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... This includes spiritual and faith-based communities that provide minoritized students with multiple sources of strength, encouragement, and support [16], and universities that implement practices that promote a sense of familial connections amongst peers, faculty, and staff. These inclusion practices serve as informative tools for departments to recognize the importance of social connections, for persons who many not be familiar with university processes, for reducing feelings of isolation from family, and for extending a resource line from family to students to provide support through their degree programs [24]. This perceived support is important to the persistence of URMs in STEM graduate degree programs. ...
... PROMISE uses Tinto's work as background to develop mechanisms to help new graduate students integrate into the graduate school community by assisting with the separation from the mindsets of the undergraduate experience, transitioning to a graduate culture, and demystifying the STEM culture for pursuit of the graduate degree. PROMISE encourages students to include family members in all activities [39], which supports Giuffrida's work on helping underrepresented students to maintain cultural connections. Padilla and colleagues' work looks at barriers to students' success, such as discontinuity -obstacles that hinder successful transitions, lack of a nurturing presence on campus, limited presence of culturally available activities, and lack of financial resources [38]. ...
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This paper presents an exploratory investigation of global scale diversity and inclusion efforts within engineering education. Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) are contextualized topics that shift objectives from country to country. The role of D&I in engineering education and practice has gained prominence in recent years due to the fact that engineers are facing increased need for global collaborations and are expected to be able to work in highly diverse teams and within different cultures. D&I initiatives in the field of engineering generally include gender, ethnicity, and national origin, and may include persons who are economically underprivileged and persons with disabilities. While the prominence of D&I has increased, international learning outcomes and collaborations within these efforts are limited. Within a global community a common platform would allow for the sharing of best practices and maximize learning opportunities. From a research and evaluation perspective, much work has been conducted and disseminated in the United States and could serve as transferable models for these efforts. By examining models from around the world, we can begin to consolidate, optimize, and disseminate the global benefits of D&I. In this work, various programs are reviewed as success cases because they have increased the numbers of underrepresented students who enroll in and graduate from STEM programs. The potential for solidarity amongst diversity & inclusion initiatives and programs in different regions of the world is explored. Efforts are made to determine what can be learned from synergies across D&I activities.
... The PROMISE AGEP has a number of programs that are designed to recruit, cultivate, retain, and train underrepresented graduate students in STEM fields. PROMISE programs such as The Dissertation House, and the Summer Success Institute (SSI) have been pivotal interventions that contribute to degree completion and a sense of community that even involves members of students' families as stakeholders [5,6,7,8,9]. ...
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Issues related to career-life balance (CLB) disproportionally affect women in STEM. These issues disrupt women's career pathways, and in many cases, push them out of academia. In order to halt the exodus of women from academic careers in STEM, universities must develop interventions around CLB that recognize and address the everyday gendered CLB challenges that women graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty face. This paper showcases narratives from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County's (UMBC) international CLB initiative with underrepresented STEM faculty and graduate students that set the stage for the development of three additional CLB projects. The results of the former international project inform the partial implementation of the expansion projects at UMBC, which include: 1) Accelerating Post-Leave Associate Professor, Advancement through Intensive Support at Critical Junctions, 2) a campus-wide CLB awareness campaign and, 3) campus-wide CLB educational workshops. Through this outreach-centered paper, anchored in existing best practices and first person narratives of CLB struggles at UMBC, we aim to spur conversations and provide a model for other institutions to weave CLB into the fabric of university culture as a normalized and cherished community value.
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Presumed Incompetent is a pathbreaking account of the intersecting roles of race, gender, and class in the working lives of women faculty of color. Through personal narratives and qualitative empirical studies, more than 40 authors expose the daunting challenges faced by academic women of color as they navigate the often hostile terrain of higher education, including hiring, promotion, tenure, and relations with students, colleagues, and administrators. The narratives are filled with wit, wisdom, and concrete recommendations, and provide a window into the struggles of professional women in a racially stratified but increasingly multicultural America.
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Presumed Incompetent is a pathbreaking account of the intersecting roles of race, gender, and class in the working lives of women faculty of color. Through personal narratives and qualitative empirical studies, more than 40 authors expose the daunting challenges faced by academic women of color as they navigate the often hostile terrain of higher education, including hiring, promotion, tenure, and relations with students, colleagues, and administrators. The narratives are filled with wit, wisdom, and concrete recommendations, and provide a window into the struggles of professional women in a racially stratified but increasingly multicultural America.
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Efforts to increase minority representation in education faculty have generated changes in a number of departments of higher education. These changes, however, have lacked a unifying conceptual framework to either guide reform or measure outcomes. This article proposes stereotype threat and its antidote - wise schooling practices - as a conceptual framework to clarify and consolidate attempts to protect, nurture, and sustain the intellectual lives of minority students. Using interview data from African American graduate students in education, we show how some departments have significantly reduced stereotype threat and positively influenced students' academic career aspirations.
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This investigation adapts and extends the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) by integrating it with central constructs from turnover theory. The extended model proposes that domain specific self-efficacy and outcome expectations predict job satisfaction and organizational commitment — the two key job attitudes that have been established as influential predictors of turnover cognitions and behaviors. Further, we proposed that one form of organizational supports, specifically developmental opportunities at work, are sources of self efficacy and outcome expectations, and that the relationship between organizational supports and job attitudes is mediated by self-efficacy and outcome expectations. The proposed model was tested on a national sample of 2,042 women engineers. Overall, the results provided support for our newly developed model. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.
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Schools of graduate education in the United States continue to be challenged to attract and retain students of color. We argue that effective mentoring within a department can improve multicultural students’ graduate school experience and better position them for success in their postdoctoral careers. To be an effective mentor, a faculty member must cultivate understanding of the experience of students from various cultural backgrounds. This task is especially challenging for White faculty members because of societal dynamics involving race and ethnicity. We propose actions to help faculty members enhance their multicultural competence in mentoring.
Chapter
According to national statistics, small numbers of black American women earn science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) degrees. Instead of focusing on this disturbing, well-documented trend, this chapter explores STEM career success among black female graduate students who enroll in and complete PhD programs. In other words, we are engaged in an effort to address how black women in STEM fields succeed in graduate school. This chapter presents a qualitative look at successful PhD pathways. It will provide data on the pipeline of black women at the high school, undergraduate, and graduate levels; describe programs that the state of Maryland has employed among its public research universities to recruit and retain black women in doctoral programs; present testimonials from black women who have participated in these programs; and offer an extensive case study of 15 black women alumni of these programs who now have PhDs and are establishing their STEM careers. Programs that will be documented as successful for recruiting, mentoring, and retaining black women in STEM include the National Science Foundation's (NSF) University System of Maryland Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation Bridge to the Doctorate program; the NSF's PROMISE: Maryland's Alliance for Graduate Education and the Professoriate (AGEP) program for UMBC, the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB), and the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP); the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Meyerhoff Graduate Fellows Program in the Biomedical Sciences (Minority Biomedical Research Support – Initiative for Maximizing Student Development (MBRS-IMSD)) at UMBC and UMB; and subprograms such as the Dissertation House (DH), the Community Building Retreat, and the PROF-it: Professors-in-Training program. The case study will include the following questions: What were some of the obstacles that occurred during graduate school, and what helped you to overcome them? Were there any issues that occurred that made you want to quit? If you stopped for a while, or thought about stopping, what were your motivations for returning? Where did you receive mentoring during your graduate school process? What advice would you give to young women who are just starting? The chapter focuses on a variety of methods and practices that successfully shepherd black women from undergraduate ranks to PhD-level careers in STEM fields.
Article
Contends that community psychology has failed in its efforts at social reform. The adverse consequences of segregating the mentally ill, aged, and others in residential institutions are discussed. A new community psychology is proposed which emphasizes a sense of belonging and responsibility among community members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The term "impostor phenomenon" is used to designate an internal experience of intellectual phoniness that appears to be particularly prevalent and intense among a select sample of high achieving women. Certain early family dynamics and later introjection of societal sex-role stereotyping appear to contribute significantly to the development of the impostor phenomenon. Despite outstanding academic and professional accomplishments, women who experience the impostor phenomenon persist in believing that they are really not bright and have fooled anyone who thinks otherwise. Numerous achievements, which one might expect to provide ample objective evidence of superior intellectual functioning, do not appear to affect the impostor belief. Four factors that contribute to the maintenance of impostor feelings over time are explored. Therapeutic approaches found to be effective in helping women change the impostor self-concept are described. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
McMillan and Chavis' (1986) psychological sense of community (PSC) model was used to build a profile of a politically constructed group. Twenty-three people, who were classified as Coloured in South Africa, now residing in Melbourne, Australia were interviewed with an instrument to assess PSC. The data indicated that the model presented two dimensions for this group. The first dimension reflected the externally constructed and imposed definitions of group membership under the Apartheid laws. The second dimension relates to the ways in which the people socially constructed notions of community within their sub-group. Results also showed that the people rejected the imposed label of 'coloured', but they still internalized some of the negative stereotypes associated with the label and status. The people also internalized positive experiences of support and group membership that developed within the enforced groupings. It is suggested that the PSC model provides a useful tool for investigating group specific meanings and understandings of community. It is argued that a PSC facilitates experiences of belonging, security, and relatedness. PSC, in turn, will facilitate adaptation to new contexts.
Sense of Community: A Defini℀甄on and Theory [Electronic version]
  • D Mcmillan
  • D Chavis
McMillan, D., and D. Chavis. 1986. " Sense of Community: A Defini℀甄on and Theory [Electronic version]. " Journal of Community Psychology 14: 6–23.
The Impostor Phenomenon Among High Achieving Women: Dynamics and Therapeu℀甄c Interven℀甄on
  • P M Clance
  • S A Imes
Clance, P. M., and S. A. Imes. 1978. " The Impostor Phenomenon Among High Achieving Women: Dynamics and Therapeu℀甄c Interven℀甄on. " Psychotherapy Theory, Research and Prac‫ﲔ‬漩ce 15 (3): 241–47.
Promo℀甄ng Ins℀甄tu℀甄onal Change through Bias Literacy
  • M Carnes
  • P Devine
  • C Isaac
  • L Manwell
  • C Ford
  • A Byars-Winston
  • E Fine
  • J Sheridan
Carnes, M., P. Devine, C. Isaac, L. Manwell, C. Ford, A, Byars-Winston, E. Fine, and J. Sheridan. 2012. "Promo℀甄ng Ins℀甄tu℀甄onal Change through Bias Literacy." Journal of Diversity in Higher Educa‫ﲔ‬漩on 5: 63-77.
Tull is the associate vice provost for graduate student development and postdoctoral affairs at the University of Maryland Bal℀甄more County
  • G Rene븮ꁗa
Rene븮ꁗa G. Tull is the associate vice provost for graduate student development and postdoctoral affairs at the University of Maryland Bal℀甄more County;
Johnson is an AAAS science and technology policy fellow and health scien℀甄st in the Center for Scien℀甄fic Review at the Na℀甄onal Ins℀甄tutes of Health
  • Frances D Carter
Frances D. Carter-Johnson is an AAAS science and technology policy fellow and health scien℀甄st in the Center for Scien℀甄fic Review at the Na℀甄onal Ins℀甄tutes of Health;
Rodriguez is the program coordinator of PROMISE: Maryland's AGEP at the University of Maryland Bal℀甄more County
  • Maria Nandadevi Cortes
Maria Nandadevi Cortes Rodriguez is the program coordinator of PROMISE: Maryland's AGEP at the University of Maryland Bal℀甄more County.