible to different populations. Convergent validity with the variables risk taking, need for arousal and extraversion, and discriminant validity between neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness, were demonstrated. The scale presents good temporal stability and represent an important tool for psychological assessment of personality and behavior, and as a predictor of safety performance.
... Sensation-seeking can be conceptualised as "a trait defined by the seeking of varied, novel, complex, and intense sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal, and financial risks for the sake of such experience" (Zuckerman, 1994, p.27), may also influence a preference for Dark Triad traits. It is related to the preference for dominant partners (Giebel, Moran, Schawohl, & Weierstall, 2015) and sexual risk taking (Bancroft et al., 2003), suggesting that those high on sensation-seeking may be less averse to Dark Triad faces. Previous research employing vignettes and questionnaires administered to each member of a relationship pair suggests that sensation-seeking predicts attraction to those high on narcissism (Grosz, Dufner, Back, & Denissen, 2015), though the influence of sensationseeking on perception of Dark Triad faces alone is less clear. ...
Article
Women (N = 356) aged 16–68 years were recruited via online social networking sites and research participation websites. Participants were presented with 15 facial composite pairs (each pair including a high and low Dark Triad trait facial morph), and were asked to identify the most attractive individual either in the context of a short-term (n = 171) or long-term relationship (n = 185). Women also completed the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS-V, Zuckerman, 1994), containing boredom susceptibility, disinhibition, experience-seeking, thrill- and adventure-seeking subscales. Results indicate that women are averse to faces with high levels of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy for both short- and long-term romantic relationships. Sensation-seeking does not predict preference for Dark Triad traits as a short-term or long-term partner. Findings replicate previous research indicating that women dislike male faces high on Dark Triad traits for both short- and long-term relationships and are consistent with research suggesting that the aversion to men high on Dark Triad traits is resistant to individual variation.
... However, the differences in the relative frequencies of male and female participants in the groups of submissives, dominants, and switches imply that-under the hypothesis of an equal probability between males and female for inclusion in the study-males more often display an engagement in dominant practices, whereas females take on the submissive part. This result is in line with a recent study about mate preferences that has shown that women have a generally higher preference for a dominant partner than men do (Giebel, Moran, Schawohl, & Weierstall, 2015). Women also prefer dominant men, and even men who are aggressive, for a short-term relationship and for the purpose of sexual intercourse (Giebel, Weierstall, Schauer, & Elbert, 2013). ...
... However, the differences in the relative frequencies of male and female participants in the groups of submissives, dominants, and switches imply that-under the hypothesis of an equal probability between males and female for inclusion in the study-males more often display an engagement in dominant practices, whereas females take on the submissive part. This result is in line with a recent study about mate preferences that has shown that women have a generally higher preference for a dominant partner than men do (Giebel, Moran, Schawohl, & Weierstall, 2015). Women also prefer dominant men, and even men who are aggressive, for a short-term relationship and for the purpose of sexual intercourse (Giebel, Weierstall, Schauer, & Elbert, 2013). ...
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What does a woman want? The traditional evolutionist's answer to Freud's famous query is that a woman's extensive investment in each of her children implies that she can maximize her fitness by restricting her sexual activity to one, or at most, a few high-quality males. Because acquiring resources for her offspring is of paramount importance, a woman will try to attract wealthy, high-status men who are willing and able to help her. She must be coy and choosy, limiting her attentions to men who are worthy of her and emphasizing her chastity so as not to threaten the paternity confidence of her mate.The lady has been getting more complicated of late, however. As Sarah Hrdy1 predicted, we now have evidence that women, like other female primates, are also competitive, randy creatures. Women have been seen competing with their rivals using both physical aggression2,3 and more subtle derogation of competitors.4 While they are still sometimes coy and chaste, women have also been described recently as sexy and sometimes promiscuous creatures, manipulating fatherhood by the timing of orgasm5,6 and using their sexuality to garner resources from men.The real answer to Freud's query, of course, is that a woman wants it all; a man with the resources and inclination to invest, and with genes that make him attractive to other women so that her sons will inherit his success. Her strategies for attaining these somewhat conflicting aims, and her success in doing so, are shaped by her own resources and options and by conflicts of interest with men and other women.
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Many studies have reported that during high fertility points in the menstrual cycle, women demonstrate increased preference for men with masculinized faces and bodies. In this study, we analyzed whether appetitive aggression in men serves as an additional signal for a favored partner choice. Appetitive aggression describes the intrinsic motivation to act violently even when not being threatened. This study evaluated the responses of 1212 women to one of four descriptions regarding a soldier´s experience after returning from war. The four vignettes included trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression, or no trauma related symptoms with high or low appetitive aggression. Participants rated their desirability for the soldier in regards to potential long-term and short-term relationships. Results indicate that women preferred a soldier high in appetitive aggression as a short-term mate but not as a long-term relationship. This preference for the "warrior" was higher for women in their fertile window of the menstrual cycle. We conclude that women in their fertile window prefer men exhibiting higher appetitive aggression as a short-term partner, revealing appetitive aggression in men may serve as a signal for a higher genetic fitness.
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Adolescents have been found to differ by age in their attraction to facial symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism. However, it has not been demonstrated that attraction to these facial characters changes over time as a consequence of age-linked development. We aimed to extend previous cross-sectional findings by examining whether facial attractiveness judgments change over time during adolescence as a consequence of increasing age, in a within-subjects study of two cohorts of adolescents aged 11 - 16. Consistent with previous findings, we find that adolescents (often particularly females) judged faces with increased averageness, symmetry and femininity to be more attractive than original, asymmetric and masculine faces respectively. However, we do not find longitudinal changes in face preference judgments across the course of a year, leading us to question the extent to which some of the previously reported differences in facial attractiveness judgments between younger and older adolescents were due to age-linked changes.
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Facial composites constructed from Identi-Kit materials were used to assess the impact of characteristically mature and immature eyebrows, eyes, lips, and jaws on perceptions of social dominance and attractiveness. Male and female faces were identically composed except for hair. Subjects rated faces on scales for dominance and attractiveness. Mature traits were hypothesized to make all faces look dominant and male faces appear attractive. Female faces were predicted to look attractive when displaying immature, nondominant facial cues. The results confirmed that mature traits generally raised dominance and attractiveness ratings for male faces. The traits that successfully raised dominance ratings for male faces made females look less attractive. Eye size had the most reliable effect on both dominance and attractiveness ratings for female faces. Eyes that make females look nondominant also made them look attractive. The results were generally consistent with sociobiological arguments generating predictions.
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Three multimethod studies (total N = 348) probed the hypothesis that women's attraction to men would be influenced by male prosocial orientation. In Study 1, prosocial men were rated as more physically and sexually attractive, socially desirable, and desirable as dates than were nonprosocial men. Dominant men were no more attractive than low-dominance men, and male dominance did not interact with male prosocial orientation in eliciting attraction from women. In Study 2, prosocial orientation was manipulated to avoid "personalism," but still affected attraction. Across all measures attraction was an interactive function of dominance and prosocial tendencies. Dominance alone did not increase any form of attraction measured. In Study 3, male prosocial tendencies and dominance interacted to affect women's attraction to men. Results are discussed in terms of the place of altruism and dominance in evolutionary approaches to human interpersonal attraction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Four experiments examined the relation between behavioral expressions of dominance and the heterosexual attractiveness of males and females. Predictions concerning the relation between dominance and heterosexual attraction were derived from a consideration of sex role norms and from the comparative biological literature. All four experiments indicated an interaction between dominance and sex of target. Dominance behavior increased the attractiveness of males, but had no effect on the attractiveness of females. The third study indicated that the effect did not depend on the sex of the rater or on the sex of those with whom the dominant target interacted. The fourth study showed that the effect was specific to dominance as an independent variable and did not occur for related constructs (aggressive or domineering). This study also found that manipulated dominance enhanced only a male's sexual attractiveness and not his general likability. The results were discussed in terms of potential biological and cultural causal mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Women's mate selection criteria can be expected to include a preference for men who can protect them and their offspring. However, aggressive dominance and physical formidability are not an unalloyed good in a partner; as such, men are likely to be coercive toward their mates. Accordingly, because of the potential costs of living with an aggressively dominant and physically formidable mate, a woman's preferences in this regard can be expected to vary as a function of the appraisal of her vulnerability to aggression — the more that a woman sees herself as potentially benefiting from protection, the more that she can be expected to favor aggressive dominance and physical formidability in a mate. Across three Internet-based studies of US women, we found evidence consistent with this perspective, such that women's fear of crime predicted her preference for long-term mates who are aggressively dominant and physically formidable.
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Previous mate preference studies indicate that people prefer partners whose personalities are extremely kind and trustworthy, but relatively nondominant. This conclusion, however, is based on research that leaves unclear whether these traits describe the behavior a partner directs toward oneself, toward other classes of people or both. Because the fitness consequences of partners' behaviors likely differed depending on the classes of individuals toward whom behaviors were directed, we predicted that mate preferences for personality traits would change depending on the specific targets of a partner's behavioral acts. Consistent with this, two experiments demonstrated that people prefer partners who are extremely kind and trustworthy when considering behaviors directed toward themselves or their friends/family, but shift their preferences to much lower levels of these traits when considering behaviors directed toward other classes of individuals. In addition, both sexes preferred partners who direct higher levels of dominance toward members of the partner's own sex than toward any other behavioral target category, with women preferring levels of dominance toward other men as high as — or higher than — levels of kindness and trustworthiness. When asked to rate traits for which the behavioral target was left unspecified, furthermore, preferences were very similar to self-directed preferences, suggesting that previous trait-rating studies have not measured preferences for partners' behaviors directed toward people other than oneself. These findings may provide a basic contribution to the mate preference literature via their demonstration that ideal standards for romantic partners are importantly qualified by the targets of behavioral acts.
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Previous research has led to a widely accepted conclusion that heterosexual women prefer mates who are high in dominance. Three experiments designed to distinguish dominance from prestige and examine moderating contextual factors challenge this conclusion. College women at 2 U.S. universities evaluated hypothetical, potential mates described in written vignettes. Participants in Study 1 preferred a high-prestige to a high-dominance target. With dominance and prestige manipulated independently in Study 2, participants preferred high to low prestige but also preferred low to high dominance. Participants in Study 3 preferred high to low dominance, but only (a) when displayed in the context of an athletic competition and (b) in ratings of attractiveness and desirability as a short-term (vs. long-term) mate.
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Digitized images of adult faces were manipulated to test the effects of facial status cues on social perceptions and the desire to form relationships. Large, immature-looking eyes and mouths signaled submissiveness, whereas small, mature-looking eyes and mouths signaled dominance. As predicted, dominance cues made faces look less warm and submissiveness cues made faces look less powerful, relative to unchanged faces. Although feature manipulations successfully reduced the warmth and power of faces, they did not amplify them. Moreover, changed faces were judged as having less potential than unchanged faces as dates and mates, even when perceptions of normalcy, masculinity/femininity, and health were controlled. Further analyses suggested that normal faces optimize status cues thereby conveying a charismatic mix of warmth and power.
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Dominance and submission constitute fundamentally different social interaction strategies that may be enacted most effectively to the extent that the emotions of others are relatively ignored (dominance) versus noticed (submission). On the basis of such considerations, we hypothesized a systematic relationship between chronic tendencies toward high versus low levels of interpersonal dominance and emotion decoding accuracy in objective tasks. In two studies (total N = 232), interpersonally dominant individuals exhibited poorer levels of emotion recognition in response to audio and video clips (Study 1) and facial expressions of emotion (Study 2). The results provide a novel perspective on interpersonal dominance, suggest its strategic nature (Study 2), and are discussed in relation to Fiske's (1993) social-cognitive theory of power.
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Many researchers have attempted to discover what types of men women consider most desirable for relationship partners. This study investigated university women's (N = 165) perceptions of "nice guys," specifically whether women perceived nice guys to be more or less sexually successful than guys who are considered not nice. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were used. The qualitative analysis was useful in understanding women's differing interpretations of the nice guy label. More than one half of the women agreed that nice guys have fewer sexual partners. However, more than one half also reported a preference for a nice guy over a bad boy as a date. As hypothesized, women who placed a lesser emphasis on the importance of sex, who had fewer sexual partners, and who were less accepting of men who had many sexual partners were more likely to choose the nice guy as a dating partner. The findings indicate that nice guys are likely to have fewer sexual partners but are more desired for committed relationships.
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Are there sex differences in criteria for sexual relationships? The answer depends on what question a researcher asks. Data suggest that, whereas the sexes differ in whether they will enter short-term sexual relationships, they are more similar in what they prioritize in partners for such relationships. However, additional data and context of other findings and theory suggest different underlying reasons. In Studies 1 and 2, men and women were given varying "mate budgets" to design short-term mates and were asked whether they would actually mate with constructed partners. Study 3 used a mate-screening paradigm. Whereas women have been found to prioritize status in long-term mates, they instead (like men) prioritize physical attractiveness much like an economic necessity in short-term mates. Both sexes also show evidence of favoring well-rounded long- and short-term mates when given the chance. In Studies 4 and 5, participants report reasons for having casual sex and what they find physically attractive. For women, results generally support a good genes account of short-term mating, as per strategic pluralism theory (S. W. Gangestad & J. A. Simpson, 2000). Discussion addresses broader theoretical implications for mate preference, and the link between method and theory in examining social decision processes.
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Body odour may provide significant cues about a potential sexual partner's genetic quality, reproductive status and health. In animals, a key trait in a female's choice of sexual partner is male dominance but, to date, this has not been examined in humans. Here, we show that women in the fertile phase of their cycle prefer body odour of males who score high on a questionnaire-based dominance scale (international personality items pool). In accordance with the theory of mixed mating strategies, this preference varies with relationship status, being much stronger in fertile women in stable relationships than in fertile single women.
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Evolutionary scientists propose that exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics are cues of genes that increase offspring viability or reproductive success. In six studies the hypothesis that muscularity is one such cue is tested. As predicted, women rate muscular men as sexier, more physically dominant and volatile, and less committed to their mates than nonmuscular men. Consistent with the inverted-U hypothesis of masculine traits, men with moderate muscularity are rated most attractive. Consistent with past research on fitness cues, across two measures, women indicate that their most recent short-term sex partners were more muscular than their other sex partners (ds = .36, .47). Across three studies, when controlling for other characteristics (e.g., body fat), muscular men rate their bodies as sexier to women (partial rs = .49-.62) and report more lifetime sex partners (partial rs = .20-.27), short-term partners (partial rs = .25-.28), and more affairs with mated women (partial r = .28).
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Symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism (femininity in female faces, masculinity in male faces) are attractive in faces. Many have suggested that preferences for these traits may be adaptations for identifying healthy mates. If they are, then the traits should be honest indicators of health and their attractiveness should result from their healthy appearance. Much research has focused on whether these traits honestly signal health. Here we focused on whether the appeal of these traits results from their healthy appearance. Specifically, we tested whether the attractiveness of symmetry, averageness, and sexual dimorphism is reduced or eliminated when perceived health is controlled, in two large samples of Western faces and a large sample of Japanese faces. The appeal of symmetric faces was largely due to their healthy appearance, with most associations between symmetry and attractiveness eliminated when perceived health was controlled. A healthy appearance also contributed to the appeal of averageness and femininity in female faces and masculinity in male faces, although it did not fully explain their appeal. These results show that perceptions of attractiveness are sensitive to a healthy appearance, and are consistent with the hypothesis that preferences may be adaptations for mate choice.
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The Sensation Seeking Scale, Form IV, was administered to white and black, male and female college students (ns = 50; N = 200). Analyses showed that blacks scored significantly lower than whites on three subscales, General, Thrill and Adventure Seeking, and Boredom Susceptibility. Females scored lower than males on the scales Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. There were no interactions of race and sex.
Article
Three multimethod studies (total N = 348) probed the hypothesis that women's attraction to men would be influenced by male prosocial orientation. In Study 1, prosocial men were rated as more physically and sexually attractive, socially desirable, and desirable as dates than were nonprosocial men. Dominant men were no more attractive than low-dominance men, and male dominance did not interact with male prosocial orientation in eliciting attraction from women. In Study 2, prosocial orientation was manipulated to avoid ''personalism,'' but still affected attraction. Across all measures attraction was an interactive function of dominance and prosocial tendencies. Dominance alone did not increase any form of attraction measured. In Study 3, male prosocial tendencies and dominance interacted to affect women's attraction to men. Results are discussed in terms of the place of altruism and dominance in evolutionary approaches to human interpersonal attraction.
Article
The nice guy stereotype asserts that, although women often say that they wish to date kind, sensitive men, when actually given a choice, women will reject nice men in favor of men with other salient characteristics, such as physical attractiveness. To explore this stereotype, two studies were conducted. In Study 1, 48 college women were randomly assigned into experimental conditions in which they read a script that depicted 2 men competing for a date with a woman. The niceness of 1 target man's responses was manipulated across conditions. In Study 2, 194 college women were randomly assigned to conditions in which both the target man's responses and his physical attractiveness were manipulated. Overall results indicated that both niceness and physical attractiveness were positive factors in women's choices and desirability ratings of the target men. Niceness appeared to be the most salient factor when it came to desirability for more serious relationships, whereas physical attractiveness appeared more important in terms of desirability for more casual, sexual relationships.
Article
Love and sexuality are phenomena of central importance to certain types of intimate relationships. Although love has been a mainstream relationship variable in research, sexuality has often been explored only peripherally within a relationship context. Based on previous findings and using newly developed measures of love attitudes, sexual attitudes and self-disclosure, the present study explored the relation between love and sexuality and their mutual relations with self-disclosure and sensation seeking. Results (n = 218) indicated substantial correlations between love and sex attitudes, and between those variables and self-disclosure to a lover and to a friend, the ability to elicit self-disclosure, and sensation seeking. Males differed from females on only seven of 114 correlations, suggesting gender similarity in the pattern of variable relations. Such correlational evidence is helpful in interpreting mean differences between the sexes for several variables in this study and in previous research. This study shows that a multiplex of attitudes about love interlocks with attitudes about sexuality, and that both relate to other variables such as disclosure and sensation seeking. Such results begin the task of developing the characterizations of the love styles (Lee, 1973) and generalizing love-sex linkages towards the broader context of personality on the one hand, and the complex arena of personal relationships on the other.
Article
Zusammenfassung. Die Sensation Seeking-Skalen, Form V (SSS-V) sind eines der am haufigsten eingesetzten Inventare zur Erfassung von Sensation Seeking. Allerdings wurden immer wieder geringe interne Konsistenzen und Probleme bei der Replikation der Faktorenstruktur, insbesondere fur die Subskalen Experience Seeking und Boredom Susceptibility berichtet. Im Vergleich zu Alternativen hat die SSS-V allerdings den Vorteil einer differenzierteren Erfassung des Konstrukts, weshalb die neueren Inventare sich nicht durchsetzen konnten. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Situation bestanden die Ziele der vorliegenden Arbeit in der Untersuchung der psychometrischen Eigenschaften einer von Marvin Zuckerman autorisierten deutschsprachigen SSS-V, der Gewinnung von Normen sowie optimierter Personenkennwerte anhand von Faktorwerten. Dazu wurde eine Stichprobe von 1526 Probanden (823 weiblich) im Alter von 16 bis 68 Jahren mit der SSS-V untersucht. Die vierfaktorielle Struktur der SSS-V konnte anhand einer exploratorischen Faktore...
Article
Five hundred and sixty-two Further Education students, 544 Certificate of Education students and 168 B.Ed. students were tested with the Spielberger State-Trait Inventory. Mean differences between the sexes were all statistically significant beyond the 0.01 level—females scoring significantly higher than males for both State and Trait anxiety. Further Education and Certificate students scored significantly higher than B.Ed. students, suggesting to some extent that type of institution attended or course pursued is also associated with anxiety level. Test-retest coefficients of correlation were positive and significant with A-Trait test reliability being significantly and consistently higher than A-State test-retest reliability. Moderate positive coefficients of correlation, in general, were found between A-State and A-Trait scores.
Article
White-throated sparrows are dimorphic, mating disassortatively by morph. In laboratory choice trials, females of both morphs preferred tan-striped males when allowed to interact with males (two-way choice), but displayed no preferences when one-way mirrors did not allow stimulus males to interact with them (one-way choice). Males of both morphs displayed significant preferences for white-striped females in one-way choice trials, but not in two-way trials. During within-sex competition trials, white-striped birds were dominant to tan-striped birds of the same sex. These results suggest that negative assortative mating is maintained in part because white-striped females outcompete tan-striped females for access to the preferred tan-striped males. Tan-striped females then pair with the less preferred white-striped males. A three-step process is proposed to account for the high level of negative assortative mating seen in the white-throated sparrow.
Article
This chapter discusses sensation seeking and risk behavior. Topics discussed include the following: (1) definitions of risk, (2) risk appraisal, (3) risky behavior, and (4) interaction of anticipated affects in risk-taking behavior. The author notes that risk appraisals in different areas of risk are intercorrelated, as are risky behaviors across different kinds of risk. There is a general factor of risk sensitivity and risk taking that includes most forms of risk taking, particularly smoking, drinking, drugs, sex, reckless driving, and minor criminal behavior. Furthermore, the author notes that risk appraisal is a significant factor in the prediction of risky behavior. It is also negatively related to sensation seeking. High sensation seekers tend to estimate risks as lower even in activities they have not experienced to any extent. Sensation seeking is related to risk taking in all kinds of risk areas. Impulsivity and aggression have also been found to be factors in risky behaviors, although to a lesser degree than sensation seeking. Anxiety as a trait does not seem to be involved, at least in adolescent risk-takers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Previous work by the authors and colleagues (1984) extended J. A. Lee's (1973/1976) theory of 6 basic love styles: eros (passionate love); ludus (game-playing love); storge (friendship love); pragma (logical, "shopping list" love); mania (possessive, dependent love); and agape (all-giving, selfless love). In Study 1, 807 undergraduates completed a 42-item rating questionnaire, with 7 items measuring each of the love styles. Six love style scales emerged clearly from factor analysis. Internal reliability was shown for each scale, and the scales had low intercorrelations with each other. Significant relationships were found between love attitudes and several background variables, including gender, ethnicity, previous love experiences, current love status, and self-esteem. Study 2, with 567 Ss, replicated the factor structure, factor loadings, and reliability analyses of the 1st study. The significant relationships between love attitudes and gender, previous love experiences, current love status, and self-esteem were also consistent with the results of Study 1. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Zuckerman et al. (1978) reported national comparisons and sex and age differences on the total score and the four subscales of the recently constructed Sensation Seeking Scale, Form V (SSS). The samples showed clear sex differences and a strong decline with age. Sex differences were seen to reflect different kinds of socialization and the age decline was thought to be associated with biological processes. Australian data were collected from 335 females and 363 males, distributed over the age range 17–60 years. Overall, males showed higher SSS scores than females, replicating Canadian, American and English data. Thrill and adventure seeking scores showed this difference most clearly. However, the total SSS scores displayed a significant sex by age interaction, a result differing most markedly from previously published findings, with females in the 30–39 age group recording higher scores than males. The experience seeking (ES) results were particularly different from English data, displaying a significant sex by age interaction. Whereas males showed a decline over age on ES, females reported increasing ES behaviours until the fall towards male levels in the 40–49 age group. The elevation in ES by the younger female groups, accompanied by dips in the linear trends for disinhibition and boredom susceptibility scores for males at the 30–39-year level, contributed to the major sex by age interaction in total SSS scores. Scale reliabilities were generally higher than those reported by Ridgeway & Russell (1980). The evidence strongly indicated the wisdom of control for age in research on sensation seeking.
Article
Consensus about the differing characteristics of men and women exists across groups differing in sex, age, marital status, and education. Masculine characteristics are positively valued more often than feminine characteristics. Positively-valued masculine traits form a cluster entailing competence; positively-valued feminine traits reflect warmth-expressiveness. Sex-role definitions are incorporated into the self-concepts of both men and women; moreover, these sex-role differences are considered desirable by college students and healthy by mental health professionals. Individual differences in sex related self-concepts are related to sex-role relevant behaviors such as achieved and ideal family size. Sex-role perceptions also vary as a function of maternal employment.
Article
Proponents of the nice guy stereotype argue that women often say they wish to date kind, sensitive men, but, in reality, still choose to date macho men over nice guys, especially if the macho men are more physically attractive. We investigated the relationship between men’s agreeableness, physical attractiveness, and their dating success across different relationship contexts. One hundred and ninety-one male college students completed a computerized questionnaire to assess their levels of agreeableness and aspects of their dating history. Twenty college-aged women rated the men’s photographs for attractiveness. Results supported the nice guy stereotype. Lower levels of agreeableness predicted more less-committed, casual, sexual relationships.
Article
Determinants of physical attractiveness were investigated in a study employing U.S. college students of both genders. Five factors were derived from a study of 37 stable and changeable physical features: Masculinity (strength, larger body and chest, broader chin), Femininity (longer hair, make-up, larger and rounder eyes), Self-care (overall grooming, shapely figure, flat stomach, erect posture, fitted clothes), Pleasantness (friendly, happy, babyish face), and Ethnicity. Factor analytic results did not support a priori (and nonstatistical) groupings of babyish facial features by investigators who use this concept. Self-care, Masculinity (Femininity), and Pleasantness were positive correlates of male (female) attractiveness. Attractiveness was described parsimoniously in terms of emotions: more attractive targets elicited more pleasure, more arousal, and less dominance (or more submissiveness) from others. Men and women reacted in essentially similar ways in rating others’ attractiveness. Statistical tests showed that emotional reactions mediated relations of the independent variables (physical features) to the dependent variables (judgments of attractiveness).
Article
This study evaluated the relationships between sensation seeking and impulsivity, appraisal of risk in several areas including crime, financial, social violations, sports, and risk of AIDS from sexual activity, and risky behavior in the same areas. Subjects were 447 undergraduates who were given personality tests, and risk appraisal and risky behavior scales developed from factor analyses. Multiple regression analyses showed perceived peer behavior and sensation seeking to be strong predictors of risky behavior, particularly in the areas of criminal behavior and social violations. Personal risk appraisal was negatively related to risky behavior for all the areas except AIDS risk where it was positively related to risky sexual behavior for men. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that a model specifying that risk appraisal trait is a consequences of risky behavior was superior to a model with risk appraisal as a mediator of the relationship between sensation seeking and risky behavior.
Article
Previous research indicates that males, compared with females, evaluate their relationships less favourably after exposure to physically attractive members of the other sex. An evolutionary model predicts a converse effect after exposure to opposite-sex individuals high in dominance, which should lead females to evaluate their current relationships less favourably than males. Women and men rated their current relationships after being exposed to opposite-sex targets varying in both dominance and physical attractiveness. Consistent with earlier research, males exposed to physically attractive, as compared with average, targets rated their current relationships less favourably. Males' relationship evaluations were not directly influenced by the targets' dominance, although the effect of physical attractiveness was significant only for men exposed to women low in dominance. However, females' evaluations of their relationships were unaffected by exposure to physically attractive males but were lower after exposure to targets high in dominance. These data support predictions derived from an evolutionary model and suggest that such models can be used to generate testable hypotheses about ongoing social cognition.
Article
Dominance is a key feature on which romantic partners are evaluated, yet there is no clear consensus on its definition. In Study 1 (N=305), the authors developed scales to measure three putatively distinct dimensions of dominance: social, financial, and physical. In Study 2 (N=308), the authors used their scales in a mate-selection paradigm and found that women perceived physical dominance to be related to both attractiveness and social dominance. For both sexes, attractiveness predicted desirability for a one-night stand, whereas attractiveness and agreeableness were predictors of desirability for a serious relationship. In Study 3 (N=124), the authors surveyed romantic partners in monogamous relationships and found that although aspects of a partner's dominance-financial for women and social for men-played a bivariate role in relationship satisfaction, agreeableness was the strongest predictor of current and future relationship satisfaction and the only significant predictor of relationship dissolution.
Article
The information criterion AIC was introduced to extend the method of maximum likelihood to the multimodel situation. It was obtained by relating the successful experience of the order determination of an autoregressive model to the determination of the number of factors in the maximum likelihood factor analysis. The use of the AIC criterion in the factor analysis is particularly interesting when it is viewed as the choice of a Bayesian model. This observation shows that the area of application of AIC can be much wider than the conventional i.i.d. type models on which the original derivation of the criterion was based. The observation of the Bayesian structure of the factor analysis model leads us to the handling of the problem of improper solution by introducing a natural prior distribution of factor loadings.
Article
The significant assortative mating for the sensation-seeking motive in (married) American students reported by Farley and Davis was significantly cross validated on American (N = 160) and German (N = 160) samples randomly selected from two comparable cities in the Federal German Republic and the United States. A control condition of age-matched unmarried pairs was included. Spouses were found to have 19% and 29% of sensation-seeking variance in common in the American and German samples, respectively. The later figure is exceptionally high for the literature on assortative mating (exceeding or approximating some of the relationships found for intellectual measures). No significant variance was in common for the unmarried pairs. When a simple and easily measured construct with such wide implications as the sensation-seeking motive can be shown to be so significantly involved in marital partner similarity, then its consequences for successful and unsuccessful marriage should be pursued with vigor. Such a program in research and therapy is recommended and a theoretical model suggested.
Article
It is known that there is significant assortative mating for intelligence. However, where personality is concerned, the picture is less clear, and where physiologically referenced individual differences are concerned, there is a negligible body of available research. A compound major individual difference variable having a putative physiological basis--arousal and the stimulation-seeking motive, which has not heretofore been investigated in studies of assortative mating--was the focus of the present study. In addition, three major personality dimensions--extraversion-introversion, neuroticism and psychoticism--were included for study. One hundred and two married couples in the housing complex of a large American midwestern university were tested on the arousal/stimulation-seeking and personality measures. Significant assortative mating (p less than .01) was found only for arousal/stimulation-seeking. The results for the other personality dimensions failed to confirm significant but slight assortative mating for neuroticism and psychoticism previously reported for British couples, but were in accord with the previously reported lack of any assortative mating for extraversion-introversion. The results were discussed in terms of further understanding the basis of assortative mating, with particular attention given to the likely role of biological cycles. Further research was outlined.
Article
Tested correlates of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) in 7 studies and 2 replications using undergraduate Ss (N = 1,145). The SSS, or particular subscales of the SSS, were related to an MMPI triad of F, Pd, and Ma and to a cluster of scales of the l6 PF which indicated an uninhibited, nonconforming, impulsive, dominant type of extraversion, but not to scales which measure a friendly type of sociability. The SSS was related to openness to new experiences (E. Fitzgerald's Experience Inquiry scale) and to reported ranges of actual experience with sex, drugs, and alcohol. An attempt was made to develop a nonverbal SSS based on figure preferences which was only partially successful. The SSS was unrelated to scores on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale. (33 ref.)
Article
What makes a face attractive and why do we have the preferences we do? Emergence of preferences early in development and cross-cultural agreement on attractiveness challenge a long-held view that our preferences reflect arbitrary standards of beauty set by cultures. Averageness, symmetry, and sexual dimorphism are good candidates for biologically based standards of beauty. A critical review and meta-analyses indicate that all three are attractive in both male and female faces and across cultures. Theorists have proposed that face preferences may be adaptations for mate choice because attractive traits signal important aspects of mate quality, such as health. Others have argued that they may simply be by-products of the way brains process information. Although often presented as alternatives, I argue that both kinds of selection pressures may have shaped our perceptions of facial beauty.
Article
Women prefer both the scent of symmetrical men and masculine male faces more during the fertile (late follicular and ovulatory) phases of their menstrual cycles than during their infertile (e.g., luteal) phases. Men's behavioral displays in social settings may convey signals that affect women's attraction to men even more strongly. This study examined shifts in women's preferences for these behavioral displays. A sample of 237 normally ovulating women viewed 36 or 40 videotaped men who were competing for a potential lunch date and then rated each man's attractiveness as a short-term and a long-term mate. As predicted, women's preference for men who displayed social presence and direct intrasexual competitiveness increased on high-fertility days relative to low-fertility days, but only in a short-term, not a long-term, mating context. These findings add to the growing literature indicating that women's mate preferences systematically vary across the reproductive cycle.
Psychometrische Eigenschaften und Normen einer deutschsprachigen Fassung der Sensation SeekingSkalen, Form V. Diagnostica
  • A Beauducel
  • A Strobel
  • B Brocke
Beauducel, A., Strobel, A., & Brocke, B. (2003). Psychometrische Eigenschaften und Normen einer deutschsprachigen Fassung der Sensation SeekingSkalen, Form V. Diagnostica, 49(2), 61-72. doi:10.1026//0012-1924.49.2.61
Evolutionäre psychologie (2., aktualis. Aufl
  • D M Buss
Buss, D. M. (2004). Evolutionäre psychologie (2., aktualis. Aufl. ed.). München, Germany: Pearson Studium.
The 16 personality factor questionnaire
  • R B Cattell
  • D R Saunders
  • G F Stice
Cattell, R. B., Saunders, D. R., & Stice, G. F. (1950). The 16 personality factor questionnaire. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.
Risk appraisal, risk-taking and sensation seeking in adolescents
  • E Giannetti
  • S Casale
  • D Vanni
Giannetti, E., Casale, S., & Vanni, D. (2009). Risk appraisal, risk-taking and sensation seeking in adolescents. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 258(56), 15-22.